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Ginger: A functional herb



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Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa,
and Amanat Ali*
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agriculture and
Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University,
Al Khoud, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
Ginger (Zingiberofficinale Roscoe)belongs to the familyZingiberaceae
(Wagner, 1980) and genus Zingiber. Other names of ginger are African
ginger, Black ginger, Cochin ginger, GanJiang,Gegibre, Ingwer, Jamaican
ginger, and Race ginger. Turmeric, cardamom, and galangal are other notable
members of the ginger family. The English botanist William Roscoe (1753-
1831) gave the plant the name Zingiber, derived from a Sanskrit word
singabera which means horn-shaped due to the protrusions on the rhizome
(Katzer, 1999). The genus includes about 85 species of aromatic herbs from
East Asia and tropical Australia.
Ginger is an erect perennial plant growing from one to three feet in
height. The stem sticks up about 12 inches above ground and is surrounded
by the sheathing bases of the two-ranked leaves. It produces clusters of white
and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Ginger grows
horizontally, laterally flattened with branching pieces,a configuration known
as rhizome. The whole rhizome has a firm, striated texture. It is 5 to 15cm
long, 1.5to 6cm wide, 2cm thick and depending on the variety can be yellow,
white, or red in color.
Warm, humid climate is the most ideal for ginger cultivation. It grows
best in rich soil and shady places. Ginger can be grown both under rain fed
and irrigated conditions. It is usually cultivated vegetatively, meaning pieces
* Author of correspondence:
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
of rhizome are planted in the soil and each sprouts to form a new plant.
Modern micropropagation is also being used where new plants are cloned
from cells taken from a single plant. The cloned offspring are then planted
out in a field. Carefully preserved seed rhizomes are cut into small pieces of
2.5-5.0 cm length weighing 20-25 g, each having one or two good buds. The
seed rate varies from region to region and depends upon the adopted method
of cultivation. Worldwide, over 25 varieties of ginger are grown. Zingiber,
ISR- Varada 2, Suprabha, Suruchi, Suravi,Himagiri, IISR Mahima, IISR
Rejatha, Rio-de-Janerio, Nadia,and China are some of the important
cultivars grown across the world (Shasikaran et al, 2008). Ginger is also
grown as a decorative plant. Patterned foliage, deliciously perfumed flowers
in a rainbow palette of colors and surprising seedpods make the ginger plant
an interesting and noteworthy ornamental plant.Cautleya, Globba, Roscoea,
Kaempferia, and Siphonochilusare grown for ornamental and medicinal
purpose but not for spice (Branney, 2005, Byers, 1999).
Soft root, bacterial wilt, leaf spot, nematode pests, shoot borer, and
rhizome scale are some common diseases that can infest ginger. The pests
affect both the ginger plant and rhizomes. When the leaves turn yellowand
start withering gradually, it indicates that crop is ready to harvest. Depending
on the variety and their intended use it takes about 8 to 9 months after
planting. Fresh ginger might be harvested about 5 months after planting.
Preserved ginger are usually dug up 5 to 7 months after planting, before they
are fully mature but while they are still tender and mild. Dried ginger, mature
rhizomes with a full aroma, flavour, and pungency, are harvested 8 to 9
months after planting. The essential oil content within rhizomes increases
with age, so plants used for this might be harvested even later. Harvesting is
done either by hand with a spade or digging fork or by mechanical diggers.
The clumps are lifted carefully and the rhizomes are separated from the dried
up leaves, roots and adhering soil. They are immediately scalded, or washed
and scraped, to prevent sprouting. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly
dry. For seed material, bold and healthy rhizomes from disease free plants are
selected immediately after harvesting and stored properly in pits under shade.
Depending on the variety and location where the crop is being grown the
yield of dry ginger is 19-25% of fresh ginger (Shasikaran et al, 2008).
Ginger is grown throughout South Eastern Asia, China and in parts of Japan,
Austria, Latin America, Jamaica and Africa. India is the top producer of
Ginger, followed by China, Indonesia, Nepal and Thailand, but the most
expensive and high quality varieties come from Jamaica, Australia, and
South India (Gilani and Gayur, 2005, Ali and Gilani, 2007).
Ginger: A Functional Herb
Ginger is native to Southeastern Asia (Wagner, 1980). It is mentioned in
ancient Chinese, Indian, and Middle Eastern periodicals and has long been
valued for its aromatic, culinary, and medicinal properties (Langner, 1998).
Confucius wrote about ginger in his Analects and the Greek physician
Dioscorides listed ginger as an antidote to poisoning, as a digestive, and as
being warming to the stomach in De MateriaMedica (Langner, 1998). Many
religious holy booksthe Quran, the Talmud, the Bible, Ayurveda,
CharakSushutra, Vagbhatta and CharakDuttahave mentioned ginger
(Gajnavi, 1996, Hrdayam of Srimadvagbhat, 1999). The medicinal properties
ofginger were known in ninth century in Germany and France and in tenth
century in England. Records suggest that ginger was highly valued as an
article of trade during the 13th and 14th century in England; one pound of
ginger had the same worth as that of sheep. Ginger migrated westward to
Europe by Greek and Roman times. History shows that ancient Romans
imported ginger from China almost two thousand years ago. By the
middleAges it was a very popular spice in the Mediterranean region and had
spread throughout other countries. Medieval writing from many European
countries indicates that ginger was a standard ingredient in recipes for the
kitchen and the apothecary (Widmaier, 1986). In an attempt to make it more
available, Spanish explorers introduced ginger to the West Indies, Mexico,
and South America in the 16th century and these areas began exporting this
precious herb back to Europe. Ginger plants grown in pots were carried
abroad onlong sea voyages to prevent scurvy. The Eclectic physicians of the
19th century relied on ginger to induce sweating, improve the appetite, and
curb nausea and as a topical counterirritant. Ginger is an integral part of
Ayurveda, the traditional medicine of India, and is known as sunthi in
Ayurveda (Hrdayam of Srimadvagbhatt, 1999). It was used to block
excessive clotting of blood in arteries and veins, to reduce cholesterol, and to
fight against arthritis. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) ginger is
considered a pungent, dry, warming herb to be used for ailments triggered by
cold and damp weather. It was also used as a digestive aid and antinausea
remedy and to treat bleeding disorders, rheumatism, baldness, toothache,
snakebite, and respiratory conditions. The Romans added ginger to the oil in
lamps to render an aroma in the air. Meanwhile in England ginger was added
to spice up beer. The Greeks wrapped ginger in bread and ate it after meals as
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
a digestive aid. Subsequently, ginger was incorporated directly into bread and
confectionaries such as gingerbread. As ginger resembles fingers, pregnant
women in China are advised to avoid ginger during pregnancy, as they might
give birth to babies with more than five fingers. But after birth a woman may
take it for strength, to clean out all poison from her body, and to protect the
newborn (Wong, 2001). In Malaysia and Indonesia, ginger soup is given to
new mothers for 30 days after their delivery to help them sweat out
impurities. In Arabian medicine, ginger is considered an aphrodisiac. Some
Africans believe that eating ginger regularly will help repel mosquitoes and
women of central Africa make belts of ginger roots to attract the attention of
their husbands. Ginger flowers are traditionally worn by Hawaiian dancers
(Gilani, 2005).
Culinary Use
Ginger is consumed worldwide as spice, flavoring agent, garnish,
medicine, and food preservative and is used either fresh, in a fresh paste, or
dry, in a dry powder. Fresh ginger can be substituted for dried ground ginger,
although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different.
Powdered dry ginger is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as
gingerbread, cookies, crackers and cakes, ginger ale, and beer. The fragrance
of ginger is penetrating and aromatic. It tastes spicy, hot, and biting and is an
integral part of almost all the cuisines of the world. The pungent, spicy
sweetness of ginger adds a unique taste to many recipes ranging from sweet
to savory.
In the subcontinents (India and Pakistan) ginger is called Adrak(local
name) and is an essential ingredient of many dishes. Fresh ginger is one of
the main spices used for making pulse, vegetablecurries and meat
preparations. Fresh as well as dried ginger is used to spice tea and coffee,
especially in winter. In Burma, it is consumed as a salad dish called Gyin-
thot, which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil, and a variety of nuts
and seeds. In Indonesia, a beverage called wedangjahe is made from ginger
and palm sugar. In the Philippines, it is brewed into a tea called salabat. In
Vietnam, the fresh finely chopped leaves can also be added to shrimp-and-
yam soup (canhkhoaimỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler
flavor of ginger than the chopped root. In China, sliced or whole ginger is
often paired with savory dishes such as fish, and chopped ginger root is
commonly paired with meat, when it is cooked. In Japan, ginger is pickled to
Ginger: A Functional Herb
make BeniShoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. It is also
used to make candy called Shoga no satozuke. In the traditional
KoreanKimchi, ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the
spicy paste just before the fermenting process (Kim et al, 2005).
In the Caribbean, ginger is a popular spice for cooking and making
drinks such as sorrel, a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season.
Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in
their homes. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger, as well as the
famous regional specialty Jamaican ginger cake.
In Arabic, ginger is called Zanjabil, and in some parts of the Middle
East, ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee and for milk. In the Ivory
Coast, ginger is ground and mixed with orange, pineapple, and lemon to
produce a juice called Nyamanku. Yemenite Jews add ginger powder in
Hawaij, a spice mixture used mostly for soups and coffee (Roden, 1996).
Chemical Composition
Ginger contains approximately 50% carbohydrates, 9% protein and free
amino acids, 6-8 % fatty acids and triglycerides, 3-6% ash, and 3-6% crude
fiber (on dry matter basis) depending on variety, geography, and climatic
conditions (Leung, 1984, Tang, 1992). Some African ginger varieties contain
5.98 and3.72g /100 proteins and fat (Shrin Adel, 2010). Soluble and
insoluble fibers are also found in ginger. Ginger is a good source of essential
micronutrients such as potassium, magnesium, copper, manganese and
silicon. Potassium and manganese help to build resistance to disease and
protect the lining of heart, blood vessels and urinary passages. Silicon
promotes healthy skin, hair, teeth, and nails and helps to assimilate calcium.
Small amount of vitamins A, E and some amounts of B- vitamins and
Vitamin C are also found in ginger rhizome (Adel and Prakash, 2010).
Phytochemical Composition
Ginger is a complex substance consisting of more than 60 compounds
(Srivastava et al, 2000). The ginger rhizome contains an essential oil and
resin known collectively as oleoresin. The composition of the essential oil
varies according to the geographical origin, but the chief constituents
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
aresesquiterpene hydrocarbons, which are responsible for the characteristic
aroma. Gingerole is the main phenolic compond and once degraded gives
shogaols, zingerone, and paradol. Zingerone and shogaols are found in small
amounts in fresh ginger and in larger amounts in dried or extracted products.
Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process; this
compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Smaller amounts of
other sesquiterpenoidsbisabolene, geranyl acetate, terpeneol, terpanes,
geraniol, alpha pinene, limonene, zigerbene, batabeasabolene, alpha paradol,
farnesene, and monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene, cineol, and citral)
have also been identified. Ginger contains a special group of compounds
called diasyleheptanoids, which includesgingerenone. A very small amount
of curcumin is also found in ginger. In addition to that it also contains small
amounts of alkaloids, tannins, carotenoids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and
cardinolides (Shrin Adel, 2010).
The composition of fresh ginger oil contains more oxygenated
compounds compared to dry ginger oil, making it more potent than dry
ginger oil. There are more hydrocarbon compounds in dry ginger oil
compared to fresh ginger oil. Monoterpene compounds are more active than
sesquiterpene compounds. Dry ginger oil also has higher content of
sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and they are reported to have less activity
compared to oxygenated compounds (Srivastava, et al, 2000 and Sinha, et al,
1990, Sasidharan and Menon, 2010). Ginger oil (GEO) has been
characterized to have a high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons,
including β-sesquiphellandrene (27.16%), caryophyllene (15.29%),
zingiberene (13.97%), α-farnesene (10.52%) and ar-curcumin (6.62%) (El-
Baroty et al, 2010).
Table 1. Active Chemical Constituents of ginger
Volatile oils
Gingerols and
galanolactone, gingesulfonic
acid, zingerone, geraniol, neral,
Kathi, J Kemper, 1999.
Ginger: A Functional Herb
Figure 1. Chemical structure of important phytochemicals present in ginger.
Ginger is a potential herb used worldwide for its immense
phytotherapeutic properties. In Ayurveda it is known as Mahaaushdiwhich
means use of this herb improves body functions and helps to eliminates
toxins from the body (Nadkarni, 1976). Modern scientific research has
revealed that ginger possesses numerous therapeutic properties including
antibiotic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant effects, an ability to inhibit the
formation of inflammatory compounds, and direct anti-inflammatory effects.
Besides this, ginger is also effective against some kinds of cancers, stimulates
blood circulation, controls blood pressure and hypertension, helps in
lowering cholesterol, and is associated with combating heart problems.
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
1. Digestive System
1.1. Gastrointestinal Relief
Historically, ginger has a long tradition of efficacy in alleviating
symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders. In herbal medicine, ginger is
regarded as an excellent carminative (a substance which promotes the
elimination of intestinal gases) and intestinal spasmolytic (a substance which
relaxes and soothes the intestinal tract). It reduces colon spasms and cramps,
is excellent for nausea, vomiting, and motion sickness, stimulates production
of digestive juices, helps bowel disorders, and acts as a colon cleanser.
Ginger has a sialagogue action, stimulating the production of saliva, which
makes swallowing easier (Bhagyalakshmi and Singh, 1988). In addition to
that, it acts as an appetizer and stomachic. The main stomachic constituents
present in ginger are zinzibereine and gingeirol. A famous Ayurvedic drug
trikatu, which is used against digestive disorders, contains ginger as the main
constituent (Malhotra et al, 2003). Ginger acts as a purgative. Fresh ginger
helps to remove constipation while dry ginger powder is a fecal astringent,
meaning it dries up the watery portion of the feces and causes constipation
(Malhotra et al, 2003).
1.2. Dyspepsia
Ginger stimulates the flow of saliva, bile, and gastric secretions and
therefore is traditionally used to stimulate appetite, reduce flatulence, colic,
and gastrointestinal spasms, and generally act as a digestive aid (Blumenthal
et al, 2000). Gingerols inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori associated
with dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, and the development of gastric and
colon cancer (Mahady et al, 2005).
1.3. Anti-ulcerogenic
Frequent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) like
Aspirin, Indomethacin, and Reserpine may cause gastric ulcer and
hypothermic restraint stress. Many studies have proven ginger is a
cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic agent. The main anti-ulcerogenic
constituents present in ginger are 6 gingesulfonic acid, 6 gingerol,6 shogoal,
beta-sesquiphellandrene, beta-bisabolene, gingesulfonic acid,curcumene, and
6 gingglycoprotein A, B and C(Yamahara et al, 1988). Of the anti-
ulcerogenic constituents, 6 gingesulfonicacid is the most potent. These
constituents protect gastric mucosa against alcohol, non-steroidal anti-
Ginger: A Functional Herb
inflammatory drugs,and hydrochloric acid (Yamahara et al, 1992).In mice,
zingiberene and gingerol significantly reduced gastric ulceration
experimentally induced by ethanol and hydrochloric acid (Yamahara et al,
2. Respiratory System
Ginger can be used for throat infections and to relieve congestion in
sinusitis. It reduces fever in colds and flu and suppresses a dry, irritating
cough in laryngitis by increasing human bronchial smooth muscle cell
(BSMC) migration and proliferation and reversing phthalate ester-mediated
airway remodeling. Moreover, (6)-shogaol, (6)-gingerol, (8)-gingerol, and
(10)-gingerol, which are major bioactive compounds present in ginger,
suppress phthalate ester-mediated airway remodeling, which shows that
ginger is capable of preventing phthalate ester-associated asthma.
3. Circulatory System
Ginger stimulates circulation, may help prevent heart attacks, has natural
blood thinning properties, lowers blood cholesterol levels, cleanses and
stimulates blood supply, prevents internal blood clots, may prevent TIA’s
(mini strokes), acts therapeuticallyto reduce hypertension, and prevents
oxidation of LDL which contributes to cholesterol deposits on artery walls.
Ginger has a tonic effect on the heart, and may lower blood pressure by
restricting blood flow in peripheral areas of the body. Further studies show
that ginger can lower cholesterol levels by reducing cholesterol absorption in
the blood and liver.
3.1. Cardiovascular Effect
Fresh ginger exhibits hypotensive properties by endothelium dependent
(cholinergic) and endothelium-independent (CCB) vasodilator pathways.
Fresh ginger extract lowers blood pressure through cholinergic and calcium
blocking (CCB) properties and posseses a combination of cardio-suppressant
and cardio-stimulant action in experimental animals. Cholinergic compounds
are known to cause a fall in blood pressure by activation of muscarinic
receptors located on the epithelium of blood vessels (Furchgott and Zawdski,
1980). Furthermore, the pungent components of ginger, namely 6-gingerole,
8-gingerole, 10-gingerole and 6-shogoal, exhibit a vasodilator effect through
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
a combination of a nitric oxide releasing and calcium antagonist mechanism.
Ginger also contains saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, amino acids/peptides,
secondary amines, and alkaloids. These compounds demonstrate hypotensive
and vasodilator properties and could be the causative agents in thereduction
in blood pressure (Gilani et al, 1994, Ajay et al, 2003).
3.2. AntithromboiticActivity
Ginger has been shown to exhibit antithrombotic activity because it
inhibits platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production in
vitro. Besides this, gingerdione has been shown to inhibit the production of
5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and prostaglandins-F2(PGF2)
from arachidonic acid.Shogoal appeared to be a preferential inhibitor of 5-
HETE formation, whilegingerol and dehydroparadol favored the inhibition of
cyclooxygenase (Nurtjahja-Tjendraputra et al, 2003, Thomson et al, 2002).
4.Nervous System
4.1. Alzheimer’sDisease
6-Gingerol attenuates amyloid-induced oxidative cell death via fortifying
cellular antioxidant defense systems. Amyloid is involved in the formation of
senile plaques (Tiraboschet al, 2004, Ohnishi, and Takano, 2004), the typical
neuropathological marker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and has been
reported to cause apoptosis in neurons via oxidative and/or nitrosative stress.
6-Gingerol pretreatment can protect cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death
such as DNA fragmentation, disruption of mitochondrial membrane
potential, elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activation of caspase-3. 6-Gingerol is
also known to suppress intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen and/or
nitrogen species and to restore depleted endogenous antioxidant glutathione
levels. In addition, 6-gingerol treatment up-regulates the mRNA and protein
expression of antioxidant enzymes such as glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL)
and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate limiting enzymes in glutathione
biosynthesis and heme degradation, respectively.Therefore, 6-gingerol
exhibits preventive and/or therapeutic potential for the management of AD
via augmentation of antioxidant capacity (Lee et al, 2011).
4.2. Anti-InflammatoryProperties
Ginger is useful in treating inflammation, pain, and rheumatism. The
anti-inflammatory properties of ginger have been known and valued for
Ginger: A Functional Herb
centuries (Mascolo et al, 1989, Young, et al, 2005). It is believed that
consuming ginger regularly can reduce pain level and increase mobility in
osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis patients. Although no one single
constituent seems to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of
ginger,shogaol has exhibited the most potent antioxidant and anti-
inflammatory properties which can be attributed to the presence of its
alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone moiety. The carbon chain length has also
played a significant role in making 10-gingerol the most potent among all the
gingerols. An acetone extract containing gingerols, shogaols, and minor
compounds like gingerenone A, [6]-gingerdiol, hexahydrocurcumin, and
zingerone have been shown synergistically to produce dose-dependent anti-
inflammatory effects (Young et al, 2005).
Ginger can modulate the biochemical pathways of prostaglandin
synthesis through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 and
leukotriene biosynthesis through inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. Thus, it
functions as a dual inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis (Grzanna, et al,
2005). This pharmacological property distinguishes ginger from non-
steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and
5-lipoxygenase may have a better therapeutic profile and have fewer side
effects than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. One of the features of
inflammation is increased oxygenation of arachidonic acid which is
metabolized by two enzymic pathwaysthe cyclooxygenase (CO) and the 5-
lipoxygenase (5-LO)leading to the production of prostaglandins and
leukotrienes respectively. Amongst the CO products, PGE2, and amongst the
5-LO products, LTB4, are considered important mediators of inflammation.
Ginger extract and Alpinagalanga inhibits the induction of several genes
involved in the inflammatory response (Grazanna, et al, 2005). These include
genes encoding cytokines, chemokines, and the inducible enzyme
cyclooxygenase-2. In one experiment Srivastava and Mustafa (1992) utilized
powdered ginger to treat 56 patients of different musculoskeletal disorders
(28 with rheumatoid arthritis, 18 with osteoarthritis, and 10 with muscular
discomfort) against their afflictions. Amongst the arthritis patients more than
three-quarters experienced to varying degreesof relief in pain and swelling.
All the patients with muscular discomfort experienced relief in pain. None of
the patients reported adverse effects during the period of ginger consumption
which ranged from 3 months to 2.5 years. The investigators suggested that at
least one of the mechanisms by which ginger shows its ameliorative effects
could be related to inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis
(i.e. it works as a dual inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis).
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
Another mechanism used by ginger compounds to inhibit inflammation
is attenuation of NF-kappaB-mediated iNOS gene expression. Inducible
nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a proinflammatory enzyme responsible for the
generation of nitric oxide (NO), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of
inflammatory diseases. Gingerols have anti-inflammatory properties in vitro.
The active phenolic constituent, 6-gingerol, can inhibit the production of
nitric oxide, a highly reactive nitrogen molecule that quickly forms a very
damaging free radical called peroxynitrite. The resulting peroxinitrites are
responsible for inflammation, pain, and associated diseases. 6-gingerol
increases blood supply to the damaged areas and speeds up the healing and
detoxification process. Udea et al, (2010) investigated the ability of ginger
extract to induce an immune response in RAW-264 cells after repeated oral
administration to mice. They revealed that ginger extract augmented the
serum corticosterone level and gradually induced tolerance and anti-
inflammatory activity in mice. Several oral administrations of squeezed
ginger extract augment the immune resistance, but the repeated
administration led to an anti-inflammatory effect. The effect of ginger on
immune response can be reversed by oral administration period and by some
host factors.It has been identified that serum corticosterone levels
significantly increased after oral administration of ginger extract over 1-5
days. This augmentation may have been the cause of TNF-α inhibition which
was observed after repeated administration of ginger extract. Corticosterone
has been reported to decrease the cytokine production and further the
immune response. The phosphoestrase-4 inhibitor has been reported to
decrease TNF-α production and has shown dramatic anti-inflammatory
efficacy that was dependent on release of corticosterone from adrenal glands
(Pethipher et al, 1996).
4.3. Ginger and Migraine
Migrainesare a recurrent episodic disorder characterized by headache
associated with other symptoms such as nausea, sensory sensitivity, muscle
pain, and cognitive dysfunction. Migraine headaches are fundamentally
different from tension headaches that are caused by accumulated stress and
constriction of muscles in the neck, head, and face. It is thought that migraine
headaches are caused by a cycle of dramatic constriction of the arteries that
supply the brain with blood and nutrients. This constriction is followed by
rapid dilation, then again by constriction, during which nerve pathway
changes and brain chemistry imbalances cause the blood vessels to become
inflamed. It leads to the instability of blood vessels in the brain and to a
Ginger: A Functional Herb
reduction in blood flow during a migraine attack. Additionally, the platelets
of migraine sufferers are different from normal platelets both during and
between migraine attacks. Platelets are small blood cells that clump together
to form blood clots. The difference between platelets results in migraine
sufferers having a significant increase in spontaneous clumping of platelets
as well as in a reduction in the release of a chemical called serotonin. Ginger
has been shown to significantly reduce the effects of migraines by reducing
inflammation and platelet aggregation. Ginger’s ability to help fight nausea,
inflammation, pain, and anxiety makes it an ideal addition to formulas
designed to prevent and manage migraines.
High doses of ginger have also been found to significantly reduce
migraine intensity. It plays a role as a circulatory stimulant, peripheral
vasodilator, and antispasmodic. Ginger may exert abortive and prophylactic
effects in migraine headaches without any side effects. Ginger and its
constituents inhibit the metabolism of arachidonic acid through both the
cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways, thus reducing the accumulation
of prostaglandins and leukotrienes that contribute to pain and inflammation.
This is important because other compounds that are prophylactic against
migraine attacks are postulated to work through the same pathways.
Additionally, ginger extract inhibits the induction of several genes involved
in the inflammatory response, including those that encode cytokines and
chemokines. Studies indicate that certain cytokines are overproduced in
migraine sufferers. The ability of ginger to inhibit thromboxane A2 and exert
antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, and gastric actions makes it a theoretically
attractive choice in migraine therapy (Mustafa &Srivastava 1990b).
4.4. ReducesAnxiety
Ginger can also help to reduce anxiety. Anxiety is frequently associated
with migraine and is correlated with poorer responses to migraine treatment.
Ginger fractions bind to a serotonin receptor and reduce levels of anxiety in
animals. The bioactive compounds of ginger extract interact with the human
serotonin 5-HT (1A) receptor with significant to moderate binding affinities
(K(i)=3-20 microM).S-GTP gamma S assays indicated that 10-shogaol, 1-
dehydro-6-gingerdione, and particularly the whole lipophilic ginger extract
(K(i)=11.6 microg/ml) partially activate the 5-HT(1A) receptor (20-60% of
maximal activation). In addition, the intestinal absorption of gingerols and
shogaols interact with P-glycoprotein and offer a favorable pharmacokinetic
profile for the 5-HT (1A) active compounds. A combination of ginger and
Ginkgo biloba has been shown to reduce anxiety in an animal model
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
(elevated plus-maze test). The effect was similar to diazepam (an allopathic
medicine used for anxiety treatment) (Hasenohrl et al, 1996). A highly non-
polar fraction of a ginger extract has been shown to possess anticonvulsant,
anxiolytic, and anti-emetic activities in animals (Vishwakarma et al, 2002).
5. Endocrine System
5.1.Diabetes and Hyperglycemic
Diabetes mellitus can be defined as a group of metabolic diseases
characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin
secretion, insulin action, or both resulting in impaired function in
carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism and is associated with markedly
increased morbidity and mortality rate(Zhang et al,2006). Diabetes is known
to increase ROS production and oxidative stress probably as a result of
glucose auto-oxidation and non-enzymatic glycation (Gupta et al, 2007).
Prolonged exposure to hyperglycemic conditions creates predominance of
oxidative stress over antioxidative defense systems, leading to oxidative
DNA damage, which possibly contributes to pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction
(Song et al., 2007). Hence, compounds with both hypoglycemic and anti-
oxidative properties would be useful anti-diabetic agents (Cemek et al.,
2008). Ginger has already been proven as an antidiabetic agent and helps in
reducing hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia conditions (Akhaniet al,2004,
Sharma et al,1996,Ajithet al, 2007). Ginger may assist in prevention of the
progression of type 2 diabetes through its hypoglycemic effects and by
increasing insulin sensitivity. The hypoglycemic potentials of ginger were
tested in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (500 mg/kg, intra-
peritoneally) daily for a period of 7 weeks. Ginger was found very effective
in reversing the diabetic proteinuria andlowering serum glucose, cholesterol,
and triacylglycerol levels in the ginger-treated diabetic rats compared with
the control diabetic rats (Al-Amin et al, 2006). Singh et al, (2009) suggested
that (6)-gingerol is an effective anti-diabetic agent via its ability to enhance
insulin sensitivity and to decrease hyperlipidemia in type 2 diabetic animals.
Furthermore, it is also beneficial against oxidative stress, thereby being
helpful in delaying or preventing complications of diabetes and aging. Ginger
ethanolic extract has shown insulinotropic action similar to chlorpropamide,
a sulphonylurea drug, and enhanced insulin sensitivity atthe cellular level
(Ojewole et al, 2006). Also, ethanolic ginger extract reduced plasma
cholesterol and inhibited LDL oxidation in atherosclerotic apoE-deficient
Ginger: A Functional Herb
mice (Fuhrman et al, 2000). Moreover, addition of ginger (1 %) to a normal
diet prevented the formation of free radicals and maintained the integrity of
rat erythrocytes (Ahemed et al, 2000). The antioxidant potency of ginger has
been attributed to gingerols that prevent the production of reactive oxygen
species (Ali et al, 2008). Aldose reductase inhibitors, which reduce sorbitol
formation as well as its accumulation in human tissues such as erythrocytes
and protect cells from osmotic damage, are considered to have remarkable
potential for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications. At least
two active components, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) ethanol and 2-(4-
hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) ethanoic acid, of ginger have shown aldose
reductase inhibitor properties (Ali et al, 2008). Also, ginger inhibited
serotonin-induced hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia by blocking its
receptors (Al-Amin et al, 2006). Madko et al (2011) reported that a ginger,
garlic,and turmeric mixture significantly decreased serum total lipid and total
cholesterol levels in healthy rats, which may be beneficial as a prophylaxis
against hypercholesterolemia.
5.1.1. Cataract
Ginger not only prevents and cures diabetes but it is also preventive in
the progression of cataracts. The aqueous extract of ginger possesses both
antiglycating activity and ALR2 (aldolase reductase) inhibition (Saraswat et
al, 2010, Saraswat et al, 2008). Regular consumption of ginger delays the
progression and maturation of cataracts. This could be attributed to its ability
to prevent the multiple changes associated with the accumulation of AGE
(i.e., reduction in the carbonyl stress, inhibition of osmotic stress by reducing
the activity of polyol pathway, and prevention of oxidative stress) (Saraswat,
5.2.2. Hypertension
Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) is a metellopeptidease that
catalyses two reactions, leading to constriction of blood vessels and hence
blood pressure regulation (Schmaier, 2002).Ginger exhibited relevant ACE
inhibitory activities indicating potential anti-hypertension activity likely
related to non-phenolic compounds (Ranillaet al, 2010).
6. Immune System
The active constituents of ginger function as immunomodulators by
increasing the body’s immunity through their antimicrobial and free radical
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
scavenging properties. Ginger extract raises the thymus index, spleen index,
and percentage of phagocytosis significantly, thus improving immunologic
function(Kathi, 1999, Schitteket al, 2001). Ginger cannot only be warming
on a cold day, but can also help promote healthy sweating, which is often
helpful during colds and flus. A good sweat may do a lot more than simply
assist detoxification. Sweat contains a potent germ-fighting agent that may
help fight off infections. Dermicidin is a protein manufactured in the body's
sweat glands, secreted into the sweat, and transported to the skin's surface
where it provides protection against invading microorganisms, including
bacteria, such as E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus (a common cause of skin
infections), and fungi, including Candida albicans (Alternative Medical
Review,2003, Schitteket al,2001).
6.1.Antimicrobialand AntifungalProperties
Ginger extract and several of its constituents exhibit antimicrobial
activity in vitro and in vivo and antischistosomal activity (Akoachereet al,
2002). Chemical constituents of ginger such assesquiterpenes,
diarylheptenones, gingerenones A, B and C, and isogingerenone B, have
shown antifungal activity invitro. It has been proposed that lipophilicity or
hydrophobicity and chemical structure of essential oils or their main
compounds such as the presence of functional polar groups and aromaticity
could play an important role in the antimicrobial activity (Faraget al, 1989b;
Dawet al, 1994).This activity enables partitioning between lipids of the
bacterial or fungal cell membrane and mitochondria, disturbing the cell
structures and rendering them more permeable, which will lead to cell death
(Sikkemaet al, 1994). Some of the major components present in ginger oils
can penetrate the membrane of the microorganisms and react with the
membrane enzymes and proteins as well as phospholipid bilayer, which
causes an impairment of the microbial enzyme system and/or a disturbance of
genetic material functionality (Farag et al, 1989, Abd El-Baky and El-Baroty,
2008, Conner, 1993). Fresh ginger oil (FG) showed strong inhibition against
Aspergillusnigerand Candida and inactivity against Pencilliumsppand
Trichoderma spp. At the same time, dry ginger oil (DG) was more active
towards Candida andweaker against Aspergillusniger, Pencilliumspp, and
Saccharomyces cereviseae (Sasidharan and Menon 2010).
Ginger extracts have antibacterial effects against both gram-positive and
gram-negative bacteria such as Clostridium, Listeria, Enterococcus,
Ginger: A Functional Herb
Staphylococcus,Streptococcus,and Haemophilus species. The minimum
inhibitory concentration of ginger ranged from 0.0003–0.7 μg/mL, and the
minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 0.135–2.04 μg/mLspecies,
but some of this effect is destroyed by heating (e.g., cooking)(Mascoloet al,
1989 and Chenet al, 1985). Gingerols demonstrated antibacterial activity
against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coliin vitro (Yamada et al 1992).
Sasidharan and Menon(2010) found fresh ginger oil was inactive against
Bacillus subtiliswhereas dry ginger oil wasmore active towards Pseudomonas
aeruginosaand weakeragainst Bacillus subtilis.
6.1.2 Antiviral
Ginger has been found very effective against the flu virus, due to its
warm and bitter property. Several sesquiterpenes, but especially beta-
sesquiphellandrene, isolated from ginger hasalso been shown to have
antirhinoviral activity in vitro (Denyeret al 1994). Denyer also showed that
shogaol and zingerone strongly inhibited Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae
and Trichophytonviolaceum.
Gingerol (5.0 ppm) completely abolished the infectivity of Schistosoma
spp. (blood flukes) in animal studies (Adewunmi et al 1990). Zingibain,
another bioactive compound, dissolves parasites and their eggs. Gingerol and
shogaol exhibited potent molluscicidal activity in vivo (Adewunmiet al
1990). Shogaol and gingerol have demonstrated anti-nematode activities;
6.25 μg/mL 6-shogaol destroyed Anisakis larvae within 16 hours in vitro,
whereas the antinematodal medication pyrantelpamoate had no lethal effect
at 1 mg/mL (Goto et al 1990).
6.2. As an Antioxidant
Ginger spares SOD (superoxide dismutase)an important anti-oxidant,
catalase which is essential for breaking down potentially harmful hydrogen
peroxide in the cells to glutathione peroxidase. SOD also acts on hydrogen
peroxide and helps maintain integrity of cell membranes (Brock, 2007). The
active constituents of ginger have antioxidant properties. The chemical
structure of zingerone makes it a potent free radical scavenger. The hydroxyl
groups in the molecule are responsible for scavenging peroxynitrite (ONOO-
), a very powerful pro-oxidant implicated in a number of neurodegenerative
and pathophysiological processes. Zingerone can diffuse freely across
phospholipid membrane bilayers to react with a wide variety of molecular
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
targets including lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to cell death via necrosis
or apoptosis. Since endogenous antioxidant enzymes are lacking to inactivate
ONOO, it is imperative to include some article through the diet thathas this
action. Zingerone not only cleans the peroxynitrite (ONOO-) from the
system, but it is also involved in the inhibition of NO- and O2- formation.
Although the mechanism is not fully defined, the two possible pathways of
nitration or electron donation have been suggested as a phenolic ONOO-
scavenger interaction with ONOO-. Ginger is a good source of antioxidant
and most of the antioxidant components exhibit higher activities in alcoholic
media. Hence, apart from its medicinal properties, ginger can also be used as
an antioxidant supplement (Adiland Prasad, 2010).
Ginger constituents are regarded as chemopreventive dietary agents
exhibiting inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lypoxygenase (LO) activities,
induction of apoptosis, and antitumerogenic effects. Ginger inhibits 5-LO
enzymes, the only food for prostate cancer cells. Prostate cancer cells die in
one to two hours in absence of 5-LO enzyme. Ginger induces cell death in
leukemic, skin, kidney, lung, and pancreatic cancer cells. The anticancer
properties of ginger are attributed to the presence of certain constituents such
as [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol, as well as some other constituents like
shogaolsand zingerone (Park et al., 2006). Therefore, it can safely be used for
cancer therapy. Gingerol inhibits pancreatic cell growth,is beneficial to
prevent constipation-related cancer, and is an effective anti-tumor agent in
leukemia cells.
6.3.1. Colorectal Cancer
As suggested by Cancer Prevention Research, gingerols, the main active
components in ginger, inhibit the growth of human colorectal cancer cells
(Bode et al, 2003). In another experiment, Bode et al (2001) studied the
effect of 6-paradol and 6-gingerol on the cell proliferation and DNA
synthesis of HL-60 cells. They observed that their cytotoxicity was
associated with induction of apoptosis and/or inhibition of activator protein-
1(AP-1). Apoptosis can be defined as the cleavage of DNA into
discontinuous mono- and oligonucleosomal size fragments that form a typical
DNA ladder during gel electrophoresis. 6-gingerol, a natural product of
ginger, has been known to possess anti-tumorigenic and pro-apoptotic
activities. It has also been suggested that 6-gingerol stimulates apoptosis
through up regulation of NAG-1 and G (1) cell cycle arrest through down
Ginger: A Functional Herb
regulation of cyclin D1. Multiple mechanisms appear to be involved in
gingerol action, including protein degradation as well as beta-catenin,
PKCepsilon, and GSK-3beta pathways (Lee et al, 2008).
6.3.2. Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer is often deadly since symptoms typically do not appear
until late in the disease process, so by the time ovarian cancer is diagnosed, it
has spread beyond the ovaries. More than 50% of women who develop
ovarian cancer are diagnosed in the advanced stages of the disease. Invitro
experiments have shown that ginger kills ovarian cancer cells by inducing
apoptosis (programmed cell death) and autophagocytosis (self-digestion).
Ginger extracts have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and
anti-tumor effects on cells (Rhode et al, 2006). A pro-inflammatory state is
thought to be an important contributing factor in the development of ovarian
cancer (Rhode et al, 2006). Ginger, containing a number of key indicators of
inflammation (vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-8, and
prostaglandin E2), can decrease ovarian cancer cells. Conventional
chemotherapeutic agents also suppress these inflammatory markers, but may
cause cancer cells to become resistant to the action of the drugs. However,
ginger may be of special benefit for ovarian cancer patients because cancer
cells exposed to ginger do not become resistant to its cancer-destroying
effects(Rhode et al, 2006).
6.3.3. Breast Cancer
Ginger has been found to significantly inhibit mammary tumorigenesis
and tumor growth in laboratory mice when fed in drinking water. [6]-
gingerol, a component of ginger, has been shown to inhibit cell adhesion,
invasion, and motility in ER-negative (estrogen independent) human breast
cancer cells in the laboratory (Lee et al, 2007). Hence, ginger appears to have
promise in fighting breast cancer and is safe to include in the diet.
7. Other Uses
Ginger is on the Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) list of generally
recognized as safe (GRAS)(Alternative Medical Review, 2003).
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
7.1. ReducesCoughand Cold
Ginger also acts as an expectorant. It is believe to control common cold
and flu symptoms. Ginger juice with honey is a common home remedy for
cough. Rhinovirus is among those viruses which are responsible for common
cold. The dried ginger has been found very effective against this virus.
βsequiphellandrene, a sesquiterpene which is found in ginger, is effective
against the rhinovirus. In addition, it helps eliminate congestion and ginger
tea eases a sore throat.
7.2. PreventObesity
Ginger acts as fat and cellulite burning food. Invitro studies in Japan
show that zingerone, an active component of ginger, prevents fat storage in
rats by increasing fat burning and by reducing the absorption of fat from the
small intestine.
7.3. As a MeatTenderizer
Ginger rhizome has been investigated as a source of plant proteolytic
enzyme (Thompson et al, 1973,Ziauddinet al, 1995). The ginger protease is a
thiol proteinase with an optimum activity at 60°C. Rapid denaturation of the
enzyme occurs at 70°C. Its proteolytic activity on collagen appears to be
many times greater than that on actomyosin and the combined proteolysis of
these two muscle proteins resulted in significantly more tender meat. Ginger
extract is an effective meat tenderizer and the tenderization is achieved
through its action on both myofibrillar and connective tissue components of
toughness. Improvement in color, appearance, juiciness, and tenderness of
beef samples treated with ginger extract were also tested (Ziauddinet al,1995.
The use of ginger extract for improving the qualities of tough meat could
prove to be a boon to the meat industry (Naveen et al, 2001).
7.4. As a Food Preservative
Ginger and some other herbs like cinnamon are used as a food
preservative and can increase food safety and shelf life of fatty and processed
food products. El-Baroty et al (2010) reported that cinnamon and ginger
essential oils can be used as a preventer of cellular damage due to spoilage
bacteria and fungi. Both oils and bioactive components (at concentration
levels 20 - 100 μg/ml) could be employed as natural food preservatives to
prevent lipid peroxidation, which causes food spoilage.
Ginger: A Functional Herb
7.5. Thermogenic
Ginger has traditionally been used in Asia as a warming remedy to treat
chills associated with colds and flu. The shogaol compounds of ginger
significantly inhibited serotonin (5-HT) induced hypothermia in rats. Within
30 minutes of oral administration, ginger raised the body temperature of rats
by 0.5°C(Kanu et al, 1992). Gingerol increased body temperature and oxygen
consumption in rats indicating an increased metabolic rate (Eldershaw et al,
7.6. Regulate Menstrual Irregularities and Dysmenorrhea
Ginger is useful when taken internally, if menstrual pain is due to
ischemic cramp (lack of uterine blood supply) (Alternative Medical Review,
2003). It is also good in the form of hot compresses for abdominal cramps,
headaches, and joint stiffness.
Ginger may alter the effects of some prescribed and nonprescribed
medications. If blood-thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin) or aspirin,
diabetes medicines,or high blood pressure medicines are being taken ginger
therapy is not advisable.Ginger may lower blood sugar, raising the risk of
hypoglycemia or low blood sugar, and may lower blood pressure, raising the
risk of low blood pressure or irregular heartbeat. Ginger therapy is also not
recommended in children less than two years (Heck et al, 2000 and Vaes et
al, 2000).
Ginger is a rhizomatous plant grown throughout South-eastern Asia and
China and in parts of Japan, Austria, Latin America, Jamaica, andAfrica.
Ginger has been used as a spice and medicine in the Indian subcontinent
since ancient times. Its medicinal values have been known for centuries.It is
the most widely used condiment, flavoring, and garnishing agent. The herb
serves as a stimulant and carminative and is used in dyspepsia and colic. It is
known to have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties, due to
which it is used in treating heart diseases.The major phenolic compounds and
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
essential oils act as potent antioxidant and exhibit free radical scavenging
properties. The antimicrobial properties are due to the presence of
componentssuch as thymol, eugenol, 1, 8 cineole, α and βpinenes, linalool,
and αterpineol. Ginger tea is considered a good home remedy for cold. The
herb can also used to treat arthritis, diarrhea, motion sickness, diabetes,
bronchitis, and rheumatism. It is a remedy for nausea due to seasickness,
morning sickness, and chemotherapy. Overall, ginger is a versatile herb with
phenomenal phytotherapeutic and medicinal properties. It would be difficult
to find a place or nation on this globe that has not been benefited through this
extraordinary aromatic herb.
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... Ginger was also used to flavour beer throughout the Middle Ages (McGee, 2004). In fact, it was such a highly-valued trade item in 13th and 14th century England that one pound of the spice was once said to be worth as much as a sheep. 1 Medieval writings suggest that ginger was a standard ingredient in both kitchen and apothecary recipes (Bhatt et al., 2013). For example, Alexander Neckham's 12th Century De Utensibiles [Treatise on Kitchen Utensils] incorporates ginger into a number of the recipes. ...
... By the 9th century, the medicinal properties of ginger were also becoming known in Germany and France (Bhatt et al., 2013). Meanwhile, the Venetian merchant and explorer Marco Polo first came across ginger while visiting China (Peking) and Sumatra (in Indonesia) in the 13th century (1271-1295), and had some sent back to Europe. ...
... Ginger essential oils are also used as an ingredient in perfumery (Zachariah and Gopalam, 1987). Apparently, the Romans added ginger to their oil lamps in order to fragrance the atmosphere (Bhatt et al., 2013). And, as with so many other herbs and spices, ginger has a range of antimicrobial (Guptha and Ravishankar, 2005;Stoyanova et al., 2013), antibacterial (Malu et al., 2009), anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory (Grzanna et al., 2005), chemopreventative (Baliga, Haniadka, Pereira, D'Souza, Pallaty, Bhat andPopuri, 2011), andanti-oxidant properties (Aeschbach et al., 1994;El-Baroty et al., 2010;Hiroe and Nobuji, 1993;Jelled et al., 2015;Kantayos and Paisooksantivatana, 2012;Mao et al., 2019;Shirin Adel and Prakash, 2010;Zadeh and Kor, 2014). ...
... This review focuses on emerging concepts that drive the science of migraine in both a mechanistic direction and a therapeutic direction. Bhatt, et al., (2013) Ginger is a rhizomatous plant and has been used as a spice and medicine in theIndian subcontinent since ancient times. The herb serves as a stimulant and carminative and is used in dyspepsia and colic. ...
... The family zingiberaceae is represented by about 46 genera, distributed through the tropics and subtropics. The genus includes about 85 species of aromatic herbs from East Asia and tropical Australia (Bhatt et al., 2013). The plant is an aromatic herb and its taxonomic position is as follows (Gupta and Sharma, 2014): The English botanist William Roscoe (1753-1831) gave the plant the name Zingiber, derived from a Sanskrit word singabera which means horn-shaped due to the protrusions on the rhizome. ...
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This research was aimed at investigating the Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer 407Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats. Hyperlipidaemia was induced with poloxamer P407 (1.5 g/kg b.w. i.p.) The Animals were grouped into six of five animals each group. Group 1 normal control, Group 2 served as the hyperlipidemic control, Group 3 administered 0.26 g/kg cholestyramine, Group 4 fed on Fenugreek 25% supplement. Group 5 fed on 25% fermented ginger supplement, while group 6 were fed on 25% ginger and fenu greek combined respectively. All treatments were given for a period of four week. Serum antioxidant activities such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde were evaluated. As regards to the catalase activity there was a significant decrease in the groups' fed on 25% fenugreek and 25% fermented ginger supplements respectively. However, co-fed with both supplements significantly increase the catalase activity as compared with the hyperlipidaemic control untreated. Comparism with the positive control cholestyramine, there was also a significant increase. Also in relation to the SOD activity there was a significant increase in the activity as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. Furthermore, the Gpx activity there was a significant increase in the as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. oxidative stress biomarker activities SOD) there was significant increase (p<0.05) when compared with hyperlipidemic control. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the Malondialdehyde levels in the groups fed with the supplement when compared with hyperlipidemic control. In conclusion supplements of Fenugreek and Ginger improved antioxidant status and reduced Malondialdehyde in Poloxamer-407 Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.
... Ginger typically propagates through the formation of new plants from rhizomes owing to its poor flowering ability and the infertility of flowers; as a result, ginger breeding occurs predominantly through vegetative growth (Shivakumar 2019). Nevertheless, ginger exhibits diverse morphological phenotypes, with more than 25 species of ginger cultivated worldwide (Nayak et al. 2005;Bhatt et al. 2013). Several promising cultivars have been characterized based on morphological, biochemical, major secondary metabolite content, and yield data; however, these characteristics may differ in their habitat and growing conditions (Nayak et al. 2005;Mahdi et al. 2013). ...
... Yapılan güncel çalışmalarda dispepsi, antiülserojenik, antitrombotik aktivitesi anti inflamatuar özelliklerinin olduğu ileri sürülmektedir. 28 Öğrenciler ter kokusu olmasın diye bebeklerin tuza veya bala bulandıklarından bahsetmektedir. Çalıştığımız literatür içinde sofra tuzu yer almamaktadır fakat tuzun ter için kullanımı vücut fizyolojisine benzer mineral kullanılması düşüncesine uygundur. ...
... Ginger is a herbaceous plant native to Southeast Asia (Kumar et al., 2018 andBijaya, 2018). As a folk medicinal plant, ginger has its application in Southeast Asia, Africa, China, India etc. (Bhatt et al., 2013). Ginger consumption benefits heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, bacterial disease, obesity, blood sugar and osteoarthritis. ...
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a cash crop for small farmers, and its health benefits make it an important spice. In this study, we want to look at various trend models for ginger production over time and see how they perform. Data for ginger production in Bangladesh are gathered from the Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) website from 1971 to 2020. We examine the performance of eight trend models using the coefficient of determination (R 2) and adjusted R 2. The maximum R 2 and maximum adjusted R 2 values have been found for both the compound and growth model. MAPE and MAD values are also used to assess the accuracy of fitted models. The value of MAPE and MAD for the estimated compound and growth model is same, which are 12.14% and 6057.54, respectively. Following statistical diagnostics, the compound and growth models were determined to be more appropriate for this dataset, with the compound growth rate of ginger production being 1.019 per year.
... conditions, dyslipidemia and muscular discomfort. (5) In particular, its pungent oil components harbour a series of polyphenolic ketones called Gingerols with many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Gingerdiones and Shogaols present in Ginger have pharmacological properties mimicking dual-acting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). ...
A major difficulty for the successful eradication of oral infections is the dilution and rapid elimination of topically applied drugs due to the flushing action of saliva. Hence there is a need for a drug delivery system that can prolong retention of the locally applied drugs in the oral cavity. Aim: To design a liquid bandage containing ginger extracts (GELB) and evaluates its antioxidant efficacy. Methodology: Various concentrations of GELB were formulated and tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH scavenging assay. IC50 value using Graph Prism software version 5.0 by nonlinear regression analysis of % inhibition was recorded for different concentrations of GELB/standard. Results: In the DPPH assay, GELB showed a significant level of dose-dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 0.1993% when compared to standard with IC50 value of 4.099 µg/ml. Conclusion: The ginger extract liquid bandage has shown superior antioxidant properties against oral pathogens with satisfactory and sustained drug release.
... Researches had indicated that ginger and tumeric are effective in reducing inflammation in arthritic condition. (Neeru, et al 2013) reported extensively on the origin of ginger, cultivation, application in traditional medicine, in decorative, as antipoisoning agent, reduction of cholesterol, block excessive blood clothing, and fight against arthritis. Ginger rhizome may be used as digestive aid, anti-nausea remedy, control to baldness, reduce toothache, snake bite, help new born mothers cleanse their womb after child-birth, etc. ...
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Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizomes, both from Zingiberaceae family, had been studied for their physico/phytochemical and bioactive compositions, as a natural source of anti-microbial drugs. The active ingredients in turmeric and ginger were isolated using different solvents, such as, chloroform, ethanol, hexane and benzene, while rotary evaporator was used to separate the moisture contents, which were 12.38 and 11.15 % for both tumeric and ginger respectively. Ash contents were 7.45 % and 7.20 %, while, specific gravity were 0.34 % and 0.25 % for both tumeric and ginger respectively. Coumarin, the major content of tumeric was identified in all the solvent extracts, while, polyphenol was presence in ginger extracts. Saponin, terpenoids, and anthocynins, were found to be present in all the solvent extracts of both turmeric and ginger. Carbohydrates, protein and alkaloid contents were tested using standard methods. Protein was identified in turmeric extract, but, not in ginger. The phyto-chemicals and bioactive compositions of tumeric and ginger have proved them source materials for drug formulations and antimicrobial agents, to fight against some pathogens and maintain some health challenges.
Nowadays, theoretical chemistry has experienced a great advance in the search for drugs for the treatment of various human and animal pathologies. Although it is expected that medicinal plants constitute a great source for the research of compounds, the present study has been carried out to provide a list of important plants that can be explored in the research of antiviral compounds. The main objective is to search for medicinal plant(s) that can be used to treat various viral pathologies; in other words, the search for broad spectrum antiviral plants. Thus, several articles of synthesis, original research, systematic review on antiviral plants from different countries are consulted in this study. A total of 694 species of medicinal plants from 152 families were extracted from the literature against 17 virus families including Adenoviridae, Alloherpesviridae, Arteriviridae, Birnaviridae, Coronaviridae, Flaviviridae, Herpesviridae, Nimaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Poxviridae, Reoviridae, Retroviridae, Togaviridae. The most cited families of plants are Fabaceae (11.38%), Lamiaceae (5.90%), Asteraceae (5.61%), Rubiaceae (3.45%) and Euphorbiaceae (3.02%). The three (3) most cited species that can treat several viral diseases are Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica and Zingiber officinale. These plants can be a starting point for antiviral drug research and the compounds already isolated from these plants can be subject to molecular docking in order to explore their antiviral potential.
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Zingiber officinale Rosc. belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, is mentioned as Maha-aushadhi in Ayurveda and is also used in many processed dried ginger-based products. The present work was designed to determine the effect of drying on the essential oil content and composition of Zingiber officinale Rosc. rhizomes collected when matured, from Khatima, Uttarakhand region. The GC and GC/MS analysis of the oils resulted in the identification of total 56 (fresh), 45 (sun dried), 47 (blower dried), 37 (shade dried), 46 (oven dried at 30°C) and 44 (oven dried at 50°C) compounds representing 97.93 %, 98.48%, 98.26%, 99.25%, 99.10% and 98.65% of the total oil respectively. The predominant compounds in the oil were geranial (17.53-35.24%), neral (12.47-24.59%), β-phellandrene (9.84-14.12%), geraniol (5.43-10.19%), geranyl acetate (1.33-12.23%), camphene (4.45-7.87%) and zingiberene (0.92-5.24%). The content of camphene, β-phellandrene and geranyl acetate decreased while the percentage of geranial, neral, geraniol and zingiberene increased on drying the ginger rhizomes. The essential oil of all the samples had high percentage of oxygenated monoter­penes. This study was one of its kind and showed a significantly different deduction from other studies.
OBJECTIVE: To review and characterize the evidence describing potential interactions between warfarin and garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng. DATA SOURCES: Searches of MEDLINE (1966-1999), other bibliographic databases, several abstracting services, and tertiary references were conducted. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Articles were examined by each author, and additional citations were obtained from the references of these articles. Preference was given to English-language articles of human studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Evidence is lacking for an interaction of warfarin with garlic or ginger. Once case report associates ginseng use with decreased warfarin-maintained anticoagulation effect. Another case report links concomitant use of ginkgo and warfarin with the development of intracerebral hemorrhage. Hemorrhage and bleeding tendencies were noted in four cases with ginkgo use and in three cases with garlic; in none of these cases were patients receiving warfarin. CONCLUSIONS: The true risks of these interactions and effects are difficult to characterize due to the limited number and nature of existing reports.
Meristems of ginger with or without leaf primordia were induced to form shoots on three-quarter strength Murashige-Skoog’s (MS) medium containing sucrose 6%, coconut milk (CM) 20%, ascorbic acid (AA) 100 mg l−1, glutamine (GL) 400 mg l−1, activated charcoal (AC) 250 mg l−1, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) 0.5 mg l−1, indolebutyric acid (IBA) 0.4 mg l−1 and agar 0.8%. Meristem-derived shoots exhibited consistent multiplication on three-quarter strength MS medium containing sucrose (3%), AA (100 mg l−1), AC (100 mg l−1), BAP (4–5 mg l−1) and agar (0.8%). Liquid media (agitated or static) were less effective than a solid (agar-gelled) medium for micropropagation. Kinetin and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) incorporated at various levels (0.01–0.8 mg l−1) with or without added BAP and IBA neither improved plantlet formation nor enhanced shoot multiplication. The in vitro plants were successfully established in vivo and the rhizome yield was comparable with that of plants grown by conventional methods.