Conventional tongue base volumetric reduction for obstructive sleep apnea

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... In SNUDH, we performed MMA to 14 patients, and accompanying with UPPP surgery to 1 patients. ( Fig.3,4) Tongue Base reduction The tongue base can contribute to OSA by collapse into the airway from size alone (macroglossia) or because of hypotonia, retrognathia, or prominent lingual tonsils, or because of combination of all these factors [9]. ...
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Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterized by the partial obstruction or total collapse of the upper airway in an intermittent and repetitive manner; in this scenario, surgical management was initially regarded as an alternative for treating this pathology. Nowadays, surgery is highly recognized because it improves tolerance and adaptation to positive pressure therapy; it remains as the first line of treatment, although high rates of effectiveness are not achieved. The first step before considering any surgical procedure is an adequate topographic diagnosis; therefore, a nasofibrolaryngoscopy should always be performed to identify the obstruction site(s). It is known that 75% of patients have obstructions at multiple levels, so correcting OSAHS by up to 95% is possible when the approach considers all the levels. Current procedures include nasal surgery, soft palate, tonsils, tongue base, hypoglossal nerve stimulator and facial skeletal procedures, as well as adjuvant procedures that include radiofrequency and palate implants.
Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common condition that is unfortunately associated with a high rate of patient non-compliance regarding device use. Newer surgical interventions have focused on procedures at the palate level, using variants of palatoplasty and transpalatal advancement. However, the extent of tongue reduction surgery required remains controversial. The authors propose an in-between variant that combines midline glossectomy resection (with minimal mucosal sacrifice) and lateral coblation tongue channelling. Method: Four patients underwent a coblation-assisted Lewis and MacKay operation, which is a new technique for tongue reduction. This involved a midline glossectomy combined with lateral coblation channelling of the tongue, alone or as part of major airway reconstruction. Demographic, polysomnographic and quality of life questionnaire data were collected prospectively and analysed. Results and conclusion: No significant complications were noted in the four patients. (Results of the post-surgical outcomes are presented in another paper.) The coblation-assisted Lewis and MacKay operation reduced the potential complications of aggressive tongue surgery. The contours of the tongue were maintained, but significant reduction was still achieved.
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common chronic disorder that often requires lifelong care. Available practice parameters provide evidence-based recommendations for addressing aspects of care. This guideline is designed to assist primary care providers as well as sleep medicine specialists, surgeons, and dentists who care for patients with OSA by providing a comprehensive strategy for the evaluation, management and long-term care of adult patients with OSA. The Adult OSA Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) was assembled to produce a clinical guideline from a review of existing practice parameters and available literature. All existing evidence-based AASM practice parameters relevant to the evaluation and management of OSA in adults were incorporated into this guideline. For areas not covered by the practice parameters, the task force performed a literature review and made consensus recommendations using a modified nominal group technique. Questions regarding OSA should be incorporated into routine health evaluations. Suspicion of OSA should trigger a comprehensive sleep evaluation. The diagnostic strategy includes a sleep-oriented history and physical examination, objective testing, and education of the patient. The presence or absence and severity of OSA must be determined before initiating treatment in order to identify those patients at risk of developing the complications of sleep apnea, guide selection of appropriate treatment, and to provide a baseline to establish the effectiveness of subsequent treatment. Once the diagnosis is established, the patient should be included in deciding an appropriate treatment strategy that may include positive airway pressure devices, oral appliances, behavioral treatments, surgery, and/or adjunctive treatments. OSA should be approached as a chronic disease requiring long-term, multidisciplinary management. For each treatment option, appropriate outcome measures and long-term follow-up are described.
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The aim of this study was to develop an effective single intraoral, minimally invasive technique to reduce the enlarged tongue base in children with obstructive macroglossia. We present the anatomic dissection of fresh cadavers and a representative case series of children who underwent submucosal minimally invasive lingual excision (SMILE) with a plasma-mediated radiofrequency device (coblation) under intraoral ultrasonic and endoscopic guidance. Multiple anatomic dissections determined the relative location of the hypoglossal nerve and lingual neurovascular bundle in relation to removable tongue base musculature. A pediatric case series demonstrates the straightforward SMILE technique. Laboratory anatomic dissection and clinical lingual ultrasonography revealed the surgical safety borders for SMILE. The surgical safety and efficacy of SMILE is demonstrated by preoperative and postoperative clinical examinations and polysomnograms in children with obstructive macroglossia (such as Beckwith-Wiedemann and Down syndromes and tongue vascular malformation). Coblation submucosally removes excessive tongue base tissue through a small anterior tongue incision. SMILE was performed without excessive pain, bleeding, edema, infection, or tongue dysfunction. SMILE is an effective novel operation that incorporates coblation with ultrasonography and endoscopic guidance for children who need tongue base reduction. Anatomic dissection and clinical cases demonstrate the potential for aggressive yet relatively safe tissue removal by this minimally invasive technique. SMILE also has significant potential for adults with obstructive sleep apnea due to a large tongue base.
Objective: To describe a surgical procedure for the treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), the procedure's indications, and its results. Study design: A retrospective study of 10 male patients with OSAS treated by tongue base reduction with hyoepiglottoplasty (TBRHE) at the Foch Hospital (Suresnes, France) between 1994 and 1997. Patients had a mean body mass index (BMI) of 32 kg/m2, a mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI) of 70 events/h, and a mean minimal oxygen saturation of 78%. They had refused positive airway pressure therapy or wished to discontinue it. Methods: Subtotal tongue base reduction preceded by lingual neurovascular bundle identification and derouting, epiglottal verticalization, mouth floor horizontalization, and hyoid bone repositioning was performed, associated in some cases to uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). Indications were based on a site-related obstruction, on the absence of craniofacial deficiencies, and on the presence of hyolingual abnormalities determined by cephalometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: TBRHE associated to UPPP in most cases had an 80% success rate, based on a postoperative RDI below 20 events/h and a reduction of the preoperative RDI of more than 50%. Snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness decreased or disappeared, respectively, in 100% and 90% of the cases. No neurovascular complications occurred. Conclusion: TBRHE is a safe procedure for the neurovascular bundle. Associated to a pharyngotomy, it is an effective treatment for severe OSAS attributable to tongue base obstruction. These results require confirmation in a larger series of patients.
Hypoxemia, hypertension, airway obstruction, and death have been associated with surgery for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Patient analysis was undertaken to identify potential factors that could affect risk-management outcome. One hundred eighty-two consecutively treated patients with OSAS undergoing 210 procedures were evaluated. Fifty-four factors were analyzed. Group characteristics included a mean age of 48.2 years, a mean respiratory disturbance index of 42.3, and a mean low oxyhemoglobin desaturation (LSAT) of 77.5%. Surgery included a combination of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (162 patients; 77%) and maxillofacial procedures (173 patients; 82%). Patients with a respiratory disturbance index greater than 40 and an LSAT less than 80% (117 patients; 64%) were maintained on nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Thirty-nine patients (18.6% had difficult intubations. There was a positive correlation (p > 0.001) of difficult intubations, neck circumference (> 45.6 cm) and skeletal deficiency (Sella-Nasion-Point B < 75 degrees). All tubes were removed with the patient awake in the operating room with two transient episodes of airway obstruction. One hundred forty-eight of the patients (70.5%) required postoperative intravenous antihypertensive medications. Patients with a preoperative history of hypertension had a significantly increased risk (p > 0.01) of requiring intraoperative and postoperative intravenous antihypertensive medications. The mean hospital stay was 2.2 days (SD +/- 0.9). Analgesia was achieved with intravenous morphine sulfate or meperidine HCl (intensive care unit) and oral oxycodone (non-intensive care unit). There were no significant oxyhemoglobin desaturations, irrespective of severity of OSAS or obesity (mean LSAT day 1, 94.8% (SD +/- 2.4); mean LSAT day 2, 95.5% (SD +/- 1.6)). Complications included postoperative bleeding (n = 4), infection (n = 5), seroma (n = 3), arrhythmia (n = 4), angina (n = 1), and loss of skeletal fixation (n = 1). Intraoperative airway risks can be reduced by use of fiberoptic intubation in patients with increased neck circumference and skeletal deficiency. Patients with OSAS are at a significantly increased risk for hypertension. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure eliminated the postoperative risk of hypoxemia, which allowed the use of adequate parenteral or oral analgesics.
Head and neck examination, endoscopy, and cephalometric x-ray films poorly predict surgical success in obstructive sleep apnea. It is hypothesized that accurate measures demonstrate agreement and may statistically "cluster." Forty-two white men from a convenience sample of 60 patients had physical examinations, upper airway endoscopies, and cephalometric x-ray films reviewed. Clinically important groupings or those with linear correlation (> 0.05) were assessed with linear and logistic regression (P < 0.05). Apnea hypopnea index was related to body mass index (b = 3.4, p < 0.0001), posterior wall redundancy (b = 32.8, P = 0.0004), and endoscopic retropalatal size (b = 29.5, P = 0.0046). Endoscopic retropalatal area was negatively correlated to the cephalometric posterior airway space (b = 3.4, P < 0.0003). Müller's maneuver and Malampatti scores were not associated with any measures. Few features on airway evaluation associate or cluster in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Supine endoscopy may be promising because it is associated with both the apnea hypopnea index and posterior airway space.
The purpose of this study was to identify prognostic indicators that would lead to stratification of patients likely to have successful surgery for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) versus those destined to fail. We retrospectively reviewed 134 patients to correlate palate position and tonsil size to the success of the UPPP as based on postoperative polysomnography results. Similar to our previously published data on the Friedman Score as a predictor of the presence and severity of SDB, the palate position was determined on physical examination of the oral cavity and was graded for each patient. This grade combined with tonsil size was used to stage the patients. Stage I was defined as having palate position 1 or 2 combined with tonsil size 3 or 4. Stage II was defined as having palate position 3 or 4 and tonsil size 3 or 4. Stage III patients had palate position 3 or 4 and tonsil size 0, 1, or 2. Any patient with body mass index of greater than 40 was placed in the stage III group. The results of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) were then graded as success or failure and success rates were compared by stage. Academically affiliated tertiary care referral center. Stage I patients who underwent UPPP had a success rate of 80.6%, stage II patients had a success rate of 37.9%, and stage III patients had a success rate of 8.1%. A clinical staging system for SDB based on palate position, tonsil size, and body mass index is presented. It appears to be a valuable predictor of the success of UPPP. Additional studies and wider use of the staging system will ultimately define its role in the treatment of SDB.
Surgery for sleep apnoea is challenging, particularly in patients with macroglossia. This has led us to develop a new procedure for reduction of the tongue base with low morbidity. Two types of bipolar radiofrequency probe were used via a percutaneous approach under an aseptic technique and general anaesthesia on 15 consecutive patients with retropalatal and retrolingual collapse. The lingual neurovascular bundles and probe were simultaneously identified with intraoperative real-time ultrasound to prevent neurovascular damage, and five patients had additional tongue mucosal suture advancement. All patients had previous or concurrent palatal surgery. The increase in cephalometric (retrolingual) posterior airspace (PAS) was 4 mm with a Spinevac wand and mucosal suture advancement, which is comparable to current-staged monopolar radiofrequency protocols requiring treatment for up to 6 months. Overall, 40% polysomnographic success was achieved, but it was 80% when additional phase 1 procedures were used. Morbidity was minimal with careful adherence to the perioperative care protocol.
Interet physio-pathologique d'une etude cephalometrique par teleradiographis et IRM dans la syndrome d'apnée du sommeil; deductions therapeutiques
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