ChapterPDF Available

Figures

Content may be subject to copyright.
Chapter
GINGER: A FUNCTIONAL HERB
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa,
and Amanat Ali*
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agriculture and
Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University,
Al Khoud, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Ginger (Zingiberofficinale Roscoe)belongs to the familyZingiberaceae
(Wagner, 1980) and genus Zingiber. Other names of ginger are African
ginger, Black ginger, Cochin ginger, GanJiang,Gegibre, Ingwer, Jamaican
ginger, and Race ginger. Turmeric, cardamom, and galangal are other notable
members of the ginger family. The English botanist William Roscoe (1753-
1831) gave the plant the name Zingiber, derived from a Sanskrit word
singabera which means horn-shaped due to the protrusions on the rhizome
(Katzer, 1999). The genus includes about 85 species of aromatic herbs from
East Asia and tropical Australia.
Ginger is an erect perennial plant growing from one to three feet in
height. The stem sticks up about 12 inches above ground and is surrounded
by the sheathing bases of the two-ranked leaves. It produces clusters of white
and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Ginger grows
horizontally, laterally flattened with branching pieces,a configuration known
as rhizome. The whole rhizome has a firm, striated texture. It is 5 to 15cm
long, 1.5to 6cm wide, 2cm thick and depending on the variety can be yellow,
white, or red in color.
Warm, humid climate is the most ideal for ginger cultivation. It grows
best in rich soil and shady places. Ginger can be grown both under rain fed
and irrigated conditions. It is usually cultivated vegetatively, meaning pieces
* Author of correspondence: amanat@squ.edu.om
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
2
of rhizome are planted in the soil and each sprouts to form a new plant.
Modern micropropagation is also being used where new plants are cloned
from cells taken from a single plant. The cloned offspring are then planted
out in a field. Carefully preserved seed rhizomes are cut into small pieces of
2.5-5.0 cm length weighing 20-25 g, each having one or two good buds. The
seed rate varies from region to region and depends upon the adopted method
of cultivation. Worldwide, over 25 varieties of ginger are grown. Zingiber,
ISR- Varada 2, Suprabha, Suruchi, Suravi,Himagiri, IISR Mahima, IISR
Rejatha, Rio-de-Janerio, Nadia,and China are some of the important
cultivars grown across the world (Shasikaran et al, 2008). Ginger is also
grown as a decorative plant. Patterned foliage, deliciously perfumed flowers
in a rainbow palette of colors and surprising seedpods make the ginger plant
an interesting and noteworthy ornamental plant.Cautleya, Globba, Roscoea,
Kaempferia, and Siphonochilusare grown for ornamental and medicinal
purpose but not for spice (Branney, 2005, Byers, 1999).
Soft root, bacterial wilt, leaf spot, nematode pests, shoot borer, and
rhizome scale are some common diseases that can infest ginger. The pests
affect both the ginger plant and rhizomes. When the leaves turn yellowand
start withering gradually, it indicates that crop is ready to harvest. Depending
on the variety and their intended use it takes about 8 to 9 months after
planting. Fresh ginger might be harvested about 5 months after planting.
Preserved ginger are usually dug up 5 to 7 months after planting, before they
are fully mature but while they are still tender and mild. Dried ginger, mature
rhizomes with a full aroma, flavour, and pungency, are harvested 8 to 9
months after planting. The essential oil content within rhizomes increases
with age, so plants used for this might be harvested even later. Harvesting is
done either by hand with a spade or digging fork or by mechanical diggers.
The clumps are lifted carefully and the rhizomes are separated from the dried
up leaves, roots and adhering soil. They are immediately scalded, or washed
and scraped, to prevent sprouting. Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly
dry. For seed material, bold and healthy rhizomes from disease free plants are
selected immediately after harvesting and stored properly in pits under shade.
Depending on the variety and location where the crop is being grown the
yield of dry ginger is 19-25% of fresh ginger (Shasikaran et al, 2008).
Ginger is grown throughout South Eastern Asia, China and in parts of Japan,
Austria, Latin America, Jamaica and Africa. India is the top producer of
Ginger, followed by China, Indonesia, Nepal and Thailand, but the most
expensive and high quality varieties come from Jamaica, Australia, and
South India (Gilani and Gayur, 2005, Ali and Gilani, 2007).
Ginger: A Functional Herb
3
HISTORY, POPULAR AND TRADITIONAL USES
Ginger is native to Southeastern Asia (Wagner, 1980). It is mentioned in
ancient Chinese, Indian, and Middle Eastern periodicals and has long been
valued for its aromatic, culinary, and medicinal properties (Langner, 1998).
Confucius wrote about ginger in his Analects and the Greek physician
Dioscorides listed ginger as an antidote to poisoning, as a digestive, and as
being warming to the stomach in De MateriaMedica (Langner, 1998). Many
religious holy booksthe Quran, the Talmud, the Bible, Ayurveda,
CharakSushutra, Vagbhatta and CharakDuttahave mentioned ginger
(Gajnavi, 1996, Hrdayam of Srimadvagbhat, 1999). The medicinal properties
ofginger were known in ninth century in Germany and France and in tenth
century in England. Records suggest that ginger was highly valued as an
article of trade during the 13th and 14th century in England; one pound of
ginger had the same worth as that of sheep. Ginger migrated westward to
Europe by Greek and Roman times. History shows that ancient Romans
imported ginger from China almost two thousand years ago. By the
middleAges it was a very popular spice in the Mediterranean region and had
spread throughout other countries. Medieval writing from many European
countries indicates that ginger was a standard ingredient in recipes for the
kitchen and the apothecary (Widmaier, 1986). In an attempt to make it more
available, Spanish explorers introduced ginger to the West Indies, Mexico,
and South America in the 16th century and these areas began exporting this
precious herb back to Europe. Ginger plants grown in pots were carried
abroad onlong sea voyages to prevent scurvy. The Eclectic physicians of the
19th century relied on ginger to induce sweating, improve the appetite, and
curb nausea and as a topical counterirritant. Ginger is an integral part of
Ayurveda, the traditional medicine of India, and is known as sunthi in
Ayurveda (Hrdayam of Srimadvagbhatt, 1999). It was used to block
excessive clotting of blood in arteries and veins, to reduce cholesterol, and to
fight against arthritis. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) ginger is
considered a pungent, dry, warming herb to be used for ailments triggered by
cold and damp weather. It was also used as a digestive aid and antinausea
remedy and to treat bleeding disorders, rheumatism, baldness, toothache,
snakebite, and respiratory conditions. The Romans added ginger to the oil in
lamps to render an aroma in the air. Meanwhile in England ginger was added
to spice up beer. The Greeks wrapped ginger in bread and ate it after meals as
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
4
a digestive aid. Subsequently, ginger was incorporated directly into bread and
confectionaries such as gingerbread. As ginger resembles fingers, pregnant
women in China are advised to avoid ginger during pregnancy, as they might
give birth to babies with more than five fingers. But after birth a woman may
take it for strength, to clean out all poison from her body, and to protect the
newborn (Wong, 2001). In Malaysia and Indonesia, ginger soup is given to
new mothers for 30 days after their delivery to help them sweat out
impurities. In Arabian medicine, ginger is considered an aphrodisiac. Some
Africans believe that eating ginger regularly will help repel mosquitoes and
women of central Africa make belts of ginger roots to attract the attention of
their husbands. Ginger flowers are traditionally worn by Hawaiian dancers
(Gilani, 2005).
Culinary Use
Ginger is consumed worldwide as spice, flavoring agent, garnish,
medicine, and food preservative and is used either fresh, in a fresh paste, or
dry, in a dry powder. Fresh ginger can be substituted for dried ground ginger,
although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different.
Powdered dry ginger is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as
gingerbread, cookies, crackers and cakes, ginger ale, and beer. The fragrance
of ginger is penetrating and aromatic. It tastes spicy, hot, and biting and is an
integral part of almost all the cuisines of the world. The pungent, spicy
sweetness of ginger adds a unique taste to many recipes ranging from sweet
to savory.
In the subcontinents (India and Pakistan) ginger is called Adrak(local
name) and is an essential ingredient of many dishes. Fresh ginger is one of
the main spices used for making pulse, vegetablecurries and meat
preparations. Fresh as well as dried ginger is used to spice tea and coffee,
especially in winter. In Burma, it is consumed as a salad dish called Gyin-
thot, which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil, and a variety of nuts
and seeds. In Indonesia, a beverage called wedangjahe is made from ginger
and palm sugar. In the Philippines, it is brewed into a tea called salabat. In
Vietnam, the fresh finely chopped leaves can also be added to shrimp-and-
yam soup (canhkhoaimỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler
flavor of ginger than the chopped root. In China, sliced or whole ginger is
often paired with savory dishes such as fish, and chopped ginger root is
commonly paired with meat, when it is cooked. In Japan, ginger is pickled to
Ginger: A Functional Herb
5
make BeniShoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. It is also
used to make candy called Shoga no satozuke. In the traditional
KoreanKimchi, ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the
spicy paste just before the fermenting process (Kim et al, 2005).
In the Caribbean, ginger is a popular spice for cooking and making
drinks such as sorrel, a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season.
Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in
their homes. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger, as well as the
famous regional specialty Jamaican ginger cake.
In Arabic, ginger is called Zanjabil, and in some parts of the Middle
East, ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee and for milk. In the Ivory
Coast, ginger is ground and mixed with orange, pineapple, and lemon to
produce a juice called Nyamanku. Yemenite Jews add ginger powder in
Hawaij, a spice mixture used mostly for soups and coffee (Roden, 1996).
NUTRITIONALCOMPOSITION OF GINGER
Chemical Composition
Ginger contains approximately 50% carbohydrates, 9% protein and free
amino acids, 6-8 % fatty acids and triglycerides, 3-6% ash, and 3-6% crude
fiber (on dry matter basis) depending on variety, geography, and climatic
conditions (Leung, 1984, Tang, 1992). Some African ginger varieties contain
5.98 and3.72g /100 proteins and fat (Shrin Adel, 2010). Soluble and
insoluble fibers are also found in ginger. Ginger is a good source of essential
micronutrients such as potassium, magnesium, copper, manganese and
silicon. Potassium and manganese help to build resistance to disease and
protect the lining of heart, blood vessels and urinary passages. Silicon
promotes healthy skin, hair, teeth, and nails and helps to assimilate calcium.
Small amount of vitamins A, E and some amounts of B- vitamins and
Vitamin C are also found in ginger rhizome (Adel and Prakash, 2010).
Phytochemical Composition
Ginger is a complex substance consisting of more than 60 compounds
(Srivastava et al, 2000). The ginger rhizome contains an essential oil and
resin known collectively as oleoresin. The composition of the essential oil
varies according to the geographical origin, but the chief constituents
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
6
aresesquiterpene hydrocarbons, which are responsible for the characteristic
aroma. Gingerole is the main phenolic compond and once degraded gives
shogaols, zingerone, and paradol. Zingerone and shogaols are found in small
amounts in fresh ginger and in larger amounts in dried or extracted products.
Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process; this
compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. Smaller amounts of
other sesquiterpenoidsbisabolene, geranyl acetate, terpeneol, terpanes,
geraniol, alpha pinene, limonene, zigerbene, batabeasabolene, alpha paradol,
farnesene, and monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene, cineol, and citral)
have also been identified. Ginger contains a special group of compounds
called diasyleheptanoids, which includesgingerenone. A very small amount
of curcumin is also found in ginger. In addition to that it also contains small
amounts of alkaloids, tannins, carotenoids, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, and
cardinolides (Shrin Adel, 2010).
The composition of fresh ginger oil contains more oxygenated
compounds compared to dry ginger oil, making it more potent than dry
ginger oil. There are more hydrocarbon compounds in dry ginger oil
compared to fresh ginger oil. Monoterpene compounds are more active than
sesquiterpene compounds. Dry ginger oil also has higher content of
sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and they are reported to have less activity
compared to oxygenated compounds (Srivastava, et al, 2000 and Sinha, et al,
1990, Sasidharan and Menon, 2010). Ginger oil (GEO) has been
characterized to have a high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons,
including β-sesquiphellandrene (27.16%), caryophyllene (15.29%),
zingiberene (13.97%), α-farnesene (10.52%) and ar-curcumin (6.62%) (El-
Baroty et al, 2010).
Table 1. Active Chemical Constituents of ginger
Phenols
Volatile oils
Sesquiterpenes
Others
Gingerols and
shogoals
bisapolene,
zingiberene,
zingiberol,
sesquiphellandrene,
curcurmene
6-dehydrogingerdione,
galanolactone, gingesulfonic
acid, zingerone, geraniol, neral,
monoacyldigalactosylglycerols,
gingerglycolipids
Kathi, J Kemper, 1999.
Ginger: A Functional Herb
7
Figure 1. Chemical structure of important phytochemicals present in ginger.
HEALTHBENEFITS
Ginger is a potential herb used worldwide for its immense
phytotherapeutic properties. In Ayurveda it is known as Mahaaushdiwhich
means use of this herb improves body functions and helps to eliminates
toxins from the body (Nadkarni, 1976). Modern scientific research has
revealed that ginger possesses numerous therapeutic properties including
antibiotic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant effects, an ability to inhibit the
formation of inflammatory compounds, and direct anti-inflammatory effects.
Besides this, ginger is also effective against some kinds of cancers, stimulates
blood circulation, controls blood pressure and hypertension, helps in
lowering cholesterol, and is associated with combating heart problems.
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
8
1. Digestive System
1.1. Gastrointestinal Relief
Historically, ginger has a long tradition of efficacy in alleviating
symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders. In herbal medicine, ginger is
regarded as an excellent carminative (a substance which promotes the
elimination of intestinal gases) and intestinal spasmolytic (a substance which
relaxes and soothes the intestinal tract). It reduces colon spasms and cramps,
is excellent for nausea, vomiting, and motion sickness, stimulates production
of digestive juices, helps bowel disorders, and acts as a colon cleanser.
Ginger has a sialagogue action, stimulating the production of saliva, which
makes swallowing easier (Bhagyalakshmi and Singh, 1988). In addition to
that, it acts as an appetizer and stomachic. The main stomachic constituents
present in ginger are zinzibereine and gingeirol. A famous Ayurvedic drug
trikatu, which is used against digestive disorders, contains ginger as the main
constituent (Malhotra et al, 2003). Ginger acts as a purgative. Fresh ginger
helps to remove constipation while dry ginger powder is a fecal astringent,
meaning it dries up the watery portion of the feces and causes constipation
(Malhotra et al, 2003).
1.2. Dyspepsia
Ginger stimulates the flow of saliva, bile, and gastric secretions and
therefore is traditionally used to stimulate appetite, reduce flatulence, colic,
and gastrointestinal spasms, and generally act as a digestive aid (Blumenthal
et al, 2000). Gingerols inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori associated
with dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, and the development of gastric and
colon cancer (Mahady et al, 2005).
1.3. Anti-ulcerogenic
Frequent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) like
Aspirin, Indomethacin, and Reserpine may cause gastric ulcer and
hypothermic restraint stress. Many studies have proven ginger is a
cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic agent. The main anti-ulcerogenic
constituents present in ginger are 6 gingesulfonic acid, 6 gingerol,6 shogoal,
beta-sesquiphellandrene, beta-bisabolene, gingesulfonic acid,curcumene, and
6 gingglycoprotein A, B and C(Yamahara et al, 1988). Of the anti-
ulcerogenic constituents, 6 gingesulfonicacid is the most potent. These
constituents protect gastric mucosa against alcohol, non-steroidal anti-
Ginger: A Functional Herb
9
inflammatory drugs,and hydrochloric acid (Yamahara et al, 1992).In mice,
zingiberene and gingerol significantly reduced gastric ulceration
experimentally induced by ethanol and hydrochloric acid (Yamahara et al,
1988).
2. Respiratory System
Ginger can be used for throat infections and to relieve congestion in
sinusitis. It reduces fever in colds and flu and suppresses a dry, irritating
cough in laryngitis by increasing human bronchial smooth muscle cell
(BSMC) migration and proliferation and reversing phthalate ester-mediated
airway remodeling. Moreover, (6)-shogaol, (6)-gingerol, (8)-gingerol, and
(10)-gingerol, which are major bioactive compounds present in ginger,
suppress phthalate ester-mediated airway remodeling, which shows that
ginger is capable of preventing phthalate ester-associated asthma.
3. Circulatory System
Ginger stimulates circulation, may help prevent heart attacks, has natural
blood thinning properties, lowers blood cholesterol levels, cleanses and
stimulates blood supply, prevents internal blood clots, may prevent TIA’s
(mini strokes), acts therapeuticallyto reduce hypertension, and prevents
oxidation of LDL which contributes to cholesterol deposits on artery walls.
Ginger has a tonic effect on the heart, and may lower blood pressure by
restricting blood flow in peripheral areas of the body. Further studies show
that ginger can lower cholesterol levels by reducing cholesterol absorption in
the blood and liver.
3.1. Cardiovascular Effect
Fresh ginger exhibits hypotensive properties by endothelium dependent
(cholinergic) and endothelium-independent (CCB) vasodilator pathways.
Fresh ginger extract lowers blood pressure through cholinergic and calcium
blocking (CCB) properties and posseses a combination of cardio-suppressant
and cardio-stimulant action in experimental animals. Cholinergic compounds
are known to cause a fall in blood pressure by activation of muscarinic
receptors located on the epithelium of blood vessels (Furchgott and Zawdski,
1980). Furthermore, the pungent components of ginger, namely 6-gingerole,
8-gingerole, 10-gingerole and 6-shogoal, exhibit a vasodilator effect through
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
a combination of a nitric oxide releasing and calcium antagonist mechanism.
Ginger also contains saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, amino acids/peptides,
secondary amines, and alkaloids. These compounds demonstrate hypotensive
and vasodilator properties and could be the causative agents in thereduction
in blood pressure (Gilani et al, 1994, Ajay et al, 2003).
3.2. AntithromboiticActivity
Ginger has been shown to exhibit antithrombotic activity because it
inhibits platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production in
vitro. Besides this, gingerdione has been shown to inhibit the production of
5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and prostaglandins-F2(PGF2)
from arachidonic acid.Shogoal appeared to be a preferential inhibitor of 5-
HETE formation, whilegingerol and dehydroparadol favored the inhibition of
cyclooxygenase (Nurtjahja-Tjendraputra et al, 2003, Thomson et al, 2002).
4.Nervous System
4.1. Alzheimer’sDisease
6-Gingerol attenuates amyloid-induced oxidative cell death via fortifying
cellular antioxidant defense systems. Amyloid is involved in the formation of
senile plaques (Tiraboschet al, 2004, Ohnishi, and Takano, 2004), the typical
neuropathological marker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and has been
reported to cause apoptosis in neurons via oxidative and/or nitrosative stress.
6-Gingerol pretreatment can protect cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death
such as DNA fragmentation, disruption of mitochondrial membrane
potential, elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activation of caspase-3. 6-Gingerol is
also known to suppress intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen and/or
nitrogen species and to restore depleted endogenous antioxidant glutathione
levels. In addition, 6-gingerol treatment up-regulates the mRNA and protein
expression of antioxidant enzymes such as glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL)
and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate limiting enzymes in glutathione
biosynthesis and heme degradation, respectively.Therefore, 6-gingerol
exhibits preventive and/or therapeutic potential for the management of AD
via augmentation of antioxidant capacity (Lee et al, 2011).
4.2. Anti-InflammatoryProperties
Ginger is useful in treating inflammation, pain, and rheumatism. The
anti-inflammatory properties of ginger have been known and valued for
Ginger: A Functional Herb
11
centuries (Mascolo et al, 1989, Young, et al, 2005). It is believed that
consuming ginger regularly can reduce pain level and increase mobility in
osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis patients. Although no one single
constituent seems to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of
ginger,shogaol has exhibited the most potent antioxidant and anti-
inflammatory properties which can be attributed to the presence of its
alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone moiety. The carbon chain length has also
played a significant role in making 10-gingerol the most potent among all the
gingerols. An acetone extract containing gingerols, shogaols, and minor
compounds like gingerenone A, [6]-gingerdiol, hexahydrocurcumin, and
zingerone have been shown synergistically to produce dose-dependent anti-
inflammatory effects (Young et al, 2005).
Ginger can modulate the biochemical pathways of prostaglandin
synthesis through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 and
leukotriene biosynthesis through inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. Thus, it
functions as a dual inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis (Grzanna, et al,
2005). This pharmacological property distinguishes ginger from non-
steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and
5-lipoxygenase may have a better therapeutic profile and have fewer side
effects than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. One of the features of
inflammation is increased oxygenation of arachidonic acid which is
metabolized by two enzymic pathwaysthe cyclooxygenase (CO) and the 5-
lipoxygenase (5-LO)leading to the production of prostaglandins and
leukotrienes respectively. Amongst the CO products, PGE2, and amongst the
5-LO products, LTB4, are considered important mediators of inflammation.
Ginger extract and Alpinagalanga inhibits the induction of several genes
involved in the inflammatory response (Grazanna, et al, 2005). These include
genes encoding cytokines, chemokines, and the inducible enzyme
cyclooxygenase-2. In one experiment Srivastava and Mustafa (1992) utilized
powdered ginger to treat 56 patients of different musculoskeletal disorders
(28 with rheumatoid arthritis, 18 with osteoarthritis, and 10 with muscular
discomfort) against their afflictions. Amongst the arthritis patients more than
three-quarters experienced to varying degreesof relief in pain and swelling.
All the patients with muscular discomfort experienced relief in pain. None of
the patients reported adverse effects during the period of ginger consumption
which ranged from 3 months to 2.5 years. The investigators suggested that at
least one of the mechanisms by which ginger shows its ameliorative effects
could be related to inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis
(i.e. it works as a dual inhibitor of eicosanoid biosynthesis).
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
Another mechanism used by ginger compounds to inhibit inflammation
is attenuation of NF-kappaB-mediated iNOS gene expression. Inducible
nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a proinflammatory enzyme responsible for the
generation of nitric oxide (NO), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of
inflammatory diseases. Gingerols have anti-inflammatory properties in vitro.
The active phenolic constituent, 6-gingerol, can inhibit the production of
nitric oxide, a highly reactive nitrogen molecule that quickly forms a very
damaging free radical called peroxynitrite. The resulting peroxinitrites are
responsible for inflammation, pain, and associated diseases. 6-gingerol
increases blood supply to the damaged areas and speeds up the healing and
detoxification process. Udea et al, (2010) investigated the ability of ginger
extract to induce an immune response in RAW-264 cells after repeated oral
administration to mice. They revealed that ginger extract augmented the
serum corticosterone level and gradually induced tolerance and anti-
inflammatory activity in mice. Several oral administrations of squeezed
ginger extract augment the immune resistance, but the repeated
administration led to an anti-inflammatory effect. The effect of ginger on
immune response can be reversed by oral administration period and by some
host factors.It has been identified that serum corticosterone levels
significantly increased after oral administration of ginger extract over 1-5
days. This augmentation may have been the cause of TNF-α inhibition which
was observed after repeated administration of ginger extract. Corticosterone
has been reported to decrease the cytokine production and further the
immune response. The phosphoestrase-4 inhibitor has been reported to
decrease TNF-α production and has shown dramatic anti-inflammatory
efficacy that was dependent on release of corticosterone from adrenal glands
(Pethipher et al, 1996).
4.3. Ginger and Migraine
Migrainesare a recurrent episodic disorder characterized by headache
associated with other symptoms such as nausea, sensory sensitivity, muscle
pain, and cognitive dysfunction. Migraine headaches are fundamentally
different from tension headaches that are caused by accumulated stress and
constriction of muscles in the neck, head, and face. It is thought that migraine
headaches are caused by a cycle of dramatic constriction of the arteries that
supply the brain with blood and nutrients. This constriction is followed by
rapid dilation, then again by constriction, during which nerve pathway
changes and brain chemistry imbalances cause the blood vessels to become
inflamed. It leads to the instability of blood vessels in the brain and to a
Ginger: A Functional Herb
13
reduction in blood flow during a migraine attack. Additionally, the platelets
of migraine sufferers are different from normal platelets both during and
between migraine attacks. Platelets are small blood cells that clump together
to form blood clots. The difference between platelets results in migraine
sufferers having a significant increase in spontaneous clumping of platelets
as well as in a reduction in the release of a chemical called serotonin. Ginger
has been shown to significantly reduce the effects of migraines by reducing
inflammation and platelet aggregation. Ginger’s ability to help fight nausea,
inflammation, pain, and anxiety makes it an ideal addition to formulas
designed to prevent and manage migraines.
High doses of ginger have also been found to significantly reduce
migraine intensity. It plays a role as a circulatory stimulant, peripheral
vasodilator, and antispasmodic. Ginger may exert abortive and prophylactic
effects in migraine headaches without any side effects. Ginger and its
constituents inhibit the metabolism of arachidonic acid through both the
cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways, thus reducing the accumulation
of prostaglandins and leukotrienes that contribute to pain and inflammation.
This is important because other compounds that are prophylactic against
migraine attacks are postulated to work through the same pathways.
Additionally, ginger extract inhibits the induction of several genes involved
in the inflammatory response, including those that encode cytokines and
chemokines. Studies indicate that certain cytokines are overproduced in
migraine sufferers. The ability of ginger to inhibit thromboxane A2 and exert
antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, and gastric actions makes it a theoretically
attractive choice in migraine therapy (Mustafa &Srivastava 1990b).
4.4. ReducesAnxiety
Ginger can also help to reduce anxiety. Anxiety is frequently associated
with migraine and is correlated with poorer responses to migraine treatment.
Ginger fractions bind to a serotonin receptor and reduce levels of anxiety in
animals. The bioactive compounds of ginger extract interact with the human
serotonin 5-HT (1A) receptor with significant to moderate binding affinities
(K(i)=3-20 microM).S-GTP gamma S assays indicated that 10-shogaol, 1-
dehydro-6-gingerdione, and particularly the whole lipophilic ginger extract
(K(i)=11.6 microg/ml) partially activate the 5-HT(1A) receptor (20-60% of
maximal activation). In addition, the intestinal absorption of gingerols and
shogaols interact with P-glycoprotein and offer a favorable pharmacokinetic
profile for the 5-HT (1A) active compounds. A combination of ginger and
Ginkgo biloba has been shown to reduce anxiety in an animal model
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
(elevated plus-maze test). The effect was similar to diazepam (an allopathic
medicine used for anxiety treatment) (Hasenohrl et al, 1996). A highly non-
polar fraction of a ginger extract has been shown to possess anticonvulsant,
anxiolytic, and anti-emetic activities in animals (Vishwakarma et al, 2002).
5. Endocrine System
5.1.Diabetes and Hyperglycemic
Diabetes mellitus can be defined as a group of metabolic diseases
characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin
secretion, insulin action, or both resulting in impaired function in
carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism and is associated with markedly
increased morbidity and mortality rate(Zhang et al,2006). Diabetes is known
to increase ROS production and oxidative stress probably as a result of
glucose auto-oxidation and non-enzymatic glycation (Gupta et al, 2007).
Prolonged exposure to hyperglycemic conditions creates predominance of
oxidative stress over antioxidative defense systems, leading to oxidative
DNA damage, which possibly contributes to pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction
(Song et al., 2007). Hence, compounds with both hypoglycemic and anti-
oxidative properties would be useful anti-diabetic agents (Cemek et al.,
2008). Ginger has already been proven as an antidiabetic agent and helps in
reducing hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia conditions (Akhaniet al,2004,
Sharma et al,1996,Ajithet al, 2007). Ginger may assist in prevention of the
progression of type 2 diabetes through its hypoglycemic effects and by
increasing insulin sensitivity. The hypoglycemic potentials of ginger were
tested in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (500 mg/kg, intra-
peritoneally) daily for a period of 7 weeks. Ginger was found very effective
in reversing the diabetic proteinuria andlowering serum glucose, cholesterol,
and triacylglycerol levels in the ginger-treated diabetic rats compared with
the control diabetic rats (Al-Amin et al, 2006). Singh et al, (2009) suggested
that (6)-gingerol is an effective anti-diabetic agent via its ability to enhance
insulin sensitivity and to decrease hyperlipidemia in type 2 diabetic animals.
Furthermore, it is also beneficial against oxidative stress, thereby being
helpful in delaying or preventing complications of diabetes and aging. Ginger
ethanolic extract has shown insulinotropic action similar to chlorpropamide,
a sulphonylurea drug, and enhanced insulin sensitivity atthe cellular level
(Ojewole et al, 2006). Also, ethanolic ginger extract reduced plasma
cholesterol and inhibited LDL oxidation in atherosclerotic apoE-deficient
Ginger: A Functional Herb
15
mice (Fuhrman et al, 2000). Moreover, addition of ginger (1 %) to a normal
diet prevented the formation of free radicals and maintained the integrity of
rat erythrocytes (Ahemed et al, 2000). The antioxidant potency of ginger has
been attributed to gingerols that prevent the production of reactive oxygen
species (Ali et al, 2008). Aldose reductase inhibitors, which reduce sorbitol
formation as well as its accumulation in human tissues such as erythrocytes
and protect cells from osmotic damage, are considered to have remarkable
potential for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications. At least
two active components, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) ethanol and 2-(4-
hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) ethanoic acid, of ginger have shown aldose
reductase inhibitor properties (Ali et al, 2008). Also, ginger inhibited
serotonin-induced hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia by blocking its
receptors (Al-Amin et al, 2006). Madko et al (2011) reported that a ginger,
garlic,and turmeric mixture significantly decreased serum total lipid and total
cholesterol levels in healthy rats, which may be beneficial as a prophylaxis
against hypercholesterolemia.
5.1.1. Cataract
Ginger not only prevents and cures diabetes but it is also preventive in
the progression of cataracts. The aqueous extract of ginger possesses both
antiglycating activity and ALR2 (aldolase reductase) inhibition (Saraswat et
al, 2010, Saraswat et al, 2008). Regular consumption of ginger delays the
progression and maturation of cataracts. This could be attributed to its ability
to prevent the multiple changes associated with the accumulation of AGE
(i.e., reduction in the carbonyl stress, inhibition of osmotic stress by reducing
the activity of polyol pathway, and prevention of oxidative stress) (Saraswat,
2009).
5.2.2. Hypertension
Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) is a metellopeptidease that
catalyses two reactions, leading to constriction of blood vessels and hence
blood pressure regulation (Schmaier, 2002).Ginger exhibited relevant ACE
inhibitory activities indicating potential anti-hypertension activity likely
related to non-phenolic compounds (Ranillaet al, 2010).
6. Immune System
The active constituents of ginger function as immunomodulators by
increasing the body’s immunity through their antimicrobial and free radical
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
scavenging properties. Ginger extract raises the thymus index, spleen index,
and percentage of phagocytosis significantly, thus improving immunologic
function(Kathi, 1999, Schitteket al, 2001). Ginger cannot only be warming
on a cold day, but can also help promote healthy sweating, which is often
helpful during colds and flus. A good sweat may do a lot more than simply
assist detoxification. Sweat contains a potent germ-fighting agent that may
help fight off infections. Dermicidin is a protein manufactured in the body's
sweat glands, secreted into the sweat, and transported to the skin's surface
where it provides protection against invading microorganisms, including
bacteria, such as E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus (a common cause of skin
infections), and fungi, including Candida albicans (Alternative Medical
Review,2003, Schitteket al,2001).
6.1.Antimicrobialand AntifungalProperties
Ginger extract and several of its constituents exhibit antimicrobial
activity in vitro and in vivo and antischistosomal activity (Akoachereet al,
2002). Chemical constituents of ginger such assesquiterpenes,
diarylheptenones, gingerenones A, B and C, and isogingerenone B, have
shown antifungal activity invitro. It has been proposed that lipophilicity or
hydrophobicity and chemical structure of essential oils or their main
compounds such as the presence of functional polar groups and aromaticity
could play an important role in the antimicrobial activity (Faraget al, 1989b;
Dawet al, 1994).This activity enables partitioning between lipids of the
bacterial or fungal cell membrane and mitochondria, disturbing the cell
structures and rendering them more permeable, which will lead to cell death
(Sikkemaet al, 1994). Some of the major components present in ginger oils
can penetrate the membrane of the microorganisms and react with the
membrane enzymes and proteins as well as phospholipid bilayer, which
causes an impairment of the microbial enzyme system and/or a disturbance of
genetic material functionality (Farag et al, 1989, Abd El-Baky and El-Baroty,
2008, Conner, 1993). Fresh ginger oil (FG) showed strong inhibition against
Aspergillusnigerand Candida and inactivity against Pencilliumsppand
Trichoderma spp. At the same time, dry ginger oil (DG) was more active
towards Candida andweaker against Aspergillusniger, Pencilliumspp, and
Saccharomyces cereviseae (Sasidharan and Menon 2010).
6.1.1.Antibacterial
Ginger extracts have antibacterial effects against both gram-positive and
gram-negative bacteria such as Clostridium, Listeria, Enterococcus,
Ginger: A Functional Herb
17
Staphylococcus,Streptococcus,and Haemophilus species. The minimum
inhibitory concentration of ginger ranged from 0.0003–0.7 μg/mL, and the
minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 0.135–2.04 μg/mLspecies,
but some of this effect is destroyed by heating (e.g., cooking)(Mascoloet al,
1989 and Chenet al, 1985). Gingerols demonstrated antibacterial activity
against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coliin vitro (Yamada et al 1992).
Sasidharan and Menon(2010) found fresh ginger oil was inactive against
Bacillus subtiliswhereas dry ginger oil wasmore active towards Pseudomonas
aeruginosaand weakeragainst Bacillus subtilis.
6.1.2 Antiviral
Ginger has been found very effective against the flu virus, due to its
warm and bitter property. Several sesquiterpenes, but especially beta-
sesquiphellandrene, isolated from ginger hasalso been shown to have
antirhinoviral activity in vitro (Denyeret al 1994). Denyer also showed that
shogaol and zingerone strongly inhibited Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae
and Trichophytonviolaceum.
6.1.3.AntiparasiticProperty
Gingerol (5.0 ppm) completely abolished the infectivity of Schistosoma
spp. (blood flukes) in animal studies (Adewunmi et al 1990). Zingibain,
another bioactive compound, dissolves parasites and their eggs. Gingerol and
shogaol exhibited potent molluscicidal activity in vivo (Adewunmiet al
1990). Shogaol and gingerol have demonstrated anti-nematode activities;
6.25 μg/mL 6-shogaol destroyed Anisakis larvae within 16 hours in vitro,
whereas the antinematodal medication pyrantelpamoate had no lethal effect
at 1 mg/mL (Goto et al 1990).
6.2. As an Antioxidant
Ginger spares SOD (superoxide dismutase)an important anti-oxidant,
catalase which is essential for breaking down potentially harmful hydrogen
peroxide in the cells to glutathione peroxidase. SOD also acts on hydrogen
peroxide and helps maintain integrity of cell membranes (Brock, 2007). The
active constituents of ginger have antioxidant properties. The chemical
structure of zingerone makes it a potent free radical scavenger. The hydroxyl
groups in the molecule are responsible for scavenging peroxynitrite (ONOO-
), a very powerful pro-oxidant implicated in a number of neurodegenerative
and pathophysiological processes. Zingerone can diffuse freely across
phospholipid membrane bilayers to react with a wide variety of molecular
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
targets including lipids, proteins, and DNA, leading to cell death via necrosis
or apoptosis. Since endogenous antioxidant enzymes are lacking to inactivate
ONOO, it is imperative to include some article through the diet thathas this
action. Zingerone not only cleans the peroxynitrite (ONOO-) from the
system, but it is also involved in the inhibition of NO- and O2- formation.
Although the mechanism is not fully defined, the two possible pathways of
nitration or electron donation have been suggested as a phenolic ONOO-
scavenger interaction with ONOO-. Ginger is a good source of antioxidant
and most of the antioxidant components exhibit higher activities in alcoholic
media. Hence, apart from its medicinal properties, ginger can also be used as
an antioxidant supplement (Adiland Prasad, 2010).
6.3.Cancer
Ginger constituents are regarded as chemopreventive dietary agents
exhibiting inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lypoxygenase (LO) activities,
induction of apoptosis, and antitumerogenic effects. Ginger inhibits 5-LO
enzymes, the only food for prostate cancer cells. Prostate cancer cells die in
one to two hours in absence of 5-LO enzyme. Ginger induces cell death in
leukemic, skin, kidney, lung, and pancreatic cancer cells. The anticancer
properties of ginger are attributed to the presence of certain constituents such
as [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol, as well as some other constituents like
shogaolsand zingerone (Park et al., 2006). Therefore, it can safely be used for
cancer therapy. Gingerol inhibits pancreatic cell growth,is beneficial to
prevent constipation-related cancer, and is an effective anti-tumor agent in
leukemia cells.
6.3.1. Colorectal Cancer
As suggested by Cancer Prevention Research, gingerols, the main active
components in ginger, inhibit the growth of human colorectal cancer cells
(Bode et al, 2003). In another experiment, Bode et al (2001) studied the
effect of 6-paradol and 6-gingerol on the cell proliferation and DNA
synthesis of HL-60 cells. They observed that their cytotoxicity was
associated with induction of apoptosis and/or inhibition of activator protein-
1(AP-1). Apoptosis can be defined as the cleavage of DNA into
discontinuous mono- and oligonucleosomal size fragments that form a typical
DNA ladder during gel electrophoresis. 6-gingerol, a natural product of
ginger, has been known to possess anti-tumorigenic and pro-apoptotic
activities. It has also been suggested that 6-gingerol stimulates apoptosis
through up regulation of NAG-1 and G (1) cell cycle arrest through down
Ginger: A Functional Herb
19
regulation of cyclin D1. Multiple mechanisms appear to be involved in
gingerol action, including protein degradation as well as beta-catenin,
PKCepsilon, and GSK-3beta pathways (Lee et al, 2008).
6.3.2. Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer is often deadly since symptoms typically do not appear
until late in the disease process, so by the time ovarian cancer is diagnosed, it
has spread beyond the ovaries. More than 50% of women who develop
ovarian cancer are diagnosed in the advanced stages of the disease. Invitro
experiments have shown that ginger kills ovarian cancer cells by inducing
apoptosis (programmed cell death) and autophagocytosis (self-digestion).
Ginger extracts have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and
anti-tumor effects on cells (Rhode et al, 2006). A pro-inflammatory state is
thought to be an important contributing factor in the development of ovarian
cancer (Rhode et al, 2006). Ginger, containing a number of key indicators of
inflammation (vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-8, and
prostaglandin E2), can decrease ovarian cancer cells. Conventional
chemotherapeutic agents also suppress these inflammatory markers, but may
cause cancer cells to become resistant to the action of the drugs. However,
ginger may be of special benefit for ovarian cancer patients because cancer
cells exposed to ginger do not become resistant to its cancer-destroying
effects(Rhode et al, 2006).
6.3.3. Breast Cancer
Ginger has been found to significantly inhibit mammary tumorigenesis
and tumor growth in laboratory mice when fed in drinking water. [6]-
gingerol, a component of ginger, has been shown to inhibit cell adhesion,
invasion, and motility in ER-negative (estrogen independent) human breast
cancer cells in the laboratory (Lee et al, 2007). Hence, ginger appears to have
promise in fighting breast cancer and is safe to include in the diet.
7. Other Uses
Ginger is on the Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) list of generally
recognized as safe (GRAS)(Alternative Medical Review, 2003).
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
7.1. ReducesCoughand Cold
Ginger also acts as an expectorant. It is believe to control common cold
and flu symptoms. Ginger juice with honey is a common home remedy for
cough. Rhinovirus is among those viruses which are responsible for common
cold. The dried ginger has been found very effective against this virus.
βsequiphellandrene, a sesquiterpene which is found in ginger, is effective
against the rhinovirus. In addition, it helps eliminate congestion and ginger
tea eases a sore throat.
7.2. PreventObesity
Ginger acts as fat and cellulite burning food. Invitro studies in Japan
show that zingerone, an active component of ginger, prevents fat storage in
rats by increasing fat burning and by reducing the absorption of fat from the
small intestine.
7.3. As a MeatTenderizer
Ginger rhizome has been investigated as a source of plant proteolytic
enzyme (Thompson et al, 1973,Ziauddinet al, 1995). The ginger protease is a
thiol proteinase with an optimum activity at 60°C. Rapid denaturation of the
enzyme occurs at 70°C. Its proteolytic activity on collagen appears to be
many times greater than that on actomyosin and the combined proteolysis of
these two muscle proteins resulted in significantly more tender meat. Ginger
extract is an effective meat tenderizer and the tenderization is achieved
through its action on both myofibrillar and connective tissue components of
toughness. Improvement in color, appearance, juiciness, and tenderness of
beef samples treated with ginger extract were also tested (Ziauddinet al,1995.
The use of ginger extract for improving the qualities of tough meat could
prove to be a boon to the meat industry (Naveen et al, 2001).
7.4. As a Food Preservative
Ginger and some other herbs like cinnamon are used as a food
preservative and can increase food safety and shelf life of fatty and processed
food products. El-Baroty et al (2010) reported that cinnamon and ginger
essential oils can be used as a preventer of cellular damage due to spoilage
bacteria and fungi. Both oils and bioactive components (at concentration
levels 20 - 100 μg/ml) could be employed as natural food preservatives to
prevent lipid peroxidation, which causes food spoilage.
Ginger: A Functional Herb
21
7.5. Thermogenic
Ginger has traditionally been used in Asia as a warming remedy to treat
chills associated with colds and flu. The shogaol compounds of ginger
significantly inhibited serotonin (5-HT) induced hypothermia in rats. Within
30 minutes of oral administration, ginger raised the body temperature of rats
by 0.5°C(Kanu et al, 1992). Gingerol increased body temperature and oxygen
consumption in rats indicating an increased metabolic rate (Eldershaw et al,
1992).
7.6. Regulate Menstrual Irregularities and Dysmenorrhea
Ginger is useful when taken internally, if menstrual pain is due to
ischemic cramp (lack of uterine blood supply) (Alternative Medical Review,
2003). It is also good in the form of hot compresses for abdominal cramps,
headaches, and joint stiffness.
POSSIBLE INTERACTIONS
Ginger may alter the effects of some prescribed and nonprescribed
medications. If blood-thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin) or aspirin,
diabetes medicines,or high blood pressure medicines are being taken ginger
therapy is not advisable.Ginger may lower blood sugar, raising the risk of
hypoglycemia or low blood sugar, and may lower blood pressure, raising the
risk of low blood pressure or irregular heartbeat. Ginger therapy is also not
recommended in children less than two years (Heck et al, 2000 and Vaes et
al, 2000).
CONCLUSION
Ginger is a rhizomatous plant grown throughout South-eastern Asia and
China and in parts of Japan, Austria, Latin America, Jamaica, andAfrica.
Ginger has been used as a spice and medicine in the Indian subcontinent
since ancient times. Its medicinal values have been known for centuries.It is
the most widely used condiment, flavoring, and garnishing agent. The herb
serves as a stimulant and carminative and is used in dyspepsia and colic. It is
known to have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties, due to
which it is used in treating heart diseases.The major phenolic compounds and
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
essential oils act as potent antioxidant and exhibit free radical scavenging
properties. The antimicrobial properties are due to the presence of
componentssuch as thymol, eugenol, 1, 8 cineole, α and βpinenes, linalool,
and αterpineol. Ginger tea is considered a good home remedy for cold. The
herb can also used to treat arthritis, diarrhea, motion sickness, diabetes,
bronchitis, and rheumatism. It is a remedy for nausea due to seasickness,
morning sickness, and chemotherapy. Overall, ginger is a versatile herb with
phenomenal phytotherapeutic and medicinal properties. It would be difficult
to find a place or nation on this globe that has not been benefited through this
extraordinary aromatic herb.
BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES
Abd El-Baky HH, El-Baroty GS. (2008).Chemical and biological evaluation
of the essential oil of Egyptian Moldavian balm.Int. J.Essential Oil
Therap., 2: 76-81.
Abd El-Baky, HH, El Baz, FK, El-Baroty GS. (2009). Natural preservative
ingredient from marine alga UlvalactucaL. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 44:
1688-1695
Adewunmi, CO, Oguntimein, BO, Furu, P. (1990). Molluscicidedal and
antischistosomal activities of Zingiber officinale. Plant Medica. 56: 374-
376.
Ahmed RS, Seth V & Banerjee BD (2000) Influence of dietary ginger
(Zingiber officinale Rosc.) on antioxidant defense system in rat:
comparison with ascorbic acid. Indian J ExpBiol 38, 604606.
Ajay M, Gilanui AH, Mustafa MR. 2003.Effect of flavonoids on vascular
smooth muscles of the isolated rat thoracic aorta.Life Sci. 74: 603-612
Ajith TA, Nivitha V, Usha S. (2007).Zingiber officinale Roscoe alone and in
combination with alpha-tocopherol protect the kidney against
cisplatininduced acute renal failure. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45: 921927.
Akhani SP, Vishwakarma SL, Goyal RK. (2004). Anti-diabetic activity of
Zingiber officinale in Streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats. Journal
of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 56: 101-105.
Akoachere JF, Ndip RN, Chenwi EB. (2002). Antibacterial effect of Zingiber
officinale and Garcinia kola on respiratory tract pathogens. East Afr Med
J. 79(11):588-92 2002.
Al-Amin ZM, Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Peltonen-Shalaby R, Ali M.
(2006). Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic properties of ginger (Zingiber
Ginger: A Functional Herb
23
officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Br. J. Nutr. 96: 660-
666.
Ali BH, Blunden G, Tanira MO, et al. (2008).Some
phytochemical,pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger
(Zingiberofficinale Roscoe): a review of recent research. Food
ChemToxicol 46, 409420.
Ali A, Gilani, AH. (2007). Medicinal value of ginger with focus on its use in
nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Int J food propert. 10: 269-278.
Alternative Medical Review. (2003) Volum 8, Number 3, 2003 Zingiber
officeinael. Monograph
Anwar F, Ali M, Hussain AI, Shahid M (2009). Antioxidant and Artemisia
sphaerocephala Krasch seed polysaccharide in alloxan-induced diabetic
rats. Swiss. Med. Wkly., 136: 529-532.
Bhagylakshmi A, Singh, NS. (1988). Meristem culture and micropropogation
of variety of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) with a high yield of
oleoresin. J Hort Sc. 63: 321-329
Blumenthal M. (1998). The complete German Commission E monographs:
therapeutic guide to herbal medicines.Austin: American Botanical
Council.
Bode A. (2003). Ginger is an effective inhibitor of HCT116 human colorectal
carcinoma in vivo. Paper presented at the Frontiers in Cancer Prevention
Research Conference, Phoenix, AZ, Ocbober 26-3-, 2003
Bode, AM, Ma WY, Surth, YJ, Dong, Z. (2001). Inhibition of epidermal
growth factor-induced cell transformation and activator protein I
activation by (6-Gingirole). Cancer Res. 61: 850-853.
Branney, TME. (2005). Hardy gingers: Including Hedychium, Roscoea, and
Zinziber (Royal Horticulture Society Plant Collector Guide.
Brock C. (2007).Herb Monograph. www.westernherbalcare.co.uk
Byers p. (1999). Growing herbs for cold and flu relief: Storey Country
Wisdom Bulletin, A-219.
Careddu, P. (1999). Motion sickness in children; Results of a double blind
study with ginger and dimethylhydrinate.Health Notes Review
Complementory Integrative med. 6: 102-107.
Cemek M, Kaa S, Simek N, Büyükokurolu ME, Konuk M (2008).Chem
Pharm Bull (Tokyo) .39:690-2.
Chen HC, Chang MD, Chang TJ.1985. Antibacterial properties of some spice
plants before and after heattreatment. Chung Hua Min Kuo Wei Sheng
Wu Chi Mien I Hsueh Tsa Chih . 18:190-5.
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
Comell, DW, McLachlan, R. (1972). Natural pungent compounds:
examination of gingerols, shoagaols, paradols and related compounds by
thin-layer and gas chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 67: 29-35.
Conner DE (1993). Natural occurring compounds. In: Antimicrobial infood,
Davidson P. M.; Branan A. L. (eds.). Marcel Dekker Inc., NewYork, pp.
441-468.
Daw ZY, EL-Baroty GS, Mahmoud AE (1994).Inhibition of Aspergillus
parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production by some essential
oils.Chem. Mikrobiol. Technol. Lebensm., 16(5/6): 129-135.
Deyner, CV, Jackson, P, Loakes, DM, Ellis, MR, Young David, AB. 1994.
Isolation of antirhinoviral sesquisterpene from ginger (Zingiber
officinale), effects of ethanol extract of Zingiberofficinale (Roscoe)
rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats.Phytother Res 20, 764772.
El-Baroty, GS, Abd El-Baky, HH, Farag, RS, and Saleh MA. (2010).
Characterization of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds of
cinnamon and ginger essential oils. African Journal of Biochemistry
Research, 4(6); 167-174.
Eldershaw TP, Colquhoun EQ, Dora KA, Peng ZC, Clark
MG.(1992).Pungent principles of ginger (Zingiber officinale) are
thermogenic in the perfused rat hindlimb. Int J Obe sRelat Metab Disord
16:755-63.
Farag, R.S, Daw, Z Y, Abo-Raya S H. (1989b). Influence of someessential
oils on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxinsproduction in a
synthetic medium, J. food Sci., 54: 74-67.
Fisher-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, Dahl C, Asping U. (1991). Ginger treatment
of hypermesisgravidarum. Eurp.J Obstet, Gynecol, repord.bio. 38: 19-24.
Fuhrman B, Rosenblat M, Hayek T, et al. (2000) Ginger extract consumption
reduces plasma cholesterol, inhibits LDL oxidation and attenuates
development of atherosclerosis in atherosclerotic, apolipoprotein E-
deficient mice.JNutr 130, 11241131.
Gayur MN, Gilani AH. (2005). Species differences in the prokinetic effects
of ginger. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 57: 65-73.
Ghaznavi, K. (1996). Ginger. In: Tibb-e-NabiAurZadeed Science. Vol 1 Al-
Faisal Publishers, Lahore, pp 248-260.
Gilani AH, Ghayur MN. (2005). Ginger: from myth to Reality. In:
Ethnotherepies in the cycle of life. Gottshalk-Batsschkus, CE; Green,
J.C.; Eds; Ethnomed Institute fur Ethnomedzirine.V. Munich.307-315.
Gonlachanvit S, Chen YH, Hasler WL. (2003). Ginger reduces
hyperglycemia-evoked gastric dysrhythmias in health humans: Possible
Ginger: A Functional Herb
25
role of endogenous prostaglandins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 307(3):1098
1103.
Grontved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E. (1988). Ginger root against
seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea.Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh)
1988; 105:45-9.
Grzanna R, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG. (2005). Ginger--an herbal medicinal
product with broad anti-inflammatory actions. J Med Food. 8(2):125-32.
Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. (2000) Potential interactions between
alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm.
57(13):1221-1227
HrdayamSrimadvagbhata, (1999). ed with Nirmala Hindi Commentary along
with special deliberation by DrBrahmanandTripathiPratishthan Delhi.
Huang Q, Matdsuda H, Sakai K, Yamahara J, Tamai Y. (1991). The effect of
ginger on serotonin induced hypothermia and diarrhea. yakugaku-zasshi,
110:936-942.
Kano Y, Zong QN, Komatsu K. (1991). Pharmacological properties of
galenical preparation. XIV. Body temperature retaining effect of the
Chinese traditional medicine, "goshuyu-to" and component crude drugs.
Kathi JK. (1999). Ginger (Zingiber officinale) .The Longwood Herbal Task
Force (http://www.mcp.edu/herbal/default.htm) and The Center for
Holistic Pediatric Education and Research
(http://www.childrenshospital.org/holistic/)
Kato A, Higuchi Y, Goto H, Kizu H, Okamoto T, Asano N, Hollinshead J,
Nash RJ, Adachi I(2006). Inhibitory effects of Zingiberofficinale Roscoe
derived components on aldose reductase activity in vitro and in vivo. J
Agric Food Chem 54:66404.
KatzerG.(1990).http://www-ang.kfunigraz.acat/-
katzer/engl/generic_framehtml?Zing_off.html.
Kim M., Chun J. (2005). "Bacterial Community Structure in Kimchi, a
Korean Fermented Vegetable Food, as Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene
Analysis". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 103(1), 9196.
Langner E, Greifenberg S, Grunwald J. (1988). Ginger: History and use.
Advances in Therapy, 15; 25-44.
Lee HS, Seo EY, Kang NE, Kim WK. (2007). (6)- Gingerol inhibits
metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. J. Nutr.
Biochem.
Lee SH, Cekanova M, Baek SJ. (2008). Multiple mechanisms are involved in
6-gingerol-induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal
cancer cells. Mol Carcinog.; 47(3):197-208.
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
Lee C, Park GH, Kim CY, Jang JH.2011. [6]-Gingerol attenuates β-amyloid-
induced oxidative cell death via fortifying cellular antioxidant defense
system. Food Chem. Toxico 49(6):1261-1269.
Leung AY. (1984). Chinese Herbal Remedies; Universe Books; New York.
Levine ME, Gillis MG, Koch SY, Sarayanchiskoch Voss, AC, Stern RM,
Koch KL.(2007). Protein and ginger for the treatment of chemotherapy-
induced Delayed nausea. The journal of alternative and complementary
medicine.14, (5): 545551
Lien HC, Sun WM, Chen YH, (2003). Effects of ginger on motion sickness
and gastric slow wave dysrhythmias induced by circular vection. Am J
Physiol 284:G481G489.
Madko HR, Sherif WM, Gamal R. (2011). Modulatory effects of garlic,
ginger, turmeric and their mixture on hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and
oxidative stress in streptozotocinnicotinamide diabetic rats. British
Journal of Nutrition 105, 12101217 doi: 10.1017/S0007114510004927
Mahady GB, Pendland Sl, Stoia A, Hamill FA, Fabricant D, Dietez BM,
Chadwick LR. (2005). In-vitro susptability of Heliobactor pylori to
botanical extract used traditionally used for the treatment of
gastrointestinal disorders. Phytother. Res. 19(11): 988-999.
Malhotra S, Singh AP. (2003). Medicinal properties of ginger (Zingiber
officinale Roscoe).Natural Products Radiance.26: 296-300.
Mascolo N, Jain R, Jain SC, Capasso F. (1989).Ethnopharmacologic
investigation of ginger (Zingiberofficinale). J Ethnopharmacol . 27:129-
40.
Mowrey DB, Clayson DE. 1982. Motion sickness, ginger, and
psychophysics. Lancet.1:655-7.
Mustafa, T, Srivastava, KC. 1990. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in migraine
headachs. J Ethenopharmacology., 29: 267-273.
Nadkarni KM. (1976). IndanMateriaMeduca. Popular Prakashan Bombey,
pp.1308-1315.
Naveen BM and Mendiratta SK. (2001). Tenderisation of spent hen meat
using ginger extract.British Poultry Science 42: 344349
Nurtjahja-Tjendraputra E, Ammit AJ, Roufogalis BD. (2003). Effective anti-
platelet and COX-1 enzyme inhibitors from pungent constituents of
ginger.Thromb Res. 2003; 111(4-5):259-265.
Ohnishi S, Takano K (2004). Amyloid fibrils from the viewpoint of protein
folding .Cell. Mol. Life Sci.61 (5): 51124.
Ginger: A Functional Herb
27
Ojewole JA (2006) Analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects
of ethanol extract of Zingiberofficinale (Roscoe) rhizomes
(Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats. Phytother Res 20, 764772.
Park YJ, Wen J, Bang S, Park SW and Song SY 6-gingerol induces cell cycle
arrest and cell death of mutant p53-expressing pancreatic cancer cells.
Yonsei Medical J 47(5) :688-697; 2006.
Qian DS, Liu ZS. (1992). Pharmacologic studies of antimotion sickness
actions of ginger. Chung Kuo Chung HsiIChieh Ho Tsa Chih 12:95-8,
70.
Ranilla LG, Kwon YI, Apostolidis C, Shetty K. (2010). Phenolic compounds,
antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes
relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used
medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America. Bioresource Tech.
101(12): 4676-4689.
Rhode JM, Huang J, Fogoros S, Tan L, Zick S, Liu JR.(2006). Ginger
induces apoptosis and autophagocytosis in ovarian cancer cells. Abstract
#4510, presented April 4, 2006 at the 97th AACR Annual Meeting, April
1-5, 2006, Washington, DC. 2006
Roden Claudia, (1996). The Book of Jewish Food: An Odyssey from
Samarkand to New York, Knopf, p. 234
Saraswat M, Muthenna P, Suryanarayana P, Petrash JM, Reddy GB. (2008).
Dietary sources of aldose reductase inhibitors: prospects for alleviating
diabetic complications. Asia Pac J ClinNutr. 17:55865.
Saraswat M, Reddy PY, Muthenna P, Reddy GB. (2009). Prevention of non-
enzymic glycation of proteins by dietary agents: prospects for alleviating
diabetic complications. Br J Nutr. 101:171421.
Saraswat M. (2009). Evaluation of aldose reductase inhibitors &antiglycating
agents from dietary sources: implication in the prevention of secondary
complications of diabetes (cataract). Ph D Thesis, Osmania University,
Hyderabad.
Sasikumar B, Thankamani CK, Srinivasan V, Devasahayam S, Santhosh J
Eapen, Kumar A and John Zacharaiah T. (2008). Ginger (Extension
Pamphlet). Niseema Printers & Publishers, Kochi 18.
Schittek B, Hipfel R, Sauer B,Bauer J, Kalbacher H,Stevanovic S,Schirle M
Schroeder K, Blin N,Meier F, Rassner G, Garbe C. (2001). Dermcidin: a
novel human antibiotic peptide secreted by sweat glands. Nature
Immunology 2, 1133 1137.
Neeru Bhatt, Mostafa I. Waly, Mohamed M Essa, et al.
Schmid R, Schick T, Steffen R, Tschopp A, Wilk T. (1994). Comparison of
seven commonly used agents for prophylaxis of seasickness. J Travel
Med 1:203-206.
Schmaie AH. (2002). The plasma kallikrein-kinin system counterbalance the
rennin-angiotensinsystem. J Clin. Invest.109: 1007-1009.
Sharma JN, Srivastava KC, Gan EK. (1994).Suppressive effects eugenol and
ginger oil on arthritic rats. Pharmacol. 49(5):314318.
Shirin Adel PR, Prakash J. (2010).Chemical composition and antioxidant
properties of ginger root (Zingiberofficinale) . J. Med. Plants Res. 4(24),
2674-2679
Singh AB, Singh N, Maurya R, Srivastava AK. (2009). Anti-hyperglycaemic.
lipid lowering and anti-oxidant properties of [6]-gingerol in db/db
mice.Int. J. Med & Med. Sci. 1(12), 536-544.
Sinha GK, Gulati BC. (1990). Antibacterial and antifungal study of some
essential oils and some of their constituents., Indian Perfum. 34:204208.
Srivastava A, Shukla YN, Kumar S.(2000). Recent development in plant
derived antimicrobial constituentsA Review. J Med Arom Plant Sci 22:
349405.
Tang W, Eisenbrand G. 1992. Drugs of plant origin. Chemistry,
Pharmacology and use in Traditional and modern medicine. Springer
Verlag: Berlin.
Thompson EH, Wolf ID, Allen CE. (1973). Ginger rhizome: A new source of
proteolytic enzyme. Journal of Food Science, 38: 652655.
Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Al-Sawan SM, Alnaqeeb MA, Khan I, Ali
M.(2002).The use of ginger (ZingiberofficinaleRosc.) as a potential anti-
inflammatory and antithrombotic agent.Prostaglandins Leukotessent
fatty acids 67(6):475-478.
Tiraboschi P, Hansen LA, Thal LJ, Corey-Bloom J (2004). The importance
of neuritic plaques and tangles to the development and evolution of AD
.Neurology62 (11): 19849.
Vaes LP, Chyka PA.(2000). Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger,
ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence. Ann Pharmacother.
34(12):1478-1482.
Wagner H. (198). Pharmazeutische Biologie. drogen und ihreinhaltsstoffe.
Stuttgart: Gustav fischerVerlag.
Widmaier W. (1986). Pflanzenheilkunde, WBV Biologisch-
MedizinicheVerlagsgesellschaft: Schondorf.
Wong, S. (2001). The flavour of ginger.
http;/www2.mybc.com/food/columns/
Ginger: A Functional Herb
29
Wood CD (1988). Comparison of Efficacy of Ginger with Various
Antimotion Sickness Drugs. Clinical Research Practices and Drug
Regulatory Affairs, 6(2):129-136
Yamahara, J, Mochizuki, M, Rong, HQ, Matsuda, H, Fujimura, H. (1988).
The anti-ulcer effect in of ginger in rats. J. EEthenopharmacolo. 23(2-3):
299-304.
Yamahara J, Hatakeyama S, Taniguchi K, Kawamura M, Yoshikawa M.
(1992). Stomachic principles in ginger. II.Pungent and anti-ulcer effects
of low polar constituents isolated from ginger, the dried rhizoma of
Zingiber officinale Roscoe cultivated in Taiwan. The absolute
stereostructure of a new diarylheptanoid. YakugakuZasshi 112:645-55.
Young, DS. (2001). Effects of disease on clinical lab.testes. 4th ed., AACC.
Ziauddin SK, Rao DN, Amla BL. (1995) Effect of lactic acid, ginger extract
and sodium chloride on electrophoretic pattern of buffalo muscle
proteins. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 32: 224226.
Zhang J, Huang Y, Hou T, Wang, Y. (2006). Hypoglycemic effect of
Artemisia sphaerocephalaKrasch seed polysaccharide in alloxan-induced
diabetic rats.SWISS. MED. WKLY., 136: 529-532.
LG
... Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of most famous and useful herbals. Ginger belongs to Zingiberaceae family and Zingiber genus (Bhatt et al. 2013;Zadeh and Kor 2014;Bakr et al. 2020). Ginger contains more than 60 active constituents, including gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and even zingerone, and is a good source of essential micronutrients such as potassium, magnesium, copper, manganese, silicone, and small quantities of vitamins such as A, E and some quantities of B and vitamin C are also present in ginger rhizome (Bhatt et al. 2013). ...
... Ginger belongs to Zingiberaceae family and Zingiber genus (Bhatt et al. 2013;Zadeh and Kor 2014;Bakr et al. 2020). Ginger contains more than 60 active constituents, including gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and even zingerone, and is a good source of essential micronutrients such as potassium, magnesium, copper, manganese, silicone, and small quantities of vitamins such as A, E and some quantities of B and vitamin C are also present in ginger rhizome (Bhatt et al. 2013). In recent years, several studies have focused on ginger's potential in rumen fermentation modification (El Samarany 2015; Soroor and Moeini 2015;Al-Azazi et al. 2018), but previous studies have not concentrated on ginger's impact on acid-base balance. ...
Article
Full-text available
AB S T RA C T Medicinal herbs have been used for several thousand years in traditional medicine and are known to be inexpensive, effective, readily available, and safe to use, with almost no side effects. As no previous research focused on the effect of ginger powder (Zingiber officinale) on acid-base balance in sheep, the goal of this study was studying the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) powder on acid-base balance, rumen, and blood constituents. Ten Egyptian ewes were given ginger powder 500mg/kg bwt orally in the morning before feeding for 5 days. Blood and rumen juice samples were collected in the morning on 0 (control), 3 rd , and 5 th day before feeding. Results generally showed a significant increase in rumen fluid pH, WBCS, lymphocytes, MCH, and MCHC. Significant decrease in total volatile fatty acids, serum total protein, and globulin were recorded. Ginger maintained acid-base balance, rumen protozoa activity, total protozoa count, rumen ammonia concentration, RBCs, PCV, Hemoglobin, neutrophils, albumin, BUN, Creatinine, GGT, and AST within normal range. Depending on changes in blood and rumen constituents we may suggest a recommendation for using ginger supplementation as 500mg/kg bwt orally for 3-5days as an immune stimulant and in the treatment of rumen acidosis and respiratory affections in sheep.
... Depending on the variety, the flesh of the rhizome may be black, white, or red. Harvesting mature or young ginger impacts the thickness of the ginger skin (Bhatt et al. 2013 ...
Book
Full-text available
Its about the traditional knowledge of Indian People.
... Tea extract concentration affects potassium content of DDs inversely (Table 3) owing to its contribution in tea, that is, 30,362 μg/ 100 ml (Klepacka et al., 2021). However, the potassium content increased with an increase in herb extract concentration because ginger is a good source of essential micronutrients such as potassium, magnesium, copper, and manganese (Bhatt et al., 2013). ...
Article
The low calorie diet drinks is entering into a new era as preferred by different age groups. All these beverages are having no fruit or vegetable juice, which need to be taken care. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop a fruit‐oriented (watermelon) diet drink using different variables i.e. tea extract (0‐20%), herb extract (0‐5%) and sorbitol (5‐10%) and the optimization was carried out using CCD of RSM. The optimum quality attributes; TSS sucrose (14.85°B), glucose (14.96°B), titratable acidity (citric acid) (0.161%), pH (3.97), reducing sugars (1395 mg/100 ml), total sugars (10.97 g/100 ml), anti‐diabetic assay (72.42 %), calorific value (41.88 kcals/100 ml), total proteins (166.03 mg/100 ml), total phenolics (362.03 mg/100 ml), total tannins (173.20 mg/100 ml), anti‐oxidant activity (56.02%), total flavonoids (1696 mg/100 ml), caffeine (45.33 mg/100 ml), sodium (14.35 ppm), potassium (69.03 ppm) and overall acceptability (8.08) was obtained using 8.74% tea extract, 2.5% herb extract and 6.75% sorbitol with 0.853 desirability. FTIR analysis also confirmed the presence of physiochemical and phytochemicals and cluster analysis revealed that tea extract concentration has a more influence on the quality attributes of drink. The developed conditions will help the industrials and researchers for development of fruit‐based diet drink will high range of phytochemical potential.
... Researches had indicated that ginger and tumeric are effective in reducing inflammation in arthritic condition. (Neeru, et al 2013) reported extensively on the origin of ginger, cultivation, application in traditional medicine, in decorative, as antipoisoning agent, reduction of cholesterol, block excessive blood clothing, and fight against arthritis. Ginger rhizome may be used as digestive aid, anti-nausea remedy, control to baldness, reduce toothache, snake bite, help new born mothers cleanse their womb after child-birth, etc. ...
... Daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC.) is having anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-oxidant, [26] anti-inflammatory specially in ocular infections, eye infections, [27] adaptogenic, [28] immunomodulatory, [29] anti-cataract [30] effect. Shunthi (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is having advanced glycation end products-inhibitor, [17] immunomodulatory, [29] anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-oxidant, [31] anti-ageing, [32] immunomodulatory, anti-cataract, free radical scavenger [33] properties. Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) is having antioxidant, [32] immunomodulatory activity, [34] anti-diabetic, Rasayana, [35] anti-hypercholesterolemic, [36] enhancer of the bio-availability of drugs [37] like actions. ...
... While India is considered the biggest producer of ginger in the world, the plant is also grown extensively in other countries, such as China, Nepal, the United States, Bangladesh, Taiwan, and Jamaica among other parts of the world. Z. officinale is also commonly used as a medicinal plant in Chinese, Indian Ayurvedic, and Muslim's Tibb-Unani herbal medicines for the treatment of many diseases, including asthma, stroke, digestive problems, rheumatoid arthritis, nervous diseases, and diabetes (Bhatt et al., 2013;Khalil et al., 2011;Moghaddasi & Kashani, 2012;Santo & Sankari, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Ginger, the powdered rhizome of the herb Zingiber officinale, is commonly used as a traditional medicine in many areas around the world. Anti-inflammatory actions of its extract have been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ginger extract on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and interleukin (IL) expression from human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) in vitro. Material and methods: HGFs were obtained from subcultures of biopsies from clinically healthy gingival tissues of 10 patients. Ginger extract was prepared from commercial powder of rhizome of Z. officinale (GZO) and its effect on cell viability was assessed using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide cytotoxicity assay. Cells were then incubated and treated (except for the control samples) with either GZO, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and GZO before or after LPS stimulation. Culture supernatants of all five samples were collected for the Milliplex analysis to measure MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, IL-1β, and IL-8. One-way analysis of variance and Duncan multiple range tests were used to compare the mean values of all groups. Results: The gingerextract showed minimal cytotoxicity to HGFs even with the maximum tested concentration. Compared to the control group, GZO treatment alone caused little or no effect on the levels of expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, IL-1β, and IL-8. While GZO treatment after LPS stimulation significantly reduced the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, and IL-8 when compared to LPS alone. Comparing the control to LPS stimulation after GZO treatment, significant differences were detected for all tested MMPs and cytokines. Conclusions: These findings suggest a potential role for ginger extract in inhibiting MMP and IL HGFs' expression in inflamed gingival tissues.
... The group of acetoxy gingerdiols holds an acetoxy group in C-5 ( Figure 9). Peak 5 (Rt = 15.68 min) was tentatively assigned to 5-acetoxy-6-gingerol and peak 14 (Rt = 18.82 min) was tentatively identified as methyl-5-acetoxy- 6 [11]. In addition, a fragment at m/z 151 is also observed for peak 14 producing the methylated aromatic moiety (Figure 9). ...
Article
Full-text available
Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes have been associated with multiple health benefits, such as blocking blood clotting, digestive and antinausea effects and aid in respiratory conditions. These effects have been linked with their polyphenolic main metabolites, gingerols and shogaols. Herewith, we report a detailed study on the polyphenolic profile and in the contents of main gingerols and shogaol as well as the antioxidant activity of extracts from Z. officinale rhizomes (n = 17) produced in Costa Rica. Using UPLC-QTOF-ESI MS, a total of 34 polyphenols were identified, grouped in 12 types of structures. In addition, our findings on the main metabolites using UPLC-DAD show all rhizomes complying with total gingerols (TG) content established by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). At an individual level, samples SR-1 and NR-4 show the higher contents and also exhibit the highest Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) reducing capacity results as well as the best DPPH antioxidant values. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis results showed positive correlation (p < 0.05) between TG and 6-gingerol with FC results and negative correlation (p < 0.05) between 6-gingerol, TG and FC with DPPH results. In turn, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated variability in the composition associated with their region of origin and confirmed that NR-3, NR-4, and especially SR-1 stand out significatively, showing the highest PC1 because of its particularly high TG, 6-gingerol and antioxidant activities. Finally, results from controlled experimental plots of Z. officinale rhizomes (n = 6) indicated influence on metabolites content with higher values for a shorter harvest time and high tunnel cultivation. Therefore, our findings indicate the value of Z. officinale in the elaboration of products with potential benefits for health, delivering extracts with higher levels of gingerols than previous reports and exhibiting high antioxidant activity.
... It is a plant of very ancient cultivation and the spice has long been used in Asia because of its broad spectrum applications. The genus includes about 85 species of aromatic herbs from East Asia and tropical Australia (Bhatt et al., 2013). It is a potent spice valued for its aromatic and pungent rhizome which is a specialized segmented stem structure combinations in total. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ginger is an esteemed crop valued for its aromatic and pungent rhizomes. With its wide usage there is an urgent need to go for its cultivation in large scale to meet the demand. Availability of quality planting material and occurrence of pests and diseases are the limiting factors for its cultivation. Thus the present investigation was carried out with an objective to produce quality seed rhizomes in soilless culture under protected structure. Crops under protected structures result in profuse vegetative growth; since rhizomes are of economic concern use of growth retardants have been proven beneficial. Coupled with it is the basic exhaust nature of the ginger crop. Hence experiment was carried out using growth retardant and nutrients of various levels consisting of 12 treatment obtained were devoid of pests and diseases. Thus soilless cultivation of ginger under protected structure can be a viable solution to overcome the production constraints.
... Globally, Nigeria is rated 5th largest producer and consumer of ginger (Bag, 2018). Ginger either in a fresh paste or dry powder is consumed as a flavouring agent, spice, garnish, medicine and food preservatives (Bhatt et al., 2013). Its utilization could be in the form of dried ginger, ginger powder, ginger paste, ginger oil, ginger syrup, ginger oleoresin and herbal tea (Bag, 2018;Guirguis, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The formation of spores and increase in population of vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus associated with foodborne diseases is dependent on favourable temperature. In this study, B. cereus in a slant obtained from Microbiology Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt was confirmed based on morphological and biochemical tests and inoculated into dry ginger powder using a sterile pipette. The samples were stored at ambient temperature (25°C), refrigeration temperature (4°C) and freezer temperature (-18°C) for 21 days and the microbial counts of B. cereus was monitored at 7 days interval using Bacillus cereus agar base and standard microbiological methods. The result obtained showed that B. cereus steadily increased in population under the storage conditions. The highest microbial count recorded for B. cereus in dry ginger powder stored at 25°C, 4°C and-18°C was 7.15×10 1 ±0.036, 1.07×10 2 ± 0.061 and 2.91×10 2 ± 0.070 CFU/g, respectively. Although the values did not exceed 10 5 cells/g required to manifest foodborne illness in humans, it remains a risk to public health due to increasing population of B. cereus in dry ginger powder under the storage conditions.
... African ginger, Black ginger, Cochin ginger, GanJiang, Gegibre, Ingwer, Jamaican ginger, and Race ginger are all alternate names for ginger. Over 25 variants are produced worldwide [2]. Ginger is a cash crop that assists in the life and economic development of many ginger growers in the country. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper talks about the constraints of ginger farming and its future perspective in Fiji. Ginger is recognized as a significant product in Fiji due to the potential the crop has for food, income benefit, and providing work to the farmers. However, the industry is facing many drawbacks. The main ginger farming constraints in Fiji viz. access to quality planting material, access to water, loss of expertise, soil-borne pathogens like Pythium soft rot and nematodes infestation, pest infestation whereby the presence of scale insect intercepts with the requiring quarantine interventions, unsatisfactory result of pre-planting hot water dip treatment, land and differentiation in rural Fiji (Land tenure) and exporting fresh ginger to high market prices explains how the local ginger produced are not attaining high niche markets.
Article
OBJECTIVE: To review and characterize the evidence describing potential interactions between warfarin and garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng. DATA SOURCES: Searches of MEDLINE (1966-1999), other bibliographic databases, several abstracting services, and tertiary references were conducted. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Articles were examined by each author, and additional citations were obtained from the references of these articles. Preference was given to English-language articles of human studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: Evidence is lacking for an interaction of warfarin with garlic or ginger. Once case report associates ginseng use with decreased warfarin-maintained anticoagulation effect. Another case report links concomitant use of ginkgo and warfarin with the development of intracerebral hemorrhage. Hemorrhage and bleeding tendencies were noted in four cases with ginkgo use and in three cases with garlic; in none of these cases were patients receiving warfarin. CONCLUSIONS: The true risks of these interactions and effects are difficult to characterize due to the limited number and nature of existing reports.
Article
Meristems of ginger with or without leaf primordia were induced to form shoots on three-quarter strength Murashige-Skoog’s (MS) medium containing sucrose 6%, coconut milk (CM) 20%, ascorbic acid (AA) 100 mg l−1, glutamine (GL) 400 mg l−1, activated charcoal (AC) 250 mg l−1, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) 0.5 mg l−1, indolebutyric acid (IBA) 0.4 mg l−1 and agar 0.8%. Meristem-derived shoots exhibited consistent multiplication on three-quarter strength MS medium containing sucrose (3%), AA (100 mg l−1), AC (100 mg l−1), BAP (4–5 mg l−1) and agar (0.8%). Liquid media (agitated or static) were less effective than a solid (agar-gelled) medium for micropropagation. Kinetin and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) incorporated at various levels (0.01–0.8 mg l−1) with or without added BAP and IBA neither improved plantlet formation nor enhanced shoot multiplication. The in vitro plants were successfully established in vivo and the rhizome yield was comparable with that of plants grown by conventional methods.