Article

Audits and inspections are never enough: A critique to enhance food Safety

Authors:
  • powellfoodsafety.com
  • Environ Health Associates, Inc
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Abstract

Internal and external food safety audits are conducted to assess the safety and quality of food including on-farm production, manufacturing practices, sanitation, and hygiene. Some auditors are direct stakeholders that are employed by food establishments to conduct internal audits, while other auditors may represent the interests of a second-party purchaser or a third-party auditing agency. Some buyers conduct their own audits or additional testing, while some buyers trust the results of third-party audits or inspections. Third-party auditors, however, use various food safety audit standards and most do not have a vested interest in the products being sold. Audits are conducted under a proprietary standard, while food safety inspections are generally conducted within a legal framework. There have been many foodborne illness outbreaks linked to food processors that have passed third-party audits and inspections, raising questions about the utility of both. Supporters argue third-party audits are a way to ensure food safety in an era of dwindling economic resources. Critics contend that while external audits and inspections can be a valuable tool to help ensure safe food, such activities represent only a snapshot in time. This paper identifies limitations of food safety inspections and audits and provides recommendations for strengthening the system, based on developing a strong food safety culture, including risk-based verification steps, throughout the food safety system.

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... If food manufacturers have high incentives to adopt good practices, they could: learn industry standards from audits and improve their performance accordingly (Dora et al., 2013;Fielding et al., 2005); assess their food safety culture and invest more resources in strengthening it accordingly (Jespersen et al., 2017;Yiannas, 2009;Griffith et al., 2010); proactively adopt food traceability technologies and advance their efficiencies to manage food allergens (Badia-Melis et al., 2015;Ringsberg, 2014). Unfortunately, the incentive to adopt good practice is generally low among food manufacturers: many food manufacturers are not be willing to go beyond the minimal certification requirements (Powell et al., 2013) or assess their food safety culture (Jespersen et al., 2017) or implement food traceability technologies proactively (Karlsen et al., 2013;Kher et al., 2010). This paper will address this low incentive challenge by proposing an incentive-based approach. ...
... First, audits may not spot all the potential risks in food allergen management. Audits are only a snapshot of food production operations reflecting a short period of time and a small fraction of volume (Powell et al., 2013). Even though the operations meet the required criteria during audits, there is no guarantee of the adoption of good practices in the future (Powell et al., 2013). ...
... Audits are only a snapshot of food production operations reflecting a short period of time and a small fraction of volume (Powell et al., 2013). Even though the operations meet the required criteria during audits, there is no guarantee of the adoption of good practices in the future (Powell et al., 2013). Second, audits are costly and may take resources away from food allergen management. ...
Article
The improvement of food allergen management among food manufacturers has been encumbered by a lack of behavioural incentives to adopt good practices. This study aims to tackle this challenge by proposing an incentive-based approach. We develop this approach by compiling, through a scoping literature review, a comprehensive list of operational errors in food allergen management for food manufacturers; identifying incentives with a behavioural cost‒benefit approach; and integrating machine learning and human learning into a coherent framework for sustaining behavioural incentives. Such a synthesised approach could help to develop advanced food traceability technologies, more effective regulations and better food safety culture for improving food allergen management.
... A significant body of research has sought to understand the antecedents and consequences of foodborne illness outbreaks, and to assess the viability of either proposed or implemented solutions. In this regard, scholars have considered issues related to governance of the food system (Konefal et al. 2005;Powell et al. 2013;Green and Kane 2014;Laforge et al. 2017), cultural aspects of food production and consumption (Powell et al. 2011;De Boeck et al. 2016;Baur et al. 2017), and the scale and design of the agricultural system (Parker et al. 2012;Stuart and Worosz 2012;Marine et al. 2016). For example, DeLind and Howard (2008) use the case of the 2006 outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 linked to the sale of bagged spinach from California to show that proposed safety regulations and technologies to combat foodborne illness outbreaks tend to favor large-scale producers at the expense of small-scale producers. ...
... These pressures can perpetuate a motivated blindness bias that results in decision-makers taking shortcuts or overlooking practices that increase the risk of food contamination. In addition, most food safety audits are conducted by a third-party organization hired at the company's expense (Lytton and McAllister 2014;Powell et al. 2013). Although the outmost result of auditing is the prevention of foodborne illnesses, there have been several foodborne outbreaks associated with food companies that have been successful in third-party audits (Kotsanopoulos and Arvanitoyannis 2017;Costa 2010). ...
... A potential contributor to this issue is the conflict of interest frequently faced by auditors that prevent them to provide negative evaluations and report incidents occurring at the company (Powell et al. 2013). This conflict of interest arises because auditors are paid by the company that they audit and they have a financial interest in getting rehired. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive biases play an important role in creating and perpetuating problems that lead to foodborne illness outbreaks. By using insights from behavioral ethics, we argue that sometimes people engage in unethical behavior that increases the likelihood of foodborne illness outbreaks without necessarily intending to or being consciously aware of it. We demonstrate these insights in an analysis of the 2011 Listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. from the consumption of contaminated cantaloupes. We then provide policy implications that can improve our understanding of other kinds of disease outbreaks and epidemics.
... Although such factors did not appear in the weaknesses areas (Table 4), the issue of external experts and OFCIs was constantly raised in the course of assessment. The importance of external experts and OFCIs on successful application of HACCP principles was noted by several authors (Chen et al., 2015;Fotopoulos et al., 2009;Herath & Henson, 2010;Powell et al., 2013;Taylor & Kane, 2005). The difficulty in finding trusted and reliable external experts is caused by the fact that such kind of services are not regulated by law and that anyone can provide such activity. ...
... Obviously, the scope and quality of such official control varies from one country to another and there may be some disagreement in this regard (Attrey, 2017, pp. 297-310;Conter et al., 2007;Hielm, Tuominem, Aarnisalo, Raaska, & Maijala, 2006;Powell et al., 2013;Toropilova & Bystricky, 2015;Vela & Fernandez, 2003) but, as the situation is serious, this subject should be discussed and criticised. Powell et al. (2013) pointed out that official inspections, as well as second and third party audits represent only a snap shot in time based on observational judgement or document review without relation to the effectiveness of the entire FSMS. ...
... 297-310;Conter et al., 2007;Hielm, Tuominem, Aarnisalo, Raaska, & Maijala, 2006;Powell et al., 2013;Toropilova & Bystricky, 2015;Vela & Fernandez, 2003) but, as the situation is serious, this subject should be discussed and criticised. Powell et al. (2013) pointed out that official inspections, as well as second and third party audits represent only a snap shot in time based on observational judgement or document review without relation to the effectiveness of the entire FSMS. Therefore, to improve the effectiveness of such kind of activities, the cited authors proposed the development of strong food safety culture and risk-based certification steps. ...
Article
The HACCP/food safety plan is a basic document of every structured food safety management system (FSMS). The aim of the study was to identify and to discuss the most important problems related to the HACCP/food safety plans in 47 small food businesses (SFBs) with standardized FSMSs. Using an affinity diagram, ABCD (Suzuki) method, structured desktop and on-site assessments, the relativization method and Pareto analysis, numerous difficulties and weaknesses were identified, ranked and discussed. This paper presents a unique set of opinions from HACCP/food safety team leaders (HTLs) on the difficulties in the process of developing the HACCP/food safety plans and the weaknesses identified during the on-site assessment of HACCP documentation. Ranking the difficulties by the application of the ABCD (Suzuki) method revealed that in the opinion of HTLs, OPRPs and structured hazard assessment tools, especially in the assessment of the hazard severity, were the most problematic areas in developing HACCP/food safety plans. The Pareto analysis showed that the highest cumulative percentages (almost 60%) of non-compliances occurred in areas of documentation, hazard identification and hazard assessment, process flow diagrams and verification of the system. These findings provide added value to knowledge of the implementation and maintenance of HACCP principles, considerably expanding their range, particularly in regard to SFBs. This will make the results of this study useful for HACCP/food safety teams, official food control inspectors and external experts in strengthening the maintenance of HACCP plans/systems in food businesses with different FSMS models.
... All types of food safety assessments are activities used to verify that a food producer is following specific guidelines, requirements, or rules (Powell et al. 2013). An audit is defined as "a systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled" (ISO 2011). ...
... An audit is defined as "a systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled" (ISO 2011). Audits provide a snapshot limited by audit frequency, auditor competence, and audit scope (Powell et al. 2013). ...
... Audit findings, positive and negative, and statements about the effectiveness of the food safety system can indicate either conformity or nonconformity with audit criteria or opportunities for improvement (ISO 2015c). To ensure adherence to recognized regulations and good manufacturing practices, audits may be supplemented with microbiological and other food safety testing and process inspections by regulatory agencies or industry (Powell et al. 2013). ...
Chapter
The growing importance of food safety in international trade is influencing the importance of developing and implementing both legal requirements and international standards. Food safety regulations comprise general principles for three main stakeholders - public authorities, food establishments, and consumers. International food safety standards are developed for food establishments and are basically implemented on a voluntary basis. Today, consumers require high-quality food products in broad assortments throughout the year and for competitive prices. At the same time, they are aware and well informed of all different aspects of food quality and safety. The aim of food regulation is to protect the consumer's health, to increase economic viability, and to harmonize well-being and allow fair trade of foods within and between nations. Food products originating in developing countries are often present on the global food market, and therefore their control system must be adequately harmonized with at least basic food safety regulation.
... VACCP also supports the work of the National Food Crime Unit in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and allows businesses to alert the unit to identified issues, which require an enforcement response. Moreover, it creates a culture where staff are aware of the increased vigilance to fraudulent activity and gives them the confidence to report suspicions of wrongdoing (Powell et al. 2013;TiFSiP 2016). Threat analysis critical control point (TACCP) is another risk-based tool advocated in the literature for food fraud. ...
... Ultimately, a food integrity management system comprising of HACCP, VACCP and TACCP is crucial to help the industry assign countermeasures which protect food safety, quality, authenticity and security issues and achieve consumer trust in the food industry (Kleboth et al. 2016;Jenson and Sumner 2012;Jevsnik et al. 2008;Papademas and Bintsis 2010;Powell et al. 2013;Ramsingh 2014). Recently, Kleboth et al. (2016) carried out a similar review of the food fraud literature. ...
... These methods must be evaluated in full for ease of use, rapidity and cost whilst surviving the rigours of a legal process to provide a sufficient deterrent (Black et al. 2016). Similarly, the literature and the persistence of food-borne illnesses and scandals has raised significant concern on the functioning of the supply chain and the monitoring methods employed for their supervision, particularly exposing weaknesses in current traceability and audit systems (Folinas et al. 2006;Aven 2012;Powell et al. 2013;FAO 2016b;Ringsberg 2014;Lidskog et al. 2015;NFCU 2016;Stamatis et al. 2015;Kleboth et al. 2016;Manning et al. 2016). A preliminary review of the data suggests that the underlying cause of such events is shortcomings in audits, enforcement and current countermeasures within the industry, as opposed to the HACCP, VACCP and TACCP tools. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food fraud is an intentional act for economic gain. It poses a risk to food integrity, the economy, public health and consumers’ ethics. Seafood is one commodity which has endured extensive fraudulent activity owing to its increasing consumer demand, resource limitations, high value and complex supply chains. It is essential that these fraudulent opportunities are revealed, the risk is evaluated and countermeasures for mitigation are assigned. This can be achieved through mapping of the seafood supply chains and identifying the vulnerability analysis critical control points (VACCP), which can be exposed, infiltrated and exploited for fraudulent activity. This research systematically maps the seafood supply chain for three key commodities: finfish, shellfish and crustaceans in the United Kingdom. Each chain is comprised of multiple stakeholders across numerous countries producing a diverse range of products distributed globally. For each supply chain the prospect of fraud, with reference to species substitution, fishery substitution, illegal, unreported and unregulated substitution, species adulteration, chain of custody abuse, catch method fraud, undeclared product extension, modern day slavery and animal welfare, has been identified and evaluated. This mapping of the fraudulent opportunities within the supply chains provides a foundation to rank known and emerging risks and to develop a proactive mitigation plan which assigns control measures and responsibility where vulnerabilities exist. Further intelligence gathering and management of VACCPs of the seafood supply chains may deter currently unknown or unexposed fraudulent opportunities.
... Although, food safety management systems, food safety regulations and food codes cover the food supply chain, despite that foodborne disease outbreaks are not only still occurring in large numbers, but are also associated with companies, which have previously passed food safety controls with successful results. 59,60 The on-going struggle with foodborne disease, varying uptake of food safety standards, drawbacks in food safety assessment and from country to country changing food safety approaches, scopes and enforcement possibilities should be a clear sign to the Halal sector that food safety issues are not to be ignored. [61][62][63][64] Generally, food-handling companies are forced to have at least some kind of food safety measures in place by the government or a customer, inevitably forming a baseline of food safety for the Halal sector. ...
... 63 To completely take advantage of food safety certification, Halal certifiers should review the results of the food safety audit; understand the risks addressed by the standards and make risk-reduction decisions based on the results. 59 Regarding the SME the Halal certifiers should not only be more cautious about food safety, but also for Halal criteria implementation. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper puts forth how food safety and hygienic practices are a part of the Halal concept and should thus be adapted by the Halal food sector to achieve Halal and Tayyib assurance. It further puts forth the concept of Halal prerequisites, which were established through identifying food safety and hygiene requirements in Islamic Jurisprudence. To move toward more efficient Halal and Tayyib practices these should be demanded, implemented, maintained and controlled by the whole Halal food sector, instead of just relying on the existence of food safety certification. A conceptual framework was constructed depicting the Halal sector’s possible passive and potential active Halal and Tayyib food safety control practices. It will enable the sector to gain insight to issues in Halal certification, food safety position within it and reach an understanding of improvement measures. The paper also suggests recognising and incorporating the Halal prerequisites and other sector specific requirements as Halal Control Points (HCPs) to the Halal HACCP system.
... While food safety inspection is a key health protection measure applied by governments to prevent foodborne illness, it is rarely applied in isolation of other measures and remains the subject of sustained criticism. Key criticisms include inconsistency, ineffectiveness in identifying and preventing foodborne illness, and inadequacy of methods applied to inspection [6,12,19]. These criticisms represent important areas for further research, yet in order for this to be holistic and significant, further depth must first be established around how society views food safety inspection, and the meanings society attributes to food safety inspection. ...
... While the compliance of a food business with food safety regulations has been found to relate to a reduced likelihood of food produced being microbially contaminated, and more generally to a reduced likelihood of causing outbreak of foodborne illness [62], consideration must be given to the likelihood that a food business may deviate from standard practices outside of inspection [65]. Hence, another common criticism of food safety inspection is that it only provides a snapshot in time [19]. Accordingly, compliance at the time of inspection must not be considered in isolation, but rather in conjunction with the ability of food businesses to maintain steady-state operations and minimize human error in ongoing operations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food safety inspections are a key health protection measure applied by governments to prevent foodborne illness, yet they remain the subject of sustained criticism. These criticisms include inconsistency and inadequacy of methods applied to inspection, and ineffectiveness in preventing foodborne illness. Investigating the validity of these criticisms represent important areas for further research. However, a defined construct around the meanings society attributes to food safety inspection must first be established. Through critical examination of available literature, this review identified meanings attributed to food safety inspection and explicates some of the key elements that compose food safety inspection as a social construct. A total of 18 meanings were found to be attributed to food safety inspection. Variation in meanings were found between consumers, food business associates and food safety inspectors. For some, inspection meant a source of assurance, for others a threat to fairness, while most view inspection as a product of resources and inspector training. The meanings were then examined in light of common criticisms directed at food safety inspection, to expound their influence in how food safety inspection is realized, shaped, and rationalized. This review highlights the influence of sociological factors in defining food safety inspection.
... Today's businesses require firms to be more interrelated than ever before, and competitive advantages do not solely depend on single firms (Frohlich and Westbrook, 2001;Jin, 2004); the food industry is of no exemption. Food supply chain literature suggests more extensive integration is required in enabling tools application in addressing issues in the supply chain (i.e., traceability, visibility, Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) (Storoy et al., 2013) and standards and regulations relating to the food industry (Powell et al., 2013). Frohlich and Westbrook (2001) have mentioned in their work on the manufacturing industry, that in order for the firm to be successful, linking the internal processes externally is important, after tailoring supply chain management to the specific type of demand. ...
... In halal context, the status and quality are determined by audit certification mechanism. However, the mechanism has been argued of its sustainability and efficiency in the literature (Powell et al., 2013;Roth et al., 2008). Interestingly, it is evidenced that halal food manufacturers in Malaysia remain neutral on positive impact promised by the halal supply chain activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Much has been written about the importance of supply chain integration in determining firm performance. Moreover, for halal food production that is depending upon the wholesomeness in the supply chain, the external integration is crucial. However, there are scarce literature and managerial guide that focus on supply chain integration in the halal food industry. The aim of this research is to provide empirical evidence in explaining supply chain integration in the context of the halal food industry through a survey from 275 firms. The results provide strong empirical evidence on integrative activities and supply chain integration practices of halal food firms in Malaysian. In addition, the paper offers propositions on how supply chain integration may play their role in contributing to performance enhancement in the complex halal food industry.
... Sections 5.2 and 5.3 discuss the extent to which farmers comply with various quality and safety requirements, which implies that quality checks are performed to determine the level of compliance. Generally, it is possible to distinguish between three types of audits or quality checks (Powell, et al., 2013;van der Meulen and Bernd, 2011): self-control, where the farmers themselves check the quality of the products (first-party audit), audits by the buyer (second-party audits) and audits by an independent auditor (third-party audits). Third-party audits are required for compliance with several food safety standards (Jahn, Schramm, & Spiller, 2005), as well as some food quality labelling schemes. ...
... Unhealthy food processing has environmental and social hazards. Therefore, polemicists urged the introduction of external audits to ensure food safety (Powell et al., 2013). The industries' environmental sensitivity and increased pressures for disclosure from auditors may affect the number of KAMs disclosed and their extent presented. ...
Article
Purpose – The new audit regulation for disclosure of key audit matters (KAMs) in financial reporting has been introduced in both developed and developing countries. This study investigates the influence of three distinctive sets of variables, namely industry features, firm characteristics, and auditor attributes, on the extent, pattern and level of disclosure of KAMs by companies listed in Bangladesh, an emerging economy. Design/methodology – The study uses qualitative and quantitative research approaches to investigate the pattern of disclosure of KAMs and their determinants. With a sample of 447 firm-year observations from companies listed on the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) over 2018–2020, the study reveals industry-level, firm-level and auditor-specific characteristics that affect KAMs’ communication in the new audit reporting model. Findings – The findings suggest that significant differences exist between firms in the number and types of KAMs reported and the extent of their disclosure. The study findings also observed variations both within and across different industry sectors. Highly regulated firms disclose a greater number of KAMs, while environmentally sensitive firms are found to provide a greater detail of the issues presented as KAMs. Further, both firm size and age positively impact the number of KAMs disclosed and the extent of the disclosure provided. Big-4 affiliated auditors do not issue a significantly higher number of KAMs but deliver extensive details to their KAMs description, compared to non-Big-4 auditors. In addition, while auditors, in general, tend to issue boilerplate KAMs, Big-4 associates are found to disclose more new KAMs. However, audit fees and auditor rotation do not influence KAMs disclosure. Limitations/implications – This study is based on two years of publicly available data. However, future studies could consider in-depth interviews to explore the motivation behind KAMs’ disclosure in Bangladesh and other developing countries with similar cultural and contextual values. Practical implications – These findings have substantial policy considerations for improving firms' audit quality and, thus, their financial reporting quality, with implications for national and international standard-setters, regulators, and other stakeholders. Originality – This study is one of the earliest endeavours to investigate KAMs in a context of an emerging country, such as Bangladesh, which adopted KAMs’ disclosure in 2018.
... Overall, they can be broadly divided into two broad areas: the external environment and the internal factors of the firm. e factors that influence audit risk in the external environment mainly include the legal system [13,14], market competition [15][16][17], and third-party audits [18,19]. In terms of the legal system, while the rapid development of information technology has brought new audit risks, the accompanying laws and regulations have not been updated in a timely manner, which makes it necessary for auditors to pay more attention to these new audit points in their audit work, further increasing audit risks [20,21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Professional auditors provide audit services to businesses and they are key participants in enterprise development. Effective identification of audit risks can help auditors plan their audit work rationally and issue correct audit opinions. In the era of big data and the Internet, enterprises generate a large amount of data in their daily operations. For auditors, it is a great challenge to use data mining algorithms, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and other emerging technologies to identify high-quality audit data from the vast amount of data of audited enterprises. At the same time, some companies may falsify and modify their financial statements for their own benefit, which further increases the difficulty for auditors in conducting audits. Traditional auditing methods are costly and consuming and cannot meet standard auditing requirements. Therefore, this study applies computer data mining algorithms to construct an audit risk model that provides a reference for auditors to conduct big data analysis and mines valuable data, thereby improving the efficiency and accuracy of the audit process.
... 3 Furthermore, within an inspection system, the incentive to pursue a remedy may only be the anticipation of the next inspection, so self-regulating compliance in between inspections may not be facilitated. 22 Recognition of these limitations necessitates reconsideration of the checklist-only approach, and as part of that reevaluation, it is important to begin with a good foundation. The first step, therefore, is to establish the goal of the process. ...
Article
The format of feedback can have a significant impact on the outcome of an evaluation. Checklists, a common tool in health and safety inspections, have limited potential to change practices and habits between utilizations because implicitly they are finite in terms of conveying priority or providing guidance on how to solve cited issues. In addition, they are vulnerable to variability in the thoroughness of application. In contrast, feedback in the form of unstructured descriptive comments has the potential to magnify existing strengths, which sustain an overall good practice between inspections if the comments include positive citations that are specific and detailed. Without inclusion of both positive feedback and unstructured descriptive comments to the standard, structured checklist, inspectors miss the opportunity to reinforce actions already being performed and the opportunity to build on the foundation of existing skill and knowledge. This case study combines principles of management, evaluation tool design, behavioral psychology, and neurological science to explain the impact the authors observed on safety compliance in conjunction with providing positive feedback in unstructured comments as part of annual inspection reports.
... Generally speaking, enterprises have a strong incentive for compliance because they do not want to risk losing the certification as well as their clients and reputation, but still standards and certifications are vulnerable. A list of limitations is provided by Powell et al. (2013). One of the reasons that can undermine food standards, including organic certification, relies on deficiency in enforcement by third-party certifiers (Fagotto 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The organic food certification system in Italy, based on the EU legislation, relies on private control bodies (CBs) that are supervised by national authorities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether it is possible to test for differences in controls outcome based on CBs’ behavior. To this extent, we use a multinomial logit model estimated on data corresponding to the results of the inspections in the year 2015 in Italy. The model controls for two fixed effects represented by the type of operator and a contextual variable, i.e., the region where a firm is located. Significant variability in CBs behavior could induce adverse selection in the choice of the CB by organic operators. In this vein, we discuss some implications in terms of policies and consequences for supervision in the conclusions.
... Regulating and managing food safety using audits and inspections are key to managing and regulating food safety by both private, government and food industry bodies. Audit systems, in their current form, have limitations in improving food safety and there is a long and storied history of food safety failures involving third party audits and inspections (Powell et al. 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper forms part of an ongoing project studying various approaches to the management of hazards and risk in the food industry with implications for other areas of risk management where cooperation and collaboration between organisations are of a potential benefit. In this paper we give particular focus to the Food Standard Agency’s proposed Regulating Our Future that requires closer cooperation and collaboration between the public enforcement authorities and the industry organisations that police food hygiene and food safety management. The forming of a Primary Authority between Cornwall Council and Safe and Local Supplier Approval (SALSA) emerged as a potential means of contributing to this by improving trust between all parties involved, sharing of information, assessing risk, reducing inspection times and frequency of inspections from Primary Authority. Attention is given to the current relationship between the various organisations involved from the perspectives and viewpoints of Local Authority Enforcement Officers from Preston City Council, Cornwall Council and SALSA and other experienced food safety professionals. The research is qualitative and grounded, including a review of the extant literature and interviews with food safety and food standards professionals from the private and public enforcement sectors.
... In this regard, oyster industries involved in handling and processing oysters are required to translate, implement, and tailor FSMSs to suit their specific circumstances. Management that relies only on audits and inspections to verify conformity of implemented FSMSs is inadequate (Kotsanopoulos & Arvanitoyannis, 2017;Powell et al., 2013). Audits and verifications commonly focus on comparing food safety output with specific requirements; consequently, they are not leveraged into corrective actions for mitigating risks (Kleboth, Luning, & Fogliano, 2016;Kotsanopoulos & Arvanitoyannis, 2017). ...
Article
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram‐negative bacterium that is naturally present in the marine environment. Oysters, which are water filter feeders, may accumulate this pathogen in their soft tissues, thus increasing the risk of V. parahaemolyticus infection among people who consume oysters. In this review, factors affecting V. parahaemolyticus accumulation in oysters, the route of the pathogen from primary production to consumption, and the potential effects of climate change were discussed. In addition, intervention strategies for reducing accumulation of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters were presented. A literature review revealed the following information relevant to the present study: (a) managing the safety of oysters (for human consumption) from primary production to consumption remains a challenge, (b) there are multiple factors that influence the concentration of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters from primary production to consumption, (c) climate change could possibly affect the safety of oysters, both directly and indirectly, placing public health at risk, (d) many intervention strategies have been developed to control and/or reduce the concentration of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters to acceptable levels, but most of them are mainly focused on the downstream steps of the oyster supply chain, and (c) although available regulation and/or guidelines governing the safety of oyster consumption are mostly available in developed countries, limited food safety information is available in developing countries. The information provided in this review may serve as an early warning for managing the future effects of climate change on the safety of oyster consumption.
... We may in fact reveal more questions with more science. As Powell et al. (2013) note, management decisions are judgment calls informed by science and other evaluations of risk amidst uncertainty. ...
... The HACCP approach is a precautionary approach to microbiological quality control and is planned to check problems before they happen rather than finding them in the finished product (Smith et al., 1990). To ensure the safety of food system from microbial contamination, regulation 852/2004 requires up-to-date verification of the working status of HACCP by business operators (Powell et al., 2013;Kolanowski, 2014, 2017). Therefore, different regulatory organizations such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), World Health Organization (WHO) have confirmed the safety limit of microbial toxins in the food system. ...
... However, food safety management mentioned above is all about the technology of enterprises, not the government or consumers. Moreover, Powell et al. (2013) put forward that audits and inspections are never enough. Based on the establishment of a strong food safety culture throughout the food safety system, they identified the limitations of food safety inspections and audits and proposed suggestions for strengthening the system. ...
Article
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The “trust” attribute of health food has intensified the serious information asymmetry problem in the health food market. Moreover, it has strengthened the formation and influence of potential or hidden safety risks of health food, bringing huge impacts on social harmony and stability. Therefore, this study builds a model of health food enterprise production and operation and government regulatory information disclosure from the perspective of consumer participation. The study fully considers the government's policy burdens and the degree of consumer response to food safety regulatory information. Moreover, it aims to explore the evolution mechanism of food enterprise production and operation strategies and government regulatory information disclosure strategies and analyze the evolution process of the government behavior in health food safety regulatory information disclosure. The theoretical derivation and simulation analysis found that the more sensitive consumers are to health food safety regulatory information, the more significant the profitability improvement of enterprises producing quality health food, thus urging the government to make an objective and comprehensive disclosure of health food safety regulatory information. This study is significant in supervising and managing health food safety because it analyzes the evolution process of the government behavior in health food safety regulatory information disclosure from the perspective of consumer participation.
... Surprisingly, some exporting companies also did not have a sufficient program, and if they had one, they did not meet microbial specifications or check for food safety and hygiene performance, which is a prerequisite in FSMS (Table 6). This questions the utility of audits and inspections, as in the past, companies with certified FSMS have recorded inconsistences in microbial safety and reported food safety outbreaks (Powell et al., 2013). Moreover, De Boeck et al. (2015) found that having a FSMS is no guarantee of a good FS-culture and food safety performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food safety outbreaks are recurrent events, which regularly cost human lives. Food safety goes beyond food safety management systems; an organisation's prevailing food safety culture, and its internal and external environment must also be considered. This study introduces a research framework to analyse crucial food safety culture elements, and characteristics of the internal (i.e. food safety program, product riskiness, and vulnerability of food production system) and the external company environment (i.e. national values and food safety governance characteristics). We hypothesised that companies producing high-risk products are more likely to demonstrate a proactive food safety culture. We used the framework to assess nine companies producing low, medium, and high-risk products in Zimbabwe, as a case of a transition economy. Results showed no direct relationship between product riskiness and food safety culture, which negated our hypothesis. Other variables explored in this study could have moderated the relationship. We found that the vulnerability (i.e. susceptibility to microbial contamination) of the food production system could be associated with an organisation's food safety culture. Moreover, the external environment could have shaped the prevailing food safety culture. In particular, food safety governance and national values seem to be reflected in the way food safety was prioritised, food safety programs were designed and implemented, the prevailing food safety culture, and the observed food safety behaviour. Further research could investigate the role of the external environment in an organisation's food safety culture by evaluating companies in countries operating with different food safety governance approaches and national values.
... (1) The role of food additives, processing aids and chemical compounds in general (Asensio et al. 2008;, when speaking of traceability, possible identity loss and access in the flow diagram of processes (2) Countermeasures against intentional adulteration (3) The evaluation of technical data sheets concerning these products in the food and beverage industries by external and experienced auditors Powell et al. 2013) (4) Finally, possible health risks caused by allergenic and undeclared substances, because of the demonstrated possibility and reported the occurrence of public health issues (BRC 2017a, b;. ...
Article
This book explains the role of food-oriented (or ‘food-centric’) quality system standards in the modern food and beverage industry. It discusses food safety schemes based on the international norm ISO 9001 and the “Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points” approach, and also introduces the new Global Standard for Food Safety (GSFS) and the International Featured Standard (IFS, 7th ed.), outlining standardization for international equivalence (while maintaining the necessary flexibility and independence – which is not always easy an easy task). Providing selected specific examples, it examines the problems of chemical additives and possible cross-contaminations between different production lines, as well as adequate reactions to and handling of intentional adulterations. In addition, it includes a chapter focusing on quality audits and technical data sheets in the food industry, and a final chapter describing the certification of food-grade lubricants in the food industry, especially with regard to allergenic substances.
... (1) The role of food additives, processing aids and chemical compounds in general (Asensio et al. 2008;, when speaking of traceability, possible identity loss and access in the flow diagram of processes (2) Countermeasures against intentional adulteration (3) The evaluation of technical data sheets concerning these products in the food and beverage industries by external and experienced auditors Powell et al. 2013) (4) Finally, possible health risks caused by allergenic and undeclared substances, because of the demonstrated possibility and reported the occurrence of public health issues (BRC 2017a, b;. ...
Chapter
This chapter describes the certification of food-grade additives, raw materials and non-food materials such as lubricants in the food industry, especially with regard to contained allergenic substances. The problem of allergens should be discussed in the ambit of quality management systems because the definition of allergen concerns potentially all food contact ingredients and materials in the food or beverage industry. By the viewpoint of quality managers, the risk of declared and undeclared allergens is critical and should also take into account ‘hidden’ components which could enter the food processing chain, such as certain lubricants used for food processing equipment. These topics are well considered and discussed when speaking of the most known and used standards in the ambit of food certification, including the Global Standard for Food Safety by the British Retail Consortium and the International Featured Standard Food. This chapter discusses general requests for allergens by the quality management viewpoint and the recommended management of non-food materials such as lubricants.
... More widely, it can be argued that total dependence on the GMPs, GAPs, HACCP systems may be flawed (Powell et al., 2013). The argument is strengthened by the fact that many cases of food recall in recent years have involved products that had been certified (Marucheck et al., 2011). ...
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Most product recalls are voluntary or conducted on the company's own initiative. Involuntary recall may also occur when a federal government ministry or other agency instructs a company to perform a mandatory recall for product defect which imposes a significant risk to consumers. This article aims to provide a short overview of a product recall in the food industry. A case study of a Malaysia local brand MilkCoffee Ltd. selling traditional coffee or kopi-tiams provides an example of the product recall strategies and processes to ensure any product associated with any sort of threat will be removed as quickly as possible from the marketplace. The nature of the food supply chain as well as the food safety, quality and integrity to reduce any risk of product recalls or withdrawals are further discussed. The development of the product recall strategies and processes need to take serious consideration of the challenging nature and complexity of the globalized food supply chain.
... The very bottom rung of our modified IL involves monitoring employee behavior, foundational and necessary for gathering baseline levels of HW compliance. Surveillance cameras are considered the gold standard for accurate determination of HW practices, as employees are more likely to forget the presence of the cameras and act with high freedom in accord with their typical behavior (Chapman, Eversley, Fillion, Maclaurin, & Powell, 2010;Powell et al., 2013). More intrusive observations involve use of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags that track employee movement and interface with soap or alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) dispensers to determine HW compliance (Levchenko, Boscart, & Fernie, 2013;Marra et al., 2014;Staats, Dai, Hofmann, & Milkman, 2015). ...
... Regulation 852/2004 requires that food business operators should establish procedures to regularly verify that the HACCP system is working effectively. Internal audits constitute an appropriate tool of verification in this context (Powell et al., 2013;Trafialek & Kolanowski, 2014, 2017. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the degree of conformity with food safety hygiene requirements in children's nurseries in Warsaw over a period of 11 years and to predict the expected time to achieve full conformity. The survey was carried out in 55 nurseries using a specially designed check list containing questions regarded GMP/GHP and HACCP documentation and practice. The results showed that the level of compliance with both GMP/GHP and HACCP standards was high in respect of documentation. However, it was much lower in the case of practice, especially HACCP. Although a constant increase in compliance with HACCP criteria was observed over the evaluated period, improvement was slow and inadequate. In 2017, compliance of HACCP practice reached only a 3.4 score. Based on food safety system improvements acquired so far, achievement of its full compliance with requirements was optimistically expected during 3 years. Regular monitoring of compliance level and prediction of its conformity are of practical importance to improve food safety system management and to indicate the corrective actions which are necessary to eliminate the risk.
... The authors mention also several drawbacks. For example, the quality of the data is highly dependent on skills and experience of the auditor and audits are only a snapshot in time (Powell et al., 2013). However, the latter drawback might be mitigated by verification of monitoring data, as this allows to collect a lot of information from daily monitoring registrations within the HACCP system over a longer period of time, which also demonstrates the value of HACCP in this method triangulation. ...
Article
The advantages and added value of applying method triangulation to gain a more comprehensive evaluation of the prevailing food safety culture in catering establishments is illustrated by means of a case study. Three methods are applied assessing the food safety culture in food service operations of a Flemish University spread over different locations in the city of Ghent, but centrally managed. Each method sheds light on one of the aspects of ‘food safety culture’ as defined in the food safety culture conceptual model, in which food safety culture is considered as the interplay between a techno-managerial route/aspect and a human route/aspect. Two system and product related methods, being internal audits and verification of monitoring data of Critical Control Points (CCPs) as part of the HACCP system, both assessing the performance of the food safety management system and as such belonging to the techno-managerial route, are compared with a people related method using the food safety climate self-assessment tool, which is belonging to the human route. By triangulation of these three methods different aspects of the food safety culture at the different locations could be investigated, illustrating how single-method derived results could lead to wrong conclusions. Moreover, by combining the assessment methods case by case, locations in which the hazard of optimistic bias and complacency might exist, can be identified. As such, more tailored and location specific strategies for improvement of food safety management and/or food safety culture can be put in place.
Article
Kepatuhan pelaku usaha terhadap peraturan pangan penting dalam menjamin keamanan produk yang diproduksi atau diedarkannya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menggali faktor-faktor penyebab ketidakpatuhan pelaku usaha distributor pangan olahan terhadap peraturan di bidang pangan di Kota Gorontalo. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif deskriptif. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara mendalam yang direkam dengan alat perekam. Responden utama adalah pelaku usaha yang memenuhi syarat yang telah ditetapkan dengan mempertimbangkan jenis sarana dan jenis pelanggarannya. Jenis sarana distribusi yang terwakili yaitu kios, toko, toko berantai dan distributor besar pangan olahan. Jumlah responden utama yang diwawancarai berjumlah 12 responden, terdiri dari 5 responden utama dan 7 responden konfirmasi (tiap sarana 1 responden utama kecuali sarana 1 sebanyak 2 responden utama). Hasil wawancara responden utama ditranskrip untuk kemudian dianalisis. Proses analisis meliputi penentuan pernyataan responden utama yang dianggap menjawab pertanyaan penelitian, konfirmasi pernyataan tersebut ke responden konfirmasi, coding, penentuan subkategori dan kategori. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan beberapa faktor yang menyebabkan ketidakpatuhan pelaku usaha terhadap peraturan di bidang pangan. Faktor penyebab tersebut adalah kurangnya pengetahuan pelaku usaha terhadap peraturan, faktor keuangan yang berasal dari tingginya permintaan konsumen terhadap praktek yang dilarang, serta faktor ketidakpedulian yang dikarenakan perilaku malas dan kesibukan pada pekerjaan lain.
Article
Purpose Food safety management systems (FSMSs) are implemented in food supply chains primarily to adhere to regulations as well as meet customer requirements. The literature contains examples of successful and failed implementation of FSMSs, including the influencing factors. This paper aims to explore the literature on the effectiveness factors of FSMSs to identify the literature findings, the emerging themes and suggestions for future research. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature review (SLR) is used to synthesise research on the factors influencing the effectiveness of FSMSs. The methodology consists of formulating the research questions, identifying, selecting and evaluating relevant studies, analysing, synthesising and presenting findings. Findings The effectiveness factors of FSMSs identified from the literature are clustered into five categories, namely (1) FSMS culture; (2) FSMS inspection, verification and audit; (3) FSMS knowledge; (4) Legal regulations; and (5) Prerequisite programmes. Moreover, it was determined that the effectiveness factors featured in a variety of contexts. Research limitations/implications SLR is an objective, rigorous and reliable approach to exploring the effectiveness factors of FSMSs. However, the results are contingent on research studies selected for review, which depends on the research criteria used, available and accessible research studies and the criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies. This dependency introduces bias, an intrinsic limitation of the SLR approach. Originality/value In this study, the effectiveness factors of FSMSs are identified utilising an SLR approach, integrating findings from previously reported research. The factors and resulting emerging themes identified in this study are beneficial, including in improving food safety management practices.
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The first chapter statesglobal supply chains a general overview of the book such as the background, objectives, and structure. It briefly outlines the incentives for the book. The chapter describes the main value of the book in reducing the complexities of decision-making and managing FSMS. Compared to other studies of CSFs for FSMS, this book not only applies CSFcritical success factors (CSF) approach proactively to identify the enabling mechanism for continuous improvement of the FSMS implementationFSMS implementation but also provides dynamic roadmaps based on the status of each firm’s key FSMSFood safety management system (FSMS) characteristics. The enhanced understanding of the best practice of FSMS implementation would help to mitigate failure risk and lead to safer food supply chains. The approaches presented in the book can be an easy-to-use and practical method for food managers in their routine operation management.
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To meet both market demands and regulations, stakeholders in global food supply chains are progressively increasing food safety management within their organisations and throughout the chains to demonstrate their abilities in controlling food safety hazards to ensure that food is safe at the time of human consumption (Mensah & Julien, 2011). Based on the main gaps addressed in Chapter 2 related to CSFs for FSMS, a set of CSFs related to the organisations, market, and environment affecting the success of FSMSFood safety management system (FSMS) is identified. In detail, the degree to which CSFs from multi-level environments interacting with FSMS are explored to quantify the impact and their relationship in the context of global supply chainsglobal supply chains.
Article
A study was conducted to determine status of traceability system implementation in the supply chain of local beef and beef sausages in Malawi, and tried to identify key factors affecting the implementation, in an attempt to find solutions to traceability issues, to ensure safety of these food for local and international people living in this country. Eighty-two (82) samples of cut beef (40) and beef sausages (42) were identified from retail outlets and followed retrospectively to determine if information trail generated along the supply chain link to identity of corresponding meat carcasses and live animals from feedlots. Fifty-eight (58) personnel for business operators involved in this supply chain and four (4) regulatory enforcement officers were interviewed to review level of knowledge on Food Traceability (FT) and Food Safety (FS) that is vital in food traceability implementation. Results of the study indicated that; it was not possible to trace attributes of local beef and beef sausages from retail outlets to cattle feedlots, personnel involved in this supply chain did not have adequate knowledge on FT and FS and that regulatory enforcement officers had adequate knowledge on FT and FS but contents of legislation could not allow them to effectively address issues of food traceability. It was, therefore, concluded that the supply chain of local beef and beef sausages in Malawi is not traceable which is a FS concern and a threat to public health and need to be swiftly addressed.
Article
Purpose The study sets to summarise managerial requirements, analyse practices and tools to measure food safety management system (FSMS) implementation. Also, underpinned by critical success factors (CSFs) theory, the authors explore when food firms manage FSMS and which factors are critical to their implementation to identify promising research directions for researchers and suggestions for practitioners through a comprehensive analytical lens. Design/methodology/approach It is difficult to ensure food safety from farm to fork worldwide. The paper addresses this challenge from the angle of how firms measure and improve the implementation of the FSMS in global food supply chains by a systematic review combined with biological mapping analysis (VOS viewer) on 81 peer-reviewed papers published from 2005 to 2020. Findings Mandatory and voluntary regulations and standards are the most critical part of international requirements to assure integrated, proactive, risk-based approaches as well as continuous improvement in the FSMS in global food chains. To measure the FSMS, only a limited number of measurement tools for the FSMS have been identified. External and internal factors, and technology adoption that significantly impact the management of the FSMS implementation still require more future works. Research limitations/implications Several FSMS research gaps observed during the content analysis of selected papers within 15 years are presented along with ten future research questions. Practical implications A systematised list of published papers that have been studied and reported in this research could be a useful reference point for practitioners in the food industry. Originality/value This study set out to summarise managerial requirements for the FSMS from the existing research, analyse practices and tools to measure FSMS implementation, explore when food firms manage the FSMS, which factors are critical to their implementation, and identify promising research directions for researchers and useful suggestions for practitioners.
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Objective: According to the variety and diversity of research conducted in the field of internal auditing, the purpose of this research is to gain a deeper understanding of the topic by conducting a systematic review of existing studies to classify topics and outline some potential future research directions. Methods: In order to achieve our purpose and to more efficiently examine a large number of articles, the "Computational Literature Review (CLR)" approach is used, and through this, the content of abstracts is analyzed automatically to provide a set of research topics within internal audit literature (Topic Modeling). The required information is collected from the Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS) database for 1401 articles over almost one hundred years (1920 to 2021). Results: The results of Topic Modeling show the focus of seven areas in internal audit research as follows: internal audit in the healthcare industry; internal audit in the areas of risk management, fraud, and internal controls; competence and training and internal audit quality; and the relationship between the external auditor and the internal auditor. A separate review of each of these identified issues related to internal audit reveals the most critical research conducted in this area and identifies some avenues for future research. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that throughout the evolution of internal auditing during its history (almost 100 years), its philosophy has evolved from ensuring the accuracy of financial statements and accounts and preventing the misuse of corporate funds or assets by helping to create and add value to companies. Internal auditing services have been upgraded from assuring financial statements and responding to its limited stakeholders (i.e., senior managers), giving assurance, consulting, forecasting risk, and being accountable to all stakeholders. Also, the change in the accountability direction of internal audit and its greater cooperation with external auditors, and the growth of technology and increasing the complexity of organizations have led to changes in competencies and skills required and improving and promoting its independence and objectivity; also engaging internal auditors in other areas of expertise (other than accounting and auditing), then it is expected that the trend will continue in the future.
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Food safety systems are vital to control food safety risks, but they are not a silver bullet. I shared my opinion in my contribution to the August-September 2021 issue of the Food Safety Magazine on the importance of moving from knowledge-based to behaviour-based training for a culture change - the management of food businesses needs to decrease overconfidence in systems and heighten their attention on the human assets through continued motivation and promotion of behavioural changes. More in this article. https://lnkd.in/dQ-Q5Dk6
Article
With the proliferation of private regulation of food safety, governments have shown interests in engaging private schemes as co‐regulators. This raises the issue of accountability in private schemes; that is holding the bodies auditing the standards accountable. The ability to do so affects the integrity of private regulatory schemes. Holding auditors accountable can be conceived of as a principal–agent problem. This article analyses the two most widely used global private food safety standard schemes in the Australian food sector. The analysis shows that the existence of well‐developed accountability mechanisms and multiple principals has resulted in a multi‐layered and comprehensive system of accountability. Hence, holding auditors accountable to their principals does not appear to be a concern for governments considering to engage in co‐regulatory arrangements with private schemes. However, concerns about integrity have been raised. The prescriptive nature of the standards and the multitude of standard schemes with their own accountability arrangements has brought about a situation in which the individual auditors have to devote disproportionately much time to respond to the accountability mechanisms.
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The paper looked at the history and the objectives of the FCRA, 2010. It then compared the FCRA with relevant provisions of the IT Act, 1961. It argues that the FCRA, 2010 is stringent and discretionary.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral reactions of diners when witnessing a food safety violation in a restaurant. Protection motivation and social norms theories were used to identify risk-related behavior to measure risk assessment, appraisal of food safety health threats, and the impact of descriptive and injunctive norms on reaction behaviors of diners in response to unsanitary food handler behavior and restaurant conditions. A mixed-methods approach was used with focus groups to develop the survey instrument that was distributed to 1,800 recipients, resulting in 1,169 usable surveys. Results suggest that if customers perceive a threat to be severe or if they have a belief that responding in a certain way will reduce the risk of a food safety concern, they are more apt to intervene to eliminate the threat. This study also shows that social norms mediate the influence of intervention, despite the severity of threat assessment. Practical and academic implications are discussed.
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Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems are preventive programs focused on producing safe food products. HACCP is an internationally recognized systematic approach for food safety. It is based on seven principles that identify and control food safety hazards, as well as ensure that appropriate corrective actions are taken, when needed, and that a recordkeeping system is available for documentation. Sanitation and other pre-requisite programs support the successful development and implementation of HACCP systems.
Article
Background The topic of food safety culture and climate is growing attention from industry, researchers, standards owners and certification bodies. Authors use the terms food safety culture and climate, however, there are no unified definitions to provide clarity on the meaning of these terms. Scope and approach The objective of this study is to analyse the similarities and differences in current definitions and statements of Food Safety Culture and Food Safety Climate, and provide suggested clarifying definitions for both concepts, to bring a consistent approach to the field. The study evaluates the types of organisational cultures, climates and employees’ behaviours which provide important differences and further insights into each of these. Key findings and conclusions Looking back at the origins of safety culture following the Chernobyl accident in the 1980's provides an understanding of how this laid the foundation for safety culture and climate in the UK. Reflecting on the increasing trend in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) breaches due to the increasing number of incidents reported to authorities, the study suggests an increased focus is needed on culture, climate, and behaviour in food businesses. A critical analysis of previous definitions, statements and common words currently used to describe culture and climate in published definitions is provided. New definitions for food safety culture and climate based on factors shown to be important and are recommended for use by industry and researchers are proposed. The study assesses different types of culture, climate and employees, and suggests different employee behaviours impact the culture and climate of an organisation.
Article
Food safety climate and culture is an integral part of a healthy food safety system. While much research has been done on elements of food safety climate and culture, no data are available on their relationship with Listeria monocytogenes contamination at retail. We implemented a forty-four-question survey on sense of commitment, employee training, and personal hygiene in 50 United States grocery retail deli departments across six states to evaluate the links among food safety climate, culture, and L. monocytogenes control. One deli manager and up to five deli associates per establishment completed the survey. Survey responses were correlated with L. monocytogenes contamination risk and prevalence, respectively, via a generalized linear mixed model. Estimate and orthogonal contrast statements with Bonferroni adjustment were applied to elucidate significant effects trends. We found that a greater sense of commitment was correlated with lower L. monocytogenes contamination risk (padj = 0.0317). Delis with low risk of contamination reported a better, more complete employee training program (padj = 0.0117). A deep clean intervention significantly improved managers' (padj = 0.0243) and associates’ (padj = 0.0057) commitment to food safety and their perceptions of training programs (padj = 0.0291). Significant differences in occupation-disaggregated survey responses were reported regarding sense of commitment, training program, and infrastructure cleanability. Personal hygiene and handwashing had mixed results. This is the first study to elucidate the relationship between food safety climate and L. monocytogenes contamination in retail deli environments and provides directionality to sustainably improve food safety climate, culture, and sanitation in retail delis environments.
Article
Ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meats sliced at retail are predicted to cause 83% of deli meat-associated listeriosis cases annually. While Listeria monocytogenes is commonly found in delis, environmental prevalence varies by store (0–40%). A deep clean sanitation standard operating procedure (SSOP) executed by a third-party cleaning service immediately reduced L. monocytogenes prevalence in delis, but reductions were not sustained over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a L. monocytogenes predictive risk model and a subsequent deep-clean SSOP (deep clean) conducted by store employees and management complemented with training and facilities improvements all aimed to reduce L. monocytogenes prevalence in stores with known high L. monocytogenes prevalence and evidence of persistence. Fifty delis among six states were screened using a predictive logistic regression model that estimates the probability of high L. monocytogenes prevalence in a deli. The model identified 13 stores with potentially high L. monocytogenes prevalence; seven stores were confirmed and enrolled for further study. Retail employees executed deep clean; additional interventions (e.g., facilities improvements, training) were incorporated in stores. Environmental samples (n = 20) were collected immediately before and after, and for six months post-deep clean. Deep cleans immediately reduced L. monocytogenes prevalence in six of seven stores tested. A total of 21/138 (15.2%) samples before and 8/139 (5.8%) samples after deep-cleaning were positive for L. monocytogenes, with a marginal 16.0% decrease on non-food-contact surfaces (NFCS) immediately after deep clean (p = 0.0309, αadj = 0.0125) and a marginal 10.8% on NFCS during follow-up (p = 0.0337, αadj = 0.0125). Employee executed deep cleans with training, education, and maintenance programs can reduce environmental L. monocytogenes prevalence in retail delis, a pivotal part of preventing subsequent cross-contamination to RTE deli meats.
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One of the main questions concerning raw materials and intermediates in the food industry is the definition of used ingredients by the legal viewpoint. In the ambit of quality management systems, the declaration of all possible components of a food or beverage product may concern or be correlated with some basic aspects, including the critical and reliable interpretation of technical data sheets concerning these products in the food and beverage industries by external and experienced auditors. Interestingly, the matter of technical data sheets appears to be always critical when speaking of food quality management. In general, these documents should give clear answers, and auditors should be ready to understand and analyse these information. The aim of this chapter is to give reliable advices for interested food auditors with concern to the examination of technical data sheets for all possible ingredients in the food and beverage sector.
Article
Long supply and complex fresh produce supply chains provide opportunity for fraudulent activity to occur especially further processing or re-packing of products to mask opaque practice and non-compliant behaviour. Price premiums for products designated as ‘high-value’, for example, organic produce, produce of particular provenance, or geographical production area provides motivation for less scrupulous actors to present for sale, produce that is mislabelled or misrepresented. People integrity as well as data, product and process integrity are gaining wider attention in the horticultural sector. Types of fraud critiqued in this review paper include mislabelling, substitution or misrepresentation of origin (country or regional location), method of production (organic or conventional) or incorrect varietal declaration. These challenges and the existing and emerging technologies that are both used within a quality assurance programme and alternatively used by regulators when investigating potential instances of fraudulent behaviour are considered. New methodological solutions and approaches are emerging and such techniques will develop rapidly to meet the growing challenge of fraud and to ensure consumer trust in the industry is maintained especially as types of food fraud evolve and become more sophisticated.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop and implement methods to benchmark the food safety and hygiene of different companies, regardless the management systems applied. Design/methodology/approach The data were collected using a balanced questionnaire which was based on the fishbone model of Ishikawa. The questionnaire includes general questions about the company and 25 questions about personnel, machinery, materials, methods and environment. It was applied to 202 food industries, 42 food retail businesses and 49 food service companies. The data were collected from interviews of industry people related to food safety and from audits of business facilities. The benchmarking methods were descriptive statistics, radar charts, cluster analysis and association rules. Findings The radar charts were used to benchmark food companies on safety and hygiene. Food companies can be evaluated with this benchmarking tool with a balanced score of maximum 100 points. Originality/value This benchmarking tool could be useful for food control authorities, clusters of companies and certification bodies.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to develop and implement methods for benchmarking the food safety and hygiene between retail outlets at the same time or at the same retail outlets at different times. Design/methodology/approach A tailor made questionnaire for the collection of food safety and hygiene remarks was designed to be applied in a large chain of retail outlets. The remarks were classified in the 5 categories of the Ishikawa model (Materials, Methods, Personnel, Equipment, Environment). The retail outlets were located all over Greece and the audits were performed in one year term. Food safety experts were used as auditors after a 6 months training period. The data collected was subject to analysis of the benchmarking scores and to cluster analysis to identify regions with similar food safety profiles. Findings Polar charts were used to illustrate the benchmarking scores for each of the 5 categories of evaluation per auditing period at the retail outlets. Another polar chart illustrates the benchmarking scores for each of the 12 regions of Greece. Cluster analysis demonstrates that some regions, like Ionian Islands and South Aegean, have similar profiles on food safety for the retail outlets. Originality/value The developed methodology can be used by retail companies with several outlets or by a group or an association of companies in order to identify problematic sectors and to set priorities while dealing with issues of food safety and hygiene. The work is limited to the Greek outlets but the methodology has potential application to every other country.
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Worldwide incidence of food-borne disease has increased in recent years and data suggest that inadequate food-handling behaviour in the domestic environment may be an important factor. As a consequence of this, research into aspects of consumer food safety has been undertaken, especially in the UK and USA. The overall aims of conducting such research have been to investigate aspects of consumer food safety behaviour and to utilize information in the development of effective food safety education initiatives. In the past 25 years, 87 consumer food safety studies have been undertaken using different research methodologies; 75% utilized survey techniques (questionnaires and interviews), 17% were based on direct observation, and 8% utilized focus groups. The advantages and disadvantages of the different research methods used are discussed. Similarly, different forms of reliability and validity have been considered in the context of each research method used. A comparison of results from consumer food safety studies has shown that use of different research designs and approaches has resulted in differences in the findings about consumer food safety behaviour. Survey responses have provided a more optimistic portrayal of consumer food safety behaviour than data obtained from focus groups and direct observation. Although consumers have demonstrated knowledge, positive attitudes and intentions to implement safe practices, substantially larger proportions of consumers have been observed to implement frequent malpractices. This suggests that observational data provide the most reliable information denoting consumers’ actual food safety behaviour and should be used preferentially with risk-based data for the design of communication strategies.
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Globally, foodborne illness affects an estimated 30% of individuals annually. Meals prepared outside of the home are a risk factor for acquiring foodborne illness and have been implicated in up to 70% of traced outbreaks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has called on food safety communicators to design new methods and messages aimed at increasing food safety risk-reduction practices from farm to fork. Food safety infosheets, a novel communication tool designed to appeal to food handlers and compel behavior change, were evaluated. Food safety infosheets were provided weekly to food handlers in working food service operations for 7 weeks. It was hypothesized that through the posting of food safety infosheets in highly visible locations, such as kitchen work areas and hand washing stations, that safe food handling behaviors of food service staff could be positively influenced. Using video observation, food handlers (n = 47) in eight food service operations were observed for a total of 348 h (pre- and postintervention combined). After the food safety infosheets were introduced, food handlers demonstrated a significant increase (6.7%, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval) in mean hand washing attempts, and a significant reduction in indirect cross-contamination events (19.6%, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval). Results of the research demonstrate that posting food safety infosheets is an effective intervention tool that positively influences the food safety behaviors of food handlers.
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Statistics show that 59% of foodborne illnesses are traced to restaurant operations. Food safety training has been identified as a way to assure public health, yet evidence supporting the effectiveness of training has been inconclusive. A systematic random sample of 31 restaurants in three midwestern states was selected to assess the effect of training on food safety knowledge and behavior. A total of 402 employees (242 pretraining and 160 post-training) participated in this study. Pre and post-training assessments were conducted on knowledge and behavior related to three key food safety practices: cross contamination, poor personal hygiene, and time/temperature abuse. Overall knowledge (P ≥ .05) and compliance with standards of behavior (P ≥ .001) improved significantly between pre- and post-training. When each practice was examined independently, only handwashing knowledge (P ≥ .001) and behavior (P ≥ .001) significantly improved. Results indicated that training can improve knowledge and behaviors, but knowledge alone does not always improve behaviors.
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This study sought to determine the usefulness of restaurant inspections in predicting food-borne outbreaks in Miami-Dade County, Fla. Inspection reports of restaurants with outbreaks in 1995 (cases; n = 51) were compared with those of randomly selected restaurants that had no reported outbreaks (controls; n = 76). Cases and controls did not differ by overall inspection outcome or mean number of critical violations. Only 1 critical violation--evidence of vermin--was associated with outbreaks (odds ratio = 3.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 13.1). Results of restaurant inspections in Miami-Dade County did not predict outbreaks. If these findings are representative of the situation in other jurisdictions, inspection practices may need to be updated.
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Restaurants in the United States are regularly inspected by health departments, but few data exist regarding the effect of restaurant inspections on food safety. We examined statewide inspection records from January 1993 through April 2000. Data were available from 167,574 restaurant inspections. From 1993 to 2000, mean scores rose steadily from 80.2 to 83.8. Mean inspection scores of individual inspectors were 69-92. None of the 12 most commonly cited violations were critical food safety hazards. Establishments scoring <60 had a mean improvement of 16 points on subsequent inspections. Mean scores of restaurants experiencing foodborne disease outbreaks did not differ from restaurants with no reported outbreaks. A variety of factors influence the uniformity of restaurant inspections. The restaurant inspection system should be examined to identify ways to ensure food safety.
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Unsafe food handling practices in food service establishments are a major contributor to the transmission of food-borne illness. However, current worker education and training interventions demonstrate only modest success in changing food service worker behavior. We argue for more ecologically-oriented interventions that address both individual and contextual factors that influence safe food handling behaviors. We describe potential predisposing influences (e.g. knowledge, beliefs concerning risk of food-borne illness, perceived control, self-efficacy), enabling influences (e.g. intensity and quality of training, work pressure and pace, safety procedures and protocols, appropriate equipment) and reinforcing influences (e.g. management enforcement of policies, incentives for safe food handling, job stress and organizational justice) on worker behavior. Efforts to change food service workers' behaviors are more likely to be effective if they pay greater attention to the ecological context, address multiple influences on worker behavior, and view workers as partners in preventing food-borne illness in food service establishments.
Article
The unprecedented growth of the number of people served by the foodservice industry raises the need for greater sanitary awareness for today's culinary professionals. Addressing this, a U.S. national study was conducted to measure the impact of food safety accreditation on health inspection scores. Although a positive connection was established between certified managers in charge and their enhanced knowledge of food safety, surprisingly, no statistically significant correlation was found between accreditation and improved health inspection scores. This indicates that training may not be transferring into improved sanitary practice in foodservice operations. Causes for this lack of transfer of training as well as strategies to improve future accreditation training efforts are suggested.
Article
The use of an observational approach in conjunction with isolation techniques for campylobacter and salmonella detection has facilitated a detailed evaluation of the risk of cross contamination during food preparation. Identification of suspected exposure routes has linked naturally contaminated raw foods with important food-handling malpractices, contaminated contact surfaces and ready-to-eat foods. In a model domestic kitchen, 29 per cent of food preparation sessions resulted in positive campylobacter isolations from prepared salads, cleaning materials and food-contact surfaces. Typing results showed that specific campylobacter strains isolated from prepared chicken salads were the same as the strains isolated from the raw chicken pieces, indicating microbial transfer during food preparation. Data obtained from this study can be used for exposure assessment, risk management and in the development of consumer risk communication strategies.
Article
Purpose – Food poisoning remains a major public health problem and 2009 has seen major outbreaks with both financial and social implications. The aim of this paper is to examine whether a business gets the food poisoning it deserves and to assess the role of management including food safety culture in outbreaks. Design/methodology/approach – Factors influencing the likelihood of a business causing food poisoning are considered and discussed using four categories or variables. These are then applied in a case study of an E coli O157 outbreak. Findings – The risk of a business causing food poisoning depends on the types of foods produced, the people consuming the food and where the business sources its raw materials. These need to be considered in relation to the hygiene behaviour of the food handlers employed. Food safety does not happen by accident and to produce safe food consistently, especially on a large scale, requires management. Management includes the systems that are used and the organizational food safety culture of compliance with those systems. Food poisoning will never be totally prevented; however, to a considerable extent, a business does get the food poisoning it deserves. Originality/value – This paper presents a novel approach to understanding the risk of a business causing food poisoning and will be of use to investigators, food safety inspectors, educators and industry.
Article
A culture of food safety is built on a set of shared values that operators and their staff follow to produce and provide food in the safest manner. Maintaining a food safety culture means that operators and staff know the risks associated with the products or meals they produce, know why managing the risks is important, and effectively manage those risks in a demonstrable way. In an organization with a good food safety culture, individuals are expected to enact practices that represent the shared value system and point out where others may fail. By using a variety of tools, consequences and incentives, businesses can demonstrate to their staff and customers that they are aware of current food safety issues, that they can learn from others’ mistakes, and that food safety is important within the organization. The three case studies presented in this paper demonstrate that creating a culture of food safety requires application of the best science with the best management and communication systems, including compelling, rapid, relevant, reliable and repeated food safety messages using multiple media.
Article
This review summarises the methods and results of studies conducted worldwide on the effectiveness of food safety and food hygiene training in the commercial sector of the food industry. In particular it focuses on those studies that have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of such training. Forty-six studies of food hygiene training are included which used some outcome measure to assess the effectiveness of training. The short-term nature and variety of measures used limited the majority of studies. The need for the development of evaluation criteria of effectiveness of food hygiene training is discussed.
Article
To compare consumer food-handling behaviors with the Fight BAC! consumer food-safety recommendations. Subjects were videotaped in their home while preparing a meal. Videotapes were coded according to Fight BAC! recommendations. A food-safety survey was administered and temperature data was collected. A market research company randomly recruited subjects by telephone. Ninety-nine consumers participated (92 women, seven men). Descriptive statistics were used. Overall, subjects did not follow the Fight BAC! recommendations for safe food handling. Handwashing was inadequate. The average hand wash length was significantly lower than the 20-second recommendation. Only one-third of subjects' hand wash attempts were with soap. Surface cleaning was inadequate with only one-third of surfaces thoroughly cleaned. Moreover, one-third of subjects did not attempt to clean surfaces during food preparation. Nearly all subjects cross-contaminated raw meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, and/or unwashed vegetables with ready-to-eat foods multiple times during food preparation. Unwashed hands were the most common cross-contamination agent. Many subjects undercooked the meat and poultry entrees. Very few subjects used a food thermometer. Consumers make many food-handling errors during food preparation, increasing their risk of foodborne illness. Dietetics professionals need to familiarize themselves with the Fight BAC! consumer food-safety recommendations; understand where consumers are making food-handling errors; increase food safety awareness; and educate consumers, especially those in high-risk populations, about safe food handling at home.
Article
Food handlers often lack food safety training. Adequate training is important because foodborne illness results in costs of $7.7 to $23 billion per year to consumers, the food industry, and the national economy. Generally, however, training is evaluated through standardized examinations for which a certificate is awarded. Many states have turned to mandatory certification, but regulations vary. This paper summarizes state regulations with respect to mandatory certification. Among states that mandate certification, most require one certified food safety manager per site. The certified safety manager need not be on site at all times and must be recertified at least every five years. Certification is accomplished by passing one of the four exams previously recognized by the Conference for Food Protection (CFP), three of which the Conference for Food Protection-American National Standards Institute (CFP-ANSI) now accredits.
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