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How bad are the effects of bad leaders? A meta-analysis of destructive leadership and its outcomes

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Abstract

While the focus on constructive leadership still dominates leadership research, an increasing number of studies investigate different forms of destructive leadership. This meta-analysis integrates different conceptualizations of destructive leadership and analyzes the relationship between destructive leadership and outcome variables. The search for articles yielded more than 200 studies of which 57 could be included in the meta-analysis. Results indicate the expected negative correlations with positive followers' outcomes and behaviors (e.g., attitudes towards the leader, well-being, and individual performance) and positive correlations with negative outcomes (e.g., turnover intention, resistance towards the leader, counterproductive work behavior). As expected, the highest correlation arises between destructive leadership and attitudes towards the leader. Surprisingly, the next highest correlation was found between destructive leadership and counterproductive work behavior. After discussing the results, an agenda for future research is proposed. Given the negative impact of destructive leadership, more knowledge is especially necessary regarding what triggers destructive leadership.

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... This coding form provides an overview of the studies included in the meta-analysis and the concepts used in these studies. The coding forms used in the previous meta-analysis studies were reviewed while creating the coding form (Eser, 2022;Schyns & Schilling, 2013). The coding form developed in this study consists of two sections: First section: it is the section where the studies are listed chronologically from 2010 to 2021. ...
... When more than one correlation values are given between the same structural categories in correlational meta-analysis studies, there are two different approaches regarding which of them can be used in meta-analysis (Schyns & Schilling, 2013;Çoğaltay, 2014). The first one is: if the correlations are independent, all relevant correlations are included in the analysis and are considered independent studies. ...
... The other one is: if the correlations are dependent, the correlations are averaged. Although there are different methods for correcting these mean correlations, most of these methods tend to lead to high correlation estimates (Schyns & Schilling, 2013). Therefore, conservative estimate was preferred in this study since using the mean correlation produces a conservative estimate of the overall correlation. ...
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Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the results of previous studies examining the relationship between intellectual capital (IC) and competitive advantage (CA) with a meta-analytic approach. Design/Methodology: Studies examining the relationship between IC and CA were reached by scanning a total of 14 national and international online academic databases. The Pearson correlation (r) coefficient was taken as a criterion in studies examining the relationship between IC and CA. Analyzes were performed using CMA software. A total of 15,625 samples from 71 studies were included in the meta-analysis process. In this study, the random effect model was used when interpreting the mean effect size. Findings: As a result of the study, it was understood that the calculated average effect size was 0.490 and this value corresponded to a high effect. This suggests that a higher IC is associated with a higher CA. This result supports common hypotheses and salient findings in the literature. Limitations: The inclusion of only Turkish and English studies published in a certain period of time in the study and the inability to reach correlation data in some studies constitute the limitations of this study. Originality/Value: As a result of a comprehensive literature review, no studies examining the relationship between IC and CA with a meta-analytic approach were found. This study, which deals with the relationship between IC and CA with a meta-analytic approach for the first time, will provide a broader perspective on the literature in this field by calculating the average effect value between the mentioned variables over a large sample of 15.625.
... Destructive leadership can result in a significant cost to companies in terms of employee turnover, absenteeism and decreased productivity (Schyns & Schilling, 2013). The emotional toll it takes on employees is severe and affects their well-being, job satisfaction, commitment, loyalty and identification with the organisation (Hogg, 2001;Kumar & Pansari, 2015;Padilla et al., 2007;Schyns & Schilling, 2013). ...
... Destructive leadership can result in a significant cost to companies in terms of employee turnover, absenteeism and decreased productivity (Schyns & Schilling, 2013). The emotional toll it takes on employees is severe and affects their well-being, job satisfaction, commitment, loyalty and identification with the organisation (Hogg, 2001;Kumar & Pansari, 2015;Padilla et al., 2007;Schyns & Schilling, 2013). The high cost and prevalence of destructive leadership underlines the importance of further research. ...
... The results inform a framework of inauthentic, destructive leadership and how that relates to subordinates' attitudes and behaviours. This should assist organisations to identify and manage potentially destructive leaders before damaging consequences occur (Schyns, 2015;Schyns & Schilling, 2013;Thoroughgood et al., 2018). ...
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Purpose: Leadership research demands an understanding of what constitutes effective leadership. Self-awareness is described as critical for effective leadership, yet there is little research dealing with the link between a lack of self-awareness in leaders and destructive leadership. The prevalence of destructive leadership is surprisingly common and bears a high cost to organisations in terms of employee turnover, absenteeism and decreased productivity. The emotional toll it takes on employees is severe and affects their well-being and identification with the organisation. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative, exploratory approach was used to gain insights into the role that self-awareness plays in effective leadership and how a lack thereof affects employee engagement and behaviour. Data were collected through semi structured interviews with executives who had experience of working for a manager with low self-awareness. Thematic analysis was then conducted to identify the main themes found in the data. Findings/results: This study found that leaders with low self-awareness exhibit behaviours consistent with toxic and destructive leadership. Negative effects on subordinates were felt in terms of employee engagement and increased resistance to the leader occurred. Subordinates then engaged in retaliatory and deviant work behaviour as a result. Practical implications: A model for conceptualising how self-awareness results in destructive leadership and its influence on followers’ behaviours and attitudes emerged, enabling an improved understanding of this organisational behavioural phenomenon. Originality/value: Literature is limited on self-awareness even though more research is being carried out on destructive leadership. The research has implications for how talent management is conducted within organisations.
... Destructive leadership is a broad concept that covers various types of behavior and emotions of leaders. Similar to the idea of destructive leadership are toxic leadership (Goldman, 2006;Saqib and Arif, 2017;Mehta and Maheshwari, 2014), abusive behavior (Thau et al., 2009;Hayat et al., 2021), unethical and poor leadership (Albaum, 2014), bad leaders (Schyns and Schilling, 2013), leadership styles (Burns 2017), and narcissistic leadership (Aboramadan et al. 2020). Destructive leadership is one of a kind that leads to employee silence. ...
... Most of the literature view both constructive and destructive as caused by a combination of factors involving leaders, followers, and the environment (Hayat et al., 2021;Padilla et al., 2007;Saks and Ashforth, 1997). Schyns and Schilling (2013) opines that turning a blind eye to destructive leadership is also detrimental to an organization. In another review of destructive leadership, Ryan et al. (2021) point to a dearth of research on destructive leadership. ...
... Scholars have mentioned that destructive leaders affect the mental health of an individual by increasing stress and work pressure, reducing job satisfaction (Bhandarker and Rai, 2019;Erickson et al., 2015), and impacting employee's peace of mind (Burris et al., 2008), resulting in the decrease of employee efficacy (Erickson et al., 2015;Krasikova et al., 2013). The researchers have also demonstrated the impact of altering organizational outcomes (Schyns & Schilling, 2013;Tepper, 2007;Xu et al., 2015). ...
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This paper is an outcome of the business ethics course conducted during the third semester of the MBA course and aims to examine how a subordinate employee’s response, either by raising a concern or being quiet to repeated misbehavior of the leader, impacts an organization. Primary data was collected from the employees of mid-sized IT companies in India using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. Structural equation modeling has been used to analyze the data. Mediation analysis has been conducted to verify the mediating role of organizational culture. It is found that if an employee feels safe in an environment, they open up to suggestions or else suppress their thoughts to escape repercussion. The analysis shows that silence and voice in an organization have an impact on the organization’s culture. The implications of this study show that leaders violate the integrity of the organization by vandalizing the organization's objectives, outcomes, assets, and well-being of the co-employees. Previous studies have not focused on the mediating role of organizational culture on employee voice or silence.
... Previous studies have identified knowledge sharing (Hu et al., 2009), transformative leadership (Pieterse et al., 2010), shared leadership (Cox et al., 2003), creative self-efficiency (Newman et al., 2018), voice behavior (Guzman and Espejo, 2019), and openness and knowledge as antecedents that positively influence and increase a company's innovation. However, we believe destructive leadership negatively impacts team innovation performance based on various negative effects such as increased stress from the effected company performance, job satisfaction, positive self-evaluation, and wellbeing, exhaustion (Schyns and Schilling, 2013;Dolce et al., 2020). ...
... Destructive leadership refers to the leader's systematic and repetitive behavior that negatively affects the achievement of organizational goals and exacerbates the team members' motivation (Einarsen et al., 2007). Such destructive leadership continuously abuses the members of the team and negatively impacts their job satisfaction, motivation, and behavior (Schyns and Schilling, 2013;Brandebo, 2020;Mackey et al., 2021), and innovative behaviors, creativity and ultimately reduces innovation performance (Lee et al., 2020). ...
... Destructive leadership offends members' work life in the organization by making unreasonable demands or a mockery of them (Schyns and Schilling, 2013). Destructive leadership increases negative emotions, feeling and attitudes among team members (Tepper et al., 2004;Erickson et al., 2015), causing stress and degrading their well-being. ...
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This paper aims to clarify the impact of destructive leadership on team innovation performance. It also explores the relevant conditions that maximize the above relationship. Specifically we examine how intra-team conflict organizational diversity moderate the relationship between destructive leadership team innovation performance. Finally the three-way interaction between destructive leadership intra-team conflict organizational diversity is analyzed for the worst conditions to maximize the negative effect of destructive leadership on team innovation performance. This paper used a cross-sectional design with questionnaires administered to 87 teams with 479 team members working in Korean manufacturing service firms. It applied a hierarchical regression analysis to test the hypothesized relationships including three-way interaction effect among destructive leadership intra-team conflict organizational diversity on team innovation performance. This paper provided empirical insights about how destructive behaviors of team leader hindered team innovation performance. The three-way interaction effects also revealed that the higher the levels of both intra-team conflict organizational diversity the greater the negative effect of destructive leadership on team innovation performance. This paper demonstrates how team leaders’ behavior team organizational conditions result in discouraging overall innovation outcomes. This paper contributes to the innovation leadership literatures by identifying possible leadership type hindering innovation performance at team level the specific conditions their dynamic interaction strengthening the negative effect of destructive leadership on team innovation performance.
... Destructive leader behavior harms follower psychological safety and has a destabilizing effect on followers. Followers who perceive their leaders as being high in destructive leader behavior (e.g., hypocrisy, tyranny, and undermining) are more likely to report reduced trust and liking of the leader (Schyns and Schilling 2013). ...
... Regarding follower task performance, while this was more weakly predicted overall, it was most strongly and uniquely predicted by leader knowledge hiding through playing dumb. Schyns and Schilling (2013) have previously shown that destructive leader behavior is negatively related to individual performance (e.g., organizational citizenship behavior, work effort). It is plausible to suggest that leader knowledge hiding through playing dumb impacts performance because followers then expend valuable resources trying to find out the knowledge. ...
... Based on our findings and past research, we know that destructive leader behavior has significant direct and indirect effects on organizations, including increased political and counterproductive work behavior, coupled with decreased productivity by followers, thereby hindering the organization's ability to recruit and retain talented employees (Erickson et al. 2015;Schyns and Schilling 2013). Thus, we propose that a range of actions be taken at the organizational level where policy and culture are set. ...
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Purpose To provide evidence-based recommendations on the types of leader behaviors organizations should target for a better return on leader training investment the authors draw on the destructive and constructive leadership behavior model and the bad is stronger than good proposition to examine the following question: Compared to constructive leader behavior, does destructive leader behavior have a greater effect on follower outcomes or is something more nuanced occurring? Design/methodology/approach The authors used Qualtrics online panels to collect data ( N = 211 and N = 342) from full-time office-based participants. They used multivariate latent regression and dominance weights analyses to examine the relative strength of destructive versus constructive leader behaviors on followers' satisfaction with leader, and task performance. Findings Across both samples, leader hypocrisy and leader social undermining had relatively stronger effects on follower satisfaction with leader. Leader knowledge hiding had a relatively strong effect on follower task performance. Leader ethical conduct had the strongest association with follower satisfaction with leader in both samples. Hence, the authors' results were aligned with the bad is stronger than good proposition. Originality/value The authors' show that white-collar organizations can benefit from improved follower attitudes and performance by reducing leader hypocrisy and social undermining (destructive behavior) while simultaneously promoting leader ethical conduct (constructive behavior).
... From the management aspect, leadership is defined as the power of a "leader's lure" to get their subordinates to act freely in a certain way (Elsaied, 2022;Terzi & Derin, 2016). In the last couple of decades, the attention towards dark leadership began to increase (Hoobler & Hu, 2013;Schyns & Schilling, 2013;Naseer et al., 2016;Eissa et al., 2017). According to Schmid et al. (2018), the followers will be taken advantage of by exploitative leaders by their selfish acts, taking control and overburdening their subordinates as well as challenging them too. ...
... The term destructive leadership was mentioned by Molino et al. (2019), who quoted from Schyns and Schilling (2013) that it was "a process in which the supervisor's act repeatedly influence the activities, experiences, and relationships of an individual or members of a group that are often perceived to be hostile and obstructive". Webster et al. (2016) did mention that destructive leadership can cause issues to the physical health, harm emotions, and cause psychological distress. ...
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This study examines the current dynamic exploitative leadership studies and proposes a direction for future research of the field. A bibliometric approach was applied to observe 87 samples of documents from the Scopus database to identify research activity on exploitative leadership. We presented the initial stage of the research in exploitative leadership, the subsequent trends, publications status based on the source title and country. This study uses Microsoft Excel to conduct frequency analysis, VOSviewer for data visualization, and Harzing's Publish or Perish for metrics and analysis citation. The result depicts that exploitative leadership may enter a growth phase in the future. Developing countries exhibited an increase in the momentum, creating a distance with their comrades with a justifiable gap. The studies on exploitative leadership had been cited 13 times by 13 documents, indicating 13 h-index. Meanwhile, 19 g-index shows that the top 19 documents have been cited 361 times. The top three productive authors were Akhtar, Husnain, and Kashif from Pakistan and are known to be the first contributors to the study of exploitative leadership. The keywords in this study also contribute to the discovery of future research. The relevance of this study started from the inadequacy of exploitative leadership and there were limited studies on the negative effect of exploitative leadership as a predictor. There were also limited studies on the application of bibliometric analysis of exploitative leadership. Thus, this study fulfils the gap to investigate the exploitative leadership research trends and discuss the implications for theory and research.
... Notably, although Krasikova et al.'s focus was on interpersonal leader behavior, their definition was not limited to interpersonal harm. The literature on interpersonal unethical leader behaviors is quite extensive, producing many reviews (e.g., Krasikova et al., 2013;Martinko et al., 2013;Tepper, 2007;Tepper et al., 2017) and meta- analyses (e.g., Mackey et al., 2017Mackey et al., , 2019Schyns & Schilling, 2013;Zhang & Bednall, 2016;Zhang & Liao, 2015;Zhang et al., 2019). Thus, the literature has been summarized adequately. ...
... A dominant finding in the literature is the relationship between unethical leader behavior and employee deviance. Meta-analysis has demonstrated that the correlation between interpersonally harmful forms of leadership (such as abusive supervision) and employee deviance was the second strongest correlation, aside from its correlation with negative attitudes toward the leader (Schyns & Schilling, 2013). Of course, leader unethical behaviors promote a host of other negative consequences, such as increased turnover (Smith various explanatory mechanisms and found that organizational justice/exchange perceptions and stress/self-regulation depletion were the strongest mediators between leader destructive behavior (i.e., abusive supervision) and employee behavior (i.e., deviance, reduced organizational citizenship behaviors [OCB]). ...
Article
Leaders play a critical role in creating the ethics agenda in organizations. Their communications, decisions, and behaviors influence employees to act ethically or unethically to accomplish organizational goals. To be sure, various reviews within the behavioral ethics literature have highlighted the crucial role that ethical leadership plays in gearing organizations and employees ethically. Yet, numerous documented ethical failings in organizations have evidenced the impact of unethical leadership—where leaders’ unethical conduct or influence on employees promotes unethicality within organizations and generates harmful consequences. Therefore, understanding the darker side of leadership is important. The literature that has emerged in the organizational sciences on the study of unethical leadership, however, is fragmented, creating ambiguities and introducing potential confounds on what constitutes unethical leadership. We review this body of work, summarizing findings on the antecedents, explanatory mechanisms, and consequences of unethical leadership. We then provide an evaluation of the unethical leadership conceptualization, taking stock of previous conceptualizations, problems associated with past approaches, and offer considerations for a conceptualization to progress future scholarship. The goal is to engage scholarly conversation on how to evolve the unethical leadership domain without engaging in logical fallacy or post‐hoc rationalization. We offer practical implications for managers to address and minimize unethical leadership within their organizations and outline future research directions to advance our understanding of unethical leadership and its nomological network. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Corroborating this claim, a recent prospective study by Schmidt et al. [24] showed that a lack of supportive leadership can predict suboptimal self-rated health even after 10 years of follow-up, even after "controlling for self-rated health, job strain and other risk factors at baseline" [24] (p. 6). Further support is given by Schyns and Schilling [25] (p. 138) when they sum up the research result for so-called "bad leaders" (cf." ...
... Transformational leadership was positively associated with follower well-being [30]. Our result of impaired correlation of well-being and laissez-faire leadership is in line with Avolio [33] and an impaired correlation with destructive leadership is in line with Schyns and Schilling [25]. In their meta-analysis of 57 studies, the authors examined different conceptualizations of destructive leadership and the correlation between destructive leadership and various outcome variables. ...
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Background Professionals in the healthcare sector are a particularly vulnerable group for occupational strain due to high work-related psychological stress. For the implementation of targeted stress-prevention interventions as an important part of a workplace health management programme for all occupational groups and hierarchy levels, information about the current state of their mental health is mandatory. Hence, this study investigated the association of general well-being and different leadership styles among employees in a German tertiary hospital. Methods Via an online survey, 10,101 employees were contacted. The final sample consisted of 1137 employees. Of these, 27.7% described themselves as leaders and 72.3% as followers. Most participants were female (74.8%), more than half were under 41 years old. Besides control variables, general well-being (WHO-5) and leadership style (transactional and transformational, laissez-faire and destructive leadership) were assessed. Results Leaders reported higher well-being scores than followers. Physicians without leadership responsibilities had the lowest scores for well-being. Practitioners of both transformational and transactional leadership were associated with higher well-being scores, while those practicing laissez-faire and destructive leadership had lower scores for almost every professional group. Conclusion Results highlight the necessity for future multimodal health-preventive leadership interventions feature behavioural and organizational intervention modules specifically tailored to hospital professionals at different hierarchical and functional levels to foster the mental health of employees.
... By way of background, we compare and contrast how Ardern and Trump managed the early stages of the coronavirus pandemic using the 'toxic triangle' of destructive leadership (Padilla et al., 2007). Destructive leadership is defined as repeated behaviour by a leader which violates the interests and well-being of those he/she leads (Einarsen et al., 2007;Krasikova et al., 2013;Schyns and Schilling, 2013). Although leader behaviours may not be destructive intentionally, nonetheless, recklessness, lack of competence or insensitivity of a destructive leader can lead to harmful outcomes (Pelletier, 2010). ...
... Contexts conducive to the emergence of destructive leadership are characterised by instability and lack of checks and balances. Such situations allow destructive leaders to emerge, enhance their power and reinforce their potentially destructive behaviours (Einarsen et al., 2007;Schyns and Schilling, 2013). Other relevant factors include perceived threat (e.g. ...
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This research asks: ‘were there any objectively identifiable signals in the words leaders used in the early stages of the Covid-19 pandemic that can be associated with ineffective management of the crisis?’ We chose to focus on the leaders of the two English-speaking nations that fared worst and best in the pandemic, the United States and New Zealand. By way of background and in order to contextualise the research, we compared and contrasted Trump’s and Ardern’s leaderships using the toxic triangle framework of destructive leadership. We then focused on the leader behaviour element of the triangle by using computerised text analysis (CTA) to analyse Trump’s and Ardern’s public pronouncements during the critical early stages of the pandemic. Based on a similarity index ( S), we identified linguistic markers associated with destructive leader behaviours and negative outcomes (Trump) and non-destructive leader behaviours and positive outcomes (Ardern). We discuss future applications of these linguistic markers for the diagnosis both of incumbent and potential leaders’ responses to crises management.
... Their workplace actions "trickles down" to followers at lower levels (Schaubroeck et al., 2012;Adeel et al., 2019aAdeel et al., , 2022a; leaders' positive actions normalize followers unethical intentions (van Gils et al., 2015), and buffers the unethical behavior of employees (Braun and Hornuf, 2018). However, negative actions are translated into followers' unethical intentions and behaviors (Schyns and Schilling, 2013). While this approach can be useful to explain leaders' deeds and ethical behavior of subordinates. ...
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Purpose We seek to understand why and how leaders’ actions that are positive from organizational perspectives, drive to engage employees in cheating behaviors. Design/methodology/approach The proposed mediated moderation model was tested in two separate studies, study 1 and study 2, with data collected from police officers and employees of Islamic banking respectively, and then analyzed with Mplus for random coefficient models for direct effects, indirect effects, and for mediated moderation. Findings It was found that leaders’ ambitions may enhance performance pressure on the subordinates, which in turn promotes their cheating behavior. Overall, we found that the traditional view of ambition theory only emphasizes good mechanisms such as motivation. However, to integrate with a social identity perspective, ambition would also cause pressure and pressure rather than motivation. Additionally, leaders’ ambitions are more strongly and positively related to the performance pressure and cheating behaviors of employees when subordinates also have high leader identification. The findings of this research suggested that leaders’ positive workplace behavior could also spawn subordinates’ unethical behaviors. Practical implications Through this research, we can help policymakers understand that leaders’ positive desire in general and ambition, in particular, may not be necessarily associated with subordinates’ positive behaviors. Our results revealed that internalized with performance pressure, the leaders’ ambition is associated with subordinates’ cheating behavior. The findings of this research will help policymakers understand what might be promoting unethical behavior of employees. The cheating behavior of employees is not a singular level phenomenon of subordinates, it could also be triggered by contextual factors. Therefore, in developing policies for reducing the chance of cheating at work, the policymakers should also focus on the contextual factors that might be promoting cheating. Originality/value Ambitious leaders tend to demonstrate high performance, also, performance pressure literature focuses efforts of the employees toward high performance. The dark side of these lines of researches is still underexplored. We shifted the conventional focus of understanding to the positive side of ambition and performance pressure by explaining the potential cost in the form of employees’ enhanced cheating behavior. The interplay between the relationship between leaders’ ambition and subordinates’ perception of leader identification also enhanced our understating about the boundary condition of the relationship between leaders’ ambition, performance pressure, and cheating behavior of subordinates.
... Studies such as those by Mohamad and Abdullah [19] and Smith and Wolverton [7] suggest the abilities that a leader must possess to gain superior performance which if recognised would be able to produce better generations of leaders. The competency skills can range from behaviours, influence, power, situation and transformational abilities [20]. There are also studies that examine competency skills in educational leadership. ...
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Leadership has long been disputed due to its importance in organizations particularly in higher education institutions. The Malaysian ministry of higher education established Akademi Kepimpinan Pendidikan Tinggi (AKEPT) which is involved in leadership talent management for the country's higher education institutions. This paper presents the development of an AKEPT leadership competency portfolio for universities using the Behavioural Event Interview (BEI) instrument. It used the qualitative group method through a focus group discussion. The findings showed that the BEI instrument can be used to determine the competency level of academics in universities. There are five levels of leadership competency: level 1 as an individual contributor, level 2 as daily task supervision, level 3 as managing a function, level 4 as integrating diverse functions and level 5 as leading the whole organization. This study found that the committee developed five competency variances comprising significantly exceeds, exceeds, suitable, developable and reviewable. This paper provides insight into how higher education institutions in Malaysia sustain an organizational culture of excellence. In addition, it provides a model for other educational institutions in developing a leadership competency portfolio.
... Korelasyonel meta-analiz çalışmalarında aynı yapı kategorileri arasında birden fazla korelasyon değeri verildiğinde, bunlardan hangisinin meta-analizde kullanabileceğine dair farklı iki yaklaşım söz konusudur (Schyns and Schilling, 2013;Çoğaltay, 2014:50-51). Birincisi, eğer korelasyonlar bağımsızsa, bütün ilgili korelasyonlar analize dâhil edilerek bağımsız çalışmalar gibi kabul edilmektedir. ...
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Adopting environmental protection approaches in business activities has become an increasingly important issue these days. In particular, green supply chain management (GSCM) practices can affect the performance of businesses by reducing energy consumption and material use, improving stakeholder participation, reducing costs, and increasing product quality. This research aims to examine studies that have examined the relationship between GSCM practices and business performance (environmental, economic and operational performance) carried out in Turkey with a meta-analytic approach. From a total of 4,412 independent study samples, 19 that were written in English and Turkish regarding businesses operations in Turkey between the 2010-2021 were included in the scope of the research. The Pearson correlation (r) coefficient was used for the effect size in studies examining the relationship between GSCM practices and business performance, while a random effect model was used to interpret the overall effect size. Analyses were performed using comprehensive meta-analysis (CMA ) software. As a result of the study, a positive, strong, and significant relationship has been determined to exist for GSCM practices with environmental, economic, and operational performance, and a positive and significant relationship to also exist between GSCM practices and overall business performance.
... As an emerging field of leadership research, there is a growing body of research on self-serving leadership, and the impact of self-serving leadership on organizations requires researchers to pay more attention. Existing research reported that self-serving leadership has a series of detrimental effects on employees and teams (Schyns and Schilling, 2013), such as causing psychological harm and negative moods in subordinates (Camps et al., 2012), inhibiting employees' willingness to cooperate (Decoster et al., 2014), reducing employees' contentment with supervisors and organizational citizenship behavior toward leaders (Ritzenhöfer et al., 2019), motivating subordinates' tendency to quit (Ritzenhöfer et al., 2019), showing counterproductive work behavior (Mao et al., 2019b), triggering deviant behaviors (Zhou et al., 2021), and also weakening team creativity (Peng et al., 2019). However, whether self-serving leadership impacts employees' innovative behavior needs to be proven. ...
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Employee innovative behavior is significant in maintaining an organization's sustainable development. This study explored the impact of team psychological safety and workplace anxiety on the association between self-serving leadership and employee innovation behavior by synthesizing social information processing theory, conservation of resources theory, and ego depletion theory. We conducted a hierarchical linear model analysis using three-wave paired data collected from 86 leaders and 392 employees. The research results showed that self-serving leadership is negatively correlated with employee innovation behavior. Meanwhile, team psychological safety and workplace anxiety mediated this relationship. In addition, team psychological safety mitigates the impact of workplace anxiety on employee innovation behavior and the indirect impact of self-serving leadership on employee innovation behavior via workplace anxiety. These findings have a number of theoretical and practical implications in the domains of self-serving leadership and employee innovation behavior.
... Bu değerlerin bulunmamasından dolayı karanlık liderlikte başkalarına karşı istenmeyen, olumsuz ve istismarcı birçok davranış sergilenebilmektedir. Olumsuz davranışlar, hem örgüte hem de uzun vadede liderin bizzat kendisine zarar verebilmektedir (Conger, 1990, s. 44). Zira karanlık liderlik davranışının çalışanlar açısından iş tatminsizliği (Mathieu vd., 2014), iş stresi (Schyns ve Schilling, 2013), tükenmişlik (Wu ve Hu, 2009), kaygı, sıkıntı, iş ve aile çatışması (Tepper, 2000), çaresizlik, özgüven kaybı, yüksek stres, işe yabancılaşma ve performans düşüklüğüne (Asforth, 1994(Asforth, , 1997 neden olduğu saptanmıştır. Ayrıca örgüt açısından; örgütsel bağlılıkta azalma (Tepper, 2000), örgütsel etkinlikte azalma (Einarsen vd., 2007), örgütsel stresin oluşması, kayırmacılık (Bligh vd., 2007), örgütsel verimlilikte azalma (Matthiessen ve , umutsuzluğun örgüte yayılması (Reed, 2004), çalışanların yıkıcı davranışlar sergilemeleri (Pelletier, 2010) ve işten ayrılma niyetlerinin artmasına (Ashforth, 1997) neden olduğu tespit edilmiştir. ...
Article
Günümüz dünyasında örgütler, başarılı oldukları sürece, büyümeye ve varlıklarını sürdürmeye devam edebilmektedirler. Örgütleri daha başarılı hale getirmesi beklenen liderler, bu açıdan önemli görülmektedir. Bu bağlamda davranışları ve söylemleri ile takipçilerini etkileyerek onlara yol gösteren ve örgütsel başarıyı yakalayan liderlerin yanında, çalışanlarının motivasyonlarını düşüren, onları değersizleştiren ve başarısızlığa sürükleyen liderler de vardır. Liderlerde görülen bu olumsuz davranışlar, onların baskıladıkları ve kontrol altında tuttukları karanlık taraflarının ortaya çıkmasıyla görülmektedir. Lider, karanlık tarafının ortaya çıkmasıyla örgütü ve çalışanları derinden etkileyen olumsuz ve yıkıcı davranışlar sergilemektedir. Bu olumsuz davranışların başında, karanlık liderlik ve kayırmacılık gelmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, karanlık liderliğin kayırmacılık üzerine etkisini tekstil sektöründeki çalışanların a,lgıları bağlamında araştırmaktır. Araştırmanın örneklemi, Malatya ilinde I. ve II. Organize Sanayi Bölgelerindeki orta ve büyük ölçekli tekstil işletmelerinin çalışanlarından seçilmiştir. Araştırma verilerinin toplanmasında anket tekniği kullanılmış olup 513 katılımcıya ait anket değerlendirmeye alınmıştır. Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre tekstil sektöründeki çalışanların algıları bağlamında karanlık liderliğin kayırmacılık üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisi olduğu saptanmıştır. Erişilen bulguların işletme yöneticilerine ve yazındaki kuramsal çalışmalara katkı sağlayabileceği düşünülmektedir.
... Indeed, the number of studies conducted with the systematic synthesis in the field of leadership is increasing day by day. In some of these studies, school administrators' leadership types (transformational, toxic, instructive, instructive) were examined by systematic synthesis methods in terms of student achievement, perception of the teacher or school administrator, gender, branch, and level of education (Çimen, Bektaş & Yücel, 2019;Karadağ, Bektaş, Çoğaltay & Yalçın, 2015;Hallinger, Dongyu & Wang, 2016;Leithwood and Sun, 2012;Poekert, 2012;Schyns and Schilling, 2013;Şişman, 2016). In some cases, the effects of organizational citizenship behavior on leadership styles (Belenkuyu, 2015), the influence of mobbing on leadership perception (İri, 2015), the reliability of "The Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale" (PIMRS) (Hallinger, Wang, and Chen, 2013), the effects of school leadership (Hendriks and Scheerens, 2013) have been systematically synthesized. ...
Article
This study aims to define the effect size of school administrators' and teachers' views on the level of administrators’ instructional leadership behaviors by meta-analysis method. The main data source is master and doctorate dissertations, conducted between 2000-2019, which are in Turkish or English. As a result of scanning out of 460 studies, 37 are included in the meta-analysis. The effect size, variances, and comparison of the groups for each study are calculated. “Funnel plot” and “Orwin’s Fail-Safe N” methods are used to test publication bias. As a result of the analyses, Q-statistic is Q = 172,902, and I2 is calculated as 79 %. The effect size calculated according to the random effects model is 0, 40 in favor of the school administrators [0.27; 0.50], positive and statistically significant. This effect size value (ES = 0.40) means that the school administrators’ views on school administrators’ instructional leadership are more positive than teachers’ views.
... A toxic leader systematically engages in attitudes and behaviors that sabotage the motivations and job satisfaction of the followers (Reyhanlıoğlu and Akın 2016). In terms of these characteristics, the effect of toxic leadership behaviors have been mostly investigated on JS (Schyns and Schilling 2013;Tepper 2000;Tepper et al. 2004). In the study by Schmidt (2014), it was determined that toxic leadership also harmed group cohesion, group cohesion, self-promotion and misconduct, control and unpredictability, and a full mediating effect on group-level job satisfaction. ...
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Today, leaders who contribute positively to businesses, as well as leaders who contribute negatively to businesses are increasing day by day. This study was conducted to investigate the mediating effect of burnout syndrome (BS) on toxic leadership (TL) and job satisfaction (JS) in businesses. The results of the SEM analysis, using a sample of 412 participants working in public hospitals in the Marmara region of Turkey in İstanbul, show that toxic leadership (TL) has negative effects on burnout syndrome (BS) and job satisfaction (JS). Although there are studies investigating the direct effect of toxic leadership on job satisfaction, there are limited data testing the burnout syndrome subcomponents on the effect of toxic leadership on job satisfaction. This research is critical in showing the mediating role of personal achievement burnout (PRS_Scc) dimension in the effect of toxic leadership (TL) on job satisfaction (JS) sub-components.
... Frontiers in Psychology 09 frontiersin.org organizational and individual levels (Schmidt, 2008;Glasø and Vie, 2009;Pelletier, 2010;Schyns and Schilling, 2013;Webster et al., 2016;Labrague et al., 2020). We empirically show that nurses exposed to toxic leadership behaviors are likelier to suffer from emotional exhaustion. ...
Article
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Dysfunctional and destructive leadership behaviors have begun to be seen frequently in today’s business world. Likewise, toxic leadership, with incompetent supervision elements results with negative outputs for organizations and heavily for the employees. Employees may experience long-term stress in the work environment and develop emotional exhaustion, resulting in mental breakdown. Hence, this study aims to reveal the effects of toxic leadership on emotional exhaustion within the healthcare industry as a first step. Moreover, we also attempt to reveal the contingency of intrinsic motivation to lessen the reflections of toxic leadership on emotional exhaustion as a second step. Using PLS-SEM, we find that toxic leadership is positively associated with emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, our findings provide empirical evidence supporting the moderator role of intrinsic motivation on the relationship between toxic leadership and emotional exhaustion.
... As a consequence, depending on the conception, leadership characteristics have protective but also risk-amplifying effects on the development of physical and mental health. So-called destructive leadership behaviors (Schyns and Hansbrough 2010), which manifest in abusive and manipulative behaviors of leaders, are linked to lower mental health and wellbeing (Schyns and Schilling 2013). On the other hand, there are leadership styles, e.g., 'transformational leadership style' that seem to have a protective effect on the mental health and well-being of employees (Nielsen et al. 2008). ...
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Objective Longitudinal studies on the influence of leadership behavior on employees’ self-rated health are scarce. As a result, potential mechanisms describing the impact of leadership behavior on health have not been adequately investigated so far. The present study accounts for the influence of leadership behavior on self-rated health within the framework of the Effort–Reward Imbalance model. Methods The study was conducted on the basis of a cohort which comprised a random sample of healthcare workers from ten different hospitals and one elderly nursing home in Germany. A 2-level repeated measurement model with random intercept and slopes was modeled, since it was aimed to account for individual as well as intra-individual variation of subjective health across three time points over 36 months. Beside ‘Effort–Reward Imbalance’ and ‘Quality of Leadership’ from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, physical and mental health was assessed by German version of the SF12 multipurpose short-form measure of health status. Results ‘Effort–Reward Imbalance’ and a lack in ‘Quality of Leadership’ negatively affect self-rated physical health. No effect was found for self-rated mental health. Effort–Reward Imbalance significantly moderates the effect of ‘Quality of Leadership’ on self-rated physical health. Conclusion The findings, and the interaction effects in particular, suggest that leadership behavior moderated by factors such as appreciation and support, influences self-rated physical health. The study therefore provides an interpretation for leadership behavior and its influence on employees’ self-rated health within the ‘Effort–Reward Imbalance’ model.
... Negative leader behavior is a main category of workplace stressors whereas positive leader behavior constitutes a workplace resource (Reif et al., 2021). Negative leadership behaviors such as acting aggressively, showing little recognition, withholding information, or passive and avoidant leadership have been found to be stressful for employees in various studies (for a meta-analysis see Schyns & Schilling, 2013;Barling & Frone, 2017). Positive leader behaviors such as appreciating employees, activating, and encouraging them (Spieß & Stadler, 2016) can promote employee health Inceoglu et al., 2018;Montano et al., 2017;Rudolph et al., 2020). ...
Conference Paper
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Presenteeism is the behavior of working with ill-health. Due to associated productivity losses and substantial transmission risks during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, presenteeism is gaining increased attention in occupational psychological research. To understand the complexity of this phenomenon, research on contextual influences is needed. Our study investigated positive leadership behavior (transformational leadership, TFL) and negative leadership behavior (passive-avoidant leadership, PAL) as social-contextual predictors, next to stress. We hypothesized that in countries with high masculine values, presenteeism is more likely to occur. Our study involved 979 employees from the different cultural contexts of Germany, Ireland, Latvia and Spain that answered an online questionnaire. Results displayed prevalence ranges between an average of 3.93 days (Ireland) to 22.11 days (Spain) over the last 12 months. In all countries, higher job stress was associated significantly with higher levels of presenteeism. Correlational analyses of leadership behaviors showed mixed results: Negative correlations between TFL and presenteeism were only significant in Germany and Spain, positive correlations between PAL and presenteeism were only significant in Germany and Latvia. This study questions the influence of masculine values and emphasizes the importance of leader-follower quality in presenteeism research.
... Abusive supervision, as a kind of destructive leadership, usually manifests hostile behaviors toward subordinates, such as public criticism, ridicule, derogating comments, loud and angry tantrums, rudeness, inconsiderate actions and coercion (Tepper, 2000). In the last decade, in response to the call for more studies about the dark side of leadership and its role in employee creativity (Liu et al., 2012;Schyns & Schilling, 2013), some scholars began to explore how abusive supervision is related to employee creativity (e.g., Akram et al., 2022;Jahanzeb et al., 2019;Shen et al., 2020a;Song et al., 2016;Wang et al., 2021;Zhang et al., 2014), but at least two important questions remain unaddressed. ...
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Based on work passion model and the substitutes for leadership perspectives, this study examines the process linking abusive supervision to employee creativity by focusing on the mediating influence of employees’ passion for inventing and the moderating influence of financial incentives and innovative culture. Data were obtained from 191 subordinates and their direct supervisor in China. We tested hypotheses using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The results revealed that abusive supervision was negatively related to employee creativity, and employees’ passion for inventing mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and employee creativity. Furthermore, financial incentives weakened the negative relationship between abusive supervision and employees’ passion for inventing, while innovative culture could not change the above relationship. This study enriches the understanding of how abusive supervision is related to employee creativity by introducing the emotional mechanism and provides practical implications for reducing the harm of abusive supervision.
... Second, the existing literature primarily focuses on the positive role and actions of managers and supervisors (Corbière et al., 2020), however, in the wider occupational health psychology literature, reviews have concluded that both passive and active forms of supervisors' negative behaviours can have a detrimental impact on follower wellbeing (Fosse et al., 2019;Schyns & Schilling, 2013). We, therefore, applied an open approach to the attitudes and behaviours of supervisors to understand how employees who have returned to work experienced their supervisors and their reactions to such attitudes and behaviours. ...
Article
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Supervisors play an important role in supporting employees to return to work following sickness absence due to common mental disorders; stress, anxiety and depression, however, employees may not always feel supported. We examined employees’ perceptions of their supervisors’ attitudes and behaviours pre, during and following sickness absence due to common mental disorders, placing a particular focus on post-return. In a qualitative study, using purposeful sampling, we recruited and interviewed 39 returned employees up to four times. We identified three types of supervisor behaviours: the compassionate, the indifferent and the demeaning. Compassionate supervisors possessed empathy and communication skills, worked collaboratively to identify appropriate work adjustments and provided ongoing support and adjustment. Indifferent supervisors lacked the skills and motivation to support returning employees. They did what was required according to organisational policies. Demeaning supervisors lacked understanding and displayed stigmatising behaviour. The results extend our understanding of how supervisors may support returned employees in two ways: First, our results identified three distinct sets of supervisor behaviours. Second, the results indicate that it is important to understand return to work as lasting years where employees are best supported by supervisors making adjustments that fit the needs of returned employees on an ongoing basis.
... Shaw, Erickson and Nassirzadeh (2014) believe that leaders with destructive behaviors can negatively influence productivity, financial processes, and employees' spirits in the organization. According to Schyns and Schilling (2013), leaders with destructive behaviors are considered as duty models by their followers. They believe that negative behaviors are necessary within the organization. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Machiavelli leadership on destructive organizational behaviors through mediation job stress. This study is an applied and correlation research method based on structural equation modeling. 191 elementary school teachers of Sarbaz city were studied by stratified random sampling method. To collect information, three questionnaires were used: Machiavelli leadership, job stress and destructive organizational behaviors. For data analysis the Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equation modeling were used by SPSS and Lisrel software. Based on the results the direct effect of Machiavelli leadership on destructive organizational behaviors, the direct effect of Machiavelli leadership on job stress and the direct effect of job stress on destructive organizational behaviors was positive and significant. The indirect effect of Machiavelli leadership on destructive organizational behaviors was also positive and significant with the mediator role of job stress. Thus, can conclude that managers with high Machiavelli increase staff job stress and job stress, in turn, increases destructive organizational behaviors.
... Researchers have assessed employees' destructive behaviors under various styles of supervision such as destructive leadership (Schyns and Hansbrough, 2010), abusive supervision (Tepper, 2000) and despotic leadership (Nauman et al., 2018). Despotic leadership is composed of various negative dimensions of leadership (Schyns and Schilling, 2013) however knowledge is scarce (Iqbal et al., 2022;Naseer et al., 2016) in organizational psychology with respect to this leadership perspective. ...
Article
Purpose The fear of COVID-19, being an emerging research variable and a parcel of the ongoing pandemic, has not yet been fully studied with respect to leadership and employee family life. Based on the conservation of resources theory, the current study aims to investigate the relationship between despotic leadership and work-family conflict under the context of fear prevailing due to COVID-19. The paper also highlights the mediating role of emotional exhaustion between the two variables. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected in two waves by using a time-lagged design from 225 nurses from hospitals in the Central Punjab region in Pakistan. Analysis was done through process macro in SPSS. Findings Results showed that despotic leadership is positively related to work-family conflict directly and through emotional exhaustion indirectly. Furthermore, the moderation of fear of COVID-19 has also been noted such that its increase strengthened the direct as well as the indirect relationship between despotic leadership and work-family conflict. Originality/value During the days of COVID-19, the pandemic posed a strong threat to employees' family lives, especially in the presence of despotic leaders at the workplace. Amidst the widespread fear and harmful effects of COVID-19 on economies and organizations, this study provides novel implications for policymakers, researchers and practitioners for mitigating the impact of despotic leadership on employees' family lives.
... Abusive supervision, which describes "the sustained display of hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors, excluding physical contact" (Tepper, 2000, p. 178), is the construct that is typically studied in this context (Tepper et al., 2017). It entails severe negative outcomes for individuals and organizations: In comprehensive meta-analyses, destructive leadership in general (Schyns & Schilling, 2013) and specifically abusive supervision (Mackey et al., 2017) were found to be negatively related to followers' attitudes toward leaders, well-being, job satisfaction, commitment, and performance but positively related to counterproductive work behavior and turnover intentions. Importantly, abusive supervision is widespread in organizations, with prevalence rates ranging from 10% to 30% (e.g., Aasland et al., 2010;Tepper et al., 2017). ...
Article
As abusive supervision entails negative outcomes for individuals and organizations, a better understanding of leader- and follower-related antecedents of abusive supervision can help organizations prevent destructive leadership. In an experimental vignette study with 140 leaders, we tested an integrative model that includes leaders’ narcissism as an antecedent of their abusive supervision intentions. We also tested for the moderating role of followers’ behavior and indirect effects via leaders’ evaluations of followers. We employed the narcissistic admiration and rivalry concept (NARC) to distinguish between adaptive and maladaptive dimensions of grandiose narcissism and found that the maladaptive dimension, narcissistic rivalry, predicted abusive supervision intentions. This effect was strongest when followers behaved dominantly. Finally, we found preliminary evidence that leaders’ evaluations of followers’ likeability, but not of followers’ competence, mediated the relationship between leaders’ narcissistic rivalry and abusive supervision intentions. These indirect effects were not conditional on followers’ behavior. We discuss these findings in light of theoretical and practical implications for individuals and organizations.
... A flood of extremely insightful and high-quality research has followed, attested to by the number of review articles in respected journals (we counted at least ten, see marked articles in the reference list). The literature clearly shows how damaging the consequences of this behavior are to subordinates, witnesses, supervisors, and organizations (Schyns & Schilling, 2013;Shao, et al. 2018;Zhang & Liao, 2015), consequences that are many and varied (Zhang & Liao, 2015), and that generalize across culture and industries (Tepper, et al., 2017). While the financial costs of abusive supervision due to lost productivity, turnover, and healthcare usage are high and difficult to estimate, those costs are not the only relevant ones. ...
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Consistent with the goals of a GOMusing to “refresh” readers’ minds about a topic, challenge readers to re-examine their assumptions about a topic, and/or spark a needed debate about a topic, we (1) provide a refresher on abusive supervision and the severity of its consequences, (2) acknowledge the wealth of research on its antecedents and moderators while highlighting the lack of applied research on successful interventions, and (3) encourage new research perspectives and methods to move the field forward. Our ultimate goal is to galvanize scholars to use existing knowledge as a basis to develop, test, and validate successful prevention and intervention strategies for organizations and individuals to deal with abusive supervision. As you might suspect from the title, we also hope to do all this with a bit of humor and a lot of compassion.
Article
Drawing on conservation of resources theory, our study investigates whether a project manager’s despotic leadership style influences project success directly and indirectly through the underlying mechanism of project team members’ emotional exhaustion. Additionally, the moderating role of project team members’ emotional intelligence (EI) between despotic leadership and emotional exhaustion is also examined. Data were collected from the project-based employees working in telecommunications organizations (n = 250) using a time-lagged survey in three waves. The result indicates that despotic leadership has a significant negative influence on project success, and emotional exhaustion partially mediates this relationship. Moreover, conforming to a rare line of inquiry that there is a dark side to being emotionally intelligent, our findings show that the effect of despotic leadership style on emotional exhaustion is stronger when a project team member is highly emotionally intelligent. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Chapter
Demut wäre nicht erstrebenswert, wenn sie nicht messbare Effekte zeitigen würde. In den letzten zehn Jahren hat die Forschung in Hunderten von Projekten messbare, zum überwiegenden Teil positive Ergebnisse von Demut festgestellt. Sie lassen sich in drei Gruppen einteilen: Auswirkungen einer demutsvollen Führungskraft auf die Mitarbeiter (z. B. in Bezug auf Leistung oder Kreativität), Resultate für das gesamte Unternehmen (z. B. in Bezug auf Strategie oder Kultur) sowie Konsequenzen für die Führungskraft selber (z. B. in Bezug auf Leistung oder Stress).
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, 20. yüzyılın son çeyreği ile birlikte alan yazına giren ve liderliğin negatif yaklaşımları arasında gösterilen karanlık liderlik yaklaşımını kavramsal boyutta ele almaktır. Bu bağlamda ilk öncelikle liderin kim olduğu hangi özellikleri gösteren kişilere lider dendiği üzerinde durulmuş daha sonra karanlık liderlik kavramından bahsedildiğinde akla ne gelmesi gerektiği, karanlık liderlik belirtilerinin neler olduğu açıklanarak karanlık liderliğin oluşumuna zemin hazırlayan örgütsel nedenler ortaya konmaya çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca bu çalışma örgütler için önemli bir sorun olarak görülen karanlık liderlik durumunu kavramsal düzlemde ele alarak bu alanda çalışma yapmayı düşünen araştırmacılara yol gösterme açısından önem teşkil etmektedir.
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Yeryüzünün varoluşundan itibaren insanoğlunun üzerinde yaşadığı dünyada her türlü iklimsel olay meydana gelmiş ve insanoğlu da bu koşullara göre yaşamayı kendince yöntemler geliştirerek başarmıştır. Çok farklı çeşitleri olduğu ve yaşandığı bilinen iklimler aynı zamanda kendilerine özgü özelliklere göre de değişiklik göstermektedir. İnsanlar da bu çeşitliliğe ve değişime ayak uydurmak için o iklimin özelliklerine göre önlemler almış, çözümler bulmuş ve nihayetinde hayatlarını idame ettirebilmişlerdir. Örgütlerin de dünyada olduğu gibi kendilerine has bir iklimi bulunmaktadır. Tek düze bir yönetim anlayışı, üretim şekli ya da çalışma hayatı olmadığı için her örgütün yöneticileri ya da diğer etkenlerle birlikte meydana gelmiş örgüte münhasır bir iklim veya bir havadan söz edilebilir. Buradan hareketle örgütsel iklimi şu şekilde kısa tanımla ifade edebiliriz; çalışanların davranışlarını etkileyen işletme özellikleridir ya da örgütün psikolojik ortamıdır. Örgütsel iklim ve ilgili kavramlardan oluşan kitabın hem iş dünyasına hem de akademik hayata faydası olması beklenmektedir.
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Background: There is a growing interest in managers' wellbeing due to the observed associations between their wellbeing and leadership behaviours, and between leadership behaviours and employees' wellbeing. However, it is still unclear how managers' wellbeing influences their practiced leadership across different workplace contexts, which specific behaviours are affected, and how this varies across time. Objective: The purpose of this study was therefore to explore managers' and employees' experiences and perceptions regarding the consequences of managers' wellbeing for their leadership behaviours in small businesses. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 37 participants (19 managers and 18 employees) working at 12 Swedish small firms, and analysed using content analysis. Results: The findings show that managers were more constructive when they felt well, and more passively destructive when unwell. Variations in managers' wellbeing influenced their mood, energy level, and performance, as well as the company's working climate. However, these destructive leadership variations did not have a substantial impact, because several protective factors were present. Conclusion: This study shows that the wellbeing of managers in small businesses has perceptible consequences for their leadership behaviours. The study also shows that sustained leadership behaviours may coexist with temporary variations of these behaviours on a constructive-destructive continuum depending on the leader's wellbeing. Overall, the findings contribute to a more nuanced and dynamic understanding of how the interaction between managers' wellbeing and their behaviours unfolds in the particular context of small companies.
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La pandemia del SARS-CoV-2, iniciada en China a finales de 2019, alcanzó entre enero y marzo de 2020 nuestro país. La evolución epidemiológica de la pandemia, con repuntes y recensiones recurrentes, quedó simbólicamente plasmada a través de la metáfora de las olas. La imagen de las olas, con su inicio, cresta y descenso introdujo orden mental y una cierta esperanza, si bien su repetición trajo una sensacion de calamidad interminable. A lo largo de los últimos 2 años y aproximadamente 8 meses se han contabilizado hasta 6 olas pandémicas. Si estirásemos la metáfora de las olas (algo que a menudo hacemos los psiquiatras) podríamos decir que a los profesionales sanitarios nos ha tocado capear este temporal con sus olas de COVID. Nos hemos visto obligados a navegar su inmensidad, un poco a ciegas, a bordo de nuestras organizaciones. Esto ha supuesto costes. Aquí desgranaremos algunos de los que implican mayores retos para los profesionales sanitarios.
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Despite the great emphasis organizations and human resource management (HRM) research place on turnover issues, one turnover phenomenon has received only limited attention so far: joint leader–member turnover. This research examines supervisor‐initiated turnover (SIT) (i.e., employees' decision to quit their employer to follow a former supervisor to a new organization) and develops a comprehensive model of the SIT decision process, grounded on conservation of resources (COR) theory, that delineates the resource evaluation, conservation and investment deliberations of employees. We take a relational perspective and particularly focus on the leader–member relationship as an important antecedent of SIT and thereby respond to the call for more critical investigations of leader–member exchange (LMX) and corresponding HRM implications. Our three studies (survey, scenario experiment, and dyadic interview study) demonstrate that LMX positively affects SIT intentions (SITI) and that supervisor commitment represents an important mediating mechanism of the LMX–SITI relationship. Our interview study with 46 leader–member dyads identifies relational factors that promote or hinder SIT beyond the leader–member relationship. We discuss the theoretical contributions and practical implications for HRM.
Article
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of constructive and destructive leadership styles on organizational climate and employee performance, and to reveal separately whether the organizational climate has a mediating role in the effect process between constructive leadership and employee performance, and destructive leadership and employee performance and to contribute to the literature on leadership and organizational climate. The scales in the research model were applied to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and it was seen that the model was acceptable in terms of goodness of fit values. The hypotheses were tested through the structural equation model. Results indicate that destructive leadership affects employee performance and organizational climate negatively, constructive leadership affects employee performance and organizational climate positively, and organizational climate has a full mediating role on relationship destructive leadership and employee performance. Also organizational climate has a full mediating role on relationship constructive leadership and employee performance.
Article
Complementing previous research on antecedents of destructive leadership, we examined the role of work stressors in the emergence of active and passive destructive leadership behaviours. Building on conservation of resources theory, we examined direct and indirect relations between leaders’ perceptions of workload, role ambiguity and intragroup conflict on ratings of their own destructive leadership, as well as mediating paths through perceived stress. We used a two‐wave survey design consisting of a random sample of 1311 managers. Structural equation modelling revealed that work stressors were only related to passive forms of destructive leadership, whereas personality was related to both active and passive forms of destructive leadership. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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Leadership research has a long and impressive history of identifying how followers are affected by their leaders. The vast majority of this research has addressed one leadership “style” at a time, reinforcing the idea that leaders are consistent in their behaviors despite emerging evidence to the contrary. Drawing on uncertainty management theory, the ambivalence literature, and empirical evidence, we propose that followers’ perceptions of inconsistent leadership results in ambivalence towards leaders, which in turn affects followers’ workplace attitudes and well-being. Across two studies using different methodologies (randomized experimental study, survey), we find support for a conditional indirect effect in which leaders’ inconsistent behaviors predict an array of follower outcomes through the mediating effect of followers’ subjective ambivalence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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The Psychology of Wisdom: An Introduction is the first comprehensive coursebook on wisdom, providing an engaging, balanced, and expert introduction to the psychology of wisdom. It provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the psychological science of wisdom, covering wide-ranging perspectives. Each chapter includes extensive pedagogy, including a summary, a glossary, bolded terms, practical applications, discussion questions, and a brief description of the authors' research. Topics include the philosophical foundations, folk conceptions, and psychological theories of wisdom; relations of wisdom to morality and ethics, to personality and well-being, to emotion; wisdom and leadership, wisdom and social policy. These topics are covered in a non-technical, bias-free, and student-friendly manner. Written by the most eminent experts in the field, this is the definitive coursebook for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as interested professionals and researchers.
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40 years ago, it was argued that despite years of research we still did not understand leadership. A similar argument was presented in this journal just last year. This article presents some reflections based on both my experience of researching leadership and of working with leaders. In doing this the myriad of theories of leadership are explored and key trends identified. Perhaps the most significant of these is the recognition of leadership as a dynamic relational process. This enables us to move from a leader-centric focus in research to one that recognizes the active participation of followers in the leadership process. In addition, the limitations of research to date, and its lack of relevance to practice are discussed, followed by proposed actions that could be taken to help develop a clearer understanding of the nature of leadership and improve relevance for practitioners. The article concludes with the view that we do know a lot about leaders and their impact on a wide range of outcomes. However, we still know relatively little about leadership.
Chapter
Unter dem Begriff der „dunklen Seite“ der Führung versteht sich eine neuartige Forschungsrichtung, die Führungsformen untersucht, die als unethisch charakterisierbar sind und dabei zumeist auch mit negativen Auswirkungen für alle Beteiligten assoziiert werden. Der Beitrag beschreibt grundlegende Ausprägungen einer „dunklen“ Führung (Abschn. 14.2), bestimmt die wesentlichen Ursachen für deren Entstehung in Organisationen (Abschn. 14.3) und erörtert mögliche Wirkungsweisen einer solchen Führung für die Geführten, zudem für die Organisation wie auch für die derart Führenden selbst (Abschn. 14.4). Zuletzt werden einige Überlegungen zur „Aufhellung“ der Führung in Organisationen angestellt (Abschn. 14.5). Ein kurzes Fazit beschließt den Beitrag (Abschn. 14.6).
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This study aimed to analyze the effect of deviant workplace behaviors, such as mistreatment, bullying, and incivility on employee turnover intention and identify the transformational leadership role as a moderator. The data was collected through a survey questionnaire with the help of a purposive sampling technique. A total of 318 respondents' data was gathered from university academic and general staff in China. The results were analyzed through SPSS and structural equation modeling structural equation modeling (SEM) software. The findings indicate that deviant workplace behavior, i.e., mistreatment, bullying, and incivility, significantly affect employee turnover intention. Moreover, a result shows that transformational leadership has a significant moderating role on the relationship between turnover intention and workplace bullying and incivility but was insignificant between turnover intention and workplace mistreatment. Lastly, implications and limitations were also discussed in this article. KEYWORDS deviant workplace behavior, workplace mistreatment, workplace bullying, workplace incivility, transformational leadership, turnover intention, China
Book
Toxic Leadership: Research and Cases presents research and cases on toxic leadership that emerged from qualitative research on the followers of toxic leaders. The goal is to help students, researchers, and academics understand how toxic leadership emerges, how leaders can spot toxic leadership within their organizations, and discuss what they can do to stop toxic leaders from destroying organizational value. The book pulls together various theories, models, and names (e.g., bad leadership, destructive leadership) for toxic leadership. The authors cover how power, culture, personality disorders, and followers contribute to the toxic leadership phenomenon. Readers will learn how toxic leaders impact organizations, the types of toxic leaders, signs of toxic leaders, and the environments they create. The authors share case studies for each toxic leader type to illustrate themes, coping strategies, and organizational outcomes. Each case is accompanied by a series of questions for reflection, study, and leadership development. This book will be useful for students, researchers, and academics to help uncover signs of toxic leaders that are often hidden from upper management. It will also be helpful for leaders to develop organizational strategies and for followers to develop coping strategies. © 2023 Steven M. Walker and Daryl V. Watkins. All rights reserved.
Chapter
This chapter discussed ethical leadership from the educational perspective as the rapidly developing field. After introducing the background of ethical leadership, different definitions and components of ethical leadership are presented. The chapter also focused on why we need ethical leaders in school environment and how they apply this leadership in their work place. The chapter concludes with exercises and activities for better understanding the ethical leadership and its implications in schools.
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The leader-member exchange (LMX) literature is reviewed using meta-analysis. Relationships between LMX and its correlates are examined, as are issues related to the LMX construct, including measurement and leader-member agreement. Results suggest significant relationships between LMX and job performance, satisfaction with supervision, overall satisfaction, commitment, role conflict, role clarity, member competence, and turnover intentions. The relationship between LMX and actual turnover was not significant. Leader and member LMX perceptions were only moderately related. Partial support was found for measurement instrument and perspective (i.e., leader vs. member) as moderators of the relationships between LMX and its correlates. Meta-analysis showed that the LMX7 (7-item LMX) measure has the soundest psychometric properties of all instruments and that LMX is congruent with numerous empirical relationships associated with transformational leadership.
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A victim precipitation model was used to predict that members of workgroups who were perceived by others as exhibiting either high or low levels of dominating behavior would report being more frequent targets of personally injurious behaviors than those who were perceived as moderately dominating. However, we expected this effect to be moderated by the target’s gender. Data obtained from 131 MBA students who were randomly assigned to workgroups supported both the curvilinear relationship and the moderating effect of gender.
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This paper contributes to the relatively sparse knowledge about relationships between stressful work environments and bullying. Relationships between job stressors and leadership behaviour were analysed as possible predictors of bullying at work on the basis of the work environment hypothesis, which states that stressful and poorly organized work environments may give rise to conditions resulting in bullying. Analyses of a representative sample (n=2539) of the Norwegian workforce showed role conflict, interpersonal conflicts, and tyrannical and laissez-faire leadership behaviour to be strongly related to bullying, and that the strength of associations to a high degree differed for various measures of bullying. Support was found for an interactive relationship between decision authority and role conflict at different levels of laissez-faire leadership. Not only targets and bully/targets but also bystanders assessed their work environment more negatively than did non-involved employees, while perpetrators of bullying did not differ significantly from non-involved employees as regards their perception of the work environment. Hence, bullying is likely to prevail in stressful working environments characterized by high levels of interpersonal friction and destructive leadership styles. In addition, bullying is particularly prevalent in situations where the immediate supervisor avoids intervening in and managing such stressful situations.
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An interactive model of social undermining and social support in the workplace was developed and tested among police officers in the Republic of Slovenia. As predicted, social undermining was significantly associated with employee outcomes, in most cases more strongly than was social support. High levels of undermining and support from the same source were associated with negative outcomes. However, support from one source appeared to only modestly attenuate the negative effects of social undermining from another source.
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We test hypotheses derived from two alternative perspectives regarding the association between supervisory abuse and subordinate problem drinking. Drawing from the employee resistance literature, we examine the degree to which such an association may be sensitive to variation in subordinate personality. Drawing from the stress literature, we examine the degree to which this association may be mediated by somatic stress. Multi-source data from 1473 blue-collar workers employed in 55 work units, indicates that while the main effect of abusive supervision on problem drinking is attenuated under conditions of high subordinate conscientiousness and agreeableness (consistent with a resistance-based explanation), the main effect is not mediated by somatic stress.
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The aim of this short note was to get an impression of risk sectors for the prevalence of undesirable behaviour and mobbing in The Netherlands. Data were collected from 1995 to 1999 with the Questionnaire on The Assessment and Experience of Work (Vragenlijst Beleving en Beoordeling van de Arbeid; VBBA; van Veldhoven & Meijman, 1994). The sample consisted of 66,764 employees representing 11 sectors in The Netherlands. Four questions were indicative of the occurrence of undesirable behaviour and mobbing. The main conclusion of this study is that there are large differences in the occurrence of undesirable behaviour between sectors.
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This article examines negative or destructive leadership behaviors experienced by high-potential senior military officers and civilian employees. The study used a questionnaire based on the Petty Tyranny in Organizations Scale to explore the scope and nature of destructive leadership as reported by U.S. members of the class of 2008 at a military senior service college. It also explored the relationship between leadership experiences and various measures of satisfaction and inclination to remain in service. The authors observe that despite the central role that the concept of leadership holds in the military, even senior personnel reported experiencing toxic leadership. There was a significant negative relationship between destructive leadership and all measures of satisfaction. Surprisingly, there was not a significant negative impact on inclination to remain in service among this career-oriented and dedicated population.
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There exists a wealth of research examining the effects of democratic and autocratic leadership on group productivity and member satisfaction; however, past reviews of this literature have not systematically integrated the results of available quantitative studies. This essay uses a meta-analysis to provide such an integration. Analysis reveals no correlation between democraticdautocratic leadership style and productivity, except when taking into consideration the influence of study setting and task complexity. Results also suggest that democratic leadership has a moderate positive correlation with member satisfaction, but this relationship may be moderated by task complexity. The conclusion discusses the limits of experimentally manipulating democratic leadership and the need for conceptual refinement.
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A petty tyrant is defined as one who lords his or her power over others. Preliminary empirical work suggests that tyrannical behaviors include arbitrariness and self-aggrandizement, belittling others, lack of consideration, a forcing style of conflict resolution, discouraging initiative, and noncontingent punishment. A model of the antecedents of tyrannical management and the effects of tyranny on subordinates is presented. Petty tyranny is argued to be the product of interactions between individual predispositions (beliefs about the organization, subordinates, and self, and preferences for action) and situational facilitators (institutionalized values and norms, power, and stressors). Tyrannical management is argued to cause low self-esteem, performance, work unit cohesiveness, and leader endorsement, and high frustration, stress, reactance, helplessness, and work alienation among subordinates. It is further argued that these effects may trigger a vicious circle which sustains the tyrannical behavior. Research implications are discussed.
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Past research on Chinese leadership, a style which is different from that practiced in the West, has demonstrated that paternalistic leadership within Chinese society is significantly related to employees' psychological health. This research contributes to the literature by providing results from the interaction between Chinese and non-Chinese society and examining the moderating role played by the cultural value of uncertainty avoidance (UA). Based on the bottom-up model of the subjective well-being theory, this study aims to disclose the relationship between Chinese leadership behavior and its effects on the psychological health of non-Chinese subordinates from cross-cultural and multi-national backgrounds. Results from the study sample of 160 non-Chinese subordinates from 31 overseas branches of the selected, large, Chinese multinational enterprise (MNE), showed that the moral and authoritarian styles of the Chinese paternalistic leadership contributed negatively to psychological health in the workplace, a different pattern of results from studies completed with Chinese subordinates in previous research. In addition, it also showed that UA partly moderated this unique leader-follower relationship. Specifically, when non-Chinese followers had a higher UA value orientation, the negative effects of their superior's moral style on their psychological health was weakened.
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The authors examined the relationship between subordinates’ core selfevaluations and supervisors’ abusive supervision. Furthermore, they examined whether subordinates’ perceived coworker support and subordinates’ susceptibility to emotional contagion moderated the relationship between supervisors’ abusive supervision and subordinates’ emotional exhaustion. They analyzed data from 290 subordinates who had immediate supervisors using hierarchal multiple regression. Results show that core self-evaluations were negatively related to abusive supervision, whereas abusive supervision was positively related to emotional exhaustion. Both perceived coworker support and susceptibility to emotional contagion moderated the relationship between abusive supervision and emotional exhaustion. It is surprising that the moderating effect of perceived coworker support showed an unexpected pattern such that a stronger relationship between abusive supervision and emotional exhaustion existed when coworker social support was high. The authors conclude with a discussion of these findings.
Book
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Meta-analysis is arguably the most important methodological innovation in the social and behavioral sciences in the last 25 years. Developed to offer researchers an informative account of which methods are most useful in integrating research findings across studies, this book will enable the reader to apply, as well as understand, meta-analytic methods. Rather than taking an encyclopedic approach, the authors have focused on carefully developing those techniques that are most applicable to social science research, and have given a general conceptual description of more complex and rarely-used techniques. Fully revised and updated, Methods of Meta-Analysis, Second Edition is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. New to the Second Edition: * An evaluation of fixed versus random effects models for meta-analysis* New methods for correcting for indirect range restriction in meta-analysis* New developments in corrections for measurement error* A discussion of a new Windows-based program package for applying the meta-analysis methods presented in the book* A presentation of the theories of data underlying different approaches to meta-analysis
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether negative emotions mediate the relationship between supervisor rudeness and subordinates' retaliatory reactions and how the reactions to supervisor rudeness differ between US Americans and Koreans and between in‐group and out‐group supervisors. Design/methodology/approach A survey involving 197 employees from USA and South Korea. MANCOVA was used to analyze the data. Findings Employees who were rudely (rather than politely) treated when receiving explanations for organizational decisions were more likely to engage in retaliation. The latter tendency was partially mediated by the negative emotions that the employees felt about their rude treatment. In addition, the rudeness‐retaliation effects became stronger when the supervisor was dissimilar (rather than similar) to them, and the latter two‐way interaction effect was even stronger to those who highly value vertical collectivism. Surprisingly, however, Koreans were more likely to retaliate against their supervisor rather than US Americans. Research limitations/implications Previous scenario‐based studies contrasting Koreans and US Americans have yielded findings suggesting that Koreans and US American employees may differ in their responses to supervisory rudeness. Additionally, the tendency of people to be more attracted to similar rather than dissimilar others (consistent with the similarity‐attraction paradigm) suggests that the (dis)similarity of a supervisor is likely to influence the rudeness‐retaliation effect. Future research needs to examine when, how, and why employees retaliate against supervisory rudeness to better understand the retaliation dynamics in organizations. Originality/value This is the only study that has examined how, in the context of receiving rude treatment from a supervisor, retaliatory reactions by US American versus Korean employees may differ and why (i.e. via emotional mediating variables), and whether US American‐Korean differences in retaliation under these circumstances are influenced by the supervisor's perceived (dis)similarity.
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The recent emphasis on positive psychology is welcome, and has spurred much relevant research. But, there are still many unresolved conceptual and research issues, as more variables are being proposed as relevant. As part of this process, the present paper proposes hardiness as an addition to positive psychology. Hardiness is a combination of attitudes that provides the courage and motivation to do the hard, strategic work of turning stressful circumstances from potential disasters into growth opportunities. In this regard, the inherently stressful nature of living is discussed. Also clarified are the particular aspects of excellence in performance and health to which hardiness is relevant. The paper concludes with a call for issue-resolving research through which orientations and actions proposed as part of positive psychology can be compared in their contributions to performance and health. Two studies along these lines have found hardiness more powerful than optimism and religiousness in coping with stresses.
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The leader–member exchange (LMX) literature is reviewed using meta-analysis. Relationships between LMX and its correlates are examined, as are issues related to the LMX construct, including measurement and leader–member agreement. Results suggest significant relationships between LMX and job performance, satisfaction with supervision, overall satisfaction, commitment, role conflict, role clarity, member competence, and turnover intentions. The relationship between LMX and actual turnover was not significant. Leader and member LMX perceptions were only moderately related. Partial support was found for measurement instrument and perspective (i.e., leader vs. member) as moderators of the relationships between LMX and its correlates. Meta-analysis showed that the LMX7 (7-item LMX) measure has the soundest psychometric properties of all instruments and that LMX is congruent with numerous empirical relationships associated with transformational leadership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Analyzed studies concerning the relationship between charismatic leadership and satisfaction with the leader, perceived leader's effectiveness, and performance. Results indicate potential moderating effects for 2 moderators of research design (objective/subjective performance and percept-percept/multisource study design) and for 2 theoretically predicted moderators (organizational level of focal leader and organizational context). Results are discussed in relation to implicit leadership theory and cognitive classification theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Petty tyranny is defined as the tendency to lord one's power over others. A model of the individual and situa-tional antecedents of petty tyranny in organizations and the effects of tyranny on subordinates is presented. The model is assessed via 63 sets of respondents, each consisting of one manager and two subordinates, plus 25 partial sets. The hypothesized effects are generally supported, but not the hypothesized antecedents. It is speculated that petty tyranny represents a relatively rare gestalt, that is, an integrated and resilient cluster of antecedents, leader behaviours, and effects on subordinates.RésuméOn entend par “petite tyrannie” la tendance à exercer une domination sur les autres. L'article présente un modèle des antécédents individuels et situationnels de la petite tyrannie dans les organisations et des effects de la tyrannie sur les subordonnés. Le modèle est testé à par-tir de 63 groupes complets de répondants, composés chacun d'un chef de service et de deux subordonnés, et de 25 groupes partiels. Les hypothèses liées aux effets de la tyrannie sont généralement verifiées contrairement à celles des antécédents. L'auteur suggère que la petite tyrannie représente une “gestalt” relativement rare, c'est-à-dire un ensemble intégré d'antécédents, de com-portements de leader et d'effets sur les subordonnés.
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This study developed and tested a theory-based measure of authentic leadership using five separate samples obtained from China, Kenya, and the United States. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a higher order, multidimensional model of the authentic leadership con-struct (the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire [ALQ]) comprising leader self-awareness, rela-tional transparency, internalized moral perspective, and balanced processing. Structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrated the predictive validity for the ALQ measure for important work-related attitudes and behaviors, beyond what ethical and transformational leadership offered. Finally, results revealed a positive relationship between authentic leadership and supervisor-rated performance. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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Workplace bullying has been defined as a stressor that has negative consequences. However, the direction of the bullying-well-being relationship has been largely based on cross-sectional findings, which does not permit conclusions in terms of causality. The purpose of this research was to investigate the cross-lagged relationships between bullying and job-related well-being. We hypothesized that Time 1 bullying predicted Time 2 job-related well-being over time (normal causation model). In addition, we compared alternative models (baseline or stability, reversed, and reciprocal models). Our hypothesis was examined in two longitudinal studies with full two-wave panel designs in Belgian employees. In Study 1 (N = 312), the time lag was six months, and in Study 2 (N = 369), the time lag was two years. Results of structural equation modelling (SEM) analyses partially supported our hypothesis. Specifically, it was found that Time 1 bullying predicted Time 2 dedication in Study 1, and Time 2 job satisfaction in Study 2. There was no significant cross-lagged effect of job-related well-being on bullying at work. Overall, these findings suggest that bullying can be considered as a cause, rather than aconsequence of job-related well-being.
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A growing literature explores abusive supervision, nonphysical forms of hostility perpetrated by managers against their direct reports. However, researchers have used different terminology to explore phenomena that overlap with abusive supervision, and extant research does not devolve from a unifying theoretical framework. These problems have the potential to undermine the development of knowledge in this important research domain. The author therefore provides a review of the literature that summarizes what is known about the antecedents and consequences of abusive supervision, provides the basis for an emergent model that integrates extant empirical work, and suggests directions for future research.
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This study reanalyzes data from Tepper's (2000) two-wave study regarding the effects of subordinates' perceptions of supervisory abuse to assess previously unexamined relationships. As predicted, we found that subordinates who more rather than less strongly perceived that they had been abused by supervisors tended to use regulative maintenance tactics with higher frequency. Further, the positive relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' psychological distress was exacerbated by subordinates' use of regulative maintenance communications, and that relationship was reduced by subordinates' use of direct maintenance communication. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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We used data collected from a field survey of 334 supervisor–subordinate dyads to test a model of the antecedents of abusive supervision. Path analytic tests of moderated mediation provided support for our prediction that supervisors' depression mediates the relationship between supervisors' procedural justice and subordinates' perceptions of their supervisors' abusiveness and that the mediation framework is stronger when subordinates are higher in negative affectivity. We discuss the study's implications for theory, research, and practice.
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review Kelman's (1958) theory on social influence processes and deduce from it hypotheses concerning a differential use of social influence processes by socialized and personalized leaders [review] the work of McClelland and his colleagues on the power motive and deriving hypotheses concerning the two types of charismatic leadership based on a differential exercise of power describe the behaviors of the two charismatic types the effects of socialized and personalized leaders on followers and on the perpetuation of the mission are outlined, citing examples from the literature to illustrate the varying effects discuss the implications for theory on organizational and individual effectiveness (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conference Paper
This study explored the moderating role of subordinate-supervisor demographic dissimilarity on the relationship between supervisor behaviors and employee outcomes among a sample of middle- and upper-level managers working in Japanese-owned firms in the United States. As predicted, demographic dissimilarity moderated the relationship between supervisory behaviors and trust and organizational commitment such that the relationships were stronger under conditions of demographic dissimilarity. Implications of the results for demography research and suggestions for future research are addressed.
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Research on leadership has typically focused on the positive side of the phenomenon and its beneficial implications for organizations and followers. However, history and recent events, such as the collapses of Enron and Lehman Brothers, have illustrated that there are undeniably plenty of ‘dark’ leaders and that their behaviors can be disastrous for organizations. Research is only beginning to explore the characteristics and outcomes of destructive forms of leadership. This symposium will present an array of research that showcases the darker side of leadership and its effects on group outcomes. The papers in this symposium address several types of negative leadership styles, thereby emphasizing the many forms that negative leadership can take in organizations. Our symposium includes research that has explored leadership and its impacts at the team level as well as outcomes at an organizational level. More specifically, the first presentation will discuss the effects of entitlement on the relationship between emergent leadership and team performance outcomes, which sheds light on why entitlement is not always bad. The second presentation delves into the impact of transformational and pseudo-transformational of CEOs on team human capital and performance in baseball teams. The third paper examines abusive supervision as a team-level phenomenon (abusive climate) and how it impacts team level outcomes. The final presentation examines how in-group members’ acquisition of power may be gained through norm violation. Collectively, this symposium provides a unique contribution to the research on leadership in general and will improve our understanding of the dark side of leadership. • Abusive Supervision Climate: A Multiple Mediation Model of Its Impact on Group & Individual Outcomes • Presenter: Manuela Priesemuth; Wilfrid Laurier U. • Presenter: Marshall Schminke; U. of Central Florida • Presenter: Maureen L. Ambrose; U. of Central Florida • Presenter: Robert Folger; U. of Central Florida • Authentic vs. Pseudo-Transformational Leadership and Team Human Capital • Presenter: Christian J. Resick; Drexel U. • Presenter: Daniel Whitman; Louisiana State U. • Presenter: Marco S. DiRenzo; Naval Postgraduate School • Presenter: Steven M. Weingarden; Thinking Ahead, LLC • Entitlement in Leaders: Is It Really That Bad All the Time? • Presenter: Emma Y. Zhao; Melbourne U. • Presenter: Karen A. Jehn; Melbourne U. • Presenter: Carol Gill; Melbourne Business School • Obtaining Power by Breaking the Rules Is Not for Everyone: The Importance of Group Membership • Presenter: Astrid C. Homan; U. of Amsterdam • Presenter: Gerben A. Van Kleef; U. of Amsterdam
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A meta-analysis of single-item measures of overall job satisfaction (28 correlations from 17 studies with 7,682 people) found an average uncorrected correlation of .63 (SD = .09) with scale measures of overall job satisfaction. The overall mean correlation (corrected only for reliability) is .67 (SD = .08), and it is moderated by the type of measurement scale used. The mean corrected correlation for the best group of scale measures (8 correlations, 1,735 people) is .72 (SD = .05). The correction for attenuation formula was used to estimate the minimum level of reliability for a single-item measure. These estimates range from .45 to .69, depending on the assumptions made.
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This article aims at analyzing the content and structure of managers' conceptions of negative leadership. Using semi-structured interviews, 42 managers were asked about their conceptions of negative leadership, its antecedents and consequences. Results show that the concept of negative leadership is associated with eight behavioural categories: insincere, despotic, exploitative, restrictive, failed, laissez-faire, and active- and passive-avoiding leadership. Negative leadership was causally attributed to the environment of the leader, especially the followers, the immediate working field, as well as organizational processes, structures, and resources were seen as potential sources for negative leadership. The main factors regarded as its consequences included negative follower feelings and attitudes, destructive follower behaviour, and devastating organizational results. An analysis of the relationship between the leadership categories revealed two underlying dimensions of human- versus task-orientation and passive versus active behaviour. Limitations of the present approach, implications for future research and organizational practice are discussed.
Article
This study explored the moderating role of subordinate-supervisor demographic dissimilarity on the relationship between supervisor behaviors and employee outcomes among a sample of middle- and upper-level managers working in Japanese-owned firms in the United States. As predicted, demographic dissimilarity moderated the relationship between supervisory behaviors and trust and organizational commitment such that the relationships were stronger under conditions of demographic dissimilarity. Implications of the results for demography research and suggestions for future research are addressed.
Article
The study examines the outcomes of supervisors' abusive and supportive behaviors in terms of employees' burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) and upward influence tactics (i.e., forceful tactics and persuasive tactics). Questionnaires were administered to 249 employees in varied workplace settings. Supervisors' abusive behaviors were found to be positively related to depersonalization and emotional exhaustion of subordinates and the subordinates' use of forceful upward influence tactics. Supportive leadership behaviors were related to the use of upward influence tactics through the mediation of personal accomplishment. The results are discussed in the context of the cyclical effects of subordinate-supervisor behaviors.
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Although destructive leader behavior is an increasingly popular area of study, little is known about its content or dimensionality at a broad level. In this study, an inventory of destructive behaviors was developed through inductive and deductive methods. Across multiple studies, three behavioral dimensions emerged and were used to create a measure of the construct. Results provide support for the instrument’s construct and criterion validity and its predictive validity over abusive supervision. The study highlights the progress and limitations of prior research, suggests directions for future studies, and provides a practically useful measure of destructive leader behavior in organizations.
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The deleterious health and behavioral consequences of reporting to an abusive supervisor have been documented in past research. Furthermore, recent corporate scandals have led to increased pressure to hold employees accountable for their behaviors and decisions at work. This study examines the interactive effects of abusive supervision on experienced relationships between accountability and work outcomes (job tension, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion), with a sample of 366 employees across a myriad of contexts and conditions for answerability. Specifically, it was hypothesized that high levels of perceived abuse would interact with accountability such that job satisfaction declines and tension and exhaustion escalate because of the control-depleting properties of abuse. Study results were supportive of these proposed relationships. Key contributions and limitations of the study, as well as directions for future research, are discussed.
Article
This study looked at factors that moderate responses to violence, bullying, and other stressors among public school teachers in the US. Grounded in stressor-emotion-control/ support (SEC/S) theory, the study emphasized the relevance of specific forms of control and support to specific stressors in analyzing moderation effects. A total of 779 teachers completed an online survey of their perceptions of their work environments. Pervasive bullying and violent acts were associated with strains in zero-order correlations, but when regressed, pervasive bullying rather than violence was associated with strains. Relations between violent acts and strains were moderated by satisfaction with the administrations’ handling of violent acts.This has important implications for the development of public and educational policy. Finally, co-worker social support interacted with supervisory/principal bullying, but, contrary to expectations, showed a reverse buffering effect.
Article
Perceived organizational ethical values refer to employees’ beliefs concerning what practices are acceptable or appropriate in their organization (Trevino, 1990). Previous work suggests that these perceptions can be a significant factor in employee behavior, with normative influence often assumed to be the underlying mechanism (Peterson, 2002). The current article incorporates another theoretical lens, namely social exchange theory (Blau, 1964), and, in particular, negative reciprocity, to suggest that mistreatment at work — in the form of abusive supervision and lack of organizational support — may undermine the normative influence of perceived ethical values. The results indicate a negative association between perceived organizational ethical values and organizational deviance. This generally negative association was countered by abusive supervision and strengthened by organizational support, with both moderators suggesting an overt effect of negative reciprocity on employee behavior, especially when the trustee’s (i.e. the supervisor’s or employer’s) actions seem to be misaligned with perceived organizational ethical values.
Article
Purpose The purpose of the current study is to test a model of the psychological processes that mediate the impact of managerial supportive and unsupportive behaviors on employees' job‐related attitudes and strain. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using a cross‐sectional, online survey of employees working in a human services organization who were asked about their managers' support and attitudes toward various aspects of their jobs. The employees included direct service providers, agency administrators, and managers. Findings Structural equation modeling revealed that perceived job autonomy and perceived manager sentiment explained the relationship between managerial behaviors and job satisfaction, job strain, and turnover intentions. Although job self‐efficacy was significantly related to both supportive and unsupportive managerial behaviors, it did not explain the relationship between managers' support‐related behaviors and the outcomes of interest. Research limitations/implications Since these data are based on self‐reports, common method bias may have inflated the relationships among the variables. Also, ratings of supervisor behaviors and work‐related perceptions may have been confounded with other unmeasured individual differences, such as neuroticism, and optimism. In addition, the generalizability of the theoretical model is unknown because it was tested in one organization. Practical implications Managerial and leadership development programs can draw on the study findings about particular managerial behaviors that are linked to employees' perceptions of control and to their managers' sentiments about them, which in turn influence how they feel about their jobs and organizations. Originality/value Three original contributions of the study are that: it capitalizes on a detailed, inductively‐derived behavioral measure of managerial support; it examines the effects of both supportive and unsupportive managerial behaviors; and it responds to the call for studies investigating the mechanisms whereby support influences job‐related attitudes and strain.
Article
This two-part research project examines self-serving attributions by employees in reaction to supervisor's negative interpersonal behaviors in the workplace. The first study (N = 289) examined internal and external attributions in reaction to negative supervisor's behaviors compared to positive behaviors, and the moderating effect of organizational empowerment. The respondents attributed positive behaviors internally and negative behaviors externally. However, empowerment did not affect the attributions. The second study (N = 252,) examined the relationship of attributions of blame to the victim in relation to being the victim of negative behaviors as compared to being the perpetrator. Again, negative supervisor's behaviors were related to attribution of blame to factors external to the victim. However, the employee's own negative behaviors were positively related to attribution of blame to the victim.
Article
This study examined the relationships between perceptions of supervisor power and subordinate work attitudes. Results showed that perceived legitimate power and coercive power of the supervisor were major predictors of subordinate stress, while perceived legitimate power and reward power were important predictors of employee motivation. Further, perceived coercive, reward and legitimate powers were all significant predictors of subordinate commitment. Also, perceived coercive power was negatively associated with subordinate satisfaction, while expert and referent powers were positively related to satisfaction. Implications for future research and practising managers are discussed.
Article
Discusses why qualitative methods must play a central role in leadership research. One qualitative method that has been underutilized in leadership research–observation is included. The author discusses his own experiences employing observation methods in several research projects. A discussion of the challenges of managing the volumes of data generated by qualitative research is included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents an animal model of how learned helplessness may manifest itself as depression and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
For any given research area, one cannot tell how many studies have been conducted but never reported. The extreme view of the "file drawer problem" is that journals are filled with the 5% of the studies that show Type I errors, while the file drawers are filled with the 95% of the studies that show nonsignificant results. Quantitative procedures for computing the tolerance for filed and future null results are reported and illustrated, and the implications are discussed. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Using the example of a project on the assessment of implicit leadership theories, this article aims to describe qualitative content analysis as a systematic, rule-based process of analyzing verbal and textual data (e.g., interviews, group discussions, documents). Steps and typical problems in the qualitative assessment process are addressed and guidelines for decision and action presented. The steps include transcription of interview tapes into raw data, condensing and structuring the data, building and applying a category system, displaying data and results for concluding analyses and interpretation. Necessary checks for securing the quality of the assessment are shown for each step. Ideas for the combination of qualitative and quantitative analyses are presented, and applications of qualitative content analysis in the field of psychological assessment discussed.
Article
This study examined the processes linking abusive supervision to employee contextual performance by focusing on the mediating influence of emotional exhaustion and the moderating influence of work unit structure. Data were obtained from 285 subordinate supervisor dyads from three manufacturing companies in north-eastern China. The results revealed that: (i) emotional exhaustion mediated the relationships between abusive supervision and the contextual performance dimensions of interpersonal facilitation and job dedication; and (ii) work unit structure moderated these relationships such that the relationships were stronger in mechanistic than in organic work unit structures.
Article
A victim precipitation model was used to predict that members of workgroups who were perceived by others as exhibiting either high or low levels of dominating behavior would report being more frequent targets of personally injurious behaviors than those who were perceived as moderately dominating. However, we expected this effect to be moderated by the target’s gender. Data obtained from 131 MBA students who were randomly assigned to workgroups supported both the curvilinear relationship and the moderating effect of gender.
Article
Workplace victimization has recently emerged as an important topic in occupational health psychology. One of the major limitations of this research is that it generally employs cross-sectional designs. The current study, however, used a 13-month two-wave prospective design to examine the relationship between target personality and workplace interpersonal conflict in a sample of 166 non-faculty employees at a Midwestern university in the United States. Results suggested that victims' positive affectivity, negative affectivity, and core self-evaluations were associated with interpersonal conflict. Furthermore, employee personality was related to subsequent interpersonal conflict from supervisors even after initial levels of interpersonal conflict were controlled. Analyses further suggested that target negative affectivity might be an especially strong predictor of interpersonal conflict. Consistent with past theorizing, we found evidence that initial interpersonal conflict with co-workers can result in subsequent interpersonal conflict with supervisors. We conclude with a discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of our findings.
Article
Leading organizational behavior scholars have argued that construct proliferation threatens the interpretability of interpersonal mistreatment research and have argued that researchers should employ the same terminology to refer to constructs that have been studied under distinct labels (e.g., bullying, deviance, retaliation, abuse, undermining). We argue that most of the construct labels researchers regularly employ capture meaningful theoretical differences, although the corresponding measures often fail to capture the distinctive features of mistreatment constructs. We further argue that a more immediate threat to the interpretability of research in this area is that scholars have overlooked the distinctions among the individual forms of mistreatment that comprise extant operational definitions. We offer recommendations for addressing what we perceive to be the major limitations of current interpersonal mistreatment research. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.