Article

Process analysis in the coastal zone of Bénin through remote sensing and socio-economic surveys

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Abstract

Migration and population growth lead in coastal zones, especially in developing countries like Benin in Western Africa, to extreme land use pressure, causing ecological as well as land cover and land use changes, socio-economic modifications, and conflicts of interest and generational conflicts. To detect those fast-moving processes area-wide remains almost impossible in developing countries due to the lack of official statistics, often restricted remote sensing data, and limited financial resources. Due to that lack of data, methods using representative samples and indicators are required. In order to detect and comprehend ongoing spatial processes in the coastal zone of Benin, available heterogeneous remote sensing data were analyzed and surveys were conducted. The processes of migration, agricultural dynamics, and coastal changes were identified and investigated through relevant indicators. By the use of remote sensing, the spatial expression of the complex process-structures can be detected in terms of changes, while socio-economic, demographic, and cultural analysis helps uncover and explain reasons for and settings of the observed changes. Findings such as those obtained constitute a prerequisite for coastal resources management and provide an important planning tool for decision makers.

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... Mangrove resources have been diversely used for various purposes by local communities who developed high ownership link to this ecosystem. Like other coastal areas around the globe, the coastal mangroves of Benin suffer from the high population density and the socio-economic activities performed by the local population Teka et al. 2012) leading to its degradation. Our results show a differentiation of the uses of the mangrove resources depending on ethnicity, gender and age. ...
... The Beninese mangrove ecosystems are facing constant and continue degradation due to the deforestation and the uncontrolled settlements and occupations of the coastal areas (Teka et al. 2012) as well as climate variability (MEPN/PNUD 2009). Our findings revealed that the level of threats for the mangrove varies according to the investigated districts. ...
Article
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Mangrove ecosystems constitute valuable resource all over the world. They provide habitats for flora and fauna species, protect the coast against erosion and supply various products for local communities. Currently, mangroves are overused and degraded. Up to now, perceptions of local communities on the dynamic of mangrove forest and their acceptable participation forms for mangroves restoration have not been entirely understood. This study was undertaken in order to assess human pressure on mangroves from user perspective and to provide baseline information for its sustainable management in three districts (Grand-Popo, Ouidah and Sèmè-Kpodji) located in the coastal area of Benin. Structured and semi-structured questionnaire surveys regarding perceptions of mangrove forest dynamic, causes of mangrove forest degradation, indigenous restoration strategies and forms of participation were conducted among randomly selected informants. It has been reported that Beninese mangrove ecosystems supply timber and non-timber forest products, rich fishing grounds and salt for local communities. Local communities are aware of the need of restoring and ensuring sustainable conservation of mangrove ecosystems. Dominant measures for restoration and conservation indicated by informants for mangrove users include the reintroduction of traditional rules, avoidance of uncontrolled settlements, planting of mangrove trees, planting alternative fuelwood, use of solar energy for salt production and creation of alternative income generating activities. Planting mangrove trees and alternative cooking energy sources supplying to local communities to avoid mangrove destruction are urgent needs for the coastal area of Benin.
... Overharvesting of mangroves species is one of the significant threats to mangrove forests [13]. Livestock keepers also use mangroves to feed their animals, particularly ruminants, in many countries, including Benin, Senegal, New Zealand, Indonesia, and Pakistan [1,13,[19][20][21][22]. ...
... Both factors were widely identified as determinants of sustainable agricultural practices adoption [51]. Teka et al. [19] highlighted the link between ethnical groups, natural resource uses, and the willingness to participate in this resource conservation. Therefore, mangroves conservation strategies should consider paying attention to age and ethnical group of herders to be involved in conservation actions. ...
Article
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In the Republic of Benin, mangroves are an essential resource for the coastal populations who use them for firewood, salt production, and ruminant feeding. However, little information exists on livestock keepers’ particular threats to mangroves. This study aims to understand the use of mangrove species by ruminant keepers to identify sustainable actions for mangroves conservation in the coastal area of Benin. Ethno-botanical and socio-economical surveys were conducted on ninety (90) ruminant farmers in fifteen (15) villages close to mangroves along the coastal belt using a semi-structured questionnaire. The herders provide their animals with different mangrove plant species for feeding and health care. Rhizophora racemosa, Avicennia africana, Paspalum vaginatum, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Blutaparon vermiculare were the primary species used for ruminants. Local communities of herders were aware of the need to restore and ensure the sustainable use of mangrove ecosystems. The main restoration and conservation strategy suggested was planting the true mangroves plant species. Others strategies were rational use of mangroves resources and avoiding burning mangroves. These strategies varied with the ethnical group of the herder and the mangrove status (degraded or restoring) in their location. The study also revealed the willingness of ruminant breeders to participate in actions to conserve mangroves. This participation in mangrove restoration was influenced by the ethnical group and age of the herder. Therefore, it is important to involve more ruminant farmers in activities and projects for mangroves restoration. Further study could evaluate whether grazing could enhance the other ecosystem services of mangroves.
... These ecosystems are either permanent or seasonal (Taylor et al., 1995). Swamp ecosystems are generally found in the coastal plains (Blivi et al., 2002), the ecological corridors and valley floors (Hilty et al., 2020), the river deltas (OECD/SWAC, 2020), the coastal lagoons (Teka et al., 2012), the valley bottoms (Dossou & Gléhouenou-Dossou, 2007), the channels (Zeff, 2011), and the nearby hydroelectric dams (Adite et al., 2013). Swampy meadows are most often characterized by species such as Cyperus laevigatus, Typha angustifolia, Salicornia sp., Phragmites sp., Cyperus papyrus, Syzygium owariense, Xylopia rubescens, Phoenix reclinata, Kobus megaceros, Atilax sp., Cyrilla racemiflora (Brooks et al., 2019), many crustaceans and many fish species including the Nile perch and Tilapia (Schuyt, 2005). ...
Article
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Wetlands are very important because of the wide range of ecosystem services they provide. Despite their ecological, social and environmental importance, these ecosystems are threatened and fragmented under the combined effects of climate change (CC) and man-made activities (MMA). Such a state of things could be exacerbated by the advent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with its many implications. In order to help decision-makers take good decisions, the combined effect of CC, MMA and COVID-19 on the livelihoods of communities around wetland ecosystems have been reviewed based on available scientific knowledge. First, we analyzed the different concepts and theories underlying the wetlands-related studies and then summarized the merits and demerits of the different methodologies underlying wetland studies. The empirical evidences that exist in previous literatures have been highlighted. Similarly, common livelihood strategies for wetland communities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have been highlighted. The diversity of wetlands’ functions and services makes them a source of livelihood, food security and poverty alleviation for riverside communities. However, these communities lack the knowledge and awareness to understand the impact of their activities and CC on their livelihoods. The review also helped to identify that, out of the three factors investigated, the livelihoods of rural wetland dwellers in SSA are mostly influenced by CC and MMA. However, climate change and COVID-19 remain life-altering transboundary threats that extend in space and time, with large uncertainties on wetlands communities livelihoods.
... These ecosystems are either permanent or seasonal (Taylor et al., 1995). Swamp ecosystems are generally found in the coastal plains (Blivi et al., 2002), the ecological corridors and valley floors (Hilty et al., 2020), the river deltas (OECD/SWAC, 2020), the coastal lagoons (Teka et al., 2012), the valley bottoms (Dossou & Gléhouenou-Dossou, 2007), the channels (Zeff, 2011), and the nearby hydroelectric dams (Adite et al., 2013). Swampy meadows are most often characterized by species such as Cyperus laevigatus, Typha angustifolia, Salicornia sp., Phragmites sp., Cyperus papyrus, Syzygium owariense, Xylopia rubescens, Phoenix reclinata, Kobus megaceros, Atilax sp., Cyrilla racemiflora (Brooks et al., 2019), many crustaceans and many fish species including the Nile perch and Tilapia (Schuyt, 2005). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Wetlands are very important because of the wide range of ecosystem services they provide. Despite their ecological, social and environmental importance, these ecosystems are threatened and fragmented under the combined effects of climate change (CC) and man-made activities (MMA). Such a state of things could be exacerbated by the advent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with its many implications. In order to help decision-makers take good decisions, the combined effect of CC, MMA and COVID-19 on the livelihoods of communities around wetland ecosystems have been reviewed based on available scientific knowledge. First, we analyzed the different concepts and theories underlying the wetlands-related studies and then summarized the merits and demerits of the different methodologies underlying wetland studies. The empirical evidences that exist in previous literatures have been highlighted. Similarly, common livelihood strategies for wetland communities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have been highlighted. The review helped to identify that, out of the three factors investigated, the livelihoods of rural wetland dwellers in SSA are mostly influenced by CC and MMA. However, climate change and COVID-19 remain life-altering transboundary threats that extend in space and time, with large uncertainties on wetlands communities livelihoods.
... Majority of our respondents agreed that illegal logging is a major factor in the extinction of mangrove forests (69.0%) and land use exchange activities (78.0%) such as aquaculture, agriculture, and hotel construction. It is undeniable that that mangrove ecosystems are facing a progressive degradation due to the abusive deforestation, the uncontrolled settlements and the occupations held at the coastal area [41]. These activities have caused the inevitable retreat of the mangrove forest cover and decrease the fishery output. ...
Article
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Mangrove forests degradation is happening globally at an alarming rate since the 80’s. Land conversion for human activities is one of many reasons contributing to the issue. The access the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) on the function and conservation of mangrove, data was collected in Kuala Langat, Selangor within the vicinity of Sijangkang Mangrove Recreational Park using in-depth interviews (N = 100) and analysed using using ANOVA and linear regression. Results revealed that the respondents understand the importance of mangrove forests with high total mean knowledge score (80.93±7.77), attitude (75.83±8.51), and average on practice (55.95±11.44). Education is an important indication; resident status will determine the attitude towards the knowledge on the mangrove conservation. The linear regression depicts positive correlation between KAP variables where any changes will affect other variables.
... This area constitute the strict part of the coastal area which spans between 1° 44′ 30″ to 2°37'00 Eastern longitude from Togo in the West to Nigeria in the East and between 6° 15′ 50″ to 6°44'85''Northern Latitude. It takes into account 39 communes and covers an area of about 12,000 km 2 , corresponding to approximately 10.5 % of the country territory (Teka et al. 2012). This study was conducted in the strict coastal zone that comprises the ve coastal communes which have access to the sea (Sèmè-Podji, Cotonou, Abomey-Calavi, Ouidah and Grand Popo). ...
Preprint
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In Benin, mangroves are an important resource for the coastal populations who use them for firewood, salt preparation but also for feeding ruminants in the surrounding meadows. However, the pressure exerted by exploitation on fodder in the mangroves has not been quantified. This study aims to understand the relationship between mangroves and ruminants in the coastal zone of Benin. Ethno-botanical data were collected from ninety (90) ruminant breeders in fifteen (15) villages close to mangroves along the coastal belt, using individual interviews and group discussions combined with a tourist guide and a semi-structured questionnaire. The herders provided, among other things, mangrove species used as food and for ruminant health. Cross-tabulations, with calculation of chi-square statistics, were used as well as means and standard deviation values of continuous variables calculated and compared between mangrove trends observed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Rhizophora racemosa , Avicennia africana , Paspalum vaginatum , Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Blutaparon vermiculare were the species mentioned. Local communities are aware of the need to restore and ensure the sustainable conservation of mangrove ecosystems. The main restoration and conservation measures indicated by the pastoralists are the planting of mangroves, rational logging through the control of logging, no fires after logging. These measures vary according to ethnicity and depend significantly (p < 0.001) on the type of mangrove. However, these modes of exploitation of mangroves by livestock breeders have no effect on their dynamics. However, the involvement of farmers is dispensable for the conservation of mangroves.
... people). This is consistent with available literature suggesting that globally, there is a net-migration into hazardous areas [61][62][63]. ...
Article
Intensive erosion has affected the coastal zone of Cotonou for several decades. An analysis of satellite images showed an average coastline retreat of 115 m in the study area over the period 2002–2013 with several hundred houses destroyed. Since 2014, a stabilisation of the coastline is observed. This study aimed at identifying the at-risk population and at analysing the perceptions of people who experience and those who manage coastal erosion risk, as well as the responses adopted. Based on four criteria and their hierarchy, we identified five profiles of inhabitants in this risk zone. (1) Wealthy people who leave the zone when they are affected or (2) fall into the category of people in danger in case they cannot migrate. (3) Fishermen who deliberately stay near the sea. (4) The most precarious people, trapped in the risk zone. Finally, (5) poor newcomers who continually increase the at-risk population. With the recent stabilisation of the coastline, the national authorities manage the “hazard” component of the risk. However, the majority of the population is not serene. The anthropogenic stress linked to evictions gradually replaced the stress to be engulfed by the sea. We conclude that the “vulnerability” component of the risk is not yet resolved. All categories of the population in this sensitive area need to be secured. Cooperation among multiple levels of governance, the application of land use planning regulations and of the Kampala Convention and the involvement of local communities are all measures which will enable to meet this objective.
... In the last decade, aquaculture production has evolved slowly. In fact, Benin's inland aquaculture In Benin coastal areas, aquatic ecosystems are still under six types of ongoing threats: overexploitation, water pollution, sand-mining, fish diseases, invasive species, and climate change facilitated by migration and population growth (Adite et al., 2013;Amoussou et al., 2019Amoussou et al., , 2017aTeka et al., 2012). Aquatic genetic resources (aquatic animals and plants) are thus affected by these undesirable drivers that create species population fragmentations by increasing inbreeding rates resulting in a reduction of genetic variability as well as species extinction. ...
Conference Paper
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The current research aimed for the application of multi-species and multi-factor models to support fisheries management decisions for successful resources’ conservation. The study was based on the tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron melanotheron and Tilapia guineensis, which are among the most widely exploited species in Benin coastal zone. First, the current environmental problems with their relevance to the aquatic salinization in Benin coastal areas were investigated. Secondly, in an attempt to suggest conservation strategy, the phenotypic variability of 717 accessions of these two species was assessed in relation with water salinity, and several interactions. Our findings indicate that the salinity observed in the sampled rivers is due, at proportions ranging from 0.13% to 47%, to the sea surface salinity (SSS) of the Atlantic Ocean, suggesting a leading inland origin of the salinity of these rivers. The evidence also showed that the tilapia populations have been relatively adapted to the increasing water salinity of the sampled rivers. The fish species*river type and fish species*fish sex interactions had significant effects on phenotypic characteristics rather than river type*fish sex interaction. For an efficient conservation of these populations, three conservation areas versus two conservation areas, could be considered for the two tilapia species respectively.
... Coastal reclamations are thus of increasing concerns due to the change of topographical and hydrodynamic conditions, as well as cascades of consequential impacts upon phytoplankton and ecosystems (Naser, 2011;Xu et al., 2017a). For example, many of artificial structures constructed by coastal reclamation activities (including port, seawall, oilfield and artificial islands) can cause the shrinkage of a large area of coastal wetlands (Jiang et al., 2017;Teka et al., 2012), which are usually considered as the potential habitats for coastal species (Perkins et al., 2015;Jiang et al., 2015). Furthermore, the loss of habitats will indirectly lead to the reduction of biodiversity and destruction of ecosystem stability in coastal areas (Malm et al., 2004;Agboola et al., 2016). ...
Article
A multiphase finite-element hydrodynamic model and a phytoplankton simulation approach are coupled into a general modeling framework. It can help quantify impacts of land reclamation. Compared with previous studies, it has the following improvements: a) reflection of physical currents and suitable growth areas for phytoplankton, (b) advancement of a simulation method to describe the suitability of phytoplankton in the sea water. As the results, water velocity is 16.7% higher than that of original state without human disturbances. The related filling engineering has shortened sediment settling paths, weakened the vortex flow and reduced the capacity of material exchange. Additionally, coastal reclamation lead to decrease of the growth suitability index (GSI), thus it cut down the stability of phytoplankton species approximately 4–12%. The proposed GSI can be applied to the management of coastal reclamation for minimizing ecological impacts. It will be helpful for facilitating identifying suitable phytoplankton growth areas.
... Teka [12] evaluated the degradation and endogenous strategies for participatory restoration and conservation of mangroves. Teka et al. [13] assessed the processes of migration, agricultural dynamics, and coastal changes through remote sensing and socio-economic surveys. Although these works deal with the socio-economic importance of mangrove in the geographical area of the present study, the authors did not provide detailed information about the species used locally in traditional medicine. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the importance of mangrove to dwellers of Ouidah and Grand-Popo Districts, Southern Benin and focused on the medicinal exploitation of mangrove plant species. Data were collected through individual and group interviews on forty respondents. The respondents comprised traditional healers, fishermen, salt preparation specialists and students since medicinal plants harvesting can be done by all categories of the mangrove dwellers. They were required to provide details on mangrove plant species used as medicine details of the plant parts used, the preparation technique and availability of the species. Fourteen species belonging to thirteen genera and eleven families were recorded as medicinal plants in the study area. These species were used by the locals in the region to treat nine diseases and disorders. Malaria was ranked as the most important disease for which mangrove plant species are used. The most important plant parts collected were leaves (64% of plants) and roots (21% of plants). Species such as Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) Kuntze, Rhizophora racemosa (G. Mey.), Avicennia africana (L.) are on the verge of extinction because of overexploitation of their roots. Long-term conservation strategies of the mangroves are needed. Keywords: Conservation; Ethnobotany; Ethnomedicine; Mangroves; Medicinal plants
... Additionally, limits on the number of buildings and green areas should be enforced through urban regulations that are intended to improve the organization of the district. This recommendation would be useful for locations that are experiencing rapid vertical growth (Chen 2011;Teka et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Coastal zones around the world have experienced urban growth in the last 50 years. This landscape change brings new aspects for those zones and the environment. Real estate speculation is a decisive factor that changes landscape, with urban growth that occurs both in the extent and volume of construction. Boa Viagem (BV) beach at Recife, Northeast Brazil was just a sand bar covered by an Atlantic Forest until middle of the 1800s. Today, it has turned into a busy area of the city where residences, services and commerce co-exist in a densely packed arrangement. This work demonstrates and analyses vertical growth in BV and urban changes from 1961 to 2011. It was developed using digital image processing and visual analysis of satellite imagery and aerial photos. A GIS was created using SPRING and ArcScene, to calculate variations in area and volume creating a Volumetric Index (VI). The Minimal Mapping Area was used in sixteen census tract as samples of the area. Occupation and vertical growth were especially accentuated from 1981 to 1996 with the peak at 2011. Increases in vertical growth from shore to inland are evident in all parts of the district. This finding was confirmed by three-dimensional GIS representations of the study area and the VI during the period of this work, showing the potential of 3D GIS models for studying dense urbanization areas in coastal zones.
... One of the possibilities, still not fully explored by coastal planning are the three-dimensional (3D) representations of the real world. Although these facilitate the visualization of objects for analysis, it is still difficult to realize their advantages, due to the poor exploitation of these models (Fosse et al., 2006;Teka et al., 2012). Thus it is necessary that users are aware of the range of possibilities that 3D GIS may offer (Sahin et al. 2012). ...
Article
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The present work involved a methodology which analyzes land use changes, from 1961 - 2011 using digital image processing and visual analysis of one satellite image and aerial photos. A simplified methodology using GIS 3D generates models of the coastal zone and its index of vertical growth. The GIS method uses SPRING - INPE (freeware) and ArcScence (ESRI). The data was obtained in the field (2011). The base area used was seventeen census sectors of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). To analyze vertical growth, a Volumetric Compactness Index (CVI) was created. It is able to track the tallest buildings over the years studied. The sectors were analyzed for spatial (N-S; E-W) and temporal (50 years) variations, where they were divided into North, Central and South zones of Boa Viagem. At all sectors occupation indexes are presently high, a strong trend of vertical growth exist that results in high volumetric compactness. Occupation and vertical growth are especially accentuated in the 1981 - 1996, reaching a maximum in 2011. Vertical growth increased from shore- inland being more prevalent towards the Central Zone, followed by the North and South. As a result of these processes, several problems arose with the most relevant including: impermeable coverings; large volumes of urban runoff; increasing temperatures; wind funneling; traffic jams; air pollution and; deficient water supply, wastewater collection and solid wastes collection. The results obtained using this methodology may be useful for the management of coastal areas and the potential for its development in relation to urban planning and development. The models obtained can prioritize mitigation actions in similarly developed neighborhoods.
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Along the entire Bay of Benin in the Gulf of Guinea one finds a tropical coastal ecosystem. Due to population growth and uncontrolled migration, this ecosystem is exposed to extremely growing impacts. Precondition for controlled planning is knowledge about processes and land utilization demands in the region. Their analysis has recently started in an interdisciplinary research approach with several participating institutes of both the Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany, and the Université d'Abomey-Calavi in the coastal zone of Benin, West Africa. The coastal area of Benin faces typical problems of the Gulf of Guinea region. This article outlines the planned research program for a process analysis. Aim is understanding the different land utilization demands and conflicts between stake holders as well as the endangerment of the social and natural systems. Due to increasing density and diversity of use, existing interdependences are destroyed. Ecological and subsequently social consequences arise. Furthermore, it can be assumed that the rising sea level increases the harassment on low lying coastal areas. The analysis of the participating institutes combines methods of cultural and social sciences, earth system sciences and engineering sciences (remote sensing, GIS), in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the changes and conflicts. The results are intended to support decision makers in taking corrective measures with regard to sustainable development.
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Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary) where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary) and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village) regions of Cameroon. The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region), 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders) could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45%) in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region) are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp.) and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb.) Wurmb.) purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products) was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. Findings of this study highlight the need to improve sustainable management of the mangrove ecosystems through afforestation (in large impacted areas), selective removal of senescent tree stems and branches (in little damage stands), regulating sand extraction and housing activities, and creating awareness and law enforcement.
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Common understanding of the causes of land-use and land-cover change is dominated by simplifications which, in turn, underlie many environment-development policies. This article tracks some of the major myths on driving forces of land-cover change and proposes alternative pathways of change that are better supported by case study evidence. Cases reviewed support the conclusion that neither population nor poverty alone constitute the sole and major underlying causes of land-cover change worldwide. Rather, peoples' responses to economic opportunities, as mediated by institutional factors, drive land-cover changes. Opportunities and
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This paper reviews research traditions of vulnerability to environmental change and the challenges for present vulnerability research in integrating with the domains of resilience and adaptation. Vulnerability is the state of susceptibility to harm from exposure to stresses associated with environmental and social change and from the absence of capacity to adapt. Antecedent traditions include theories of vulnerability as entitlement failure and theories of hazard. Each of these areas has contributed to present formulations of vulnerability to environmental change as a characteristic of social-ecological systems linked to resilience. Research on vulnerability to the impacts of climate change spans all the antecedent and successor traditions. The challenges for vulnerability research are to develop robust and credible measures, to incorporate diverse methods that include perceptions of risk and vulnerability, and to incorporate governance research on the mechanisms that mediate vulnerability and promote adaptive action and resilience. These challenges are common to the domains of vulnerability, adaptation and resilience and form common ground for consilience and integration.
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We highlight the complexity of land-use/cover change and propose a framework for a more general understanding of the issue, with emphasis on tropical regions. The review summarizes recent estimates on changes in cropland, agricultural intensification, tropical deforestation, pasture expansion, and urbanization and identifies the still unmeasured land-cover changes. Climate-driven land-cover modifications interact with land-use changes. Land-use change is driven by synergetic factor combinations of resource scarcity leading to an increase in the pressure of production on resources, changing opportunities created by markets, outside policy intervention, loss of adaptive capacity, and changes in social organization and attitudes. The changes in ecosystem goods and services that result from land-use change feed back on the drivers of land-use change. A restricted set of dominant pathways of land-use change is identified. Land-use change can be understood using the concepts of complex adaptive systems and transitions. Integrated, place-based research on land-use/land-cover change requires a combination of the agent-based systems and narrative perspectives of understanding. We argue in this paper that a systematic analysis of local-scale land-use change studies, conducted over a range of timescales, helps to uncover general principles that provide an explanation and prediction of new land-use changes.
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Land is a very important asset and a means to sustain livelihood. In the face of a rapidly growing global population, increase in technological capacity, and affluence, the earth’s land cover has been transformed, especially in developing countries. At the same time, social organisation, attitudes, and values have also undergone profound changes. In contemporary times, issues of sustainabledevelopment, pollution prevention, global environmental change and related issues of human-environment interaction have been a major concern globally. This concern has largely been sparked by the phenomenon of global warming and its consequences, which are threatening the very existence of humans on the surface of the earth. Remotely sensed data (mainly from aerial photographs and satellite images) in combination with Geographical Information Systems(GIS) have been observed to have potential scientific value for the study of population-environment interaction. This paper provides an account of how Remote Sensing, GIS, census (mainly population and agricultural) and socioeconomic (household, district and regional) survey data have been integrated in studying the population land-use/cover nexus in Ghana. It also identifies the major methodological challenges, and solutions.
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Relationships between local and global scales deserve more attention than they have received in the global change research enterprise to date. This paper examines how and why scale matters, drawing on six basic arguments; examines the current state of the top-down global change research paradigm to evaluate the fit across relevant scale domains between global structure and local agency; and reviews current research efforts to better link the local and global scales of attention and action.
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The availability of remote sensing data that are needed for global, regional and local environmental monitoring has greatly increased over the recent years. New technologies such as global positioning system (GPS), digital photogrammetry and multi-source satellite remote sensing are creating data at higher spatial, spectral and temporal resolution than have been collected at any other time on earth. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies allow - for the first time- the efficient storage and management of spatial datasets in digital formats. In combination with the appropriate data transfer and interoperability standards that are currently being developed the technology is being put in place that will eventually allow standardized data exchange, processing and dissemination. Today, a wide variety of remote sensing systems are used to provide information about the earth, its atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces. Multispectral satellite scanners in the visible and near infrared domains of the electromagnetic spectrum record solar radiation reflected from the earth's surface. Data derived from multispectral scanners provide information on (among other things): vegetation type, distribution and condition; geomorphology; soils; surface waters; and river networks. In addition, active microwave (radar) systems are commonly used in geological, hydrological and oceanographic applications. The advent of very high resolution satellite and space programs offers new possibilities for satellite remote sensing. In addition, digital airborne cameras offer ultra high resolution for very accurate mapping of the environment.
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The availability of remote sensing data that are needed for global, regional and local environmental monitoring has greatly increased over the recent years. New technologies such as global positioning system (GPS), digital photogrammetry and multi-source satellite remote sensing are creating data at higher spatial, spectral and temporal resolution than have been collected at any other time on earth. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies allow - for the first time- the efficient storage and management of spatial datasets in digital formats. In combination with the appropriate data transfer and interoperability standards that are currently being developed the technology is being put in place that will eventually allow standardized data exchange, processing and dissemination. Today, a wide variety of remote sensing systems are used to provide information about the earth, its atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces. Multispectral satellite scanners in the visible and near infrared domains of the electromagnetic spectrum record solar radiation reflected from the earth's surface. Data derived from multispectral scanners provide information on (among other things): vegetation type, distribution and condition; geomorphology; soils; surface waters; and river networks. In addition, active microwave (radar) systems are commonly used in geological, hydrological and oceanographic applications. The advent of very high resolution satellite and space programs offers new possibilities for satellite remote sensing. In addition, digital airborne cameras offer ultra high resolution for very accurate mapping of the environment.© (2002) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
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The relation between human population growth and land use change is much debated. Here we present a case study from Papua New Guinea where the population has increased from 2.3 million in 1975 to 5.2 million in 2000. Since 85% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture, population growth affects agricultural land use. We assessed land use change in the Morobe province (33,933 km 2) using topographic maps of 1975 and Landsat TM images of 1990 and 2000. Between 1975 and 2000, agricultural land use increased by 58% and population grew by 99%. Most new agricultural land was taken from primary forest and the forest area decreased from 9.8 ha person À1 in 1975 to 4.4 ha person À1 in 2000. Total population change and total land use change were strongly correlated. Most of the agricultural land use change occurred on Inceptisols in areas with high rainfall (42500 mm year À1) on moderate to very steep slopes (10–56%). Agricultural land use changes in logged-over areas were in the vicinity of populated places (villages), and in close proximity to road access. There was considerable variation between the districts but districts with higher population growth also had larger increases in agricultural areas. It is concluded that in the absence of improved farming systems the current trend of increased agriculture with rapid population growth is likely to continue.
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In the tropics, conversion of woodland and forest into cropland and pasture has risen drastically during the last decade. Rapid population growth and poverty are believed to be the main factors of change in land use in these zones. Southern Burkina Faso experienced rapid population growth due to massive peasants' migration from the north and central regions of the Country, exacerbated by decreasing rainfall and arable land in the area of origin. This paper assessed the impact of such increased population on land use change in the attracting zones from 1986 to 2006. Satellite images were used to measure changes in land cover types over time and national population census data were used to examine the population dynamics over the same time. Results showed that the forest land was progressively converted to croplands at an annualized rate of 0·96 per cent, while the population density shifted from 17 inhabitants per km2 in 1986 to 30 inhabitants per km2 in 2006. Pearson correlation analysis revealed the positive role of population size and distribution in explaining land cover change. Policy initiatives that will lead to better environmental management are recommended. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Risk management and planning activities cannot be sustainably and efficiently implemented unless being based on a participative approach resulting from the problem consciousness and perception of the local inhabitants. This requires that the measures linked to problem perception and assessment by local stakeholders, above all by the population affected, are known. This investigation conducted in the flat Beninese coastal lagoon areas aims to assess the local inhabitants’ risk perception. The results are the following: (i) the stakeholders have group-specific ways of risk perception (according to ethnicity, social group, age); (ii) every risk management strategy should be based on the group-specific ways of risk perception and assessment; (iii) the acceptance of a given risk management strategy including interactive ways of participation can be advanced through education, dissemination of risk information as well as through communication between stakeholders.
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Internal migration in rural Benin is not directed to the southern coastal regions as in many neighbouring countries. Instead, peasants from the densely populated and environmentally critical northwest of Benin are engaging in a process of agricultural colonization of the central region. Consequently, the predominant approach to understanding these processes of internal population movement in Benin is to focus on environmental degradation. But why do people stay in degraded areas while others leave? Why do migrants again leave the environmentally still stable destination areas and why does migration itself becomes causation for new migration? It is obvious that one needs a structural understanding of the environment in the political and cultural context of this region to understand its role as a driver for migration. On the basis of an empirical case-study the impact of progressive deterioration of environmental conditions is embedded in social and cultural structures. Being aware of this is necessary in order to really understand a migration pattern that at first glance could be misconstrued as being purely environmentally induced. Since migration theories are somehow overlooked in the debate on environment and forced migration the empirical findings will be embedded in a theoretical approach that places greater emphasis on a cumulative causation of migration and on the inter-temporal dimension of migration.
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When farmers migrate yearly to a village to carry out intense farming during the rainy season, and thereafter return to a more permanent place of abode this is referred to as seasonal migration. The impact of such migration on land-use/land-cover change in an area within the Volta Basin of Ghana was examined using satellite image analysis and socioeconomic surveys. The most drastic land-cover change involved the conversion of woodland to agricultural land, while there was also a general transition to less vegetation cover. Socioeconomic surveys revealed that most of the migration occurred during the post-structural adjustment period in Ghana with declining soil fertility accounting for the highest per cent of causes of migration. Multiple regression results highlighted the role of population size and distribution, marketing of agricultural produce and technological evolution of the household in determining agricultural land-use change. Policy initiatives that could lead to environment conservation are suggested. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Rapid urbanization is projected to produce 20 coastal megacities (population exceeding 8 million) by 2010. This is mainly a developing world phenomenon: in 1990, there were seven coastal megacities in Asia (excluding those in Japan) and two in South America, rising by 2010 to 12 in Asia (including Istanbul), three in South America and one in Africa.All coastal locations, including megacities, are at risk to the impacts of accelerated global sea-level rise and other coastal implications of climate change, such as changing storm frequency. Further, many of the coastal megacities are built on geologically young sedimentary strata that are prone to subsidence given excessive groundwater withdrawal. At least eight of the projected 20 coastal megacities have experienced a local orrelative rise in sea level which often greatly exceeds any likely global sea-level rise scenario for the next century.The implications of climate change for each coastal megacity vary significantly, so each city requires independent assessment. In contrast to historical precedent, a proactive perspective towards coastal hazards and changing levels of risk with time is recommended. Low-cost measures to maintain or increase future flexibility of response to climate change need to be identified and implemented as part of an integrated approach to coastal management.
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This paper assesses the status of coastal zones in the context of expected climate change and its related impacts, as well as current and future socioeconomic pressures and impacts. It is argued that external stresses and shocks relating to sea-level rise and other changes will tend to exacerbate existing environmental pressures and damage in coastal zones. Coastal zones are under increasing stress because of an interrelated set of planning failures including information, economic market, and policy intervention failures. Moves towards integrated coastal zone management are urgently required to guide the coevolution of natural and human systems. Overtly technocentric claims that assessments of vulnerability undertaken to date are overestimates of likely future damages from global warming are premature. While it is the case that forecasts of sea-level rise have been scaled down, much uncertainty remains over, for example, combined storm, sea surge, and other events. In any case, within the socioeconomic analyses of the problem, resource valuations have been at best only partial and have failed to incorporate sensitivity analysis in terms of the discount rates utilized. This would indicate an underestimation of potential damage costs. Overall, a precautionary approach is justified based on the need to act ahead of adequate information acquisition, economically efficient resource pricing and proactive coastal planning.
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Informed decision on the management of natural resources requires an understanding of the complex dynamics of socio-economic and biophysical factors. This study aimed at exploring the land use change in southern Burkina Faso at regional and local levels and the underlying causes of change. The local level study was conducted in two villages, Boala and Yalé, in Sissili Province. Aerial photos from 1984 and 1997 and satellite images from 1986 and 2002 were employed to describe the land use dynamics. The spatial approach was combined with field data collected in 2003 and 2005 for ground-truth checking and gathering other relevant data. Semi-structured questionnaire was used for gathering data on socio-economic factors driving land use changes at local level. At regional scale, the annual rate of change in forest land, grazing land, gallery forest and cropland was −0.4, −0.9, −1.6 and 3.8%, respectively. The size of croplands increased by 14% in some districts with an equivalent annual rate of conversion to cropland estimated at 0.6% during 1986–2002. At the local level, the size of croplands increased from 7 to 14% in Boala and from 21 to 30% in Yalé at the expense of shrinking of forest cover from 78 to 40% in the former and from 41 to 18% in the latter village. Rural migration (3.3% at regional level, and as high as 97% in Yalé and 9% in Boala) coupled with extensive subsistence farming, large-scale commercial farming, intensive fuelwood extraction and other disturbances were the main factors driving land use change. In conclusion, the results show that in a decade and half the southern region of Burkina Faso has moved from a sparsely populated area with subsistence farming to a more complex zone of production characterized by high competition between different land use types. Integrated management of the natural resources in the region should, therefore, be given more attention.
Article
The integration of information from household surveys and data on land-cover changes derived from remote sensing improves our understanding of the causes and processes of land-use/land-cover changes. A household survey covering 552 households in 33 villages was carried out in the East Province of Cameroon. This survey focused on land-use changes since the 1970s. Those data were related to time series of remote sensing satellite data. A major interest of the field data lies in the longitudinal framework of the survey. It highlighted the evolution of the household and its land-use over three periods related to the key macroeconomic periods, and corresponding to the dates of acquisition of the remote sensing data. The research results demonstrate that macroeconomic changes affecting Cameroon have played a fundamental role in the way land-use practices influence the forest cover. The results show that the annual rate of deforestation increased after the economic crisis as compared to the previous period. The household survey information enables identification of the causal relationships and the processes of land-use and land-cover changes. Observations reveal that the beginning of the economic crisis (1986) is associated in time with a strong increase of the deforestation rate related to population growth, increased marketing of food crops, modification of farming systems, and colonization of new agricultural areas in remote forest zones.
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This paper examines flood policies in the context of ephemeral and low-flow streams of the Costa Brava region of Catalonia, Spain. It argues that these streams are subject to the ‘escalator effect’ whereby hydraulic works expand to protect increasing levels of development in areas exposed to flooding. A survey undertaken with local municipal officials indicates that this continues to be the preferred alternative in flood policy. Environmental values could become a convincing way to break down the ‘escalator effect’ but their force is diminished by the low social appreciation of ephemeral streams.
L'évolution géomorphologique de la plaine côtière dans le Golfe du Bénin. Cahiers géologiques III
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Seasonal migration and land use change in Ghana. Land Degradation and Development 15, 37e47. CEDA, 2007. Rapport National sur l
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Bes-tandsaufnahme der IKZM-relevanten Rechts-und Verwaltungsstrukturen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Republik Polen unter Ber-ücksichtigung des Internationalen Rechts und des Gemeinschaftsrechts
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Implications of accelerated sea level rise (ASLR) for Benin Proceeding of SURVAS Expert Workshop on African Vulnerability and Adapta-tion to Impacts of Accelerated Sea-Level Rise (ASLR)
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Land use change and population growth in the Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea between Land cover change and its relation with population dynamics in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Land Degradation and Development 21 Land use analysis from spatial and field data capture in southern Burkina Faso
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Adapt or Flee How to face environmental migration? InterSecTions no.5 UNU Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) The escalator effect in flood policy: the case of the Costa Brava, Catalonia, Spain Die Ausplünderung Westafrikas
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Combining remote sensing and household level data for regional scale analysis of land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon. Regional Environmental Change 10, 371e386 Settlement process studies in devel-oping countries using diverse remote sensing data types
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Method for Analysis of space-oriented processes in developing countries e Case study of the coastal zone of Benin
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Teka, O., 2010. Method for Analysis of space-oriented processes in developing countries e Case study of the coastal zone of Benin. PhD thesis. Department of Civil Engineering, Geo and Environmental Sciences, University of Karlsruhe/ Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. 288 p.
Quels apports de l'information spatiale à l'étude des risqué climatiques: Cas de Cotonou en zone côtière du Bénin
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Colloque SHF: « Aléas, vulnér-abilité, changement climatique, variations du trait de côte Social perception of natural risks by local residents in developing countries-The example of the coastal area of Benin
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Land Evaluation and Land Use Planning for Southern Benin (Westafrica)eBENSOTER. Hohenheimer Bodenkundliche Hefte 67
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Weller, U., 2002. Land Evaluation and Land Use Planning for Southern Benin (Westafrica)eBENSOTER. Hohenheimer Bodenkundliche Hefte 67. Universität Hohenheim.
Forest storm damage assessment with ERS tandem data
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