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Sketch of the edible bird's nest and its important bioactivities

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Abstract

The edible bird's nest is a nest made from the saliva of swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae). It is highly acclaimed as a catholicon and is a comprehensive health food. Increasing desire for the edible bird's nest makes the investigation of the nests urgent. There is a broad and growing interest in knowing more about the components and the nutritional and medicinal values of the edible bird's nest. This review discusses the research on the edible bird's nest currently, especially the research on its bioactivities. The content of water-soluble proteins, carbohydrates, inorganic salts, and various kinds of elements shows the important nutritional value of the edible bird's nest. The reported bioactivities and nutritional value of the edible bird's nest include the potential for mitogenic response, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like activity, anti-influenza virus, hemagglutination-inhibitory activity, lectin-binding activity, improvement of bone strength and dermal thickness, and hormone content etc. In the future, more scientific work should be done to fully elucidate the biological and medicinal functions of the edible bird's nest. The relationships of components and functions of the nest should be studied more. Bioactive components need to be isolated and purified to make full use of the edible bird's nest.

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... In addition, it boosts the immune system and enhances the appearance of aging skin. Asthma, cough, and stomach ulcers have also been shown to benefit from EBN (38,(45)(46)(47). EBN has recently been shown to have antiviral and neuroprotective properties by suppressing influenza infection (48)(49)(50). ...
... EBN has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and bone-strengthening properties (51,52). Due to EBNs medicinal and delectable qualities, it has become more widely known worldwide (47). EBN has been reported worldwide as a major element in health-supplementing foods, beverages, and beauty enhancers (46). ...
... Researchers found that EBN contains a high concentration of serine, threonine, and aspartic acids, glutamic acids, prolines, and valines (58,59). Glycoproteins (lactoferrin and ovotransferrin) are the molecules that provide EBN with its special usefulness and are reported to contribute to the neuroprotective activity (38,43,47,54,59,61). An important component of white EBN is the aromatic amino acid tyrosine, which has antidepressant and analgesic properties (38). ...
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Cognitive enhancement is defined as the augmentation of the mind's core capabilities through the improvement of internal or external information processing systems. Recently, the focus has shifted to the potential therapeutic effects of natural products in improving cognitive function. Edible bird's nest (EBN) is a natural food substance derived from the saliva of swiftlets. Until today, EBN is regarded as a high-priced nutritious food with therapeutic effects. The effectiveness of dietary EBN supplementation to enhance brain development in mammals has been documented. Although the neuroprotection of EBN has been previously reported, however, the impact of EBN on learning and memory control and its potential as a cognitive enhancer drug remains unknown. Thus, this article aims to address the neuroprotective benefits of EBN and its potential effect as a cognitive enhancer. Notably, the current challenges and the future study direction in EBN have been demonstrated.
... Due to its high nutritional and medicinal therapeutic values, EBNs can cost USD 2000-10,000 per kilogram and are regarded as the most expensive animal by-product in the world [2]. White EBNs are regarded as the "Caviar of the East" due to their unique taste and smooth texture, they have also been widely used by people, especially the Chinese community, as traditional house-farmed EBNs also contribute to the EBN grading, reflecting quality [5]. The detailed characteristics and grading of EBNs, including physicochemical analysis (physical [12], morphology [16], elemental composition [17], and microbial content [18]) and chemical analysis (crude protein [2], amino acid [19] and sialic acid [7]) have been reported. ...
... Raw EBNs depict more and distinct bands as compared to processed EBNs, where the EBN processing may have reduced the original amount of intact protein, thus resulting in different protein profiles [4]. The different types of EBN depict different protein profiles in SDS-PAGE, with 37-52 kDa as the most abundant protein size found in EBNs from Malaysia [5,36]. The FSh and SEh band shows that almost all protein is present in smaller peptides with a molecular weight of less than 11 kDa. ...
... Raw EBNs depict more and distinct bands as compared to processed EBNs, where the EBN processing may have reduced the original amount of intact protein, thus resulting in different protein profiles [4]. The different types of EBN depict different protein profiles in SDS-PAGE, with 37-52 kDa as the most abundant protein size found in EBNs from Malaysia [5,36]. ...
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The edible bird nest (EBN) from Aerodramus fuciphagus has been consumed as a Chinese traditional food for health and medicinal purposes due to its elevated nutritional value. The present study focused on the influence of characterization and extraction methods on protein profiling, which could be a guideline for grading the EBN. The proposed extraction method is similar to the common food preparation methods of consumers and thus can accurately establish the bioactive protein available upon human consumption. The characterization includes physicochemical analysis (physical, morphology, elemental composition, and microbial content) and chemical analysis (crude protein and amino acid). The morphology of half-cup EBN was found to be uniformly shaped and rich in calcium as compared to rough surface of stripe-shaped EBN, and there was no significant microbial growth in both types of EBN. The crude protein and amino acid content in half-cup EBN were significantly higher than stripe-shaped EBN. The full stew (FS) and stew (SE) extraction methods produced a maximal yield of soluble protein. Sialic acid content in SE extract (8.47%, w/w) and FS extract (7.91%, w/w) were recorded. About seven parent proteins (39.15 to 181.68 kDa) were identified by LC-MS/MS Q-TOF, namely 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, lysyl oxidase-3, Mucin-5AC-like, acidic mammalian chitinase-like, 45 kDa calcium-binding protein, nucleobindin-2, and ovoinhibitor-like. In conclusion, the characteristics and extraction methods influence the availability of bioactive protein and peptides, demonstrating the potential usage of EBN in improving its biological activities and nutritional properties.
... EBN is used as a natural supplement that possesses various medicinal benefits towards human wellness, including anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, immune modulator, respiratory supplement, anti-aging and metabolic stimulant (Haghani et al. 2016;Marcone 2005). EBN derived from salivary secretion of two sublingual's palaeotropical swiftlets (Looi & Omar 2016); in particular male swiftlets during mating season (Ma & Liu 2012). Most of the Chinese community would consume this tonic food in the form of bird's nest soup and serve as a traditional remedy (Ma & Liu 2012). ...
... EBN derived from salivary secretion of two sublingual's palaeotropical swiftlets (Looi & Omar 2016); in particular male swiftlets during mating season (Ma & Liu 2012). Most of the Chinese community would consume this tonic food in the form of bird's nest soup and serve as a traditional remedy (Ma & Liu 2012). In general, proximate analysis of EBN from Aerodramus genus nest consists of proteins (62.0-63.0%), ...
... ash (2.1%), and lipid (0.14-1.28%) (Yu-Qin et al. 2000). Most of the proteins and carbohydrates found in the form of glycoproteins such as sialic acid, galactosamine and glucosamine, which linked via carbohydrate-peptide linkages (Ma & Liu 2012). In the matrix-rich glycoproteins of EBN, sialic acid is the major essential sugar component in the EBN, which constitute of 9-11% (Colombo et al. 2003;Yida et al. 2015a) and this glycoprotein served as important metabolite in improving cholesterol metabolism (Lindbohm et al. 2000;Millar 2001). ...
... Birds build their own nest with different kinds of material to lay eggs and protect the nestlings. Interestingly, the swiftlet from Aerodramus and Collocalia families build their nest with its own glutinous translucent filament strand of saliva (1). The nest made from the saliva of swiftlet is thought to be a food tonic delicacy and it has been eaten for its recuperative effects since the Tang dynasty (618-907 A.D.) in China (2)(3)(4). ...
... Besides, EBN was also able to strengthen bones, reduce the thinning of the dermal layer, possess neuroprotective properties and proliferative effects on human adipose-derived stem cells and corneal keratocytes (5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). EBN contains high nutritional value, in which it composes mostly of protein (24.4 -66.9%), followed by carbohydrates (8.5 -58.2%) and fats with the lowest percentage (0.01 -2.0%) (1,2,15). Therefore, the consumption of nutritious EBN is famous till today for its various recuperative and proven therapeutic effects. ...
... Due to the geographical distribution of swiftlet, Indonesia is the country with the highest production of EBN accounting 85% of the world market, followed by Malaysia and Thailand (1,18). Therefore, the differences among the EBNs from different production sites (natural cave and swiftlet house) and geographical origin (countries) have aroused interest and been massively studied in the field (4,(19)(20)(21)(22). ...
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Background: Edible Bird's Nest (EBN) is famously consumed as a food tonic for its high nutritional values with numerous recuperative and therapeutic properties. EBN is majority exploited from swiftlet houses but the differences in terms of metabolite distribution between the production site of house EBN is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study was designed to identify the metabolite distribution and to determine the relationship pattern for the metabolite distribution of house EBNs from different locations in Malaysia. Methods: The differences of metabolite distribution in house EBN were studied by collecting the samples from 13 states in Malaysia. An extraction method of eHMG was acquired to extract the metabolites of EBN and was subjected to non-targeted metabolite profiling via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unsupervised multivariate analysis and Venn diagram were used to explore the relationship pattern among the house EBNs in Malaysia. The geographical distribution surrounded the swiftlet house was investigated to understand its influences on the metabolite distribution. Results: The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) combined with correlation coefficient revealed the differences between the house EBNs in Malaysia with four main clusters formation. The metabolites distribution among these clusters was unique with their varied combination of geographical distribution. Cluster 1 grouped EBNs from Selangor, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu which geographically distributed with major oil palm field in township; Cluster 2 included Perak and Sarawak with high distribution of oil palm in higher altitude; Cluster 3 included Perlis, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang from lowland of paddy field in village mostly and Cluster 4 grouped Sabah, Pahang, Johor which are majorly distributed with undeveloped hills. The metabolites which drove each cluster formation have happened in a group instead of individual key metabolite. The major metabolites that characterised Cluster 1 were fatty acids, while the rest of the clusters were peptides and secondary metabolites. Conclusion: The metabolite profiling conducted in this study was able to discriminate the Malaysian house EBNs based on metabolites distribution. The factor that most inferences the differences of house EBNs were the geographical distribution, in which geographical distribution affects the distribution of insect and the diet of swiftlet.
... The proximate composition of different shaped EBN, which are half cup and stripeshaped, is shown in Table 3. This present finding of proximate composition was in the range of the other reported literature [15,35], with protein being the major content, followed by carbohydrate, moisture, and ash, while no fat was detected (lower than the limit of detection, LOD). Interestingly, fiber was found to be present in both EBN. ...
... The carbohydrate content in the EBN was found to be similar to previous reports that ranged between 10.63-31.40% [15]. The higher protein and carbohydrate content in half cup EBN can be possibly explained due to the complete structure of the nest, which was composed almost entirely of pure mucin-rich glycoprotein that hardens in contact with air, forming a cup-shaped nest with little impurities [37]. ...
... Moisture content found in the half cup and stripe-shaped EBN was 15.92 ± 0.08% and 19.51 ± 0.04%, respectively, which was relatively high compared with other studies, ranging from 7.50-14.00% [15,35]. However, another study had a similar range of moisture content as reported in this study (17.8-24.3%) ...
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Edible bird’s nest (EBN) produced by Aerodramus fuciphagus has a high demand for nutritional and medicinal application throughout the world. The present study was to evaluate the authentication of a man-made house EBN, which are half cup and stripe-shaped by FTIR. Next, both samples were compared according to their metabolite, nutritional, and mineral composition. The results indicated that the FTIR spectra of both EBN samples were identical and similar to the reference, suggesting the authenticity of the EBN used. The metabolites that contribute to the possible medicinal properties of EBN were found by using GC-MS. The results of the proximate analysis, followed by the standard AOAC method, inferred that both EBN shapes to be rich in crude protein and carbohydrate contents. However, the proximate composition between the half cup and stripe-shaped EBN showed significant differences. Major mineral elements detected were calcium and sodium, and magnesium contents were significantly different between both EBN. Additionally, the half cup and stripe-shaped EBN had a low level of heavy metal content than the maximum regulatory limit as set by the Malaysian Food Act 1983. This study concludes that the nutritional composition varied between the samples and thus suggests that nutrient content should be considered as criteria for the grading requirement of commercialized EBN.
... Swiftlets may stay in natural caves or man-made swiftlet house. EBN has become an important cuisine and pharmacy since the beginning of Tang (618-907 AD) dynasty as it is high in medical values with properties of anti-aging, anti-cancer, immune-enhancing, dissolving phlegm, suppressing cough and others (Ma and Liu, 2012). ...
... In dry basis, protein gave the highest composition in both cleaned raw EBN (70.55%) and lyophilized hydrolysate powder (67.63%). According to Ma and Liu (2012) and Marcone (2005), the protein content of dry EBN (in wet basis) was in the range of 42% to 63%. This shows that the protein content of EBN samples in this study was slightly higher compared to the previous study by Ma and Liu (2012) and Marcone (2005). ...
... According to Ma and Liu (2012) and Marcone (2005), the protein content of dry EBN (in wet basis) was in the range of 42% to 63%. This shows that the protein content of EBN samples in this study was slightly higher compared to the previous study by Ma and Liu (2012) and Marcone (2005). The difference in protein content could be due to differences in the source of EBN, cleaning extent and moisture content between the samples. ...
... Ever since the Yuan Dynasty (Lau & Melville, 1994), EBN has been traded as a high-priced commodity due to its scarcity because it was only harvested from the swiftlets' natural habitat, i.e. the caves, those days. This might have been because it was risky for the cave bird's nest harvester during the collection work, compounded by the laborious and time-consuming cleaning process (Hobbs, 2004;Ma & Liu, 2012;Sankaran, 2001). In view of the lucrative returns, edible bird's nest industries nowadays, have become a viable venture and man-made swiftlet houses have been developed to breed swiftlets. ...
... In this study, the researchers classified the cave-harvested EBN and house-farmed EBN samples based on their mineral contents. The minerals found in EBN are calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) (Ma & Liu, 2012;Marcone, 2005). Since the cave-harvested EBN are built on the walls of the caves, they tend to contain more foreign minerals and impurities as compared to the house-farmed EBN. ...
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Cave-harvested edible bird nest (EBN) is a high-priced commodity, that often being counterfeited with lower-priced house-farmed EBN. In this study, cave-harvested EBN and house-farmed EBN were classified based on to the concentration of calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) present. To solve the convergence failure problem caused by the complete separation of the EBN data, a logistic regression model analysis on 48 EBN samples harvested from Malaysia and Indonesia through a mineral ratio approach was adopted. Out of the 3 logistic regression models developed, the model consisting of Ca/Na ratio and Mg/K ratio gave the best performance showing no convergence failure of Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and both the explanatory variables were highly significant. The result indicated that both Ca/Na ratio and Mg/K ratio, affecting the probability of EBN type to be cave-harvested EBN in a positive manner. The logistic regression model developed with the Ca/Na ratio and Mg/K ratio gave a 100% specificity and 91.67% sensitivity in classifying the EBN type. The results of the analysis were verified using the Receiver Operating Characteristics curves. The validation result indicated that the model has a very good overall diagnostic accuracy in classifying the EBN type based on the mineral ratio.
... The beneficial properties of EBN have also been proven through modern science and technology, revealing its nutritional values and pharmacological activities, including 1) body maintenance and enhancement of the immune system (Marcone, 2005;Ma and Liu, 2012); 2) stimulation of cell growth (Kong et al., 1987); 3) anti-inflammatory effect (Vimala et al., 2012); 4) protection from joint degeneration and chondro-protection against osteoarthritis (Matsukawa et al., 2011;Chua et al., 2013); 5) enhancement of antioxidant capacity-antioxidative effect (Hu et al., 2016); 6) anti-influenza or as anti-viral agent (Guo et al., 2006;Haghani et al., 2016;Hu et al., 2016); 7) skin whitening, anti-aging, antiinflammatory and wound healing (Zeng and Lai, 2019;Hwang et al., 2020); 8) promotion of corneal wound healing (eye caring) (Zainal Abidin et al., 2011); 9) improvement of stem cell proliferation (Roh et al., 2012); 10) learning and memory functions of multi-generational mice - (Haghani et al., 2016;Careena et al., 2018;Xie et al., 2018;Khalid et al., 2019;Mahaq et al., 2020); 11) neuroprotection in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease (Hou et al., 2017;Yew et al., 2018); 12) anti-obesity effects (Yida et al., 2015); 13) prevention of cardio-metabolic and diabetic diseases ; 14) anti-hypertensive effect (Ramachandran et al., 2018); and 15) amelioration of the detrimental effects of lead acetate (LA) toxicity in the uterus (Albishtue et al., 2019). Therefore, EBN has proved its nutritional and therapeutic values. ...
... Higher demand than the supply leads to higher price of red EBNs than white EBNs. The high nutritional and medicinal values and the higher price of the red EBNs lead to issues of adulteration (Ma and Liu, 2012). Marcone (2005) mentioned that on occasion white nests have been treated with red pigments which are either partially or wholly watersoluble; and But et al. (2013) reported that white nest was fumigated with "bird soil" under hot and humid condition. ...
Article
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Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is recognized as a nourishing food among Chinese people. The efficacy of EBN was stated in the records of traditional Chinese medicine and its activities have been reported in many researches. Malaysia is the second largest exporter of EBNs in the world, after Indonesia. For many years, EBN trade to China was not regulated until August 2011, when a safety alert was triggered for the consumption of EBNs. China banned the import of EBNs from Malaysia and Indonesia due to high level of nitrite. Since then, the Malaysia government has formulated Malaysia Standards for swiftlet farming (MS 2273:2012), edible bird’s nest processing plant design and management (MS 2333:2010), and edible bird’s nest product quality (MS 2334:2011) to enable the industry to meet the specified standards for the export to China. On the other hand, Indonesia's EBN industry formulated a standard operating procedure (SOP) for exportation to China. Both countries can export EBNs to China by complying with the standards and SOPs. EBN contaminants may include but not limited to nitrite, heavy metals, excessive minerals, fungi, bacteria, and mites. The possible source of contaminants may come from the swiftlet farms and the swiftlets or introduced during processing, storage, and transportation of EBNs, or adulterants. Swiftlet house design and management, and EBN processing affect the bird’s nest color. Degradation of its optical quality has an impact on the selling price, and color changes are tied together with nitrite level. In this review, the current and future prospects of EBNs in Malaysia and Indonesia in terms of their quality, and the research on the contaminants and their effects on EBN color changes are discussed.
... The founding reported that glycoproteins are the main components to build EBN. It was also composed of proteins and carbohydrates, which consist of approximately 60% and 30% of the total mass respectively (Ma & Liu, 2012a;Marcone, 2005). Mardiastuti, Mulyani, and Gultom (1997, pp. ...
... The idea to increase the overall net weight and size of the EBN was often incorporated with adulterants. The adulterants were commonly being used included the tremella fungus (Tremella fuciformisis), karaya gum (Sterculia urens), agar, starch, gelatins, red seaweed, pigskin, egg white and also vermicelli rice (Chua & Zukefli, 2016;Ma & Liu, 2012a;Medway, 1962). ...
Article
Edible bird's nest (EBN)is a traditional Chinese cuisine that attracts numerous attentions at the local point of view extending to worldwide level. Huge demand from EBN enables it to secure name labels among different types of other foodstuffs, which were found to be rich with carbohydrate, protein and amino acid. Today, EBN has been used as ingredients in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Malaysia is the world's third largest supplier of EBN after Thailand and Indonesia. Therefore, the government included certain initiatives in order to comply with several laws and standards as fundamental guidelines. Currently, contemporary EBN issues are becoming a pandemic in this industry and create chaos for consumers and operators. The issues include adulterations, banning, integrity of halal and haram, allergic reactions and heavy metal intoxication. The researchers identified several approaches in order to detect and authenticate EBN using advanced technologies and high-end instrumentations. The approaches were improved by certain chemometric analysis, which produces convincing and reliable data. Current situation and future views of EBN are also discussed in the study.
... Edible bird's nests (EBN) are substances produced from the salivary secretion of certain swiftlets. EBN consist largely of a mucin-like substance called glycoprotein (Ma and Liu, 2012). EBN is a good source of high-quality protein (61.5 -62%) (Norhayati et al., 2010;Ma and Liu, 2012). ...
... EBN consist largely of a mucin-like substance called glycoprotein (Ma and Liu, 2012). EBN is a good source of high-quality protein (61.5 -62%) (Norhayati et al., 2010;Ma and Liu, 2012). According to Roussel et al. (1988), EBN contains hundreds of carbohydrate chains attached to the peptide by O-glycosidic linkages between N-acetylgalactosamine and a hydroxylated amino acid made from serine and threonine. ...
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This study reported the effect of heat treatment and protein enzymatic hydrolysis on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and physicochemical properties of edible bird’s nest (EBN). The EBN samples were subjected to eleven different processing treatments which were control EBN (raw), 30 mins normal boiled EBN (NB30); 30 mins normal boiled EBN followed with protein hydrolysis using 1% Alcalase® (NB30H); 60 mins normal boiled EBN (NB60); 60 mins normal boiled EBN followed with protein hydrolysis using 1% Alcalase® (NB60H); 60 mins slow cooked EBN (SC60); 60 mins slow cooked EBN followed with protein hydrolysis using 1% Alcalase® (SC60H); 120 mins slow cooked EBN (SC120); 120 mins slow cooked EBN followed with protein hydrolysis using 1% Alcalase® (SC120H); autoclaved EBN at 121oC for 15 mins (A); autoclaved EBN at 121oC for 15 mins followed with protein hydrolysis using 1% Alcalase® (AH). The treated EBN samples were then freeze dried prior to further analysis. This study found that heat treatment alone produced EBN sample with lower DH (5.84% to 14.54%) as compared to those undergone combined heat treatment and enzymatic protein hydrolysis (12.16% to 22.59%). EBN samples in this study gave solubility of 4.52 - 87.11%, water holding capacity of 3.82 - 17.9 mL/g, oil holding capacity of 4.87 - 7.65 mL/g, emulsifying capacity of 18.08 - 56.15%, emulsifying stability of 12.03 - 50.34%, foaming capacity of 0.75 - 359%, foaming stability (after 60 mins) of 58.89 - 96.39% and viscosity (for 1 - 10% EBN sample) of 26.67 - 7526.67 mPa.s. It was found that there was a positive correlation between DH and solubility, emulsifying capacity and emulsifying stability of EBN samples. However, a negative correlation was found between DH and water holding capacity and viscosity of EBN samples. Furthermore, there was no correlation between DH and oil holding capacity and colour profiles. Thus, this study shows that heat treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of EBN can be tailored to achieve a certain degree of hydrolysis and physicochemical properties.
... Because of its scarcity and rarity, EBN has been regarded as a symbol of wealth, power and prestige. However, the quality of EBN, as well as the price, varied significantly depending on the geographical origin, since EBN is made from the saliva of swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae) [3]. ...
... Therefore, the bioactive components and nutritional value is highly correlated with the producing area. The main producing areas [5] included Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines and China, among which, Indonesia is the largest country producing (accounting for 85% of the world market), followed by Malaysia (accounting for 13% of the world market) [3,6]. Generally, EBN from Indonesia is more expensive than those from other areas [7]. ...
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A smart handheld device based on colorimetric sensor array and smart cellphone was constructed to discriminate geographical origins of edible bird’s nest (EBN). Three hundred and twenty EBN samples were collected from Malaysia and Indonesia. The colorimetric sensor array consists of chemo-response dyes and was used to capture the odor molecule. The smart cellphone was used to obtain images and to extract red, green and blue colors using in-house software before and after contact with each sample. The differences in the nutritional (carbohydrate, protein and Sialic acid) and volatile components (VCs) between Malaysian and Indonesian EBNs were measured by conventional chemical methods. The colorimetric sensor arrays showed a unique pattern of color changes upon its exposure to EBN from different geographical origins. Data analysis was performed using pattern recognition algorithms including principal component analysis (PCA), Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and partial least square regression (PLSR). The PCA and HAC were applied to investigate the similarity between sample groups. The PLS model was developed to demonstrate the relation between colorimetric responses and characteristic VCs of EBN. For the PLS model, the value of correlation coefficient is higher than 0.86 in calibration and prediction set. Results demonstrated that the smart handheld device was capable for geographical origin discrimination of EBN.
... The edible bird's nest is made from the saliva of swiftlets inhabiting the limestone caves. Edible bird's nest has been used in Chinese cuisine mainly in the form of bird's nest soup since 1,200 years ago as it is believed to enhance energy levels, prevent aging, and improve overall well-being (Ma and Liu, 2012). Edible bird's nest has lethal dose (LD 50 ) cut off more than 5,000 mg/kg and is classified as category 5 or unclassified category of globally harmonized classification system (GHS), therefore it is safe to be taken by to humans (Haghani et al., 2016). ...
... Edible bird's nest has lethal dose (LD 50 ) cut off more than 5,000 mg/kg and is classified as category 5 or unclassified category of globally harmonized classification system (GHS), therefore it is safe to be taken by to humans (Haghani et al., 2016). Furthermore, there are scientific reports of its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, influenza virus inhibitory effect, hemagglutination-inhibitory activities, and bone-strengthening effects (Kong et al., 1987;Guo et al., 2006;Matsukawa et al., 2011;Ma and Liu, 2012;Vimala et al., 2012;Yida et al., 2014). In 2015, Yida et al. showed that edible bird's nest prevents high-fat diet-(HFD) induced insulin resistance in rats. ...
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Increased oxidative stress by hyperglycemia is a major cause of vascular complications in diabetes. Bird’s nest, which is made from the saliva of swiftlets has both medicinal and nutritional values dated back to ancient China. However, its role in improving endothelial dysfunction due to diabetes is yet to be elucidated. The present study examined the protective effect and mechanism of action of the aqueous extract of hydrolyzed edible bird nest (HBN) on endothelium in models of diabetes, in vitro and in vivo. Male db/m+ and db/db mice were orally administered with or without HBN and glibenclamide for 28 days, followed by vascular reactivity studies in mouse aortas. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and isolated mouse aorta from C57BL/6J were treated with high glucose (HG), HBN, sialic acid (SA), glibenclamide, and apocynin, respectively. The effects of HBN on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability were assessed by Western blot, 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate (DCF-DA), and 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′ difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM DA) in HUVECs, isolated mouse aorta, and db/db diabetic mice. HBN significantly reversed the endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice and isolated mouse aorta. HBN normalized ROS over-production of NOX2 and nitrotyrosine, reversed the reduction of anti-oxidant marker, SOD-1 as well as restored NO bioavailability in both HUVECs challenged with HG and in db/db diabetic mice. Similarly, HG-induced elevation of oxidative stress in HUVECs were reversed by SA, glibenclamide, and apocynin. This attests that HBN restores endothelial function and protects endothelial cells against oxidative damage induced by HG in HUVECs, isolated mouse aorta, and db/db diabetic mice via modulating ROS mechanism, which subsequently increases NO bioavailability. This result demonstrates the potential role of HBN in preserving endothelial function and management of micro- or macrovascular complications in diabetes.
... Edible bird's nest (EBN) is a well-known bioproduct made from the saliva secretion of swiftlet, specifically from the two genera of Aerodramus and Collocalia. The swiftlet from the two genera is mostly habitat in Southeast Asia [1,2]. The main constituents of EBN are proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and a group of minerals such as calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, and selenium [2][3][4][5]. ...
... The main constituents of EBN are proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and a group of minerals such as calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, and selenium [2][3][4][5]. EBN has been regarded as traditional Chinese medicine by the practitioners in Qing dynasty due to its recuperative properties [1,6]. The recuperative properties of EBN are highlighted with the effect of boosting immune system, treating malnutrition, improving metabolism, enhancing skin complexion and alleviating asthma, helping in phlegm clearance, relieving cough, nourishing children, libido raising, enhancing renal function, recovery from illness and surgery, as well as improving concentration [7]. ...
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Background and Aim: Edible bird's nest (EBN) is the nutrient-rich salivary bioproduct produced by swiftlets in Southeast Asia. Currently, researchers are exploring the therapeutic effects of EBN, such as cell growth promotion, antioxidant content, antiviral effects, bone strengthening, eyes care, and neuroprotection bioactivities. The therapeutic effects of EBN have been studied through different extraction methods but the metabolites profile of the EBN in each extract has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to profile the water-soluble metabolites of EBN prepared in different extraction methods. Subsequently, an extraction method will be selected as an ideal extraction method for untargeted metabolite profiling on the water-soluble metabolites in EBN. Materials and Methods: In this study, water-soluble metabolites of EBN extracted by the four extraction methods were subjected to metabolite profiling through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The extraction methods were acid extraction(ABN), pancreatic extraction (EzBN), eHMG extraction, and spray drying of HMG extraction (pHMG). The metabolite profiles, such as the number of metabolites and their identities in each extraction method, were evaluated through LC-MS analysis. Results: The identity of metabolites present in the four extraction methods is inconsistent. Based on LC-MS analysis, only one and six metabolites were extracted differently through EzBN and ABN, respectively, in the first pre-screening. Through the second LC-MS screening on pHMG and eHMG extraction methods, eHMG was selected as an ideal extraction method due to the highest numbers of water-soluble metabolites with an amount of 193 was detected. Besides, eHMG extraction method was able to extract sialic acid and a high percentage of secondary metabolites. Conclusion: This study suggests that eHMG is the ideal extraction method for extracting higher number of water-soluble metabolites from EBN and could be further developed as an extraction method for industry application. In addition, this study also has identified the types of primary and secondary metabolites present in EBN.
... Protein value is closely related to availability of good feeding environment and abundance of feed in the area (Huda et al. 2008). Protein is a major component in EBN accounting for 50-65% of dried weight EBN and it plays a key role in nutritious and pharmacological effects, and it also may have important biological functions (Ma and Liu 2012). It has been reported that protein in EBN, lactoferrin, and ovotransferrin attenuated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, and decreased radical oxygen species in human SH-SY5Y cells through increased scavenging activity (Hou et al. 2015). ...
... These carbohydrate values, however, were higher than those of EBNs from Malaysia (Perlis and Langkawi) and previous reports from Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, and Balikpapan), which were 8.5-16.4% (Hamzah et al. 2013). Carbohydrates in the EBNs were shown to be composed of 9% sialic acid, 7.2% galactosamine, 5.3% glucosamine, 16.9% galactose, and 0.7% fucose (Ma and Liu 2012). Similar to the protein content, the carbohydrate content of EBNs from WK was significantly different from that of other regions, however overall carbohydrate composition in this study was also in the range of carbohydrate content of EBNs from surrounding countries, perhaps due to similar climate and environment. ...
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Elfita L, Wientarsih I, Sajuthi D, Bachtiar I, Darusman HS. 2020. The diversity in nutritional profile of farmed edible bird’s nests from several regions in Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21: 2362-2368. Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is produced by certain swiftlet species mainly Aerodramus fuciphagus. This study aimed to compare the composition of proximate, nitrite, nitrate, amino acid and protein profiles of EBNs collected from different regions in Indonesia (West Sumatra, South Sumatra, West Java, West Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi, and Southeast Sulawesi). The results showed that the order of proximate composition was protein (53.09-56.25%) > carbohydrate (19.57-23.04%) > moisture (17.08-21.50%) > ash (5.44-6.25%) > fat (0.07-0.57%). Nitrite and nitrate contents were 3.11-18.28 ppm and 650.11-1051.06 ppm, respectively. Amino acid analysis found that EBNs contained 18 amino acids, composed of ten essential amino acids and eight non-essential amino acids. Aspartic acid content of EBNs from West Sumatra and West Kalimantan (4.21 and 3.27%, respectively) were much higher than the one found in other regions, which was on the range of 0.32-0.37%. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that majority of EBNs possessed seven protein bands with molecular weight range of 19.6 to 82.7 kDa. However, EBNs from West Sumatra and West Kalimantan showed abundant of protein with molecular weight of approximately 34.0 kDa. Thus, EBNs collected from different regions in Indonesia showed different nutritional profiles.
... Each EBN sample (0.5 g) was immersed in 50 mL distilled water and allowed to stand overnight (more than 15 hours) at 5 o C. This step ensured the content of sialic acid in the EBN can be removed by soaking in coldwater which may affect the performance of electrophoresis (Ma and Liu, 2012). Then, the extract was incubated at 80 o C in a shaker (Innovo 4080) for 5 hours. ...
... Our previous study (Hun et al., 2015), has successfully characterized protein content, 35.80 % (w/w). This result falls between the range 42 % -63 % (w/w) reported by Ma and Liu (2012). It is possible to use protein as the biomarkers for EBN (Chua et al., 2014). ...
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There is an urgent need to develop a rapid and robust approach to ensure traceability of the Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) products. The main composition of EBN is protein and it plays an important role in EBN. This study shows that there are significant differences in the protein profile of EBN collected from different states in Malaysia. The SDS-PAGE method is used to analyse the protein profile for 65 samples collected from 13 different states of Malaysia. SDS-PAGE gel image showed that all EBN samples analyzed have been well separated between protein bands. Data shows that protein band at 212 kD can only be detected in state P, while 135 kD can only be found in state M. EBN from other states have their unique combination of fingerprints that made them different from one to another. This research demonstrated the possibility of using SDS-PAGE pattern for identification and differentiation of the geographical origins of EBN produced in Malaysia. These findings are the first of its kind in EBN analysis.
... Recent alternative medicines have underscored the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory ability of edible bird's nest (EBN). EBN is one of the most valuable animal products eaten by humans, either for its therapeutic properties or as a delicacy in South East Asia [17,18] . It is formed naturally from salivary secretions of glutinous glycoprotein through the sublingual glands of swiftlets birds during their nesting and breeding season. ...
... The nest is built high on walls and the roofs of caves in the shape of a bowl over a period of 35 days. The solidified secretions enable the nest to carry the swiftlets and their eggs to remain attached to the wall during breeding season [17][18][19] . Researchers have investigated the therapeutic effects of EBN such as its anti-oxidative effect, anti-inflammatory effect, alleviation of osteoarthritis [20][21][22] , increased proliferation of the uterus, the enhancement of cell proliferation in corneal wound healing [23,24] and its antiviral effect [25,26] . ...
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Introduction. Alzheimer’s disease is marked by insufficient blood supply to the brain, leads to progressive loss of memory and cognitive skills. Continuous reduction of cerebral blood flow as a result of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species that may cause cognitive decline. Until now there is no available curative treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the only available option is symptomatic treatment. Recent alternative medicines have underscored the neuroprotective and antioxidant ability of the edible bird’s nest (EBN). The current study evaluates the effects of EBN on hippocampal neurons specifically in the CA1 hippocampal region by using chronic cerebral hypoperfusion- induced neurodegeneration in rat model. Methods. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2VO) in rats that triggers the neuroinflammatory processes. The rats were divided into 4 groups: Sham group, 2VO group, and two 2VO groups treated with 2 different doses (60,120 mg/kg) of EBN, which was administered daily by oral gavage. After 8 consecutive weeks, rats were euthanized and the hippocampi were examined histopathologically by counting the viable neuronal cells and the level of F2 Isoprostane in hipoocampal tissue was measured by ELISA. Results. A significant decrease in the neuronal cell death and significant decline in F2 Isoprostane level was shown in the group of rats treated with EBN. Conclusion. CCH, which was triggered by 2VO, causes reduction in viable neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. This damage could be ameliorated by administration of EBN, which exhibits a neuroprotective effect via increasing the viable neuronal cell count and decline in oxidative stress level. Our results underscored the possible effects of EBN in delaying the progression of dementia in AD patients if used early in the disease. It is safe supplement that could be used prophylactically for a long time.
... In rats, the acute pulmonary response to the inhalation of SO 2 was shown to involve tissue injury and acute neutrophilic lung inflammation (Wigenstam et al., 2016). Interestingly, traditional Chinese medicine believes that EBN can promote the secretion of saliva to nourish the lung (Ma et al., 2012). Indeed, increasing evidence shows that EBN has a significant effect on the treatment of respiratory diseases, such as dissolving phlegm, alleviating asthma, suppressing cough, curing tuberculosis, and combating influenza virus (Ma et al., 2012). ...
... Interestingly, traditional Chinese medicine believes that EBN can promote the secretion of saliva to nourish the lung (Ma et al., 2012). Indeed, increasing evidence shows that EBN has a significant effect on the treatment of respiratory diseases, such as dissolving phlegm, alleviating asthma, suppressing cough, curing tuberculosis, and combating influenza virus (Ma et al., 2012). Therefore, a hypothesis was raised that EBN could attenuate the lung injury induced by SO 2 in mice. ...
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The purpose was to investigate effect of edible bird's nest (EBN) on the immunological properties of mice with lung injury induced by sulfur dioxide (SO2). In mice, SO2 exposure caused symptoms that included a cough, tiredness, and weight loss. Administering EBN improved the immunological function of mice with lung injury in a dose‐dependent manner, leading to recovery of the lung tissue and increasing thymus and spleen indices. IL‐2 and IFN‐γ in the serum by Th1 cells in response to EBN played a leading role in cellular immune regulation. Moreover, a medium dose of EBN regulated the immune stress response, inhibited apoptosis of splenic lymphocytes, and promoted cellular immunity. EBN inhibited production of IL‐8 and MDA and upregulated mRNA expression of atrophin‐1 and cyclooxygenase‐2 in lung tissue. EBN attenuates the lung injury induced by SO2 in mice through a mechanism that involves the inhibition of inflammation and regulation of immunological balance. EBN attenuates the lung injury induced by SO2 in mice through a mechanism that involves the inhibition of inflammation and regulation of immunological balance.
... Recent alternative medicines have underscored the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory ability of edible bird's nest (EBN). EBN is one of the most valuable animal products eaten by humans, either for its therapeutic properties or as a delicacy in South East Asia [17,18] . It is formed naturally from salivary secretions of glutinous glycoprotein through the sublingual glands of swiftlets birds during their nesting and breeding season. ...
... The nest is built high on walls and the roofs of caves in the shape of a bowl over a period of 35 days. The solidified secretions enable the nest to carry the swiftlets and their eggs to remain attached to the wall during breeding season [17][18][19] . Researchers have investigated the therapeutic effects of EBN such as its anti-oxidative effect, anti-inflammatory effect, alleviation of osteoarthritis [20][21][22] , increased proliferation of the uterus, the enhancement of cell proliferation in corneal wound healing [23,24] and its antiviral effect [25,26] . ...
... China is the main importer of EBN driven by their belief in high medicinal benefits in EBN. Some of the benefits reportedly include improve respiratory and digestive problems [13] improve skin complexion, slow anti-aging and simulate epidermal growth [23], prevent influenza viruses [7], depress the production of tumour necrosis factor alpha [3], increase bone strength and skin thickness when administered with 100 mg/kg of bird's nest extract [20], and improve immune system or joints [17]. The consumption of EBN is tremendous in Southeast Asian region but according to [1], more than 50% of the global market has not been met. ...
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Domestic consumption of nutritional products and food supplements are on the rise. This is due to the fact that consumers have become more affluent and aware of their health. Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is used as a health supplement for medicinal benefits to improve health quality. However, issues such as contamination and counterfeit EBN have caused fluctuation of the product’s price over time and consumers are slowly shunning away from consuming EBN products. Marketing effort is a strategy tool often used to convince buying intention among consumers and therefore relieve the public’s anxiety. Presently, the extent of marketing mix that can convince consumers’ intention to purchase EBN products remains unknown. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the influence of marketing mix towards consumers’ intention to purchase EBN products. Principle component analysis and decision tree models were used to analyze the data. The performance of three decision tree models was compared based on accuracy and sensitivity rate. Result showed that all three models possessed similar accuracy rate (CART = 84.35%, C5.0 = 84.73%, QUEST = 83.08%), while C5.0 had the highest sensitivity (CART = 84.7%, C5.0 = 87.46%, QUEST = 85.59%). The important variables derived from C5.0 model are health conscious, gender, promotion, race, price, employment, and income. The outcomes from the present study through the performance prediction have provided informative profile of the consumers which will be useful to target potential consumers and to narrow down the market segment for the marketers’ benefit.
... The nutritional composition of EBN in order of amount includes protein, carbohydrate, ash, and lipid [32]. EBN has an esteemed nutritional value due to its water-soluble contents such as proteins, carbohydrates, iron, inorganic salts, and fiber [36]. Keeping with the composition of EBN, sialic acid also has some molecular mechanisms that cause cell proliferation. ...
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Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of edible bird's nest (EBN) supplement on the uteri of rats exposed to lead acetate (LA) toxicity. Materials and methods: Five treatment groups were established as follows: Group 1 (C), which was given distilled water; Group 2 (T0), which was administered with LA (10 mg/kg body weight [BW]); and Groups 3 (T1), 4 (T2), and 5 (T3), which were given LA (10 mg/kg BW) plus graded concentrations of 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg BW of EBN, respectively. Rats were euthanized at week 5 to collect blood for superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay, and uterus for histomorphological study and expression analyses of epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Results: Results revealed that LA causes destruction of uterine lining cells and necrosis of uterine glands of exposed rats without EBN supplement while the degree of damage decreased among EBN treated groups; T3 showed the highest ameliorating effect against LA toxicity, as well as an increased number of uterine glands. Increased levels of SOD were also achieved in EBN supplemented groups than the controls. Results of immunohistochemistry showed significantly higher expressions of EGF, VEGF, and PCNA levels (p<0.05) in T3 compared to other treatments. EBN maintained upregulation of antioxidant - reactive oxygen species balance. Conclusion: The findings showed that EBN could ameliorate the detrimental effects of LA toxicity on the uterus possibly by enhancing enzymatic antioxidant (SOD) activity as well as expressions of EGF, VEGF, and PCNA with cell proliferation roles.
... Swiftlet nests are commonly used as herbal medicine (Vimala et al. 2011;Roh et al. 2012;Zhang et al. 2012;Lee et al. 2019), including for maintaining health (Ma and Liu 2012;Careena et al. 2018) and as a supplement for the skin Manuscript received: 17 March 2020. Revision accepted: 17 June 2020. ...
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Mursidah, Lahjie AM, Masjaya, Rayadin Y, Ruslim Y. 2020. The ecology, productivity and economic of swiftlet (Aerodramus fuciphagus) farming in Kota Bangun, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 21: 3117-3126. Swiftlet nest is a high-value non-timber forest product produced from the saliva of swiftlet birds. While the demands for this commodity continue to increase in global market, careless harvesting techniques have diminished the swiftlet population and the production of swiftlet nests, threatening its sustainability. One effort to solve this problem is by developing swiftlet farming which involves building swiftlet. This research aimed to analyze the ecology, productivity, and financial feasibility of swiftlet farming of different-sized swiftlet houses in Kota Bangun Subdistrict, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. This research used qualitative and quantitative analysis methods. Data were collected using purposive sampling to determine the location, sample of swiftlet houses, and interviews with respondents. Quantitative analysis on the financial performance of swiftlet farming was analyzed using the net Benefit-Cost Ratio (net B/C), Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Payback Period (PP) methods. The results showed that swiftlet nest production in Kota Bangun begins in the third year and ends between 27 and 45 years later, depending on the age and size of the house as well as the quality of the timber. The swiftlet house with a size of 512 m 2 had the net B/C of 4.06, NPV of IDR 1,403.79 million, IRR of 30%, and PP of 5.44 years. The swiftlet house with a size of 1,600 m 2 had the net B/C of 2.27, NPV of IDR 1,774.83 million, IRR of 24.09%, and PP of 9.4 years. Our study suggests that swiftlet farming is financially highly feasible, especially for the swiftlet house with a size of 512 m 2 .
... It is a high-value, health improvement tonic ($1000-10,000/kg), which is popular in Southeast Asia. The abundant nutritional components of EBN, such as sialo-glycoprotein, amino acids, monosaccharides, lipids, sialic acid and mineral elements [3][4][5], stimulate the health-promoting functions such as antioxidation [6], anti-hypertension [7], antiviral activity [8], and * Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed. ...
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Edible bird's nest (EBN) is a high-value health-promoting tonic from swiftlets. However, cheap House-EBN is usually masqueraded as expensive Cave-EBN for profiteering. Efficient scientific means are required to trace Cave-EBN. After microwave digestion of EBN lyophilizing powder, its mineral element compositions were examined by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Influences of two key factors, production environment and country, on the distribution of 21 elements were analyzed. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) coupled with leave-one out cross validation was applied for modeling. Classifier generalization performance was assessed by the Confusion Matrix approach. ICP-MS identified the presence of 21 macro and micro elements with contributions of 99.65% and 0.35%, respectively. A two-way ANOVA established that B, Na, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Sr, and Cd were the production-environment-specific elements. Among four different combinations based on three potential variables (Ca, Na, and Sr), Na/Ca was identified as the best among them having 100% specificity on tracing Cave-EBN. In conclusion, EBN was a good mineral element source. The methodology of integration of ICP-MS with chemo-metrics proved to be a powerful tool for tracing Cave-EBN.
... As a matter of fact, the literature is rich in studies that have reported the pharmacological effects of EBN, including those related to neuroprotection [18,[20][21][22][23][24][25][26], and several reviews have outlined the pharmacological properties of EBN in several health conditions [27][28][29][30]. To the best of our knowledge, the literature lacks a systematic review on the neuroprotective activity of EBN. ...
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Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is constructed from saliva of swiftlets birds and consumed largely by Southeast and East Asians for its nutritional value and anti-aging properties. Although the neuroprotection of EBN in animals has been reported, there has not been yet systemically summarized. Thus, this review systemically outlined the evidence of the neuroprotective activity of EBN in modulating the cognitive functions of either healthy or with induced-cognitive dysfunction animals as compared to placebos. The related records from 2010 to 2020 were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and ScienceDirect using pre-specified keywords. The relevant records to the effect of EBN on cognition were selected according to the eligibility criteria and these studies underwent appraisal for the risk of bias. EBN improved the cognitive functions of induced-cognitive dysfunction and enhanced the cognitive performance of healthy animals as well as attenuated the neuroinflammations and neuro-oxidative stress in the hippocampus of these animals. Malaysian EBN could improve the cognitive functions of experimental animals as a treatment in induced cognitive dysfunction, a nutritional cognitive-enhancing agent in offspring and a prophylactic conservative effect on cognition against exposure to subsequent noxious cerebral accidents in a dose-depended manner through attenuating neuroinflammation and neuro-oxidative stress. This systemic review did not proceed meta-analysis.
... and protein (60-66%) (Zainab et al., 2013). Ma and Liu (2012) reported that the carbohydrates in EBN consist mostly of sialic acid (9.0%), galactosamine (7.2%), glucosamine (5.3%), galactose (16.9%) and fucose (0.7%). Studies have demonstrated high amount of sialic acid contributed to brain development and learning and memory enhancing ability (Wang and Brand-Miller, 2003;Careena et al., 2018). ...
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by both resistance to the action of insulin and defects in insulin secretion. Bird’s nest, which is derived from the saliva of swiftlets are well known to possess multiple health benefits dating back to Imperial China. However, it’s effect on diabetes mellitus and influence on the actions of insulin action remains to be investigated. In the present study, the effect of standardized aqueous extract of hydrolyzed edible bird nest (HBN) on metabolic characteristics and insulin signaling pathway in pancreas, liver and skeletal muscle of db/db, a type 2 diabetic mice model was investigated. Male db/db diabetic and its euglycemic control, C57BL/6J mice were administered HBN (75 and 150 mg/kg) or glibenclamide (1 mg/kg) orally for 28 days. Metabolic parameters were evaluated by measuring fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin signaling and activation of inflammatory pathways in liver, adipose, pancreas and muscle tissue were evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in the serum at the end of the treatment. The results showed that db/db mice treated with HBN significantly reversed the elevated fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, serum pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and the impaired OGTT without affecting the body weight of the mice in all groups. Furthermore, HBN treatment significantly ameliorated pathological changes and increased the protein expression of insulin, and glucose transporters in the pancreatic islets (GLUT-2), liver and skeletal muscle (GLUT-4). Likewise, the Western blots analysis denotes improved insulin signaling and antioxidant enzyme, decreased reactive oxygen species producing enzymes and inflammatory molecules in the liver and adipose tissues of HBN treated diabetic mice. These results suggest that HBN improves β-cell function and insulin signaling by attenuation of oxidative stress mediated chronic inflammation in the type 2 diabetic mice.
... Firstly, EBN was reported to have a positive proliferative effect in in vitro study (Aswir and Wan Nazaimoon, 2011;Abidin et al., 2011;Roh et al., 2012). Second, EBN was also reported containing a few male reproductive hormones such as FSH, LH, and testosterone (Ma and Liu, 2012a) and showed potential as an alternative treatment for erectile dysfunction (Ma et al., 2012). These EBN characteristics align with the current study objective and therefore becomes the reason for this selection interest. ...
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Children are vulnerable to the radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by Wi-Fi devices. Nevertheless, the severity of the Wi-Fi effect on their reproductive development has been sparsely available. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the Wi-Fi exposure on spermatogonia proliferation in the testis. This study also incorporated an approach to attenuate the effect of Wi-Fi by giving concurrent edible bird’s nest (EBN) supplementation. It was predicted that Wi-Fi exposure reduces spermatogonia proliferation while EBN supplementation protects against it. A total of 30 (N = 30) 3-week-old Sprague Dawley weanlings were divided equally into five groups; Control, Control EBN, Wi-Fi, Sham Wi-Fi, and Wi-Fi + EBN. 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi exposure and 250 mg/kg EBN supplementation were conducted for 14 weeks. Findings showed that the Wi-Fi group had decreased in spermatogonia mitosis status. However, the mRNA and protein expression of c-Kit-SCF showed no significant decrease. Instead, the reproductive hormone showed a reduction in FSH and LH serum levels. Of these, LH serum level was decreased significantly in the Wi-Fi group. Otherwise, supplementing the Wi-Fi + EBN group with 250 mg/kg EBN resulted in a significant increase in spermatogonia mitotic status. Even though EBN supplementation improved c-Kit-SCF mRNA and protein expression, the effects were insignificant. The improvement of spermatogonia mitosis appeared to be associated with a significant increase in blood FSH levels following EBN supplementation. In conclusion, the long-term Wi-Fi exposure from pre-pubertal to adult age reduces spermatogonia proliferation in the testis. On the other hand, EBN supplementation protects spermatogonia proliferation against Wi-Fi exposure.
... These were also reported in previous studies. [7,45,[58][59][60] The raw ESN's protein, carbohydrate, moisture, fat, and ash content were determined as one of the crucial procedures for the hydrolysis process. In which, the hydrolysis of ESN was performed based on the protein content in ESN. ...
... Edible-nest swiftlets is an edible birds nest (EBN), which contains protein, amino acids, and minerals (Jamaluddin et al. 2019;Zulkifli et al. 2019). Edible-nest swiftlets are beneficial to improve the human immune system and slow the aging process (Ma and Liu 2012;Wong 2013;Chan et al. 2015;Zhang et al. 2015;Chua and Zukefli 2016;Careena et al. 2018;Babji and Daud 2019;Daud et al. 2019). Meanwhile, under normal consumption of EBN glycoproteins, the undigested compounds of EBN glycopeptides can carry a prebiotic effect in the intestinal environment. ...
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Edible-nest swiftlets have many health benefits. The availability of edible-nest swiftlets from caves is decreasing, while the demand for edible-nest swiftlets is getting higher. Swiftlet farming is carried out to meet this demand. The location of swiftlet farming should be close to the feeding sources. Swiftlet is flying insectivorous animals. A financial feasibility assessment is carried out to determine the feasibility of the business. This study aims to determine the composition of land cover, determine the insect order of feed sources, and analyze the production and financial feasibility of swiftlet farming. The study was carried out from June to December 2019. The composition of land cover was determined using the supervised classification method, the order of insects was known using the insect determination key, while production and financial feasibility were analyzed using the Net B/C, NPV, IRR, and PP methods. The observed location and swiftlet farming were determined purposefully. The results of this study show that the land cover was dominated by shrubs (56.58%) and secondary forest (27.3%); both types of land cover are suitable for swiftlet farming locations. The dominant insects found in shrubs and wetland shrubs are Diptera (78.25%), in rice fields are Diptera (86.7%) and in oil palm plantations are Diptera (29.4%) and Hymenoptera (27.78%). Edible-nest swiftlets harvest begins in the third year, with a production period of between 17-34 years. From the financial feasibility, it can be concluded that swiftlet farming is feasible.
... Edible bird's nest (EBN) is a traditional health food in China, which is a nest formed by mixing saliva and feather of Swiftlets [1]. The global EBN production is mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia, such as Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, with Indonesia's EBN accounting for more than 80% of the world's EBN production [2]. ...
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Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is an unusual mucin glycoprotein. In China, it is popular among consumers due to its skin whitening activity. However, the relationship between protein, sialic acid, and the whitening activity of EBN after digestion is still unclear. In the present work, the whitening activity (antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory activity) of digested EBN were studied by HepG2 and B16 cell models. The dissolution rate of protein and sialic acid was 49.59% and 46.45% after the simulated digestion, respectively. The contents of free sialic acid and glycan sialic acid in EBN digesta were 17.82% and 12.24%, respectively. HepG2 cell experiment showed that the digested EBN had significant antioxidant activity, with EC50 of 1.84 mg/mL, and had a protective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative damage cells. The results of H2O2-induced oxidative damage showed that the cell survival rate increased from 40% to 57.37% when the concentration of digested EBN was 1 mg/mL. The results of the B16 cell experiment showed that the digested EBN had a significant inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity, and the EC50 value of tyrosinase activity was 7.22 mg/mL. Cell experiments showed that free sialic acid had stronger antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory activity than glycan sialic acid. The contribution rate analysis showed that protein component was the main antioxidant component in digestive products, and the contribution rate was 85.87%; free sialic acid was the main component that inhibited tyrosinase activity, accounting for 63.43%. The products of the complete digestion of EBN are suitable for the development of a new generation of whitening health products.
... EBN is a natural product composed of macro-nutrients such as protein and carbohydrates which are considered to be the major components (Ma and Liu, 2012;Marcone 2005). In addition, EBN contains other components including fat (< 2%) and trace amounts of minerals such as sodium and magnesium. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding different concentrations of edible bird’s nest (EBN) which is secreted by swiftlet birds (Aerodramus fuciphagus), into EquiPlus® and E-Z Mixin® extenders on the quality of chilled Arabian stallion semen at various storage times (0, 24 and 48 h). Ten ejaculates were collected from five stallions, and diluted using the two extenders containing 0% (control), 0.12%, 0.24% and 0.24% of EBN + seminal plasma (SP). All the diluted semen samples were then cooled and stored at 5 °C, and examined at 0, 24 and 48 h. Sperm kinetic parameters were assessed using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and viability were assessed using Hoechst33342/PI stain. In both extenders, total motility (TM) and progressive motility (PM) were significantly higher at 0.12% and 0.24% compared to 0.24% + SP at 24 and 48 h. At 0.12%, E-Z mixin® treated semen had significantly higher TM and PM than EquiPlus® at 24 and 48 h. At 0.12% and 0.24%, average path velocity (VAP), straight-line velocity (VSL) and curvilinear velocity (VCL) were significantly higher in E-Z mixin® treated semen compared to EquiPlus® at 24 and 48 h. Comparisons between the two extender types at different concentrations of EBN showed no significant difference in lateral head amplitude (ALH), linearity (LIN), straightness (STR), beat cross frequency (BCF) and viability, irrespective of the storage time. The percentage of viable was significantly higher in E-Z mixin® than EquiPlus® at 0 and 48 h in control and 0.12%. Supplementation of the E-Z mixin® extender with 0.12% and 0.24% EBN concentrations in the absence of SP provided better CASA parameters such as TM, PM, VAP, VSL, and VCL at 24 and 48 h storage time. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that chilled semen from Arabian stallion that was extended using E-Z mixin® and supplemented with 0.12% and 0.24% EBN concentrations performed better and yielded superior results in sperm kinetic parameters and % viable compared to EquiPlus® at 24 and 48 h storage time
... Protein, which is the main source of immunomodulatory activity (Gao et al., 2019), is the main component of EBN, accounting for about 60% of the total mass, followed by carbohydrates, ash, and lipids (Ma & Liu, 2012). Previous studies have suggested that EBN's healthprompting functions are tightly associated with its insoluble fraction since most of EBN water-soluble components are in fact discarded during soaking and washing before stewing (Fan et al., 2020;Huang et al., 2018;Kong et al., 2016). ...
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Dynamic high-pressure microfluidization (DHPM) has been demonstrated as an effective method to increase the solubility of proteins in water-insoluble fraction of edible bird's nests (EBNIP). Here, we further explored the effects of DHPM treatment on the physicochemical and digestive properties of EBNIP. The results showed that DHPM treatment led to the increases in fat absorption capacities, foaming properties, and emulsifying properties of EBNIP with decreased water-holding capacity being observed. This might result from the mechanical force during DHPM treatment can unfold the protein molecular chain, destroy the hydrogen bonds and inter-linkage between protein molecules. In addition, the EBNIP samples with DHPM treatment exhibited increased in vitro digestibility, the degree of hydrolysis and free sialic acid release in in vitro gastrointestinal digestion assay. In conclusion, DHPM could be applied as a novel and effective processing method to modify protein macromolecules in production of edible bird's nest (EBN)-related food.
... Animals supplemented with EBN showed protection against degenerative changes by exhibiting a significant increase in the number of surviving follicles & CL and a decrease in the number of atretic follicles. This effect of EBN might be due to its potential bioactive components; the nutritional composition of EBN is protein, carbohydrate, ash, and lipids (Ma & Liu, 2012), while sialic acid is the major carbohydrate component found in EBN (Daud et al., 2019). Sialic acid-containing gangliosides have been demonstrated to efficiently protect oocytes and embryos from ROS produced injury, which is one of the major mechanisms of Cd toxicity (Kim et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2019). ...
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Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, is often associated with the reproductive disorders of mammals. The edible bird’s nest (EBN) is a naturally occurring food product made from the saliva of swiftlet birds (Aerodramus fuciphagus & Aerodramus maximus) in the form of a nest, and it has been consumed as healthy food or tonic for decades. This research aimed to study the possible protective effects of EBN against Cd toxicity in ovaries of Sprague Dawley rats. Thirty (30) female Sprague Dawley rats were assigned into five groups as follows: group 1-Negative control (NC) received distilled water; group 2-positive control (PC) administered with CdCl2, 5mg/kg BW; while groups EBN 1, EBN 2, and EBN 3 received CdCl2 (5mg/kg BW) concurrently with graded concentrations of 60, 90 and 120 mg/kg BW of EBN, respectively. After four weeks of treatment, rats were euthanized to collect ovaries for histopathological studies using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. Expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed through immunohistochemistry, and levels of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were assessed using a SOD assay kit. Oral administration of CdCl2 without EBN supplement resulted in significantly decreased (p<0.05) immunohistochemical expressions of VEGF in ovarian tissue and a decrease (p<0.05) in the activity of SOD. Moreover, ovarian histopathological changes, including follicular cysts and a significant increase (p<0.05) in the number of atretic follicles, while a decrease in the number of growing follicles was noted in Cd only treated group. Animals treated with CdCl2 and EBN at three different dosages resulted in significantly increased (p<0.05) expressions of VEGF in ovarian tissues, low degenerative changes with normal histomorphology as well as significantly increased (p<0.05) SOD activity as compared to the PC group. Overall, the findings revealed that oral exposure to Cd at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW resulted in significant alterations in ovaries, as evidenced by a lower degree of VEGF expression along with reduced antioxidant activity and histomorphological changes. Meanwhile, EBN proved to exhibit a significant protective role against Cd toxicity in ovaries, possibly through its antioxidant effect.
... The market has seen an increase in demand for EBN products and this has resulted in the addiction of economic counterfeits in order to make a greater profit. Therefore, several economic substitutes-among others, pork skin, plant-exude, fish skin, gum karaya, algae or albumen-have been commonly utilized [108]. Several analytical techniques were proposed to authenticate and assure the quality of EBN, exploiting gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry, as well as a PCR-based method [109][110][111][112][113]. ...
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Cosmetics analysis represents a rapidly expanding field of analytical chemistry as new cosmetic formulations are increasingly in demand on the market and the ingredients required for their production are constantly evolving. Each country applies strict legislation regarding substances in the final product that must be prohibited or regulated. To verify the compliance of cosmetics with current regulations, official analytical methods are available to reveal and quantitatively determine the analytes of interest. However, since ingredients, and the lists of regulated/prohibited substances, rapidly change, dedicated analytical methods must be developed ad hoc to fulfill the new requirements. Research focuses on finding innovative techniques that allow a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive detection of the target analytes in cosmetics. Among the different methods proposed, immunological techniques are gaining interest, as they make it possible to carry out low-cost analyses on raw materials and finished products in a relatively short time. Indeed, immunoassays are based on the specific and selective antibody/antigen reaction, and they have been extensively applied for clinical diagnostic, alimentary quality control and environmental security purposes, and even for routine analysis. Since the complexity and variability of the matrices, as well as the great variety of compounds present in cosmetics, are analogous with those from food sources, immunological methods could also be applied successfully in this field. Indeed, this would provide a valid approach for the monitoring of industrial production chains even in developing countries, which are currently the greatest producers of cosmetics and the major exporters of raw materials. This review aims to highlight the immunological techniques proposed for cosmetics analysis, focusing on the detection of prohibited/regulated compounds, bacteria and toxins, and allergenic substances, and the identification of counterfeits.
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Edible bird’s nest (E-BN) or “Caviar of the East” is a premium and expensive cuisine well-known for the Chinese. It is saliva secreted from two specific swiftlets (Aerodramus maximus and Aerodramus fuciphagus). Two types of E-BN, namely house nests, and cave nests, are abundant in the South-East Asia region. The constituents, especially nitrate and nitrite, can be varied, depending on habitat, or feed available, etc. Protein (e.g., glycoprotein) is the major component of E-BN, followed by carbohydrates. Sialic acid is another essential constituent related to health promotion. E-BN is commonly utilized for the manufacturing of beverages or instant soup. E-BN in other forms such as capsules can serve as a supplement in the future due to its health promoting impact. In addition, the selected technology for quality improvement of E-BN especially from broken nests or flakes or other co-products is still required, while maintaining the eating quality to meet consumer’s demand. Thus, E-BN can be fully exploited and is still considered a valuable bird’s product with health benefits.
Conference Paper
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One major factor shaping the composition and physiology of colon microbiota is the availability of glycans, most of which cannot be digested by enzymes encoded in the human genome. Gut microbiota can digest the indigestible glycans and further produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which serve as nutrients for colonocytes and other gut epithelial cells. Mucus glycoproteins of swiftlet’s edible nest (genus Collocalia) are mainly constituted of sialic acid-rich O-glycosylproteins with numerous monosialyl and disialyl glycans. In this study, the glycans from edible bird nest (EBN) have been extracted from the native glycoprotein by reaction alkaline hydrolysis (beta-elimination). The extracted glycans was tested for its potential as prebiotic for the growth of beneficial bacteria in human colon. Results showed that the glycan of EBN can resist human stomach digestion, thus have a potential to act as prebiotic.
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Continuing polychromatic low-energy X-ray possesses a high linear energy transfer (LET) effect and correspondingly a high relative biological effect (RBE), which makes it a promising non-thermal processing method for food preservation. This study evaluated the efficacy of low-energy X-ray with cut-off energy of 150 KeV to inactivate two of the most prevalent foodborne pathogens in dry edible bird's nest (EBN). The X-ray irradiation at 350 and 400 Gy decreased E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium from 6.35 ± 0.56 and 5.84 ± 0.67 log CFU/g, respectively, to undetectable level. The low-energy X-ray irradiation yielded the tR1 value of 37.6 ± 6.9 and the D10 value of 83.3 ± 7.0 Gy for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium, respectively, which indicates that S. Typhimurium exhibited more resistant to low-energy X-ray irradiation than E. coli O157:H7. Based on dose distribution in 10 sacked pieces of EBN, two-sided irradiation can assure the uniformity of processing. As for the quality of processed EBN, while the irradiation increased the yellowness of EBN (p < 0.05), no sulfur-containing volatile compounds were detected in the irradiated samples. These results show that low-energy X-ray can serve as an effective method to inactivate foodborne pathogens in dry EBN.
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Edible bird's nest (EBN) swiftlet existed naturally 48,000 years ago in caves as their natural dwellings. Nowadays, edible bird's nest has become a very important industry due to its high nutritional, medicinal and economic value. Additionally, edible bird's nest has a long quality guarantee period. Obviously, the nutritional components and medicinal functions vary depending on geographical origins. Recently, the global demand for edible bird's nest has markedly increased, accompanied by the increasing attention of all key players of the global food trade system, i.e., producers, consumers, traders and the authorities to obtain safe and high-quality edible bird's nest. Hence, this target can be accomplished via the enforcement of an efficient and universal geo-tracing technique. Current methods of the geo-tracking of edible bird's nest, i.e., automation, physical and analytical techniques have several limitations and all of them fail to discriminate different quality grades of edible bird's nest. Meanwhile, in many studies and applications, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) has proven to be a “cutting edge” technique for greatly enhance food traceability from field to fork through its ability in distinguishing the food products in terms of their quality and safety. This article provides an overview of (1) edible bird's nest as a multiuse strategic food product, (2) quality issues associated with edible bird’s nest including implications that the site of acquisition of the edible bird’s nest has food safety implications, (3) current regulations and geo-tracking approaches to ensure the safety and quality of edible bird’s nest with the special focus on polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique as a vigorous and universal geo-tracing tool to be suggested for edible bird's nest geo-traceability.
Article
Edible bird's nest (EBN), for its great nutritional value, is widely used around the world, especially in China and Singapore. EBNs of different origins and types may vary in price and quality. Nowadays, except some whole bird’s nests of which origins can be roughly identified, others are difficult to identify morphologically. In this study, forty-two samples were collected from different regions for sequencing analysis and phylogenetic classification to initially determine their origins. Two stable enzyme digestion sites were found in the analysis of restriction maps of the species. Then, a quick and specific PCR-RFLP method was established to identify the EBN samples’ origins. The genetic identification results indicated that there were five origins in the forty-two samples. With the Af/g-486bp-F/R primer and restriction enzyme Taq I, Aerodramus fuciphagus (A. fuciphagus) was efficiently differentiated from other species. Furthermore, the cytb-592bp-F/R primer and the BamH I enzyme were found to be useful in distinguishing Aerodramus fuciphagus (A. fuciphagus) from its subspecies (Aerodramus germani, A. germani). The PCR-RFLP method provides a potential tool for rapid discrimination of A. fuciphagus on species and even the subspecies levels to ensure the quality of the EBN products.
Article
BACKGROUND Processing of edible bird's nest (EBN) required extensive washing to remove impurities and produces huge amount of EBN co‐products, which contained mainly of feathers with glycoproteins attached, which are usually discarded. This study was conducted to recover the valuable EBN glycoproteins from the waste material. Enzymatic hydrolysis was applied to recover EBN glycopeptides from EBN co‐products (EBNcoP) and processed cleaned EBN (EBNclean) as control, which were then freeze‐dried into EBN hydrolysates (EBNhclean and EBNhcoP). RESULTS The recovery yield for EBNhclean and EBNhcoP were 89.09±0.01% and 47.64±0.26%, respectively, indicating nearly 50% of glycopeptide can be recovered from the waste material. Meanwhile, N ‐acetylneuraminic acid, a major acid sugar in EBN glycoproteins, of EBNhcoP increased by 229% from 58.6±3.9 to 192.9±3.1 g kg‐1, indicating the enzymatic hydrolysis removed impurities and thus enhanced the N ‐acetylneuraminic acid content. Total soluble protein was more than 330 g kg‐1 for all the samples. Colour parameter showed that hydrolysate samples have greater L* (lightness) values. Chroma result indicates the intensity of all the samples were low (<11). FTIR spectrum displayed that the EBNhcoP exhibited similar functional groups with EBNhclean, indicating the EBNcoP has similar functionality as EBNclean. Significantly higher (p≤0.05) DPPH and FRAP activities were reported in EBNhcoP after the enzymatic reaction. CONCLUSION EBNhcoP were successfully recovered from low value EBNcoP with enhanced antioxidant activities. The findings of this work are beneficial for the EBN industry to reduce wastage and enhance economic values of EBN co‐products, both economically and nutritionally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Objective Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is a popular traditional tonic food in Chinese population for centuries. Malaysia is one of the main EBN suppliers in the world. This study aims to explore the best strategy to boost the antioxidant potential of EBN solution. Methods In this study, the raw EBN (4%, mass to volume ratio) was initially enzymatic hydrolyzed using papain enzyme to produce EBN hydrolysate (EBNH), then spray-dried into powdered form. Next, 4% (mass to volume ratio) of EBNH powder was dissolved in ginger extract (GE), mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and cinnamon twig extract (CTE) to detect the changes of antioxidant activities, respectively. Results Results obtained suggest that enzymatic hydrolysis significantly reduced the viscosity of 4% EBN solution from (68.12 ± 0.69) mPa.s to (7.84 ± 0.31) mPa.s. Besides, the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total soluble protein, DPPH scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were substantially increased following EBN hydrolysis using papain enzyme. In addition, fortification with GE, MLE and CTE had further improved the TPC, TFC, DPPH scavenging activity and FRAP of the EBNH solution. Among the samples, MLE-EBNH solution showed the most superior antioxidant potential at (86.39 ± 1.66)% of DPPH scavenging activity and (19.79 ± 2.96) mmol/L FeSO4 of FRAP. Conclusion This study proved that combined enzymatic hydrolysis and MLE fortification is the best strategy to produce EBN product with prominent in vitro antioxidant potential. This preliminary study provides new insight into the compatibility of EBN with different herbal extracts for future health food production.
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Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is reported to have a positive in vitro proliferative effect and contain male reproductive hormones. Spermatogonia cells proliferate during spermatogenesis under male reproductive hormones stimulation that include testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Characterization of EBN through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) has found testosterone as a base peak. Six types of amino acids, estradiol and sialic acid were among the major peaks that have been characterized. Based on the presence of these reproductive components, this study evaluated different doses of EBN on sperm parameters and male reproductive hormones of Sprague Dawley rats. Sixteen Sprague Dawley rats at the age of eight weeks were randomly and equally divided into four groups, which are Control, 10 mg/kg BW/d 50 mg/kg BW/d, and 250 mg/kg BW/d EBN group. The rats were fed with EBN enriched pellet daily and water ad-libitum. Rats were sacrificed and the organ was weighed for organ coefficients after eight weeks of treatment. Sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, and sperm viability were evaluated. Meanwhile, ELISA method was used to measure testosterone, FSH, and LH. Findings showed that there were no significant differences in organ coefficient between groups. Supplementation of 250 mg/kg BW/d EBN demonstrated a significant increase in sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility as well as FSH and LH level compared to 10 mg/kg BW/d group. There was a dose-dependent increase in testosterone level but was not significant between groups. Based on these findings, EBN is concluded to have crucial effects on male reproductive parameters.
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OBJECTIVES Proteins are the major component and play a key role in nutritious and therapeutic functions of edible bird’s nest (EBN); however, limited studies have been conducted on the protein due to difficulties in extraction, isolation as well as identification. This study aimed to provide comprehensive information for the quality evaluation of EBN peptides, which would be a valuable reference for further study on EBN proteins. METHODS Here, we developed a quality control method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peptide fingerprints deriving from EBN being digested with simulated gastric fluid. The characteristic peptide peaks were collected and identified by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS The characteristic peptide peaks, corresponding to the protein fragments of acidic mammalian chitinase-like, lysyl oxidase, and Mucin-5AC-like, were identified and quantified. Interestingly, the principal component analysis indicated that the fingerprints were able to discriminate colour of EBN (white/red) and production sites (cave/house) of White EBN on the same weight basis. As proposed by the model developed in this study, Muc-5AC-like and AMCase-like proteins were the markers with the highest discriminative power. CONCLUSIONS The overall findings suggest that HPLC peptide fingerprints were able to clearly demonstrate peptide profile differences between genuine and adulterated EBN samples; and classify EBN samples by its color and production site. In addition, the protein identification results suggested that Muc-5AC-like protein was the major protein in EBN.
Article
Sodium alginate (AG) solution at 1.0 g 100 mL⁻¹ in conjunction with different divalent cations (DC), cross-linking agents, namely 0.5 g 100 mL⁻¹ calcium chloride (0.5-AG-CC), 1.0 g 100 mL⁻¹ calcium lactate (1.0-AG-CL) and 1.0 g 100 mL⁻¹ magnesium chloride (1.0-AG-MG) was used for pretreatment of edible bird's nest (Edible-BN) flakes. Dry Edible-BN flakes after pretreatment showed an increase (p < 0.05) in moisture content with coincidentally increased water activity (aw), compared with the control sample (untreated). Surface images detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed mineralogical distribution throughout the sample as confirmed by EDX analysis. The higher weight loss was observed in control than pretreated counterparts as indicated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). All of Edible-BN beverages (Edible-BNB) produced from Edible-BN flakes pretreated with AG-DC and subjected to the harsh condition of the retort process (121 °C) contained the remaining flakes, whereas the control flakes were mostly solubilized or degraded. Therefore, flakes pretreated using AG-DC could withstand the thermal process, rendering the beverage containing flakes. After being digested by gastrointestinal tract model system (GIMs), the marked increases (p < 0.05) in antioxidant activity and α-amino group content of Edible-BNB were noticeable.
Article
The difference between the swiftlet white edible bird’s nest from limestone caves versus house‐farmed ones, especially in response to high temperature and stewing time in water where the latter type would disintegrate readily, has been a puzzle for a long time. We show that edible bird’s nests from the limestone caves have calcite deposits on the surface of the nest cement as compared to the house‐farmed nests which are built by swiftlets on timber planks. The micron and sub‐micron calcite particles are seen in SEM‐EDX and further characterized by ATR‐FTIR and Raman microspectroscopy. The calcite deposits make it possible for the cave nest to retain a gelatinous texture under the harsh retort conditions at 121°C for 20 mins in commercial bottling. We show that house‐farmed nests can be soaked in CaCl 2 (aq) followed by rinsing with Na 2 CO 3 (aq) to grow the same calcite deposits on the nest cement with the same characteristic as cave nests. Therefore, there should no longer be a need to harvest cave nests, and we can better conserve the dwindling population and natural habitats of cave swiftlets.
Article
In this study, water-insoluble fraction of edible birds' nest (EBN) was treated with dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM) under 40, 80, 120, and 160 MPa of pressure. The results displayed a remarkable pressure-related increase in protein solubility upon DHPM treatment. In addition, circular dichroism spectra also revealed that DHPM treatment induced conformational changes such as increase in α-helix and β-turn, whereas intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy showed that tryptophan residues were less exposed to solvent. Furthermore, the increased surface hydrophobicity accompanied by reduced particle size was observed in DHPM treated samples, which was in good agreement with results of atomic force microscopy analysis, showing de-aggregation of large proteins in EBN water-insoluble fraction. Hence, our study shows that DHPM treatment can solubilize proteins from EBN water-insoluble fraction, and is an alternative method to traditional stewing to release the functional ingredients from EBN insoluble fraction, which can be introduced into industrial EBN food processing.
Article
Protein hydrolysates (P-HS) from edible bird’s nest co-product prepared without and with ultrasound (US) pretreatment in combination with heating before hydrolysis using alcalase at different concentrations were characterized. US treatment of co-product in water at 60% amplitude for 20 min, followed by heating at 95 °C for 3 h was done before enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), yield and sialic acid (SL) content of P-HS samples were not different (p > 0.05) when 1 or 2% alcalase was used for hydrolysis. The highest protein content and lightness (L*) were observed in P-HS prepared from co-product subjected to US treatment (60% amplitude for 20 min) using 1% alcalase for hydrolysis. When antioxidant activities of dried P-HS were determined, P-HS from co-product subjected to US treatment had higher DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, ferrous reducing antioxidant power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity, compared to those prepared from non-US treated co-product. P-HS with higher DH contained greater amount of small peptides having MW lower than 1,883 Da. The P-HS produced under optimum condition had major essential amino acids (EA-A) including leucine, threonine, lysine and valine of 4.28, 3.53, 3.30 and 3.08%, respectively. Therefore, P-HS from co-product could serve as both nutrients and functional ingredients.
Article
Edible bird’s nests (Bnest) collected from house and cave of eight provinces in the southern part of Thailand were characterised. Bnest from different locations had differences in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and energy‐ dispersive X‐ray (EDX) spectroscopy patterns but there was no distinctive difference in protein patterns. Crystallinity values of cave‐Bnest from Phatthalung province (PL‐C) and house‐Bnest from Songkhla province (SK‐H) (38.79% and 35.52%, respectively) were higher than those of other samples. PL‐C and SK‐H samples had different thermal behaviours, as determined by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both samples were used for the production of Bnest beverage using the retort process (121 °C for 11 min). Colour, soluble solid content, drained weight, and sterility were determined in both beverages. Average L*‐value and soluble solid content of SK‐H were higher than those of PL‐C (P < 0.05). Higher a* and b*‐values and drained weight were found in the latter. However, aerobic/anaerobic mesophiles and thermophiles were not detected in both samples. The beverage containing PL‐C generally showed higher acceptability for all attributes, especially appearance, texture, and overall likeness (P < 0.05), than that with SK‐H. Therefore, the habitat, where bird’s nest was collected, had a marked influence on the characteristics of both dried nest and resulting sterilised bird’s nest beverages. House‐Bnest and cave‐Bnest collected from different locations in southern part of Thailand had different characteristics and qualities. The sterilized beverage containing the selected cave bird’s nest showed higher quality and acceptability than that with the selected house bird’s nest.
Article
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Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is the most prized health delicacy among the Chinese population in the world. Although some scientific characterization and its bioactivities have been studied and researched, no lights have been shed on its actual composition or mechanism. The aim of this review paper is to address the advances of EBN as a therapeutic animal bioproduct, challenges and future perspectives of research involving EBN. The methodology of this review primarily involved a thorough search from the literature undertaken on Web of Science (WoS) using the keyword “edible bird nest”. Other information were obtained from the field/market in Malaysia, one of the largest EBN-producing countries. This article collects and describes the publications related to EBN and its therapeutic with diverse functional values. EBN extracts display anti-aging effects, inhibition of influenza virus infection, alternative traditional medicine in athletes and cancer patients, corneal wound healing effects, stimulation of proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells, potentiate of mitogenic response, epidermal growth factor-like activities, enhancement of bone strength and dermal thickness, eye care, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. In-depth literature study based on scientific findings were carried out on EBN and its properties. More importantly, the future direction of EBN in research and development as health-promoting ingredients in food and the potential treatment of certain diseases have been outlined.
Article
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) hydrolysates have been proven to exhibit enhanced bioactivities. However, being a macromolecule, fractions with different molecular weights would have different properties and bioactivities. Hence, this research was aimed to determine the chemical properties and antioxidant activities of freeze-dried (EBNFD) and spray-dried EBN (EBNSD) hydrolysates fractionated using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Overall, two well-separated fractions were identified (EBNfFD1, EBNfFD2, EBNfSD1 and EBNfSD2). EBNFD demonstrated significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) peptide (3.6%), total carbohydrate (27.7%) and sialic acid (18.2%) contents than that of EBNSD. Similar trend was observed in low molecular weight fractionates (EBNfFD2 and EBNfSD2). Meanwhile, the first fractionates (EBNfFD1 and EBNfSD1) exhibited significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging activity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that all EBN fractionates have similar spectrum, except in the region of N—H (amide II) and C—H alkyl group. In conclusion, EBN fractionates with different molecular weights showed different chemical properties and antioxidant activities.
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Edible Bird Nest (EBN) is a bird made product and its one of the most expensive animal products consumed by human nowadays due to high nutritional values and medicinal properties. Market processed EBN found the presence of mites, fungal spores and feather strands using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Mite was the common cause of anaphylaxis. Indeed, mite are heat resistant and thus can elicit allergic reaction even the food has been cooked. Therefore, the enzyme technology is applied in the current study on EBN to remove most of the pathogen. The results obtained in this study were attributable to the fact that enzyme treatment EBN is added value product and safer for human consumption as compared to that of the market processed EBN.
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A marked decline in some swiftlet populations has been attributed to the harvesting of their nests which are prized in Chinese cuisine and traditional medicines. Documentation is provided on the history and volume of the trade.
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The abilities of some cave-nesting swiftlets to echolocate has traditionally been used to separate the genus Aerodramus, which includes echolocating species, from the genus Collocalia, thought to lack echolocation. Here we report the discovery of echolocation in a member of the latter genus, the pygmy swiftlet Collocalia troglodytes. We also present a well-supported molecular phylogeny for the swiftlets and their relatives based on DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, which we use to reconstruct the evolution of echolocation. Our data provide strong evidence that the swiftlets are a monophyletic group. This monophyly plus the presence of echolocation in C. troglodytes indicate that either (1) echolocation evolved much earlier in the swiftlets than previously thought and has since been lost in most Collocalia taxa, or (2) this ability evolved independently in Aerodramus and Collocalia. Based on our results, echolocation can no longer be considered a useful character for distinguishing these two genera.
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Due to the value of their nests, there is great pressure on the populations of black-nest swiftlets (Collocalia maximus) and white-nest swiftlets (Collocalia fuciphagus) in the Malaysian provinces of Sarawak and Sabah. The problems are particularly acute at Gunung Mulu National Park, in spite of a complete ban on collection there, and at Niah National Park, where every participant in a complex collection and trading system has an incentive to take more nests than permitted. More successful harvest systems function in Sabah''s Gomantong and Madai Caves. Recommendations for improved management of the nest harvest include addressing corruption, ensuring that local people with traditional rights to collect nests do not lose income to illegal immigrant labor and to traders, improving research and education about the swiftlets'' behavior and ecology, and moving value-added processing of the nests closer to the caves where they originate and to the people who collect them.
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Oral administration of edible bird's nest extract (EBNE) improved bone strength and calcium concentration in the femur of ovariectomized rats. Dermal thickness was also increased by EBNE supplementation, whereas EBNE administration did not affect the serum estradiol concentration. These results suggest that EBNE is effective for the improvement of bone loss and skin aging in postmenopause all women.
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Four hundred MHz 1H-NMR and 100 MHz 13C-NMR spectra of thirteen sialylated oligosaccharide-alditols isolated from hen ovomucin and swallow nests (Collocalia mucin) were studied. The resonance assignments were determined by combining multiple-relayed coherence-transfer chemical-shift-correlated spectroscopy (multiple-Relay-Cosy) and 1H/13C chemical-shift-correlated 2-D experiments.
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The mucus glycoproteins, the so-called nest-cementing substance, from the salivary gland of Chinese swiftlets (genus Collocalia) are mainly constituted of sialic acid-rich O-glycosylproteins. Alkaline reductive treatment of the crude material led to the release of some neutral and numerous monosialyl and disialyl oligosaccharides. These were fractionated by gel filtration, anion-exchange chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the monosialyl oligosaccharides were established by combination of sugar and methylation analysis, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, and electron impact-mass spectrometry after permethylation and 1H NMR spectroscopy (at 500 MHz). Typically, some of the monosialyl oligosaccharides appeared to possess the core structure Gal beta(1----3)[GlcNAc beta(1----6)]GalNAc alpha(1----3)GalNAc-ol. Moreover, the (1----6)-linked branch consisted of an unusual di- or trigalactosyl sequence, [Gal alpha(1----4)0-1Gal beta(1----4)Gal beta (1----4)GlcNAc beta(1----6). Thus, the most complex representatives of the monosialyl fraction from Collocalia mucin were found to be: (Formula: see text) The other compounds identified are partial structures thereof.
Article
OBJECTIVE: To determine the contents of four aldoses in edible bird's nest(EBN). METHODS: Firstly, the sample was hydrolyzed by 2 mol·L -1 HCl-methanol and neutralized by 2 mol·L-1 potassium hydroxide, then derivated by acetic anhydride in pyridine. Four aldoses were seperated completely using HP-5 capillary column and programablly increased temperature. RESULTS: The linear range of D-Mannose, D-Galactose, N-Acetyl-D-Galactosamine and N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine were 0.032 2-0.161, 0.316-1.58, 0.104-0.520 and 0.212-1.06 mg·L-1, respectively. The average recovery was 95.7%, 96.1%, 95.1% and 97.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: A validated GC method is established to determine four aldoses. The method is specific and sensitive.
Article
The five species of swiftlet known in Sarawak are the Giant Swiftlet, the White-bellied Swiftlet, the Mossy-nest Swiftlet, the Black-nest Swiftlet and the White- or Edible-nest Swiftlet. The distinguishing characters of each are described; only the last two species provide nests of commercial interest. There is a long history of exploitation of the nests of Black-nest and White-(Edible)-nest Swiftlets in Sarawak, with the first government regulations dating to the time of the second Rajah. Currently in force is the Miscellaneous Licenses Ordinance S 49 of 1963. An export duty of 10% is payable; but recent records from Customs do not show that any significant sums of duty are collected at Marudi or Miri, and evasion is suspected. Nevertheless, to the persons involved in the initial harvesting these nests represent a very considerable resource in relation to their rural-based economies. At present, in all nest-producing localities in Sarawak, harvested yields of nests have fallen far below previous levels, and the loss of potential income causes concern. The factors concerned are discussed. It is suggested that a major effort should be made to inform all persons with interests in the nest-rights of the relevant biological data. Stress is given to the importance of documentary evidence for useful monitoring of trends; modifications are suggested to the annual licence form. -from Author
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Six kinds of hormones in two types of edible bird's nests, the white nest built by Aerodramus fuciphagus and the black nest built by A. maximus, were detected for the first time. These six kinds of hormones are testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin. The ultrasonically assisted extraction methods, the optimal solvent used and the optimal ratio of of solvent to sample (v/w) were determined. The contents of each of these six kind of hormones were significantly different in the white and black nests as determined by full-automated microparticle chemiluminescent immunoassay. The determination of these hormones in the edible bird's nests may explain part of the effects of the edible bird's nest and may serve as an useful analytical technique for differentiating between white and black nest or the grades of the edible bird's nest products and it may be a useful method to determine adulteration.
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13C NMR studies of several N-acylneuraminic acid derivatives have been made. Spin-lattice relaxation times (NT1DD = ca. 0.3 s) indicate that the pyranose ring carbons undergo isotropic rotation and that C-7 and C-8, but not C-9, are isotropic with the ring. A model involving an intramolecular hydrogen bond network is supported by the relaxation data. It is shown that calculated values of T1DD for nonprotonated carbons agree closely with experiment. The isolation of N-acetylneuraminic acid from Oriental birds' nest substance is shown to be a convenient source of this compound.
Article
Chemical composition of the Enso mucoid of Shokuyo-Anatsubame(Collocalia fuciphaga)were investigated, in particular saccharides and amino acids. (1) It contained moisture 14.3, saccharides 27.5, N9.3, ash 4.8, Ca 0.693, P 0.004 and S 0.70%. (2) A fraction(F-Ia)1.9g was obtained from 10g of the material by extraction with boiling-water and fractionation with gel filtration. Its molecular weight was estimated to be 10000O-500000. The ratio of the content of saccharides (reducing saccharides)and that of proteins was 1:2.4 in F-Ia. (3) PPC revealed that the saccharide components of the fraction(F)consisted of galactose, mannose and fucose; the composition of which analyzed by GLC was 84.7, 10.5 and 4.8%, respectively. (4)Amino acid analysis showed that the fraction(F-Ia)conntained aspartic acid 11.7, serine 10.7, valine 10.2 and threonine 10.1%.
Article
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is a functional food constructed with swiftlets’ salivary glue. Counterfeit EBN products have been found in the market due to limited supply and high price of genuine EBN. In this article, a method for genetic identification of EBN was developed. The technique is based on sequence of cytochrome b gene in mitochondrial DNA. The sample sequences together with the sequences of swiftlets in GenBank were used to construct phylogenetic trees for genetic identification of samples. This method was applied to 11 EBN samples, one instant EBN soup product from Indonesia, and Huaiji EBN, a counterfeit EBN in some regions of China. Results showed that all the EBN samples and the instant EBN soup were from Aerodramus fuciphagus while the Huaiji EBN sample was from Apus nipalensis. This was consistent with identification based on morphology of the samples. Therefore, this method is a promising tool to identify the species of bird producing a given sample of EBN, and thus could be used to authenticate—that is, distinguish authentic from counterfeit—EBN.
Article
Une glycoprotéine a été purifiée par électrophorèse préparative en film liquide de l'extrait aqueux de « nids d'hirondelles(Collocalia). Cette glycoprotéine qui représente la fraction majeure des glycoprotéides de Collocalia, est homogène en électrophorèse en agarose mais légèrement polydispersée en ultracentrifugation (So20 w = 3,0). La partie glycannique de cette glycoprotéine se caractérise par sa richesse en galactose, glucosamine et galactosamine. Elle possède, d'autre part, des résidus d'acide sialique complètement libérés par les neuraminidases de Diplococcus pneumoniae et de Clostridium perfringens et qui, en chromatographie, se comportent essentiellement comme l'acide N-acétylneuraminique. La partie polypeptidique de cette glycoprotéine comprend principalement des résidus de sérine, thréonine et proline. Environ 40 p. cent des résidus d'acides aminés hydroxylés sont impliqués dans des liaisons glycanneprotéine alcali-labiles.
Article
1.1. Neuraminic acid-β-methylglycoside was prepared from the products obtained by methanolysis of edible bird nest substance (yield, 80%). The methylglycoside was converted to the corresponding methylester hydrochloride by methanolHCl treatment and crystallized from dioxan-light petroleum (yield, 50%). Its properties including mass spectrometry are described.2.2. A simple procedure for snythesis of N-[1-14C] acetylneuraminic acid and acetylneuraminic acid (yields, 75–85%) with high specific radioactivities from the methylester from neuraminic acid-β-methylglycoside and 1-14C- or 3H-labelled acetic anhydride in absolute methanol is described. By this acetylation in water-free solution up to 85% of the theoretically expected amount of radioactivity was found in the N-acetyl groups of neuraminic acid.
Article
N-Acetyl-mannosamin, N-Acetyl-glucosamin und 4.6-Benzyliden-N-acetylglucosamin kondensieren mit dem Kaliumsalz des Oxalessigsäure-di-tert.-butylesters zu Lactonen, die durch Erhitzen mit Wasser in Lactaminsäure-γ-lacton übergehen. Aus 22.1 g N-Acetyl-glucosamin sind über die Benzyliden-Verbindung 6.0 g reine Lactaminsäure (N-Acetyl-neuraminsäure) erhältlich. – Auf die Bildung epimerer Verbindungen wird an Hand chromatographischer Beobachtungen eingegangen.
Article
The influence of nest harvesting upon nest construction and egg-laying was studied in the White-nest Swiftlet Aerodramus fuciphagus and the Black-nest Swiftlet A. maximus in Singapore. A study of nestling energetics allowed an estimate to be made of adult foraging abilities. The energy and nutrients required for nest construction are easily acquired by foraging but the females may face a shortage of energy or depletion of stored lipids during egg formation. Removal of nests did not affect the size or quality of replacement nests or clutches, but may aggravate the lipid shortage. Nest removal did reduce breeding success in replacement nests and, in the White-nest Swiftlet, disturbance to the colony resulted in an increased laying interval between first and second eggs. Our results indicated that commercially exploited colonies should be left unharvested for the middle part of the breeding season to allow a period of successful reproduction.
Article
The N-linked asialo carbohydrate, released by digestion treatment of the glycoprotein of the edible bird's nest of Collocalia fuciphaga, was identified as l-asparagine-linked fucose-containing triantennary oligosaccharide, composed of Galβ1→4GlcNAcβ1→4(Galβ1→4GlcNAcβ1→2)Manα1→3(Galβ1→4GlcNAcβ1→2Manα1→6)Manβ1→4GlcNAcβ1→4(Fucα1→6)GlcNAcβ1, on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods, in addition to GLC and HPLC analyses on achiral columns. Keywords: Collocalia fuciphaga; edible bird's nest; nest-cementing substance; pronase digestion; desialylation; N-linked fucose-containing triantennary oligosaccharide
Article
Six collections of adult Collocalio maxima Hume, including both sexes, were taken at the nest sites in Niah cave, Sarawak (113° 46' E. 60' N). Changes in the gonads and accessory reproductive organs of these specimens indicate a prolonged breeding season of eight months, September to April annually, after which the gonads regress to nonbreeding condition. The moult is also a seasonal event, but the progress of moulting in individual birds is not directly related to breeding condition. The sublingual glands of a fledgling and of certain adults were minute and nonsecretory. It is concluded that the secretion of these glands has no digestive function, but is related solely to periodic nest building. No correlation is found between the reproductive state of individual birds and activity in the sublingual glands. Some females in breeding condition had totally inactive sublingual glands, whereas all males in breeding condition had active sublingual glands. It is suggested that these glands may be responsive to teaticular hormone. The most important external environmental factor controlling the activity of the sublingual glands appears to be the presence or absence of the nest itself.
Article
Edible bird's nest (EBN) as a special kind of food tonic has been highly esteemed in Chinese cuisine and medicinal culture. Particularly with the discovery of its healthy function by modern science, consumption of EBN food gained greater popularity within Chinese community and outside. Authentication of this precious and expensive food material became an urgent task facing the increasing occurrence of adulteration in the market. Herein we reported the combination of DNA based PCR and protein based two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) methods for rapid and reliable identification of genuine EBN product. Fourteen EBN samples from different countries were studied. PCR method was proved to be able to differentiate EBN and the other biological materials and it could detect EBN ingredient from 0.5% EBN/Tremella fungus mixture. 2DGE method was proved to be feasible and versatile in EBN identification because of the simple and unique protein pattern of EBN. The method could detect 10% Tremella fungus from EBN.