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Bioactive compounds in functional buckwheat food

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Abstract

Buckwheat is an ancient dicotyledonous crop belonging to Polygonaceae family. It is cultivated and adapted to marginal lands with harsh environments. Buckwheat has been praised as one of the most faddish green functional foods. Many functional foods including tea made from buckwheat have been put into production around the globe. The buckwheat proteins are particularly rich in lysine and contain less glumatic acid and proline, and more arginine and aspartic acid than cereal proteins. Buckwheat proteins also show a strong supplemental effect with other proteins to improve the dietary amino acid balance with special biological activities of cholesterol-lowering effects, antihypertensition effects, and improving the constipation and obesity conditions by acting in a similar way as dietary fiber and interrupting the in vivo metabolisms. Besides its high-quality proteins, buckwheat is also rich in many rare components that have healing effects on some chronic diseases. Among these components, the most attractive ones are flavones, flavonoids, phytosterols, d-chiro-Inositol, and myo-inositol. In this review we focus on buckwheat's general physical and chemical properties, rare components, functional effects, metabolic engineering of bioactive compounds and trends in the development of functional tea from buckwheat in the latest three years.

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... It is made available under a The copyright holder for this preprint this version posted . . https://doi.org/10.1101 5 amounts of all essential amino acids such as lysine, arginine and aspartic acid makes it unique and superior protein sources as well from other cereals (Zhang et al., 2012). Buckwheat consist of some important bioactive compounds that can play an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive role due to the presence of flavones, flavonoids, phytosterols and myo-inositol (Zhang et al., 2012). ...
... https://doi.org/10.1101 5 amounts of all essential amino acids such as lysine, arginine and aspartic acid makes it unique and superior protein sources as well from other cereals (Zhang et al., 2012). Buckwheat consist of some important bioactive compounds that can play an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive role due to the presence of flavones, flavonoids, phytosterols and myo-inositol (Zhang et al., 2012). ...
... Our current findings, recommended that phytogenic feed additives BW and HW extracts might be an alternative solution to synthetic antibiotics. In various study, it has been noticed that BW has the potentiality to use as an alternative to antibiotics due to the presence of pharmacologically active constituents such as flavones, flavonoids, phytosterols, tocopherols, inositol phosphates, rutin and myo-inositol (Zhang et al., 2012). Pharmacological compound rutin is the most prominent in buckwheat, and is reported to improve immunity (Sayed et al., 2015). ...
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The study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of honeyweed (HW) and buckwheat (BW) supplemented diets on the growth, feed intake, serum lipid profile and blood parameters in broiler chicks. One hundred fifty (150) day old chicks (Cobb-500) were divided into five groups viz. T1 (Commercial control, CC), T2 (FF+10% BW), T3 (FF+10% BW +5% (w/v) HW powder), T4 (FF+10% BW +10% (w/v) HW powder), T5 (FF+10% BW +15% (w/v) HW powder) in complete randomized design with five (5) replications, each of which contain six (6) birds. The CC feed and the FF with HW and BW supplemented diet fed on broiler for 30 days. At the end of the study, the body weight gain, FCR and mortality rate were calculated. It was found that T3 (FF+10% BW +5% (w/v) HW powder) diet significantly (p <0.05) showed the good FCR, mortality rate and body weight gain. Interestingly, T3 decreased the serum cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) and improves blood parameters significantly (p < 0.05). Our results suggested that this newly formulated feed T3 (FF+10% BW +5% (w/v) HW powder) could be considered as an alternative natural feed additive to hazardous synthetic antibiotics.
... The amount of protein in buckwheat is about 12% and is therefore similar to the protein content in wheat (Zhang, Zhou, Tang, Li, Tang, Shao, … Wu, 2012). Buckwheat protein has balanced amino acids and a high level of lysine, arginine in its aminoacid content delivering quality nutritional value (Sun et al., 2018). ...
... Buckwheat protein has balanced amino acids and a high level of lysine, arginine in its aminoacid content delivering quality nutritional value (Sun et al., 2018). It has been reported that buckwheat protein has many unique physiological functions such as curing chronic diseases, lowering blood cholesterol, inhibiting breast cancer caused by 7,12-dimethylbenzene and gallstone inhibitor (Zhang, Zhou, Tang, Li, Tang, Shao, … Wu, 2012). ...
... The raw fibre concentration of buckwheat is very high, 12.7-17.8% (Zhang, Zhou, Tang, Li, Tang, Shao, … Wu, 2012). Dietary fibre contributes to physiological functions such as cholesterol and fat-stripping, reduction of blood glucose levels, prevention of constipation and regulation of colonic health (Zhu, Du, Li, & Li, 2014). ...
Chapter
Humans meet their nutritional requirements by consuming food, and our body uses naturally sufficient amounts of all necessary nutrients to maintain its functioning. Proteins form the basis of the human diet because they are necessary for immune responses, cell signals, muscle masses, and the repair of damaged cells. Animal and plant food products are the main protein sources in the human diet. Based on scientific evidence, proteins derived from animals recently started to be replaced by plant-based options as prefered proteins for a range of reasons. Consumption of non-meat protein sources being shown to be healthy and environmentally friendly is a major consideration. Plant-based protein is helping minimize high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, certain types of cancer, including colorectal, ovarian, and breast cancers, and a diet based on non-animal proteins could increase life expectancy and decrease greenhouse gases emissions from livestock as less resources are used for plant production. The chapter describes the nutritional benefits and current uses of nine non-animal protein sources and the health benefits arising from replacing animal protein.
... F. tataricum Gaertn is a bitter species that is widely consumed in Asia. Russia and China produce more than 75% of buckwheat globally (FAO, 2017;Zhang et al., 2012). Bioactive compounds, including flavonoids, vitamins, isoprenoids, imino sugars, inositol, and proteins, have been reported in buckwheat (Zhang et al., 2012). ...
... Russia and China produce more than 75% of buckwheat globally (FAO, 2017;Zhang et al., 2012). Bioactive compounds, including flavonoids, vitamins, isoprenoids, imino sugars, inositol, and proteins, have been reported in buckwheat (Zhang et al., 2012). As a result, its consumption appears to provide a wide range of health benefits, including reducing plasma cholesterol levels and eliciting neuroprotective, antihypertensive, antiinflammatory, anticancer, and antidiabetic effects (Gimenez-Bastida & Zielinski, 2015;Lee, Hsu, Shen, Cheng, & Wu, 2012;Lee et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Rutin and rutin-rich buckwheat are commonly used as alternative medicines due to their wide range of health benefits. The present study aims to investigate their anti-diabetes effects and the association with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. A murine model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), induced by a high-fat diet combined with streptozocin injection, was utilized. T2D mice were fed 3% buckwheat, 10% buckwheat, or 0.1% rutin as part of their diet for 4 weeks. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 assays, secretin tumor cell line (STC-1) cells, and GLP-1 receptor-knockout mice were employed for mechanistic studies. Dietary consumption of 10% buckwheat and 0.1% rutin provided beneficial outcomes including lowering blood glucose levels and HbA1c, enhancing HOMA-B%, improving glucose tolerance and pyruvate tolerance. Serum GLP-1, ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were also increased at the end of the treatment. Increased GLP-1 levels and the improvement of β-cell function were closely associated with the blood glucose-lowering effects observed. Hypoglycemic effects of buckwheat and rutin supplement were abolished in diabetic GLP-1 receptor knockout mice. In conclusion, rutin and related herbal materials are expected to provide health benefits due to their ability to modulate endogenous GLP-1 levels in T2D mice.
... It contains a small amount of protein relatively 3%-4% that too is not easily digestible by the body due to the presence of certain anti-nutrients that makes it slow digestible, but the main crucial substances present in buckwheat are flavonoids, phytosterols, fagopyritols, fagopyrins and polyphenols like rutin, catechin aids importance to diet. The role of fagocyritols in the human body is reducing the level of cholesterol with decreased risk of coronary heart disease and also lowers the risk of cancer (Holasova et al., 2002;Ikeda, 2002;Zhang et al., 2012) [27,29] . ...
... It contains a small amount of protein relatively 3%-4% that too is not easily digestible by the body due to the presence of certain anti-nutrients that makes it slow digestible, but the main crucial substances present in buckwheat are flavonoids, phytosterols, fagopyritols, fagopyrins and polyphenols like rutin, catechin aids importance to diet. The role of fagocyritols in the human body is reducing the level of cholesterol with decreased risk of coronary heart disease and also lowers the risk of cancer (Holasova et al., 2002;Ikeda, 2002;Zhang et al., 2012) [27,29] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Cereals are the major source of energy to good health over the world. The major and minor cereals are consumed either processed and semi processed with addition of other food ingredients. The cereals contains nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins, fat and some of cereals having good amount of dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble). Some cereals especially colored rice, colored wheat, colored maize and some millets having the functional bioactive components such as polyphenols, tocopherol, orzyzenol (antioxidants) and vitamins these cereals having functional properties and ultimately fight against diseases and prevent or control the some disease in body i.e. cardiovascular risk, reduces the risk of cancer, type-2 diabetes, hypertension, high blood pressure etc. The cereal is consumed with pulses and fulfils the requirements essentials amino acid and its availability. Functional foods are consumed around the world; each functional food has its significance unique properties like taste, aroma, texture, consistency and flavour. The food may be consumed fermented while some are non-fermented. Fermented cereals are increasing the vitamins B complex and some other nutrients.
... Buckwheat is а pseudo-cereal from the Polygonaceae family, and as a multipurpose plant, it is recognized as an essential functional food [1]. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a reliable and high-yielding honey plant [2]. ...
... Buckwheat is a good source of nutrients and bioactive compounds [1,2] which are significantly responsible for the antioxidant activity it possesses. High content of rutin was noted in all parts of buckwheat [10][11][12][13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A focus of research in recent years is the comparison of honey as the final product of bees with pollen and nectar of the plant from which the honey originates, as the main food source for bees. Buckwheat honey is recognized as a nutritionally valuable product, which provides a scientifically proven health benefit and is confirmed as a functional food. The quality of this type of honey is attributed to high levels of phytochemicals in buckwheat. The purpose of this study was the examination of similarity between buckwheat honey and buckwheat nectar and pollen, as well as simultaneous investigation of their chemical profiles and the origin of the honey. The phenolic profile of buckwheat pollen showed a lower number of flavonoids and phenolic acids than those of nectar and honey samples, but confirmed the presence of the most characteristic polyphenols derived from the buckwheat plant. The notable difference was found to be the presence of (epi)catechin units, its galloylated derivatives and procyanidin dimers, which were not present in honey. Honey polyphenols displayed a pronounced correlation with those of nectar, but not with those of pollen. Finally, by comparing the polyphenolic profiles of honey, nectar and pollen sharing the same geographical origin, new data could be provided for a potential assessment of the botanical origin of buckwheat honey.
... TBW sprouts have been known to contain higher bioactive compounds than CBW sprouts (Kim et al., 2008). In comparison to BW seeds, BW sprouts are rich in flavonoids, particularly rutin, along with orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin and quercetrin (Kim et al., 2008;Kim, Kim, & Park, 2004;Lim et al., 2012;Liu et al., 2008), which are being invested on their various health-promoting benefits such as vasodepressor, vasorelaxant, antibacterial, antioxidant and antihypertensive properties (Zhang et al., 2012). In addition, BW sprouts also contain proteins with hypocholesterolemic and hypotensive effects (Chen, Jiao & Ma, 2008). ...
... In this regard, BW sprouts have been considered as a rich source of Vit-B1, B2, B6, C and E (Kim, Kim, & Park, 2004;Zhang et al., 2012). Generally, TBW contains higher concentrations of Vit-B (Bonafaccia, Gambelli, Fabjan, & Kreft, 2003) and tocopherol (Kim, Kim & Park, 2002) than CBW. ...
Article
Buckwheat sprouts are rich in several nutrients such as antioxidant flavonoids that have a positive impact on human health. Although there are several studies reported the positive impact of laser light on crop plants, no studies have applied laser light to enhance the nutritive values of buckwheat sprouts. Herein, the contents of health-promoting minerals, metabolites and enzymes as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were determined in laser-treated (He–Ne laser, 632 nm, 5 mW) common buckwheat (CBW) and tartary buckwheat (TBW) sprouts. Out of 49 targeted minerals, vitamins, pigments and antioxidants, more than 35 parameters were significantly increased in CBW and/or TBW sprouts by laser light treatment. Also, laser light boosted the antioxidant capacity and the anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 and lipoxygenase activities, particularly in TBW sprouts. Accordingly, laser light could be recommended as a promising method to improve the nutritional and health-promoting values of buckwheat sprouts.
... In addition, buckwheat consumption and cultivation have been increasingly emphasized due to its healing effects and nutritional value. Buckwheat plants and groats are rich in flavonoids such as rutin, orientin, vitexin, quercetin, isovitexin, and isoorientin [6][7][8]. Its balanced amino acid content and richness in both lysine and arginine results in a high nutritional value for buckwheat in comparison with other crops [7,8]. ...
... Buckwheat plants and groats are rich in flavonoids such as rutin, orientin, vitexin, quercetin, isovitexin, and isoorientin [6][7][8]. Its balanced amino acid content and richness in both lysine and arginine results in a high nutritional value for buckwheat in comparison with other crops [7,8]. Therefore, there is a need for buckwheat resources to be collected for further development and utilization. ...
Article
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Buckwheat is a promising pseudo cereal and its cultivation history can be traced back to thousands of years ago in China. Nowadays, buckwheat is not only an ordinary crop but also a symbol of healthy life because of its rich nutritional and pharmacological properties. In this research, the current suitable areas of 19 wild buckwheat species were analyzed by the MaxEnt model, which proved that southwestern China was the diversity center of buckwheat. Their morphological characteristics and geographical distribution were analyzed for the first time. In addition, it was found that the change of buckwheat cultivation in three periods might be related to the green revolution of main crops and national policies. Meanwhile, the Sustainable Yield Index (SYI) value of buckwheat in China was the lowest from 1959 to 2016. Through the MaxEnt model, the potentially suitable areas of wild buckwheat would contract while cultivated buckwheat would expand under climate change. Accordingly, the diversity of wild buckwheat will decrease. Therefore, it is necessary to protect buckwheat resources as much as possible to strengthen the development and utilization of buckwheat resources. Moreover, the promotion of buckwheat diversity will be an important trade-off between food security, population growth, and land use under climate change.
... Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a dicotyledonous pseudocereal belonging to the Polygonaceae family that is grown and consumed all over the world as a functional food (Zhang et al., 2012). Common millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is a drought-resistant monocotyledonous crop grown especially in Asia but also in parts of Europe; however, recently it has become an important Abbreviations: DM, dry matter; HMR, (-)-7-hydroxymatairesinol; CLAR, (+)-isolariciresinol; LAR, (+)-lariciresinol; SEC, (-)-secoisolariciresinol; CONI, (-)-α-conidendrin; PIN, (+)-pinoresinol; MR, (-)-matairesinol; SYR, (+)-syringaresinol; EL, (-)-enterolactone; SDG, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside; PHYL, phyllanthin; PODO, podophyllotoxin; ARC, (-)-arctigenin; SES, sesamin; ASAR, (-)-asarinin; MR-D6, matairesinol-D6; TODA, todolactol A; ASEC, anhydro-secoisolariciresinol; ED, (-)-enterodiol; OMR, 7-oxomatairesinol; 7-OH-SECO, 7-hydroxy-secoisolariciresinol; iso-HMR, iso-hydroxymatairesinol; OEL, 7-oxo-enterolactone; didemethylated MR, 4,4 ′ -dihydroxyenterolactone; HEL, 7-hydroxyenterolactone; NTG, nortrachelogenin; PHYN, phillygenin; MED, medioresinol; TRACH, trachelogenin. ...
... All three crops have specific qualitative characteristics (the protein complex does not contain gluten-forming proteins; the presence of flavones, flavonoids, a rich source of starch, trace elements, or dietary fiber) that are important for human food, the reduction of negative effects of stress, allergy, and chronic diseases (cholesterol-lowering effects, antihypertension effects, decreased injury to the liver, positive effect on the digestive tract, obesity, diabetes, etc.) (Bárta et al., 2004;Kalinová, 2007;Kalinová and Dadáková, 2006;Kalinová and Moudrý, 2006;Zhang et al., 2012). ...
Article
The distribution of lignans within common millet, common buckwheat, tartary buckwheat, and amaranth plants, as well as any differences of their contents within their different varieties and samples from different growing seasons, were determined by LC-MS analyses. Roots were the plant part highest in the total amount of lignans in common buckwheat, tartary buckwheat, and common millet; which is in contrast to amaranth, where the stems were the richest part. The roots of tartary buckwheat contained five times more total lignans than amaranth stems or common buckwheat roots. The dominant lignan in tartary buckwheat roots was 7-hydroxymatairesinol; in amaranth stems and the roots of common buckwheat it was syringaresinol; and in the roots of common millet it was 7′- oxomatairesinol. The lignin content in the roots, stems, and eventually leaves were significantly influenced by the growing season. In the case of common millet and common buckwheat, differences in lignan levels due to varietal differences were confirmed.
... It contains a small amount of protein relatively 3%-4% that too is not easily digestible by the body due to the presence of certain anti-nutrients that makes it slow digestible, but the main crucial substances present in buckwheat are flavonoids, phytosterols, fagopyritols, fagopyrins and polyphenols like rutin, catechin aids importance to diet. The role of fagocyritols in the human body is reducing the level of cholesterol with decreased risk of coronary heart disease and also lowers the risk of cancer (Holasova et al., 2002;Ikeda, 2002;Zhang et al., 2012) [27,29] . ...
... It contains a small amount of protein relatively 3%-4% that too is not easily digestible by the body due to the presence of certain anti-nutrients that makes it slow digestible, but the main crucial substances present in buckwheat are flavonoids, phytosterols, fagopyritols, fagopyrins and polyphenols like rutin, catechin aids importance to diet. The role of fagocyritols in the human body is reducing the level of cholesterol with decreased risk of coronary heart disease and also lowers the risk of cancer (Holasova et al., 2002;Ikeda, 2002;Zhang et al., 2012) [27,29] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Cereals are the major source of energy to good health over the world. The major and minor cereals are consumed either processed and semi processed with addition of other food ingredients. The cereals contains nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins, fat and some of cereals having good amount of dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble). Some cereals especially colored rice, colored wheat, colored maize and some millets having the functional bioactive components such as polyphenols, tocopherol, orzyzenol (antioxidants) and vitamins these cereals having functional properties and ultimately fight against diseases and prevent or control the some disease in body i.e. cardiovascular risk, reduces the risk of cancer, type-2 diabetes, hypertension, high blood pressure etc. The cereal is consumed with pulses and fulfils the requirements essentials amino acid and its availability. Functional foods are consumed around the world; each functional food has its significance unique properties like taste, aroma, texture, consistency and flavour. The food may be consumed fermented while some are non-fermented. Fermented cereals are increasing the vitamins B complex and some other nutrients.
... It is being cultivated and consumed around the globe, because of having valuable nutraceutical, functional and mineral value. It is also known to possess proteins of high quality and active principles of rare forms including phenols, flavonoids and phytosterols, besides having known anti-oxidative properties that could be used for the prevention of chronic diseases [13,35]. Buckwheat potentially holds commercial importance by providing a great food value due to its high starch content, macro-and micro-nutrients, amino acids, especially lysine and methionine [13,31]. ...
Article
Buckwheat is an important pseudocereal crop from Polygonaceae family known to promote agricultural sustainability as it grows in a wide range of environments and possesses well-balanced amino acid and nutritional composition. An investigation was conducted to assess morphological variation, trait association and genetic diversity within and among the 36 accessions of two buckwheat species (18 of Fagopyrum esculentum and 18 of F. sagittatum) collected from different agro-ecological sites of Kashmir and Ladakh Himalayan regions. Traditionally different species of buckwheat is being cultivated at upper Himalayan regions of Kashmir and Ladakh predominantly in the Gurez, Kargil and Leh districts. These are high altitudinal regions having extreme environmental conditions, where species of buckwheat grown exhibits good adaptability, desirable nutritional and functional characteristics. The trait descriptors suggested by IPGRI and NBPGR were used in this study to assess the extent of variation present in the accessions of buckwheat species. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences both within and among the accessions of two buckwheat species based on 14 quantitative and 9 qualitative trait descriptors. A reasonable extent of the relationship between geographical origin and genetic variation was observed. Trait association analysis indicated a highly significant and positive correlation among most of the traits studied. PCoA and cluster analysis grouped 36 accessions of two buckwheat species into four major clusters each. Cluster-IV of F. esculentum and cluster-III of F. sagittatum could be used to improve the buckwheat germplasm through conventional and non conventional crop improvement breeding programmes.
... Another plant of nutritional and medicinal importance is buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), an ancient dicotyledonous crop that belongs to the family Polygonaceae. Its medicinal properties are due the presence of bioactive compounds such as flavones, flavonoids, phytosterols, tocopherols, inositol phosphates, rutin and myo-inositol (Zhang et al., 2012). Additionally, buckwheat is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. ...
... Buckwheat is a pseudocereal with high nutritional value and beneficial health properties widely described in the recent years [1][2][3]. Rutin (Ru, quercetin-3-rutinoside) is the main buckwheat flavonoid antioxidant present in seeds, groats, hull, flours, processed buckwheat products, and sprouts whereas quercetin (Q) is present in significantly lower concentrations [4]. The beneficial health effects of buckwheat bioactive compounds as well as Ru and Q is dependent on their absorption in the gut and catabolism by the gut microbiota [5,6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The expanded bioaccessibility of rutin (Ru) and quercetin (Q) from buckwheat biscuits (BBs) formulated from liquid-state fermented flours by selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were determined after gastrointestinal digestion. Fermentation of buckwheat flours caused a LAB-dependent variation in Ru and Q content. BBs baked at 220 °C for 30 min showed lower content of Ru and Q, and no correlation was found between the content of these compounds in fermented flours and BBs. The expanded bioaccessibility of Ru from BBs was low when its content in the soluble and insoluble fractions remaining after digestion in vitro was taken into account. Contrary results were found for Q bioaccessibility which had an index greater than 1, indicating the high Q bioaccessibility from BBs. Since very low Q content was noted in the insoluble fraction remaining after BBs digestion, the high Q bioaccessibility was determined to be due to its concentration in the soluble fraction.
... Two main buckwheat cultivars are common buckwheat (CB; Fagopyrum esculentum) and Tartary buckwheat (TB; Fagopyrum tataricum). TB has been known to have more bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and flavonoids, than CB (Fabjan et al., 2003;Zhang et al., 2012;Zhu, 2016). TB contains not only flavonoids, such as rutin and quercetin, but also fagopyrins, which are naphthodianthrone derivatives (Eguchi et al., 2009;Benković and Kreft, 2015;Glavač et al., 2017). ...
Article
This study was conducted to develop a method for analyzing protofagopyrins and fagopyrins in buckwheat extract by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry multiple reaction monitoring (UPLC-MS/MS MRM), to validate the developed method and to determine the conversion of protofagopyrins to fagopyrins by various light sources. Protofagopyrin E (PFE), protofagopyrin F (PFF), fagopyrin E (FE), and fagopyrin F (FF) were analyzed in Tartary buckwheat flower (TBF) extract, and PFE and PFF were identified for the first time. The linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and precision were evaluated using the FF-rich fraction that was separated from the TBF extract. TBF contained the most PFF and FF among buckwheat plant parts and products. The contents of protofagopyrins and fagopyrins changed minimally in the TBF extract when it was not exposed to light. When the TBF extract was exposed to light, the contents of PFE and PFF decreased, and those of FE and FF increased. Blue (450 nm) and fluorescent (400-700 nm) lights more rapidly converted protofagopyrins to fagopyrins than the other lights.
... Both buckwheat and oats have already found application in bakery products, especially as components of wheat bread, or in gluten-free products (Wang et al., 2017;Verardo et al., 2018). As presented by Zhang et al. (2012), buckwheat is a good source of nutritionally valuable protein, lipid, dietary fibre, and minerals; it is also known for its bioactive components. ...
Article
This study addressed determinations of the glycaemic index (GI), antioxidant capacity (AC), and phenolics content (TPC) of oat, buckwheat, and mixed oat/buckwheat breads. The bioaccessibility of TPC and the AC of breads were studied after in vitro digestion. The lowest values of the GI were determined for oat bread, whereas breads with the highest content of buckwheat flour had the highest AC. The digestion of breads showed that most of the TPC were found in the soluble fraction, but the phenolic compounds were still present also in the insoluble fraction after digestion. It was concluded that the mixed oat-buckwheat breads may serve as products with a medium GI, as a source of TPC, and as products with a high AC. It should be noted that enzymatic digestion or fermentation by microbiota could potentially enhanced breads antioxidant activity during digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.
... For example, buckwheat leaves contain high amounts of rutin with high antioxidant activity (Holasova et al., 2002). Rutin is a phenolic compound in food that is reported to strengthen the immune system and decrease the risk of various cancers (Zhang et al., 2012). However, besides containing a variety of polyphenols with high antioxidant potential, fagopyrins could be present in green aerial parts of buckwheat. ...
Article
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Green biomass is a major potential source of proteins for food and feed. This pre-feasibility study evaluates the use of green biomass of buckwheat, phacelia, hemp and oilseed radish grown as intermediate crops (IC) as a feedstock for production of protein concentrates to produce protein-rich food and feed products. We investigated the biomass yield, protein concentration and protein recovery potential of non-fertilized IC, nitrogen-fertilized IC and IC intercropped with legumes, harvested in late summer to autumn during 2017 and 2018 in southern Sweden. In addition, economic assessment of potential protein and fibre feed and food products were evaluated. The results showed that IC fertilized with 40 kg ha⁻¹ N and intercropping with legumes contributed to a higher biomass dry matter (DM) yield of 4.9-5.8 t ha⁻¹ as compared to between 2.2-3.1 t ha⁻¹ for non-fertilized IC. Intercropping with legumes also resulted in higher protein yield of 154 g kg⁻¹ vs. 103 g kg⁻¹ for non-fertilized IC. Among IC, hemp, phacelia and oilseed radish showed up to ca. 25% higher DM yield and up to ca. 70% higher protein concentration as compared to buckwheat. Higher DM yield was obtained when IC were harvested in October and November than in August and September. Economic assessment was made on two feasible protein production pathways; (A) Green and white proteins and (B) total recoverable combined protein fraction (CPF). For all IC, cost per t DM was higher in August due to lower biomass yield as compared to other harvesting months. Nitrogen concentration was the main factor determining the size of revenues. Nitrogen concentration was 34% higher in 2018 compared to 2017 and therefore resulted in higher revenues in that year. Intercropping resulted in higher protein content and therefore contributed to lower breakeven prices of recovered green proteins for all IC. Breakeven price analyses showed that green protein and CPF were economically feasible to market as both bulk and premium products depending on lower (≤2 € kg⁻¹) or higher (2-10 € kg⁻¹) price ranges, respectively. The results demonstrate that use of IC biomass could be a feasible option to produce high value protein-rich products, which can contribute extra income from IC for farmers.
... In the human body, endogenous DCI is mainly derived from dietary intake (18) and inositol is converted into its stereoisomer by a putative epimerase. Buckwheat has received increasing attention due to its therapeutic effects on metabolic diseases (19), such as diabetes (20) and hypertension (21). It has been suggested that DCI improves endothelial dysfunction and has antioxidant activity in diabetic rats (22). ...
Article
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Dietary supplements have improved the prevention of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases, which became a research hotspot in food science and nutrition. Obesity and insulin resistance, caused by a high-fat diet, eventually result in severe metabolic diseases, can be prevented with the dietary supplement D-chiro-inositol (DCI). In this work, we isolated mice primary hepatocytes with palmitic acid stimulation and DCI was applied to compare and contrast its effects of in primary hepatocyte biology. Before and after intervention with DCI, we used RNA-Seq technology to establish a primary hepatocyte transcriptome gene profile. We found that both PA and DCI cause a wide variation in gene expression. Particularly, we found that DCI plays critical role in this model by acting on glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Overall, we generated extensive transcripts from primary hepatocytes and uncovered new functions and gene targets for DCI.
... It should be noted that the content of individual components in the plant may change depending on the environmental factors such as temperature, UV radiation, and damage caused by pests. Genetic factors are also of great importance, and the influence of the height of cultivation to sea level has been recently demonstrated [14]. The word "probiotic" was borrowed from Greek, wherein "probios" means "for life." ...
Chapter
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In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of four different industrial starter cultures containing lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria on the selected characteristics of beverages prepared from buckwheat and stored at 4°C for 28 days. We estimated the pH of the beverages during fermentation and storage under refrigerated conditions. We also determined the number of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria and performed a chromatographic analysis of the carbohydrates. According to the results, the tested starter cultures effectively fermented the buckwheat beverage. The viable cell count of the starter microflora was sufficient to demonstrate the health-promoting properties of buckwheat. The pH of beverages was stable during the refrigerated storage. However, the carbohydrate content of the stored beverages changed, which indicates a constant biochemical activity of the microflora.
... It is one of the essential unattended crops and is grown as a minor grain crop in the Indian Himalayas, particularly in the high-altitude areas (Sharma et al., 2018). Due to its frost resistance, short growth period and easy cultivation, buckwheat is common in high-altitude areas at 2000 m and in Tibet it is found at elevations of up to 4500 m (Zhang et al., 2012). It is a dicotyledonous, multipurpose, summergrowing annual plant of family Polygonaceae with knotted stem of 30-60 in height, with shallow root system. ...
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Present investigation was made to evaluate effect of PGRs on shoot and root length of Fagopyrum esculentum. Results revealed that there was increase in shoot length by GA at 100 mg l-1 and root length by IAA at 50 mg l-1 at 30, 60 and 90 days of plant growth. ABA at 25 mg l-1 and 100 mg l-1 decreased shoot length as well root length. BAP at 100 mg l-1 also decreased root length. In combinations, IAA+GA 100 mg l-1 treatment enhanced shoot length as well as root length. Decrease in shoot length was observed in IAA+ABA, ABA+BAP (50 and 100 mg l-1) and root length by ABA+BAP (100 mg l-1) treatment.
... 33 The most abundant phenolic compounds found in buckwheat are phenolic acids ( Figure 1) including ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, syringic and caffeic acids, and flavonoids ( Figure 2), mainly rutin, quercetin, hyperin, orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. 14,34 Buckwheat phenolic acids predominantly occur in free forms and are unevenly distributed in the pericarp, coat, and grains (endosperm, embryo, two cotyledons), whereas the phenolics of cereal grains are to a great extent bound to cell walls in the hull. On the other hand, buckwheat flavonoids are reported to be linked to cell wall components, with the exception of rutin, which is mainly present in the free form and can be extracted using an ethanol solution. ...
Article
Research groups have put significant emphasis on the evaluation of nutritional, health-promoting, and other biological activities of secondary metabolites from buckwheat. Among these phytochemicals, phenolic and lipophilic antioxidants, particularly, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tocopherols, have been the focus of the latest studies since antioxidant activity has recently been associated with the possibility of inhibiting fungal growth and mycotoxin biosynthesis. The mycotoxin contamination of cereal and pseudocereal grains caused primarily by Fusarium, Penicillium, and Aspergillus species poses a significant hazard to human health. Therefore, efforts to examine the involvement of plant antioxidants in the biosynthesis of mycotoxins at the transcriptional level have emerged. In addition, hydrophobic interactions of buckwheat phenolics with cell membranes could also explain their capacity to reduce fungal development. Eventually, possibilities of enhancing the biological activity of cereal and pseudocereal phytochemicals have been studied and sourdough fermentation has been proposed as an efficient method to increase antioxidant activities. This effect could result in an increased antifungal effects of sourdough and bakery products. This review reports the main advances in research on buckwheat phenolics and other antioxidant phytochemicals, highlighting possible mechanisms of action and processes that could improve their biological activities.
... Besides, buckwheat is the only pseudocereal containing rutin [6]. However, more than 85% rutin in Tartary buckwheat grains is known to be converted into quercetin by the endogenous rutin 3-glucosidase with the addition of water and yeast during processing [7]. ...
Article
The effects of polyphenols on the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of Tartary buckwheat starch (TBS) remain scarce. In this study, the rheological, thermal properties, and in vitro digestibility of pregelatinized TBS (pre-TBS) with quercetin complexation at various concentrations were characterized. It was found that quercetin complexation increased the shearing resistance and viscosity of pre-TBS. Both SEM and TGA results revealed a more compact and stable structure of starch-quercetin complex in comparison to pre-TBS. The non-inclusive complex with higher crystallinity was formed through hydrogen bonds, which showed by XRD and FT-IR results. Additionally, complexes exhibited the lower digestion rate and digestion velocity constant, and the resistant starch content of complex (with 10% quercetin addition) was the highest. Therefore, quercetin complexation could improve the thermal and rheological properties, and decrease in vitro digestibility of pre-TBS, which could provide a theoretical basis for functional food development.
... Another important value of sprouted cereals is its antioxidant properties. Green buckwheat is responsible for the level of cholesterol in the blood, helps cleanse blood vessels, removes toxins and toxins from the body, and reduces the risk of blood clots [3,6]. In the process of germination in buckwheat grain, the activity of enzymes is activated that contribute to the breakdown of those contained in the grain (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) into organic components that are simpler in structure and easily assimilated by the human body. ...
Article
The object of research is the production of a new flavor seasoning of increased nutritional value based on sprouted green buckwheat using the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) principles. Research is aimed at drawing up a HACCP plan in order to control the safety of flavoring condiments of increased nutritional value. The new flavor seasoning is developed on the basis of sprouted green buckwheat of the «Bogatyr» variety, dried vegetables (carrots, pumpkin, garlic), dried herbs (celery, basil, oregano, dill), spices (ginger, turmeric, curry, paprika, coriander).For a flavoring seasoning with the addition of 30 % sprouted green buckwheat, technical conditions have been developed, where the requirements for organoleptic, physico-chemical and microbiological quality indicators are normalized. The paper describes the method of germination of green buckwheat grain, as well as the standards used for drawing up the HACCP plan at the enterprise. As a result of the analysis of the production process of flavoring seasoning, dangerous factors and management measures were identified. Three critical control points have been identified: in the process sprouted, in the process disinfection under grain germination, and in the process packaging of the finished product. Biological, chemical and physical hazards that can occur at each stage of seasoning production are identified. Once the risk factor was identified, critical limits were identified and monitoring procedures were established, as well as corrective actions were developed. During the research, a HACCP plan was developed for a new type of flavor seasoning with increased nutritional value in order to improve the safety and quality of products. The application of the HACCP plan will allow to effectively manage processes, use preventive measures, and accurately identify critical processes.
... Phytate has also been found in the protein bodies of aleurone cells and the embryo (Steadman et al., 2001). Buckwheat seeds contain 35-38 g/kg of phytic acid and an ample amount of tannins in buckwheat seed bran (Zhang et al., 2012). ...
Article
Consumers are becoming more conscious to adopt a healthy lifestyle and demand highly nutritious foods. Pseudocereals have exceptional nutritional as well as a phytochemical profile with good quality proteins. Due to the lack of gluten, these grains can be incorporated in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the small intestine of people with genetic susceptibility to gluten-containing cereals. Recent studies have concluded that dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals, phenolics, and other bioactives existing in pseudocereals have the potential to combat chronic ailments such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Due to the presence of bioactives in pseudocereals, these have wide potential to be incorporated in various processed functional foods. Therefore, the commercialization of pseudocereals incorporated functional foods would be helpful not only to celiac patients but also for individuals suffering from numerous lifestyle diseases. Several studies have reported that there is an increasing interest in research and development activities to explore these neglected crops. There is an urgent need to develop a multidisciplinary approach that involves many stakeholders to review and accelerate the domestication of these crops. This review aims at the exploration of nutritional quality, bioactive potential, processing aspects, and health benefits of these underutilized but nutritious grains.
... Buckwheat is the only pseudocereal that contains rutin, a flavonoid that possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, among others [95]. More specifically, it is attributed with higher antioxidant activity than ascorbic acid or chalconaringenin [4]. ...
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In brewing, the use of cereals (wheat, barley, maize, rice, sorghum, oats, rye or millet), pseudo-cereals (buckwheat, quinoa or amaranth) and tubers (sweet potato), as starch adjuncts, is being promoted for the production of a variety of high-quality beers, from sensory and nutritional points of view. The sensory properties of the obtained beer depend on the characteristics of each adjunct but also on the forms in which the adjunct is added: whole cereal, grits, malted, extruded grains, torrefied and syrup. Among these common forms, the extruded grains (maize or rice) produce a higher content of aroma compounds in beer. From a nutritional point of view, the use of non-conventional starch adjuncts, such as black rice, buckwheat or sweet potato, leads to an increase in the polyphenol content of the beer, and thus, its antioxidant capacity. Cereals such as maize, rice, sorghum or millet are the most promising for the production of gluten-free beers. A close relationship can be developed between the use of adjuncts in the beer industry and the use of commercial enzymes. Advances made by biotechnology to design new enzymes with different functionalities could be associated to a future increase in adjunct usage in brewing.
... 1,2 Due to its rich bioactive components, such as proteins, starches, vitamins, minerals, and flavonoids, TB presents many health functions such as hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, and antibacterial effects. 3,4 Moreover, it is a source of gluten-free food materials. 5 With the increasing demand for healthy food, TB and its products are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. ...
... Buckwheat is rich in polyphenols, including six flavonoids: rutin, orientin, vitexin, quercetin, isovitexin, and isoorientin. Among these antioxidant components, rutin was recognized as the most health protective and has also been proven to be anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic [5,52]. ...
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Buckwheat is an economically important gluten free cereal, and it is a good source of protein, fiber, and energy. The field experiments with buckwheat variety “Novosadska” were set in two experimental years in Pancevo, Serbia. The aim of this study was to determine the most optimal technology for buckwheat production. The study aims were to investigate the effects of (1) row spacing: RS1-25 cm and RS2-50 cm; (2) nutrition variants: (N1) 0 kg ha−1 NPK; (N2) NPK 30 kg ha−1; (N3) NPK 60 kg ha−1; and (N4) NPK 90 kg ha−1; (3) environment: Y1-2018 and Y2-2019; and their interactions on the plant height (PH), number of lateral branches (NoLB), mass of seeds per plant (MSP), number of seeds per plant (NoSP), buckwheat grain yield (GY); and (4) the correlations among these traits. All tested parameters of buckwheat significantly varied across row spacing, environment, and nutrition. The average grain yield in the row spacing, RD1-25 cm, was significantly higher than in the wider spacing, RD2-50 cm, and in 2018 than 2019 as well as with the nutrition NPK applied in the amount of 90 kg ha−1 in relation with all the other nutrition variants. All the studied agronomic traits were positively and strongly correlated with GY.
... Tartary buckwheat (TB; Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) is a species of Fagopyrum that is recognized as an important edible crop and medicinal plant due to its high abundance of flavonoids with antioxidant activity (Zhang et al., 2012b;Hou et al., 2021). TB is cultivated in diverse ecological zones worldwide, especially as a minor crop, and it is a popular food in southwestern and northern China (Tang et al., 2016). ...
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Tartary buckwheat (TB; Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) is an important multigrain crop and medicinal plant, but functional genomics and molecular breeding research in this species have been lacking for quite some time. Here, genome-wide screening was performed to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with six major agronomic traits and the rutin contents of 97 core germplasm resources. A total of 40,901 SSR loci were identified; they were uniformly distributed throughout the TB genome, with a mean distance of 11 kb between loci. Based on these loci, 8,089 pairs of SSR primers were designed, and 101 primer pairs for polymorphic SSR loci were used to genotype the 97 core germplasm resources. The polymorphic SSR loci showed high genetic variation in these core germplasm resources, with an average polymorphic information content (PIC) value of 0.48. In addition, multiple SSR markers, such as SXAU8002 [100-grain weight (HGW)] and SXAU8006 [stem diameter (SD)], were found to be associated with agronomic traits in the two environments. Finally, based on gene functional annotation and homology analysis, a candidate gene, FtPinG0007685500, that may affect the node number and SD of the main stem by participating in lignin synthesis was identified. This study reports the mining of genome-wide SSR loci and the development of markers in TB, which can be used for molecular characterization of the germplasm in its gene pool. In addition, the detected markers and candidate genes could be used for marker-assisted breeding and functional gene cloning in TB.
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Since the concept of functional foods emerged it has led to radical changes in the practices of food production technology. The scientists and food companies focus efforts on the development of foods that, in addition to basic nutrition, also provide good health and longevity. As the era of functional foods is just beginning, this chapter aims to provide an overview of the definition and main aspects for the food to be considered functional according to the criteria of different regulatory agencies. In addition, the most functional ingredients used in dairy products, such as probiotics and prebiotics, will be discussed. An emphasis was given on their sources, obtaining methods, sensory and rheological properties that confer to the food, functional effects, as well as the factors that affect the maintenance of probiotic viability during the processing and storage stages.
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Buckwheat is a species with great economic and production potential, which has gained increasing importance. This study aimed to determine the physical, physiological, and sanitary quality of samples from seed lots, and to evaluate the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. in buckwheat plants. Physical and physiological quality was evaluated by the thousand-seed weight, moisture content, germination test (5th and 7th days), seedling length, and seedling dry mass, while sanitary quality was determined by the health test on filter paper, with the seeds subjected to asepsis and without asepsis. Isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained from symptomatic seedlings in the paper roll germination test. To identify and characterize fungal isolates, morphological and molecular approaches were used. Pathogenicity was determined on healthy plants in a controlled environment. The lots showed high physiological quality in the germination evaluation (5th and 7th days). There was a high incidence of Fusarium spp. in all lots, which can be reduced with seed asepsis. The isolates were identified as Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex, and were pathogenic to buckwheat plants.
Article
We investigated the interactions of two main phenolics, rutin and quercetin, with starch, the primary component of Tartary buckwheat. The addition of rutin or quercetin significantly affected the structural and physicochemical properties of the starch, and rutin showed a stronger effect than quercetin, particularly at a dose of 6% (w/w). Rutin better enhanced the aggregation of starch pastes and gel formation than quercetin according to our pasting, rheological and thermal property analyses. A scanning electron microscopy analysis of its morphology showed that rutin was more easily dispersed in starchy matrix than quercetin and acted as rigid fillers for gels. The nuclear magnetic resonance results showed different binding sites due to the steric hindrance of the rutin disaccharide groups (rutinose). These findings provide fundamental information about applying rutin during the whole grain processing of Tartary buckwheat.
Article
A standard method measuring viscosity (η) of cereal products through in vitro digestion in a Rapid ViscoAnalyzer has been developed previously and is predictive of some physiological effects of cereal foods. This paper proposes a simple mathematical model to analyze quantitatively the digestograms obtained by that method. Digestograms of twelve uncooked and cooked cereal products were generated and data quality was assessed. Experimental data were fitted with a viscosity model ηmodel=η1+η2, where η1=Ae-k1t and η2=B-Ce-k2t were respectively viscosity decrease and viscosity increase components. The model showed very good agreement with experimental data and enabled interpretation of the digestograms in relation to the composition of the products: η1 was interpreted as the decreasing viscosity of digestible polymeric nutrients whereas η2 was interpreted as the viscosity development of viscous dietary fibers. This model may be useful to investigate quantitatively the biological effects of soluble dietary fibers in cereal products and similar products.
Article
The objective of this study was to elucidate the microbiological, textural, microstructural, and physicochemical impact of aqueous ozone mixing (AOM) on semi-dried buckwheat noodles (SBWN). Microbiological measurements declared that AOM reduced the initial total plate count (TPC) of SBWN significantly (P<0.05) with a prolonged shelf-life of 2∼5 days. Meanwhile, AOM reduced the cooking loss and water absorption along with the enhancement of hardness and tension force. According to the micromorphology observed by SEM, the protein network of surface and cross section became continuous and compact, and starch granules were more effectively filled into the protein network. Moreover, an obvious increase in the intensity of the high molecular protein bands was observed in the SDS-PAGE patterns. Furthermore, the SDSEP under non-reducing condition obviously decreased, and then the SDSEP under reducing condition changed insignificantly(P>0.05). These results indicated that AOM mainly promoted the protein cross-linking of SBWN by SS cross-links.
Article
This study investigated the physicochemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of beef burgers formulated with quinoa flour (QF) and buckwheat flour (BWF) as replacers of the mixture of soy protein powder (SP) and bread crumb (BC). Six treatments were formulated in two groups (15% and 30% of added flour as Groups A and B, respectively). The oil absorption and water holding capacity were higher (P < 0.05) in Soy protein burgers (SPB) than in other burgers. The mineral content of magnesium, phosphorus, iron and zinc was higher in the quinoa burgers (QB) than in the other formulations for both A and B groups. Also, the result of sensory evaluation revealed increases (P < 0.05) in overall acceptability and taste attributes of QB and BWB (Buckwheat Burger) in both groups. The shelf life results showed significant differences between SPB and treated samples (QB and BWB). Therefore, these new beef burger formulations might be a viable option in improvement of nutritional, durability and sensory properties.
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Consumption of oat and buckwheat have been associated with various health benefits that may be attributed to their nutritional composition. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the profile and quantity of bioactive compounds present in oat and buckwheat. Among 154 studies included in final analysis, 113 and 178 bioactive compounds were reported in oat and buckwheat, respectively. Total phytosterols, tocols, flavonoids and rutin content were generally higher in buckwheat, β-glucans were significantly higher in oat, while avenanthramides and saponins were characteristically present in oat. The majority of studies included in current review were published before 2010s. The heterogeneous methodological procedures used across the studies precluded our possibility to meta-analyse the evidence and raises the need for harmonization of separation and extraction methods in future studies. Our findings should further stimulate the exploration of metabolites related to identified phytochemicals and their roles in human health.
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The production of various bakery and non-bakery products based on buckwheat with components that positively affect health (fiber, antioxidants, and/or minerals), the optimization of recipes and technological process parameters, as well as giving character to final products in terms of their sensory acceptability and potential functional properties, gained significant interest last few years. Therefore, buckwheat products such as bread, biscuits, snacks, noodles, and cakes are commercialized and increasingly consumed. In addition, the use of non-bakery buckwheat products, such as tea, sprouts, honey, and other products, is becoming more common. In order to obtain potentially functional food with buckwheat of high nutritional quality, it is important to understand the effect of processing on bioactive components. The baking process, inevitable in the production of bakery products, is especially important. It is also important to understand the effect of storage on bioactive components. To this end, in the light of available literature, this chapter will provide an overview of bioactive components in buckwheat and discuss their stability in buckwheat and its products during processing and storage.
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The functional food market is constantly expanding and updating, due to the consumers' demand for foods with functional benefits and a more balanced diet. Functional foods usually are described as foods fortified with special constituents that offer some beneficial action to human health. Among the foods that have a long history of functionality are the dairy products added with prebiotics and/or synbiotics. The daily consumption of prebiotics and/or synbiotics contributes significantly to human health, as in the prevention or treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, colon cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, there is a great market demand for innovations in functional foods. With the current definitions of prebiotics and synbiotics updated and clarified (approaching two different categories of synbiotics, the complementary and the synergistic synbiotic), it became much easier for the industry and researchers to explore and create new prebiotics/synbiotics products. In this sense, recently, it was observed an increased quantity of scientific studies using prebiotics or synbiotics ingredients with prospective health claims in dairy products. This chapter will present the main updates on prebiotic and synbiotic dairy products and their health benefits.
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Wheat, buckwheat, oat, barley, flaxseed, psyllium, brown rice, millet, sorghum, maize, and rye are the most commonly known functional foods among possible cereal food items. The reason for this is that cereals provide humans with considerable amounts of the dietary fiber, protein, energy, vitamins, antioxidants, and minerals necessary for a healthy life. Epidemiological research has indicated that regularly consuming cereals can be linked to reduction in the risk of developing various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancers. Also, it is possible to process cereals in ways that are both innovative and efficient to develop healthy products. Functional multigrain beverages, baked products, and breakfast cereals can be prepared using cereals. In this chapter, the chemical and health‐supporting properties of common cereals are explored, together with the application of assorted cereals in preparing baked products and beverages within the scope of obtaining cereal‐based functional foods.
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In response to the growing recognition of health issues, people are seeking products that are inexpensive, convenient, and health-related. The incorporation of pseudocereal powder in nutraceutical sector is currently increasing because of their high nutritional profile as well as health-promoting effects. The high nutritional profile includes low starch content, high in amino acid profile, high in mineral content, and low glycemic index. Moreover, it contains high levels of phytochemicals that contain considerable amounts of flavonoids, polyphenolic chemicals, and phytosterols, making them useful in the nutraceutical sector. These bioactive compounds offer antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and reduced risk of obesity, prediabetes, and diabetic complications. With its tremendous potential and numerous food health-related uses, pseudocereal can serve as a low-cost alternative ingredient in health-related food products. Several pseudocereal processes via enzyme activity, as well as the high rheological stability of its starch, have made pseudocereal an attractive option for modern agriculture.
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Pseudocereals have gained unique interest for its nutritional composition in recent times. The commonly consumed pseudocereals are buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth seed. Due to the absence of gluten, these pseudocereals are utilized in various forms of cereal‐based food and gluten‐free products. By partial or full substitution of pseudocereals in food formulation, the provision of minerals, vitamins and other bioactive compounds is achieved. The regular consumption of pseudocereals promotes health benefits that have been proven in both, in vitro and preclinical studies. Certain processing methods such as fermentation and germination may additionally improve the nutritional value of pseudocereals, as well as enhance the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of nutrients. Since the worldwide interest in pseudocereal consumption is increasing, the understanding of their origin, composition and processing are beneficial for their efficient utilization.
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The aim of this study was to provide information on the phenolic and sugar profiles of different parts of the buckwheat plant, which can define that buckwheat is a functional food, with a high nutritional value and very useful for human health. Therefore, the extracts of buckwheat leaf, stem, and flower, as well as buckwheat grain were analysed for the content of polyphenol and antioxidant tests. The identification of a notable number of phenolic compounds and quantification of sugars in different parts of buckwheat indicates that buckwheat is a highly valuable plant. A total of 60 phenolic compounds were identified (18 cinnamic acid derivatives, 14 flavonols, 13 flavan-3-ols (including proanthocyanidins), 10 hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, and 5 flavones) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), coupled with a hybrid mass spectrometer which combines the Linear Trap Quadrupole (LTQ) and OrbiTrap mass analyzer. The highest number of phenolic compounds was found in the analysed buckwheat flower sample, and then in the leaf, followed by the grain and the stem. In addition, the sugar profile of buckwheat leaf, stem, flower and grain, as well as the buckwheat pollen and the nectar was analysed. Hence, 16 sugars and 5 sugar alcohols were detected by the high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with a pulsed amperometric detector (PAD). Sucrose was found in a significant amount with the highest content in buckwheat leaf. Trisaccharides had similar accumulation in the sample extracts, while disaccharides dominated in buckwheat leaf, followed by nectar and pollen. The sugar alcohols showed the highest content in buckwheat grain, where erythritol was predominant. The obtained results show that buckwheat is very rich in phenolic compounds and sugars. In addition to grain, the other parts of the buckwheat plant can be used as a very good source of different classes of phenolic compounds. This study provides useful information on the distribution of phytochemicals in different parts of the buckwheat plant, which contribute to the maintaining of the status of buckwheat as a functional food.
Article
Tartary buckwheat is an alternative cereal crop. This study sought to establish the mechanisms whereby tartary buckwheat root polysaccharide (TBRP-1) treatment can alleviate diabetes mellitus. TBRP-1 was extracted and purified by hot water and gel permeation column chromatography. Its structure was determined by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), monosaccharide analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. TBRP-1 was composed of fucose, arabinose, rhamnose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid. The molecular weight was 2.731 × 10⁴ Da. In addition, for in vitro, HepG2 cells were treated with high insulin concentrations to establish a model of insulin resistance. For in vivo modeling, diabetic mice were established by injecting with streptozotocin (STZ). Body weight, blood glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and changes in hepatic lipids were analyzed. The expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) was assessed via qPCR and western blotting. TBRP-1 treatment was sufficient to enhance the ability of insulin resistant HepG2 cells to take up glucose. TBRP-1 also lowered levels of blood glucose, HbA1c, and hepatic lipids in diabetic mice. The underlying molecular mechanisms suggested that TBRP-1 was able to suppress SOCS3 expression to thereby enhance IRS1 expression, thus alleviating insulin resistance.
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Toasting and natural fermentation are traditional processing methods commonly practiced in Ethiopia. This study was carried out to examine the influence of these traditional processing methods on the phytochemicals and functional properties of oats. Oat grains were toasted for 3 h at 115 ℃ and milled into flour, and raw oats flour spontaneously fermented for 24 h and 48 h, while untreated oats flour served as a control. Results show that toasting caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the bulk density, water solubility index, foaming capacity, and foaming stability in the range; (9.6–18.7%), (7.1–31.2%), (20–46%), & (14.4–38.5%), respectively, while it significantly (P < 0.05) increased the total phenolic contents, DPPH antioxidant activity, water absorption capacity, and oil absorption capacity in the range; (20.7–30.4%), (4.3–33%), (87.3–92.7%), (69.1–76%), respectively. Twenty-four hour and 48h fermentation of oats caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the, bulk density, foaming capacity, and foaming stability in the range; (15.5–22.7%), (42.4–68%), & (4–74.2%), respectively, while it significantly (P < 0.05) increased the total phenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH scavenging capacity, oil absorption capacity, and water solubility index in the range; (18.6–52.2), (34.8–81.3%), (5.3–43.7%), (8–14.9%), (10.7–55.6%), respectively. Thus, the phytochemicals, and some functional properties of oats were amplified by these low-cost household traditional oat processing methods.
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Germination is a biochemical process in which grains and seeds undergo physical, chemical, biological, and nutritional changes to survive and become plants. In such a process, the main factors involved are respiration and the mobilization of nutrient reserves. It has been proven that antinutritional compounds as lectins, phytic acid, tannins, and protease inhibitors, among others, are eliminated during germination: a longer germination promotes the gradual reduction of these compounds. However, it has been reported that the concentration of antinutritional compounds as saponins is higher in the first days of germination. When the grain is subjected to a soaking process before germination, the reduction percentage is enhanced due to a leaching by the concentration gradient of the antinutritional compound content in the grain or seed. Simultaneously, the addition of eliciting compounds as chitosan, salicylic acid, and hydrogen peroxide promotes the elimination percentage of these compounds. In this chapter book, we summarize information from legumes and cereals in which the modification of antinutritional compounds was analyzed, assessing that the reduction percentage directly depends on the type of grain or seed analyzed and the germination conditions as time and temperature, principally.
Article
The inhibition mechanism of buckwheat phenolics on in vitro starch digestion was investigated using extruded noodles with buckwheat starch and phenolic extract (0.50%–2.00%). The cooking quality and reducing sugar released during in vitro digestion were studied, and the extractable phenolic content along digestion was also monitored to reveal a dose–effect relationship between reducing sugar released and the release of phenolics. Noodles containing increased phenolics released less reducing sugar (230–188 mg g−1) during digestion. Cooking and digestion made phenolics more extractable, and most of the phenolics were released at the end of the gastric phase (85.6%–94.8%) compared with during the small intestinal digestion. The IC50 of buckwheat phenolic extract (0.102 mg mL−1) was four times that of acarbose (0.032 mg mL−1). The inhibitory mechanism was further analysed using molecular docking, in which the activity of α‐amylase was inhibited by phenolics that bind with active sites of α‐amylase through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interaction. Phenolics interacting with starch and the released phenolics can both explain the reduction in starch digestion. Buckwheat starch and phenolic extracts were cold extruded to produce noodles. The phenolics showed three forms that are free, physically wrapped and bound phenolics. Cooking and digestion process made phenolics more extractable and most of phenolics were released during gastric digestion. The free and released phenolics can inhibit the starch digestion possibly through inhibiting the α‐amylase activity.
Article
In this study, the effects of common buckwheat bran on wheat dough properties and noodle quality compared with hull were explored by pasting, rheology, texture, cooking, thermal properties, and microstructure measurements. The properties of dough and quality of noodles with buckwheat bran were better than those including buckwheat hull. Starch pasting properties declined when common buckwheat bran or hull was added because the fiber absorbed water and prevented the swelling of starch particles. Both the storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of common buckwheat bran dough were higher than that of buckwheat hull dough. When 4% buckwheat bran or hull was added, the dough exhibited good hardness and chewiness. The tensile properties of buckwheat bran noodles were better than that of buckwheat hull samples while the cooking loss and ΔH of buckwheat bran noodles was lower. SEM analysis showed that a continuous gluten network was formed when the buckwheat bran or hull was lower than 5%. This study demonstrated that common buckwheat bran had a positive effect on wheat dough properties and noodle quality compared with buckwheat hull. This provided a technical foundation for processing novel nutritive common buckwheat products in the future.
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Buckwheat was processed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) with the probiotic fungal strain Eurotium cristatum YL-1. The effects of SSF on the phytochemical content, as well as the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, on buckwheat were revealed. Metabolite differences between non-fermented buckwheat (BW) and E. cristatum fermented buckwheat (FBW) were investigated by LC-MS/MS-based untargeted metabolomics. Results showed that 103 and 68 metabolites remarkably differed between BW and FBW in positive and negative ionization modes, respectively. Most phenolic compounds and alkaloids were significantly up-regulated during SSF. Hydrolytic enzymes (i.e., β-glucosidase, α-amylase, protease, and cellulase) were produced by the filamentous fungus E. cristatum during SSF. In vitro spectrophotometric assays demonstrated that the total phenolics content, ferric reducing antioxidant power, reducing power, scavenging activities of DPPH radical and ABTS•⁺, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of buckwheat were considerably enhanced after processing by SSF with E. cristatum. Additionally, solvents with different polarities significantly influenced the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of buckwheat extracts. Our study indicated that processing by SSF with E. cristatum can greatly improve the phytochemical components of buckwheat and consequently contribute to its antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. SSF with E. cristatum is an innovative method for enhancing the health-promoting components and bioactivities of buckwheat.
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Breeding buckwheat varieties with high lavonoids content is one of the priorities at the Federal Research Center of Agricultural Biotechnology of the Far East named after A.K. Chaika. The aim of this study was to find ways of increasing the accumulation of rutin in F. esculentum plants in vitro culture using salicylic acid (SA) and copper sulfate. The effective concentrations and exposures of elicitors, which ensure the maximum content of rutin in the plant tissues of buckwheat microplants, were established as a result of the study. The microplants of the Izumrud × Inzerskaya hybrid synthesized the largest content of rutin (3.27%) under prolonged exposure (24 days) to 6.9 mg L ⁻¹ of SA concentrate. Microplants of the Izumrud variety synthesized 2.8% of rutin when exposed to the same SA concentrtion for 2 days. Using SA allowed to increase the accumulation of rutin in F. esculentum plants by 1.7–1.9 times, copper sulfate - by 1.2 times compared with the control. The effect of such treatment, which persists for a long time, makes obtaining buckwheat genotypes with a high level of flavonoid synthesis possible.
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Introduction. Buckwheat grain has long been used in food technology. However, its aboveground part remains understudied even though it is richer in biologically active substances than grain. The research objective was to evaluate the potential of buckwheat grass as a raw material for functional tea beverages. Study objects and methods. The research featured the lower and upper parts of the stem, leaves, and flowers of common buckwheat, as well as buckwheat tea beverages. The content of polyphenol compounds was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the amount of rutin was measured by HPLC analysis. Sensory properties were analyzed by standard methods and quality score, and antioxidant activity – by DPPH radical scavenging method. Results and discussion. The sensory analyses proved that the best tea beverages were made from the upper part of the plant: the samples had a strong smell of meadow grass and honey. The taste of the samples was pleasant, sweetish, with a honey and light floral aftertaste. As the total score (maximum score – 20) increased, the tea samples were arranged in the following order: lower stem (14.3) > upper stem (16.8) > leaves, (18.5) > blend – mix of leaves, flowers, and upper stem (18.6) > flowers (19.3). Polyphenol compounds were found in all parts of the plant: flowers – 6.67%, leaves – 5.71%, blend – 5.45%, upper and lower stem – 1.92 and 1.32%, respectively. Only 30–40% of buckwheat grass polyphenol compounds were found in tea beverages. Most of them were in the samples prepared from leaves and flowers – 1.78 %. Rutin made up most of the polyphenol compounds found in the leaves (5.05%), but its content was lower in other parts of the plant: 3.43% in the blend, 3.03% in the flowers, 1.08 and 0.76% in the upper and lower stem. Except for the lower stem samples, the tea contained from 15 to 75% of the daily rutin intake. All the tea samples showed antioxidant activity: flowers – 66.7%, leaves – 62.3%, and blend – 52.5%. In terms of ascorbic acid, it was 69, 64, and 52 μmol/g dry matter, respectfully. The same samples demonstrated antiradical activity. Conclusion. Common buckwheat grass can serve as a raw material for tea beverages. Buckwheat tea is a natural functional food product with zero caffeine. They have a pleasant taste and aroma. They owe their high biological activity to the high content of rutin and other polyphenol compounds.
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Germinated buckwheat is buckwheat seeds soaked in water just until it begins to bud. Buckwheat sprouts are seedling plants of buckwheat grown up to 10-15 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal growth period for accumulating the most abundant functional phenol(s) in germinated buckwheat that had been soaked in darkness and buckwheat sprouts cultivated by hydroponic culture. The rutin contained in germinated buckwheat was analyzed by CE (capillary electrophoresis). Phenols, including isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, vitexin, and rutin were separated from buckwheat sprouts by HPLC and identified by LC-MS. The highest rutin content in germinated buckwheat was found to be 15.8 mg/100 g DW at 20 h after germination. Buckwheat sprouts contained five kinds of major phenols. The highest amounts of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin were measured at day 3, with the exception of rutin, and then a gradual decrease was observed as the sprouts grew. The quantities of isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin at day 3 were 5.8, 11.7, 26.2, and 28.9 mg/100 g FW, respectively. The rutin content rapidly increased to 109.0 mg/100 g FW until day 6. The highest total phenols in buckwheat sprouts were 162.9 mg/100 g FW at day 6. Germinated buckwheat soaked for 20 h and buckwheat sprouts cultivated for 6 days were rich in dietary phenol(s), which makes these plants a valuable functional food for human consumption.
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Exogenously applied jasmonic acid methyl ester (JA-Me) inhibited biosynthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins in hypocotyls of seedlings of etiolated common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) exposed to light. The phenomenon was observed in experiments with various methods of JA-Me treatment, in whole seedlings and in excised hypocotyls. Even very low quantities of JA-Me taken by seeds during imbibition were enough to inhibit anthocyanin synthesis in buckwheat hypocotyls. This means that there are no significant barriers to the transport and action of JA-Me in buckwheat seedlings, as solute and in gaseous form. Although JA-Me inhibited accumulation of anthocyanins in buckwheat hypocotyls, it had no effect on phenylalanine and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity. Such JA-Me action suggests that it can act not in the first but in later steps of anthocyanin biosynthesis. JA-Me had no effect on the level of anthocyanins in cotyledons or on hypocotyl growth, but clearly inhibited the growth of main roots of buckwheat seedlings.
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This study focused on the evaluation of changes in phytochemical compositions, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities during the processing of tartary buckwheat tea. Soak-treating tartary buckwheat significantly decreased the contents of total starch and rutin, whereas significantly increased the contents of quercetin, kaempferol, total flavonoid, and total phenolic compounds. In steam-treating soaked tartary buckwheat for 40–60min, the contents of total starch, protein, crude fat, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, total flavonoid and total phenolic compounds significantly decreased, whereas the content of rutin significantly increased. The reaction of rutin degrading might be catalyzed in soaking processing, and a catalytic reverse shift reaction of rutin-synthesizing might take place in steaming processing. The process of drying and roasting significantly decreased the contents of total starch, rutin, total flavonoid, and total phenolic compounds. The total phenolic content of collected tartary buckwheat materials positively correlated with the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities.
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In the present work, the effect of altitudinal variations on the total phenol, flavonoid, and antioxidant potential of seeds and hull of Tartar buckwheat collected from 15 different locations of Western Himalaya has been investigated. Methanolic and acetonic extracts of seed and hull powder showed significantly increasing amounts of total polyphenol content, and antioxidant potential with rising altitude. Methanolic extract of seed and hull powder were found to have significantly greater polyphenol, and antioxidant potential as compared to acetonic extract. The methanolic seed extract of Inderdhara (3,133 m) showed the maximum total phenolic content 1,651 μg gallic acid equivalent/50 mg of dry weight. The methanolic seed extract of Inderdhara showed the maximum antioxidant activity (77.29±1.2%) and antiradical activity (55.5±0.5%) also. The results of this study exhibited good correlation with total polyphenol and antioxidant potential in all the samples followed by the increasing tendency towards rising altitude. KeywordsTartar buckwheat-altitudinal variation-antioxidant potential-polyphenol-β-carotene
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The chemical composition and protein quality of two varieties of buckwheat were measured and compared with the values of wheat. The protein quality was based on amino acid composition and true protein digestibility, biological value, net protein utilization, and utilizable protein obtained in N-balance experiments with rats. The protein content in buckwheat was approximately 12% and thus very much the same as in wheat. The fat content in buckwheat was close to 3% whereas the crude fiber concentration was very high (12.7 and 17.8%, respectively, for two varieties). The high fiber content caused a low concentration of soluble carbohydrates with the lowest value of 48.7%. Both buckwheat varieties had a high tannin content (1.76 and 1.54%, respectively). The protein quality was very high, with biological values above 90%. This can be explained by a high concentration of most essential amino acids, especially lysine, threonine, tryptophan, and the sulphur-containing amino acids. However, due to the high contents of crude fiber and tannin, the true protein digestibility was slightly below 80%.
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The effects of exogenously applied methyl jasmonate on content of biogenic amines: putrescine, spermidine, tyramine, cadaverine and 2-phenylethylamine in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) were investigated. The studies have shown that methyl jasmonate stimulates the conversion of l-phenylalanine into 2-phenylethylamine and increases the endogenous levels of putrescine in hypocotyls and cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings. Simultaneous feeding the seedlings with l-phenylalanine and methyl jasmonate has indicated that conversion of l-phenylalanine into 2-phenylethylamine can be one of possible reasons, caused by the methyl jasmonate suppression of anthocyanins synthesis in hypocotyls. To our knowledge, the stimulation of conversion of l-phenylalanine into 2-phenylethylamine by methyl jasmonate, as found in the present study, is described for the first time in higher plants. KeywordsAnthocyanins–Common buckwheat–Seedlings–Methyl jasmonate–Phenylethylamine–Polyamines
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Tartary buckwheat tea, which is an important and healthy product, has a distinct malty aroma. However, its characteristic aroma compounds have not been elucidated. The aims of present study were identification and quantification of its aroma compounds. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after 3 different isolation techniques. Seventy-seven compounds were identified. Among these compounds, 35 were quantified by available standards. The compounds with a high probability of contribution to the tartary buckwheat tea aroma (OAV ≥ 10) were as follows: 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, benzeneacetaldehyde, maltol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine. Some nutritional and bioactive compounds were also identified in this study, such as linoleic acid, niacin, vanillic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin, butylated hydroxytoluene. Practical Application: Tartary buckwheat, one type of buckwheat, has gained much attention from nutritionists and medical doctors in recent years. It is rich in rutin, quercetin, and other nutrients that are good for health. Tartary buckwheat-based product such as tartary buckwheat tea is an important and popular healthy product in China, Japan,South Korea, European countries as well as in American countries. It has a distinct malty aroma. The present study first identified and quantified of its aroma compounds. The results will draw attention to other researchers in food flavor and buckwheat filed.
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D-Fagomine is an iminosugar originally isolated from seeds of buckwheat (Fagopyrum sculentum Moench), present in the human diet and now available as a pure crystalline product. We tested D-fagomine for activities connected to a reduction in the risk of developing insulin resistance, becoming overweight and suffering from an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria. The activities were: intestinal sucrase inhibition in vitro (rat mucosa and everted intestine sleeves), modulation of postprandial blood glucose in rats, bacterial agglutination and bacterial adhesion to pig intestinal mucosa. When ingested together with sucrose or starch, D-fagomine lowered blood glucose in a dose-dependent manner without stimulating insulin secretion. D-Fagomine reduced the area under the curve (0-120 min) by 20 % (P < 0·01) and shifted the time to maximum blood glucose concentration (Tmax) by 15 min at doses of 1-2 mg/kg body weight when administered together with 1 g sucrose/kg body weight. Moreover, D-fagomine (0·14 mm) agglutinated 60 % of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium) populations (P < 0·01), while it did not show this effect on Bifidobacterium spp. or Lactobacillus spp. At the same concentration, d-fagomine significantly (P < 0·001) inhibited the adhesion of Enterobacteriaceae (95-99 % cells in the supernatant) and promoted the adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus (56 % cells in the supernatant) to intestinal mucosa. D-Fagomine did not show any effect on bacterial cell viability. Based on all this evidence, D-fagomine may be used as a dietary ingredient or functional food component to reduce the health risks associated with an excessive intake of fast-digestible carbohydrates, or an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria.
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Anti-fatigue properties of tartary buckwheat extracts (TBE) was investigated in male Kunming mice. The animals were divided into four groups. The first group, designated as the control group (control), was administered with distilled water by gavage every day for 28 days. The other three groups, designated as TBE treatment groups, were administered with TBE of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight, respectively, by gavage every day for 28 days. Exhaustive swimming time, blood lactic acid (BLA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), tissue glycogen, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of mice after swimming were determined. The results showed that tartary buckwheat extracts had anti-fatigue properties, which extended the exhaustive swimming time of mice, effectively inhibiting the increase of BLA, decreasing the level of BUN, increasing the tissue glycogen content and the activities of SOD and GPx of mice. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the effect of TBE on fatigue.
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TBWSP31 is a novel antitumor protein that was isolated from tartary buckwheat water-soluble extracts. The objective of this paper was to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of TBWSP31 on breast cancer Bcap37cells and to explore its possible mechanism. After treatment of Bcap37 cells with TBWSP31, typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by inverted microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), such as detachment from the culture plate, change to a round shape, cell shrinkage, the absence of obvious microvilli, plasma membrane blebbing, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that treatment with TBWSP31 resulted in a G(0)/G(1) arrest and prevented the cells from growing from G(0)/G(1) phase to S phase, which was most prominent at 48 h. The expression of bcl-2 and Fas were detected quantitatively by FCM, which showed that TBWSP31 induced-apoptosis may be involved with the participation of Fas and bcl-2. These results suggest that TBWSP31 is a potential antitumor compound and that apoptosis induced by TBWSP31 is a key antitumor mechanism.
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Buckwheat is a healthy food commonly eaten worldwide. The antitumor activity of buckwheat polysaccharides (BWPSs) has not yet been evaluated. In recent years, inducing differentiation of leukemic cells has become one of the most important therapeutic approaches for curing leukemia, and this strategy effectively inhibits leukemia cell proliferation and growth because the differentiation inducer changes leukemic cell morphology and cellular characters by inducing cellular maturity. The ability of BWPS to induce the differentiation of human leukemic THP-1 cells (monocyte [MNC]/macrophage-like cells) was investigated by both direct and indirect treatments in this study. In the indirect treatment, BWPS significantly stimulated cytokine secretion (differentiation inducer) in MNCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells in MNC-conditioned medium (BWPS-MNC-CM) following a 24-hour treatment, and THP-1 cell differentiation and maturity were significantly increased after 5 days of treatment with the BWPS-MNC-CM. On the other hand, BWPS directly induced THP-1 cell differentiation and maturity following 3-day and 5-day treatments in a dose-dependent manner and exerted phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production in these mature cells. These findings indicate that BWPS has potential for differentiation therapy in leukemia.
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Oxidized metabolites of dopamine known as dopamine quinone derivatives are thought to play a pivotal role in the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Although such quinone derivatives are usually produced via the autoxidation of catecholamines, tyrosinase, which is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis via the production of DOPA and subsequent molecules, can potentially accelerate the induction of catecholamine quinone derivatives by its oxidase activity. We have developed neuronal cell lines in which the expression of human tyrosinase was inducible. Overexpression of tyrosinase resulted in increased intracellular dopamine content in association with the formation of melanin pigments in neuronal somata, which eventually causes apoptotic cell death. This cellular model will provide a useful tool for detailed analyses of the neurotoxicity of oxidized catechol metabolites.
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Fagopyrum crispatifolium J. L. Liu, a new species of the Polygonaceae from Luojishan, Puge, Sichuan Province, China, is described. This species is closely related to F. gracilipes (Hemsl.) Damm. & Diels, but differs in having leaf blade bullate on the surface, margin corrugated with irregular sinuous-crenate, crenate or crenellate, cyme conferted. It is tetraploid with 2n=4x=32.
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Fagopyrum qiangcai D. Q. Bai and F. wenchuanense J. R. Shao, two new species of Polygonaceae from Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China, are described and illustrated. Fagopyrum qiangcai is closely related to F. esculentum Moench based on its leafy base, triangular leaves, and terminal or axillary racemes. The new species differs in having congested nodes at the base of the plant, triangular to oval terminal leaves with bright red veins, dense inflorescences, white punctate adaxial leaf surfaces, and an articulate pedicel. Fagopyrum qiangcai is diploid, 2n = 2x = 16, with a karyotype of 12 metacentric and four submetacentric chromosomes. Fagopyrum wenchuanense is closely related to F. gracilipes (Hemsl.) Dammer ex Diels but differs in its caespitose habit, the plants often with prostrate stems. Its leaves vary from broadly cordate to ovate to hastate or long hastate, the pedicels are basally puberulent, the stamens and pistils are variable in length, and the capsules are ellipsoid-triangular or broadly ovoid-triangular, 3—3.5 × 2.5—3 mm. Fagopyrum wenchuanense is diploid, 2n = 2x = 16, with a karyotype of 16 metacentric chromosomes.
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The genetic diversity of four new species related to southwestern Sichuan buckwheats was examined using karyotypes, allozymes and intersimple sequence repeats (ISSR). Karyotype analysis showed that Fagopyrum wenchuanense, F. qiangcai and F. pugense are diploid (2n = 2x = 16) while F. crispatofolium is tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32). The karyotype evolutionary trend of buckwheat indicated that F. crispatofolium, F. gracilipes var. odontopterum and F. gracilipes seemed to be more advanced than F. wenchuanense, F. qiangcai, F. pugense, F. esculentum, F. cymosum and F. tataricumare. Three polymorphic enzyme systems were used for the examination of variation, including peroxidase, esterase and superoxide dismutase. Consistent banding patterns were obtained for esterase and superoxide dismutase, while peroxidase produced a large number of sharp bands. A total of 18 ISSR primers were selected for the analysis and showed high variations among the species. Allozymes and ISSR markers were utilized to estimate the genetic distance among accessions and to draw phylogenetic trees. Our data provide evidence of a high degree of genetic diversity among southwestern Sichuan buckwheats. In addition, both cultivars and wild types showed a high degree of divergence suggesting a complex domestication process in this crop. This study provides a better understanding of evolutionary mechanisms and genetic relationships in four new species of buckwheat.
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This study examined the influence of the technological process of buckwheat groats production on dietary fibre content and its fraction, and sorption of selected bile acids by buckwheat groats and products. Analyses were conducted on samples of the following products: buckwheat grains (BG), buckwheat grains after roasting (BGR), buckwheat hull (BH), buckwheat bran (BB), whole buckwheat groats (WBG), broken buckwheat groats (BBG) and buckwheat waste (BW). The content of neutral detergent dietary fibre (NDF) and its fraction containing cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H) and lignin (L) were assayed using the Van Soest method, while total dietary fibre (TDF) and its soluble (SDF) and insoluble (IDF) fractions were assayed using the Asp method. Ability to absorb cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA) and dehydrocholic acid (DHA) was investigated by colorimetric methods. Differences in the content of dietary fibre and its fraction in examined products were observed. The highest TDF content appeared in BH, while the lowest in BBG. The buckwheat hull contained highest amount of fraction L and C, while the buckwheat waste contained more fraction L. The IDF fraction predominated in all products. Among investigated bile acids DCA was adsorbed the strongest, while CA the weakest. Cholic acid binding was significantly higher with BH, BB and BW than with rest products. For buckwheat hull bile acid binding was significantly higher in comparison with WBG and BBG.
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Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Polygonaceae) is a popular food crop plant from Polygonaceae. In this study, we investigated the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of the seed, stem, and aerial parts of the plant for their neuroprotective effect through acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was measured using the scavenging activity tests against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD), superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals and the metal-related methods; metal-chelating capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and phosphomolibdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were calculated spectrophotometrically. Chemical composition of the seed oil was identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and rutin was quantified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). The extracts were more active against butyrylcholinesterase and highly able to scavenge DPPH. The ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts and the ethanol extract of the stems displayed a remarkable effect in the FRAP assay. None of the extracts had capacity to chelate the iron. According to LC–MS analysis, the richest plant part in terms of rutin was found to be the aerial parts. GC–MS analysis revealed that the seed oil was dominated by oleic (33.15%), linoleic (31.93%), and palmitic (13.15%) acids.
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Common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat were milled in a stone mill. The contents of protein, lipid, starch, dietary fibre and vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were analysed in the flour and bran. There was a prevalence of unsaturated fatty acids—C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C20:1. In both species most lipid substances are concentrated in the bran. In common buckwheat bran, protein content was 21.6%, and in tartary buckwheat, 25.3%. There were relatively small differences in the contents of vitamins B1 and B2 between the two main utilisable milling fractions, but more substantial differences in the contents of vitamins B6 (up to 0.61 mg/100 g in the tartary buckwheat bran fraction). Total B vitamin content was higher in tartary buckwheat than in common buckwheat. On the basis of these analyses, it can be concluded that tartary buckwheat bran is an excellent food material with a potential for preventative nutrition.
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A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of trans-resveratrol with spectrophotometric detection (306nm) and amperometric detection at carbon paste electrode (E=+1,2V) was developed and tested on real samples of grains, hulls and leaves of six varieties of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and two varieties of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.). Optimal conditions for the determination of trans-resveratrol were as follows: column Kromasil C-18 (7μm), 125×4mm; mobile phase acetonitrile: diluted BR buffer pH 7 (50:50, 30:70 for grains and hulls and 20:80 for leaves); flow rate 1mlmin−1. Under these conditions, the limit of detection of trans-resveratrol (LD) was 3.5×10−8moll−1 (R2=0.9986) for electrochemical detection and 3.2×10−8 moll−1 (R2=0.9993) for spectrophotometric detection.
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2″-Hydroxynicotianamine (HNA) is a recently discovered angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory compound present in buckwheat which displays hypotensive activity. Here, HNA levels in buckwheat flour, plants, and products were quantified to examine the potential functionality of this food. The HNA content of buckwheat flour ranged from 16–28mg per 100g dry weight. When the content was evaluated by the milling stage, common buckwheat contained 24.3, 24.1, and 34.1mg in the inner, middle, and outer layers, respectively, whereas tartary buckwheat contained 16.8, 30.5, and 51.8mg of HNA, respectively. Comparison of the distribution of HNA within buckwheat plants revealed that HNA was predominantly localised in seeds (buckwheat flour). The residual HNA levels after cooking ranged from 21% to 41% in dried buckwheat noodles. This study clarified that buckwheat flour contains high levels of HNA and is a readily available source of HNA if incorporated into one’s diet, which may help reduce hypertension.
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Fagopyrum pugense T. Yu (Polygonaceae, Polygonoideae), known only from Luojishan, Puge County, Sichuan Province, China, is described and illustrated. It is closely related to F. gracilipes (Hemsl.) Dammer ex Diels, but differs in the plants having thicker stems and branches with densely erect-villose pubescence, numerous nodes and short internodes, ovate to cordate leaves that are minutely rugose with small pustules, and small achenes. The karyotype studies were also conducted, and the results are presented.
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Five different isolation techniques were combined with gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric determination of aroma compounds from buckwheat: dynamic headspace (DHS) with cryotrapping or sorbent trapping, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE), solvent extraction (SE) and simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE). Optimisation of each technique is presented, as well as comparison of the chemical profiles obtained by them. Solvent extraction with methanol resulted in the isolation of rather polar and less volatile compounds and was deemed least suitable for the odour-active compounds. Only SPME with DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre was suitable for the isolation of highly volatile compounds in a wider polarity range. DHS extracted the smallest number of compounds, but with the comparable chemical profile as obtained by SDE, which was chosen as the most suitable technique to obtain the aroma compounds of cooked buckwheat. The applied isolation techniques are complementary in their ability to extract a representative aroma profile of buckwheat.
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The seed protein contents of 179 accessions belonging to ten species of genus Fagopyrum were determined by means of the Kjeldahl method. The results indicated that there are significant differences of seed protein content among different accessions within the same species. The average protein content of F. esculentum is 12.94%, ranging from 8.81–18.71%, and the protein content of Sibano is the highest, up to 18.71%, Gantian 1 the lowest with 8.81%. The average protein content of tartary buckwheat is 12.17%, with the range from 7.82–18.94%, and the protein content of cultivated tartary buckwheat Qianku 2 is the highest (18.59%), and that of Ganku 1 (7.82%) the lowest. Moreover, there are significant differences of seed protein content among different buckwheat species and between the different buckwheat types (between common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat, between the diploid and the tetraploid, between the cultivated and the wild, and between the big-achene group and the small-achene group). The average seed protein content of F. giganteum is the highest in all tested species, up to 17.81% with the range of 13.91–21.27%, and that of F. callianthum the lowest, only 8.31%.
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Tartary buckwheat, a healthy food, is associated with a reduced risk of certain human chronic diseases; however, its bioactive components are unknown. This study used high performance liquid chromatographyphotodiode array-mass spectroscopy (HPLC-PDA-MS) to identify the flavonoids in flavonoid-rich fractions (FRFs) from tartary buckwheat grain and tested antioxidative capacity of FRFs to confirm their bioactivity. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption and electrospray ionization (ESI−) MS/MS spectra identified several flavonols in the embryo, endosperm, testa, and hull, including the predominant flavonoid rutin and minor flavonoids quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-3′-O-β-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, and quercetin. Tartary buckwheat FRFs extended the Rancimat induction period of lard less than common buckwheat FRF did, while their scavenging rate of DPPH free radicals exceeded that of common buckwheat FRF and rutin. These results indicate that tartary buckwheat FRFs from the grains have potential health benefits. Keywordstartary buckwheat-flavonoid-rutin-antioxidative activity
Article
The phylogenetic relationships among cultivated landraces and natural populations of wild subspecies of Tatary buckwheat were investigated at the individual level by constructing a phylogenetic tree based on RAPD markers. As the PCR templates, DNA of individuals rather than bulked samples, was used. Ten individuals from 10 cultivated landraces, 71 individuals from 21 natural populations of wild subspecies, and 7 individuals from 3 weedy Tatary buckwheat were provided for RAPD analyses. Three groups were recognized: (1) all cultivated landraces and wild subspecies from central Tibet and northern Pakistan; (2) 10 individuals of wild subspecies from northwestern Yunnan; (3) the remaining individuals of wild subspecies from northwestern Yunnan and all individuals of wild subspecies from Sichuan. Group (2) was phylogenetically closely related to group (1). The origin of cultivated Tatary buckwheat, the hybrid origin of weedy Tatary buckwheat and of the wild populations from central Tibet and northern Pakistan are discussed. We arrive at the conclusion that cultivated Tatary buckwheat probably originated in northwestern Yunnan in China.
Article
The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and salicylic acid (SA) on d-chiro-inositol (DCI) production in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) suspension cultures. In this study, adding optimal concentrations of MeJ and SA at an appropriate time markedly increased DCI production (yield 6.141 and 5.521mg/gDW, respectively). In addition, treatment of buckwheat cultures with a combination of 0.2mM MeJ and 0.6mM SA on days0 and 9 increased the DCI yield to 7.579mg/gDW, which was 3.726 times higher than that in the control; furthermore, the former yield was higher than that achieved by the addition of either elicitor alone. Moreover, unlike MeJ, SA did not exert a negative effect on cell growth. KeywordsBuckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum)– d-chiro-inositol–Methyl jasmonate–Salicylic acid–Suspension culture
Article
Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies indicates that rutin, the main flavonoid in tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum ), may have high value for medicine and health. This paper reports the finding of a flavonol synthase (FLS) gene, cloned and characterized from F. tataricum and designated FtFLS1, that is involved in rutin biosynthesis. The FtFLS1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and the recombinant soluble FtFLS1 protein had a relative molecular mass of 40 kDa. The purified recombinant protein showed, with dihydroquercetin as substrate, total and specific activities of 36.55 × 10(-3) IU and 18.94 × 10(-3) IU/mg, respectively, whereas the total and specific activities were 10.19 × 10(-3) IU and 5.28 × 10(-3) IU/mg, respectively, with dihydrokaempferol. RT-PCR revealed that during F. tataricum florescence there was an organ-specific expression pattern by the FtFLS1 gene, with similar trends in flavonoid content. These observations suggest that FtFLS1 in F. tataricum encodes a functional protein, which might play a key role in rutin biosynthesis.
Article
This study describes the characterization of phenolic compounds in buckwheat. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) has been applied to separate and characterize thirty phenolic compounds in buckwheat flour. As far as we know, 2-hydroxy-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosil-benzoic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-6-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-β-glycopyranoside and epicatechin-3-(3″-O-methyl) gallate were tentatively identified in buckwheat for the first time. The sensitivity, mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern of the TOF-MS, legitimated the identification of phenolic compounds present in buckwheat extract.Furthermore, other “unknown” compounds were also reported in the ethanolic extracts of buckwheat.
Article
The effects of roasting, pressured-steam heating and microwave heating on total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties of whole-meal flour from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) were investigated. The total phenolics were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteau assay, total flavonoids by aluminum nitrate colorimetric assay whilst antioxidant properties were based on free radical scavenging activity of flour extracts against hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in vitro. This study showed that thermal treatment of buckwheat flour caused a decrease in total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidative activities. The changes in trend of the antioxidant activities due to the thermal treatment were positively correlated with the content of phenolics (R2 = 0.8401–0.9909). Therefore, it can be suggested that special care should be taken when processing method is selected for the exploration of tartary buckwheat products.
Article
Fagopyritols are galactosyl cyclitols in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Polygonaceae) seeds with structural similarities to a putative insulin mediator deficient in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovary syndrome. Based on the assumption that the multifunctional enzyme galactinol synthase (GolS, UDP-galactose:myo-inositol galactosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.123) may have homology to the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of fagopyritols, we isolated two full-length and one partial cDNA clones encoding GolS homologues from buckwheat seeds. We designated the genes corresponding to these three cDNAs as Fagopyrum esculentum GolS (FeGolS)-1, FeGolS-2 and FeGolS-3. The full-length FeGolS-1 and FeGolS-2 cDNAs are 1269 bp and 1326 bp in length and encode polypeptides of 38.3 kDa and 40.7 kDa, respectively. According to the deduced amino acid sequences, FeGolS-1 and FeGolS-2 share a high level of sequence similarity with GolSs in other species. FeGolS-2 and FeGolS-3 contain an insertion of 17 or 18 amino acid residues near the carboxyl terminus, respectively, which is absent in FeGolS-1 and other GolSs. Both bacterially expressed recombinant FeGolS-1 and FeGolS-2 proteins exhibited GolS activities when assayed in the presence of UDP-galactose and myo-inositol. In the presence of UDP-galactose and d-chiro-inositol, FeGolS-1 catalyzed the synthesis of fagopyritol B1 whereas FeGolS-2 catalyzed the synthesis of both fagopyritol A1 and fagopyritol B1 in a 1:4 mole ratio. These results demonstrated that multifunctional GolS homologues in buckwheat seeds confer fagopyritol synthase activities and that the specificity for fagopyritol A1 synthesis may be mediated by a unique class of GolS homologues.