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Unhealthy food is not tastier for everybody: The “healthy = tasty” French intuition

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Abstract

Previous research demonstrated that, for US-Americans, unhealthy food is implicitly associated to tastiness. Based on intercultural differences in food perception between France and USA, our objective is to verify if such differences impact food-related implicit associations, taste evaluations, and food consumption. Our first study demonstrates that the opposite intuition exists in France: unhealthy food is spontaneously associated with bad taste, while healthy food is linked to tastiness. Our second study investigates how the healthy = tasty French intuition influences taste perceptions in a product test conducted in an experimental lab. Results indicate that a neutral food described as healthy is considered tastier, more pleasurable and of better quality than when it is described as unhealthy.

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... Taste is reported to be the most important attribute of food choice [11][12][13][14]. People can form an explicit belief that unhealthy is tasty, but they can also simultaneously hold an implicit intuition associating unhealthiness and tastiness [15,16]. Raghunathan et al. [15] presented the association between unhealthiness and tastiness to operate at an implicit level. ...
... However, they found both consumers who reported that they believe that healthiness and tastiness are negatively correlated, and consumers who did not report such a belief, to describe unhealthy items as tastier. The association between unhealthiness and tastiness has been measured at an implicit level (Implicit Association Test), for example [12,15,16], but more recent papers have measured an unhealthy = tasty belief at an explicit level (scale-based measure); for example [11,17,18]. ...
... UT belief has been found to be culturally determined [11,16,19]. The US and French cultural contexts have been found to differ substantially with regard to food habits and food attitudes [18]. ...
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Consumers having a strong unhealthy = tasty (UT) belief are less likely to choose healthy food even though they recognize its health benefits, because they assume healthy food to be unpalatable. The aim of this study was to profile consumers according to their UT belief and specify the strength of the belief among a demographically representative consumer group. The other aim was to investigate the effect of UT belief on expectations of two food products representing either an unhealthy or a healthy image. A total of 1537 consumers participated in the online survey. The scale-based (1–7) mean for UT belief was 3.27 and related positively to male gender and food pleasure orientation and negatively to general health interest. The results indicate that a strong UT belief correlates with positive expectations of unhealthy food and with negative expectations of healthy food. UT belief seemed to increase expected food-associated guilt, but other strong food-related attitudes (health interest with unhealthy food and pleasure orientation with healthy food) reduced this effect. In practice, understanding the relationship between UT belief and personal factors and attitudes, and the importance of this belief to food expectations can assist in finding the tools to encourage consumers towards healthier food choices.
... Moreover, questionnaires were used to assess dietary behavior. The use of IATs and rating scales on paper-and-pencil questionnaires is common in food preference research and applied in previous studies investigating the UTI (Raghunathan et al., 2006;Werle et al., 2013). ...
... In the USA, a utilitarian view of food consumption is common; food is a biological need, but food is also is a source of worry, and people have a more negative view of foods in general. In France, on the other hand, an experiential view of food consumption prevails, and there is a focus on pleasure, social interaction, culinary issues and quality (Werle et al., 2013). Following the inconsistencies in UTI evidence, it seems that people's belief in the UTI depends on various factors, of which differences in (eating) cultures or social differences regarding nutrition or eating goals are components. ...
... For example, people with a lower SEP consume less fibres, vegetables and fruits and more energy-dense foods (Appelhans et al., 2012;Giskes, Avendaño, Brug, & Kunst, 2010;Konttinen, Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Silventoinen, Männistö, & Haukkala, 2013;Pechey et al., 2013). To date, research that focused specifically on investigating the UTI, has only been done in higher SEP adult participants (Raghunathan et al., 2006;Werle et al., 2013). Therefore, it is important to investigate these associations in groups with low SEP, instead of inferring them from studies in groups with middle or higher SEP. ...
... There is, however, also evidence contradicting the UTI (Irmak, Vallen, & Robinson, 2011;Werle, Trendel, & Ardito, 2013). Werle et al. (2013) conducted a study in France and found a healthy = tasty intuition; French participants associated healthy foods relatively stronger with tasty, and unhealthy foods with not tasty. ...
... There is, however, also evidence contradicting the UTI (Irmak, Vallen, & Robinson, 2011;Werle, Trendel, & Ardito, 2013). Werle et al. (2013) conducted a study in France and found a healthy = tasty intuition; French participants associated healthy foods relatively stronger with tasty, and unhealthy foods with not tasty. The authors suggested that the found difference between the American and French study could be attributed to intercultural differences in food perceptions. ...
... In the USA, a utilitarian view of food consumption is common; food is a biological need, but food is also is a source of worry, and people have a more negative view of foods in general. In France, on the other hand, an experiential view of food consumption prevails, and there is a focus on pleasure, social interaction, culinary issues and quality (Werle et al., 2013). Following the inconsistencies in UTI evidence, it seems that people's belief in the UTI depends on various factors, of which differences in (eating) cultures or social differences regarding nutrition or eating goals are components. ...
... The food companies recognizing this tendency are launching products with a health positioning in attempt to brand their image through a health angle. Nonetheless, a concern on how offering healthiness affects the consumers' food choices still remains, as it previously has been shown to have a differing effect depending on the culture, products, and context (Goldsmith, Friedman, & Dhar, 2019;Jo & Lusk, 2018;Raghunathan, Naylor, & Hoyer, 2006;Werle, Trendel, & Ardito, 2013). ...
... Previous research shows contradicting results. Some studies show that the consumers rely heavily on heuristics and lay beliefs indicating incongruence between health and taste (i.e., healthyless tasty; unhealthytasty) (Huang & Wu, 2016;Raghunathan et al., 2006), while others show a more congruent relationship (i.e., healthytasty) (Banović, Grunert, Barreira, & Fontes, 2009;Jo & Lusk, 2018;Werle et al., 2013). When a health-price relationship is involved, research indicates that consumers choose more expensive food believing it to be healthier (Banovic, Reinders, Claret, Guerrero, & Krystallis, 2019;Haws, Reczek, & Sample, 2017). ...
... Offering healthy products and health arguments in the communication are repeatedly suggested to inspire healthier eating. Even so, it is important to consider how this health information affects consumer choices, as previous research has indicated different effects depending on the culture, products and choice context (Goldsmith et al., 2019;Huang & Wu, 2016;Jo & Lusk, 2018;Raghunathan et al., 2006;Werle et al., 2013). We extend these studies by looking at the Brazilian consumers and inherently healthy product; fish, while at the same time investigating consumers' inter-related views of health, taste and price on choice, considering also the non-conflicting congruent (vs. ...
Article
Although considerable research has been done on the role of a health goal in food choices, little effort is devoted to the contexts intervening between the health goal and choices and its relationship with taste and price in the congruent non-conflicting versus the incongruent conflicting choice context. The present research experimentally examined through an online study, with 1303 participants, the process through which the health goal affects food choices taking into account both the congruent non-conflicting and the incongruent conflicting choice contexts. Furthermore, the study examined whether the impact of the health goal on these choices would be mediated by taste perceptions evoked by the products’ imagery. Results show that when the health goal is activated in a non-conflicting (vs. conflicting) choice context, the consumers are more likely to choose more expensive (vs. cheaper) products. The consumers’ expected product taste further mediate this effect of the health goal on the product choice, where a non-conflicting (vs. conflicting) choice-set additionally intensifies the consumers’ taste perceptions, producing a congruent healthy - tasty relationship. These findings suggest that the health goals do not always invoke incongruence with taste, at least in the context of products perceived as naturally healthy. For a broader market, this effect could actually be a blessing in disguise, where health-related communication efforts effectively inducing congruence with taste, would be more capable of catering the consumers’ food choices.
... In the next study, we aimed to replicate the negative health halo effect and to explore whether one's dispositional critical thinking can help attenuate the negative health halo. Furthermore, we wanted to examine the relationship between health and taste perceptions, given the divergent findings in the literature (e.g., Raghunathan et al., 2006;Werle et al., 2013). Some research suggests that health and taste are perceived to be inversely related. ...
... However, other research suggests that health and taste perceptions are positively correlated. In other words, if consumers infer that a particular food product is healthy, they assume it is tasty as well (Werle et al., 2013). ...
... Interestingly, these results support the literature indicating a positive relationship between health and taste perceptions (e.g., Werle et al., 2013). In the next study, we wanted to examine whether a situational variable, priming opposing beliefs, can help attenuate the negative health halo. ...
Article
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Consumer advocates and regulators champion the view that transparent labeling practices will help consumers make better decisions. However, it is unclear how unnatural nutritional claims (e.g., artificial ingredients, food additives, genetically modified organisms) affect perceptions of packaged food. Many researchers have cautioned that such labels can be commonly misinterpreted and can further stigmatize food produced by conventional processes. Building on the selective accessibility model, we propose that unnatural nutritional claims on front‐of‐package food labeling may induce a negative health halo effect. Accessibility of information consistent with a target concept (e.g., a claim on a food label) shapes consumer inferences and evaluations of an associated product (e.g., the packaged food) in the same direction. We propose that such nutritional claims can lead to higher calorie estimates and therefore biased food decisions. Furthermore, we examine the moderating effect of dispositional critical thinking, priming opposing beliefs, and activating causal reasoning to help mitigate on the negative health halo. We test these predictions across five experiments. Together, these findings advance our understanding of the halo effect, inference, and persuasion, and they suggest strategies for helping consumers make more informed health‐related judgments and decisions.
... The AEBQ, recently developed and based on the well-known Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) [23], assesses a broad array of eating traits related to appetite and food acceptance. More specifically, this questionnaire includes 35 [22]. The AEBQ has been translated into several languages, including French, and was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing eating traits in different adult populations [22,[24][25][26][27][28]. ...
... Thus, those who show more pronounced interests in food and enjoy eating may appreciate a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Interestingly, a study of cultural differences in food perceptions in France versus the United States indicates that Americans tend to associate unhealthy food with tastiness and gustatory pleasure, whereas in France healthy food is perceived as tastier and more gratifying [35]. ...
Article
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Background Eating behaviors may contribute to differences in body weight and diet over time. Our study aims to examine how eating behaviors of young adults relate to their current weight status and dietary patterns and to explore longitudinal associations with eating behaviors in early childhood. Methods Study participants are young adults (n = 698) taking part in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. At age 22, eating behaviors were assessed using the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Dietary patterns were derived from information collected by food frequency questions. Weight status was based on self-reported data. Information on eating behaviors in childhood had been collected when participants were 2.5 to 6 years old. Pearson’s correlations were used to determine associations between adult eating behaviors and body mass index. Simple and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between eating behaviors and dietary patterns at age 22, and longitudinal associations with behaviors in early childhood. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between overeating and fussy eating in childhood and weight status at age 22. Results Body mass index was positively correlated with Emotional overeating, Enjoyment of food, and Food responsiveness and negatively correlated with Satiety responsiveness, Emotional undereating, Slowness in eating and Hunger. A Healthy dietary pattern was positively associated with both Enjoyment of food and Hunger, and negatively associated with Food fussiness. Inversely, a Beverage-rich dietary pattern was negatively associated with Enjoyment of food and positively associated with Food fussiness. A Protein-rich pattern was positively associated with Enjoyment of food, while a High energy density pattern was positively associated with Food fussiness. Young adults with higher scores for fussy eating in early childhood were more likely to manifest Food fussiness and Emotional undereating, and less likely to adopt a Healthy dietary pattern. Young adults with higher scores for overeating in early childhood were less likely to show traits such as Slowness in eating and more likely to be overweight. Conclusions Our findings suggest that eating behaviors in childhood have long-term influence on diet and weight status, thereby reinforcing the importance of early interventions that promote healthy eating.
... Research has indicated that "tasty" and "healthy" are among the most crucial considerations for consumers when making decisions regarding food [41,[49][50][51][52][53]. Several studies have examined the link between perceived healthiness and taste; however, while somewhat older research points to a negative association (i.e., unhealthy � tasty; [54]), more recent research provides convincing evidence for a positive relationship between perceived healthiness and taste [55][56][57]. For instance, the universality of the "unhealthy � tasty" intuition has been directly questioned by recent evidence from France, which found positive associations between perceptions of tastiness and perceptions of healthiness [57]. ...
... Several studies have examined the link between perceived healthiness and taste; however, while somewhat older research points to a negative association (i.e., unhealthy � tasty; [54]), more recent research provides convincing evidence for a positive relationship between perceived healthiness and taste [55][56][57]. For instance, the universality of the "unhealthy � tasty" intuition has been directly questioned by recent evidence from France, which found positive associations between perceptions of tastiness and perceptions of healthiness [57]. Further, this specific healthiness−tastiness relationship will remain positive among consumers who have a low food pleasure orientation compared to consumers who have a high food pleasure orientation. ...
Article
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Focusing on the physical appearance of the food itself, and limiting the focus on shape to the concept of symmetry, this research investigated how food shape influences consumer perceptions of healthiness and naturalness and their subsequent food preferences. By conducting three empirical studies involving self-reported preference and trade-off choices, this research verified that it is a two-staged process of naturalness and healthiness that mediates the main effect of symmetry on foods preference. Furthermore, the incremental perceived unhealthiness of food would mitigate the positive effect of food symmetry. These findings are meaningful for food marketing managers and policymakers when making food-related decisions.
... The typology of consumption values is derived in terms of the product's/service's ability to have an end in and of itself or to serve as a means to a specific end, which includes utilitarian, symbolic, experiential, and aesthetic values [36]. For food consumption, a shorter triadic approach without aesthetic value proved to be interesting [35,37,38]. Within these, the utilitarian values are determined as a function of the food's capacity to reach the final objective due to a specific characteristic of that food; the symbolic values are determined from intangible concepts, such as cultural and ideological, or other concepts related to the belief itself [39]. ...
... Finally, the experiential values are related to sensory stimulation and affective and emotional reactions associated with consumption. Some research has been done on the perceived values of consumption, where foods have been characterized according to their dominant values as well, showing that the relative importance of consumption values is culturally dependent [34,35,38,40,41]. For example, the consumption of rice by Asian consumers is dominated by utilitarian values, while symbolic values predominate for French consumers [35]. ...
Article
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Rice and cereal consumption has become a concern for consumers due to usually high glycaemic indexes (GI), which is a critical issue for a balanced and healthy diet. Therefore, the development of new products with low GI is an important target of the industry, particularly in countries with high consumption. This study assesses consumers’ perceptions about “rice” and “rice with low GI” and evaluates the effect of consumers’ rice consumption profiles through the application of a free word association technique in a structured self-administered electronic questionnaire with 256 Portuguese consumers (the European market with the highest per capita consumption of rice by far). The frequency of rice consumption was evaluated, and the consumption profile was determined through a hierarchical cluster analysis, with 9% identified as daily consumers. The response words were categorized by the triangulation technique, and the association between the word categories and dimensions, sociodemographic characteristics, and consumption profile were determined. Respondents most frequently associated “rice” with rice dishes, its sensory attributes, and nutrition, highlighting the satisfaction of nutritional and hedonic needs. Consumers revealed positive expectations in relation to the functionality of “rice with low GI”. The consumers’ rice consumption profiles, sex, age, and educational levels influenced their perception towards “rice“ and “rice with low GI”. This study provides important insights for the industry to develop a consumer-oriented, low GI rice product.
... To elicit subjects' implicit associations between meat/plant-based meat alternatives and healthiness/environmental impact, we used the implicit association test (IAT) developed by Greenwald et al. (1998). This psychological research tool has been used in earlier food-related studies to measure mental associations between the healthiness and tastiness of foods (Raghunathan et al., 2006;van der Heijden et al., 2020;Werle et al., 2013), implicit attitudes between brand and generic food products (Friese et al., 2006), and preferences for a variety of drinks at the implicit level (Maison et al., 2001). The IAT is a classification task where subjects are asked to sort attribute stimuli ("healthy" vs. "unhealthy" words) and target stimuli (images of "meat" vs. "plant-based meat" alternatives) into the correct categories as fast as possible, by pressing keyboard response keys. ...
... Our third contribution relates to the two implicit association tests we use to elicit consumers' implicit associations between meat/plant-based meat alternative and health and environmental impact attributes. Previous studies have used implicit association tests for examining healthy food choices' hedonic attributes such as healthiness and tastiness (van der Heijden et al., 2020;Werle et al., 2013). Yet, our experiment brings in this methodology to understand consumers' implicit health and environmental impact perceptions towards meat and plant-based meat alternatives. ...
Article
We investigated the effect of health and environmental information messages on purchases of meat and plant‐based alternatives in a non‐hypothetical online supermarket experiment. When controlling for observables, we find the health information nudge to be effective at motivating meat eaters to purchase plant‐based meat alternatives. This effect is absent when providing environmental information or its combination with health information. We also find that meat eaters implicitly perceive meat to be healthier but environmentally unsustainable compared to plant‐based alternatives. Our findings provide insights as to how to steer consumers towards meat alternative purchases under different information types in an online supermarket.
... For example, Chinese consumers, unlike their American counterparts, were found to tend to view healthy foods as tasty (Jo & Lusk 2018). Likewise, Jo, Lusk, Muller, and Ruffieux (2016) and Werle, Trendel, and Ardito (2013) found evidence that the equation "tasty=unhealthy" may not be universal. In fact, they found evidence for the CORVINUS JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL POLICY VOL. ...
... 11 (2020) 2 opposing association ("tasty=healthy") in France, where healthier food is rated as tastier. Ultimately, Werle et al. (2013) concluded that cultural and product differences play a role in the variety of consumer perceptions. ...
Article
Successful behavioral interventions for reducing the consumption of unhealthy food can ease the burden of non-communicable diseases and their economic cost. In prior research, conventional approaches such as the provision of nutritional information were not able to overcome the impact of tasty but unhealthy food. Thus, this study was designed as a field experiment at a casual restaurant to assess the effect of taste using a behavioral approach; namely, a combination of convenience and visibility enhancements of healthier meal choices. The results of this study show that increasing the difficulty of ordering high-calorie food along with decreasing their visibility can reduce calorie intake and compensate for the calorie increase caused by ordering according to taste. However, there are differences in the effectiveness of interventions according to types of participant.
... Besides, our research broadens the application of consumer lay belief theory in the agricultural products field. While most previous studies have discussed competing lay beliefs separately, such as the "unhealthy 5 tasty" (Haasova and Florack, 2019;Mai and Hoffmann, 2015;Raghunathan et al., 2006) and the "healthy 5 tasty" (Werle et al., 2013), our research explores more nuanced perspectives concerning how competing lay beliefs about the visual appearance and the naturalness of produce interact and provide a path to attenuate the misapplication of lay beliefs "unaesthetic/unattractive 5 tasteless and unhealthy" by identifying "natural 5 tasty and healthy". Our research also offers practical guidance to marketers on how and why the "natural" appeal may function in the marketplace and especially in increasing the competitiveness of unaesthetic produce. ...
Purpose: Individuals, organizations, firms, and governments have been making strenuous effort to promote sustainable and green consumption. However, it is noticeable that a large amount of unattractive produce is ruthlessly discarded and wasted around the globe, resulting in unsustainable consumption behavior, harming long-term business development, and breaking the harmonious relationship between humans and nature. Therefore, to increase consumer literacy toward unaesthetic produce, this research investigates the pivotal role of "natural" labeling in increasing purchase intention toward visually unattractive fruits and vegetables. Design/methodology/approach: By recruiting participants from one of the largest online crowdsourcing platforms (the Credamo), this research conducts three online experimental studies (with two pilot studies) to test three hypotheses based on the cue utilization theory and the lay belief theory. Findings: The results show that unattractive produce with the "natural" label could significantly increase consumers' purchase intention compared with those without specific labels. The results also reveal that consumers' lay beliefs that natural foods are perceived to be tastier and healthier mediate the positive effects of "natural" labeling (vs no specific labeling) on willingness to purchase. Originality/value: This research explores competing lay beliefs about unattractive produce. It identifies the positive effects of lay beliefs "natural 5 tasty and healthy" through "natural" labeling appeal, thus attenuating the misapplication of lay beliefs "unattractive 5 tasteless and unhealthy" and broadening the application scope of consumer lay belief theory. The findings also contribute to the cue literature by manifesting the positive consequences of the "natural" label playing as a cognitive cue in priming lay beliefs about naturalness. In addition, it also paves a positive way for business practitioners and marketers to develop the produce industry sustainably.
... However, not all studies find this 141 unhealthy = tasty intuition. The French study of Werle et al. (2013) and a survey in three different 142 countries (USA, China and Korea) (Jo, 2018) found the opposite healthy = tasty intuition. It is thus 143 possible that the unhealthy = tasty intuition is not universally strong (or even present) in all 144 consumers. ...
Article
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An increasing number of studies investigate the effect of front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels on consumer choice without considering differences in consumer preferences for product attributes. This study used a choice-based conjoint analysis to test consumers' preferences for four product attributes (5 levels of a FOP nutrition label, absence/presence of a nutrition claim, brand (unfamiliar, private label or premium) and 5 levels of price) when they coexist (n = 1156). As the consumer preferences showed distinct patterns (multimodality), consumers were subsequently clustered based on how a FOP nutrition label (Nutri-Score) influenced their food choices. Three consumer segments were identified, each valuing the Nutri-Score label differently. The label effectively seems to nudge one segment towards healthier choices (n = 456), while in contrast, another segment is unexpectedly steered toward unhealthier food choices by the label (n = 343). The third segment is only consistently nudged by the FOP label's extremes (n = 357). The segments also differ in their preferences for other product attributes (brand and price), health involvement, and self-reported understanding and use of the Nutri-Score, but not in the measured socio-demographic variables (age, sex, education, social class), dieting or smoking habits. In summary, consumers vary in their food label preferences, and studies that pool consumers may fail to capture these nuances, leading to biased results. This study shows that FOP labels do not steer all consumers toward healthier choices and may even have adverse effects for some. This suggests combining different policies and marketing strategies to reach all consumer segments.
... En effet, au-delà de leur bénéfice pour la santé, les produits BIO ont la réputation d'avoir un meilleur goût que les produits conventionnels (Brown & Kasser, 2005;Makatouni, 2002;Padel & Foster, 2005;Prada et al., 2017). En France, les produits sains sont perçus comme ayant un meilleur goût (Werle et al., 2013) (Callegari, 2011). Nous noterons que « plaisir » est fortement associé à l'attribut produit « naturel » ce qui nous mène à supposer que : ...
Thesis
Dans un contexte anxiogène lié aux diverses et successives crises alimentaires, les consommateurs sont devenus plus soucieux de leur santé, se préoccupant de plus en plus de ce qu'ils mangent et de ce qu'ils boivent se traduisant par une demande croissante de vouloir voir le produit avant de prendre leur décision d’achat. Ce travail doctoral examine l’impact de la transparence de l’emballage et de la texture d’un produit alimentaire sur l’évaluation d’un produit. Un plan expérimental a été retenu, avec 3 conditions de transparence (opaque, semi-transparent, transparent) et deux conditions de texture visuelle du produit (rugueux vs. lisse). L’influence du degré de transparence de l’emballage et de la texture d’un produit est étudiée au moyen de trois études par une approche aux méthodes variées, à savoir 3 types de produits différents (compote de pomme, confiture de fraise et cookie au chocolat), la manipulation de la transparence de manière graduelle et l’utilisation de différents types de matériaux (emballage en verre, emballage en plastique). Les résultats de cette recherche prêchent en faveur de l’utilisation des emballages transparents et montrent que plus l’emballage est transparent, plus le produit est perçu sain, de qualité et de confiance, ce qui apporte des réponses aux managers et aux politiques publiques qui souhaitent positionner leurs nouveaux produits alimentaires selon l’axe « santé » mais aussi restaurer ou encore améliorer cette relation de confiance avec les consommateurs.
... In the food cultures of some countries, the "healthiness" of a food is always associated with "tastiness". Although some researchers have argued that people usually hold the perception that "healthy equals less tasty" [60], others have insisted that this perception could be diminished [61] in some way or that "healthy = tasty" in different regions [62,63]. For example, in French epicurean culture or Chinese food culture, in which food is valued primarily for its tastiness, it is possible that the perception of an inverse relationship between healthiness and tastiness is held with less conviction [60]. ...
Article
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There are many methods or indicators used for evaluating the nutritional value of foods; however, it is difficult to accurately reflect the comprehensive nutritional value of a food with a single indicator, and a systematic evaluation system is lacking. In this article, we systematically summarize the common evaluation methods and indicators of the nutritional value of foods. The purpose of this review was to establish an evaluation procedure for nutritional properties of foodstuffs and to help scientists choose more direct and economical evaluation methods according to food types or relevant indicators. The procedure involves the selection of a three-level evaluation method that covers the whole spectrum of a food’s nutritional characteristics. It is applicable to scientific research in the fields of agricultural science, food science, nutrition, and so on.
... However, the assumption concerning the hedonic effect and unhealthy food may not be accurate in all cases [39,40]. Werle and Trendel et al. [41] pointed out that cultural differences concerning food influence the relationship between health perception and hedonic effect. For example, in France, healthy food is considered to be more pleasurable than unhealthy food; however, for Americans-who have a more utilitarian view-unhealthy food is usually associated with tastiness. ...
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Whether for improving health or keeping in shape, consumers are beginning to pay attention to calorie intake. However, although a growing number of studies have focused on the impact of food attributes on consumers, the sensory correspondence between food shape and calorie estimation is an underresearched topic. This review, therefore, reports on three studies investigating the effect of food shape on calorie content estimation, whereby participants perceived food in a square shape to have a higher calorie content than food in a circular shape. Perceived food weight plays a mediating role in the relationship between food shape and calorie estimation. Moreover, the more mindful participants were about calorie intake, the weaker the mediation effect of perceived weight. Conversely, the mediation effect of perceived weight was stronger for people who did not care about their calorie intake. These findings break novel ground by presenting food shape as a relevant factor for calorie content estimation. It not only pays attention to the information brought by the visual sense of food, but also complements the relevant literature in the field of food marketing, and has implications for marketing management.
... However, research on the relationship between health and taste inferences is yielding 173 mixed results, especially when considering countries other than the United States. For French 174 consumers, Werle et al. (2013) showed that unhealthy foods are associated with a bad taste, 175 while the opposite is true for healthy foods. Haasova and Florack (2019) confirmed the 176 association between healthiness and tastiness within the context of supermarket-listed food 177 products for German-Austrian consumers. ...
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Given the increasing popularity of vegan labels, our study examines the effect of vegan labeling on product perceptions and consumption intentions. We focus on randomly-vegan products which are products that have neither undergone any special reformulation to be vegan nor explicitly aim to serve the market segment of vegans and vegetarians. Food marketers are often tempted to add a vegan label to their randomly-vegan products in order to capitalize on the growing popularity of vegan food. Our results show that labeling randomly-vegan products biases the perceived healthiness, expected taste, and perceived sustainability, but only if consumers do not expect such randomly-vegan products to be vegan by default. This translates into altered consumption intentions for these unexpected-vegan products with a vegan label (vs. no label). Importantly, this applies to both utilitarian and hedonic products. No effects attributed to the vegan label (vs. no label) were found for randomly-vegan products that consumers expected to be vegan by default.
... Further, established findings about western (especially U.S. American) food decisions that we often think of as universal (e.g., the unhealthy = tasty intuition; Raghunathan, Naylor, and Hoyer 2006) do not always hold in other countries. For example, French people, unlike Americans, expect healthy food to be tasty (Werle, Trendel, and Ardito 2013). A reliance on university student samples for lab eating studies also means a narrow age band of participants who are substantially thinner, healthier (in terms of obesity and comorbidities), and less food insecure than the wider population. ...
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Food consumption and its physiological, psychological, and social antecedents and outcomes have received considerable attention in research across many disciplines, including consumer research. Although researchers use various methods to examine food decision-making, many insights generated stem from observing eating choices in tightly controlled lab settings. Although much insight can be gained through such studies (or “lab eating”), it is apparent that many factors differ between such settings and everyday consumption (or “free-living eating”). This article highlights key differences between “lab eating” and “free-living eating,” discusses ways in which such differences matter, and provides recommendations for researchers regarding how and when to narrow the gap between them, including by enriching lab studies in ways inspired by free-living eating. Besides suggesting how researchers can conduct studies offering a deeper understanding of eating patterns, we also highlight practical implications for improving food consumption for consumers, marketers, and policymakers.
... Although overall fruit quality is the key factor behind purchase decisions [187], the price cannot be discarded as part of the decision process by consumers [188,189]. Availability, packaging, convenience, and brand are other search determinants often cited in the literature to affect consumer food choices [190][191][192][193]. Furthermore, consumers still see a link between healthier food and less-than-optimal sensory attributes [185,194], which can lead to a lower intake of healthier foods, although some consumer segments characterized by older people and women are willing to trade taste for health benefits [195]. ...
Article
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The probability that fruit ingestion may protect human health is an intriguing vision and has been studied around the world. Therefore, fruits are universally promoted as healthy. Over the past few decades, the number of studies proposing a relationship between fruit intake and reduced risk of major chronic diseases has continued to grow. Fruits supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as phytoestrogens, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents, and other protective mechanisms. So, this review aims to summarize recent knowledge and describe the most recent research regarding the health benefits of some selected red fruits.
... Finally, attitudes towards food and the assumed role food plays in daily life are known to vary cross-culturally: European individuals generally associate food most with pleasure, whereas American individuals typically emphasize the health (as opposed to hedonic) utility of food, and Asian (i.e. Japanese and Chinese) individuals tend to view food as either a medium for health or pleasure ( [31][32][33]; see [34] for cultural differences in the "unhealthy food = tasty" intuition). ...
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Background Human memory appears to prioritise locations of high-calorie foods, likely as an adaptation for foraging within fluctuating ancestral food environments. Importantly, this “high-calorie bias” in human spatial memory seems to yield consequences for individual eating behaviour in modern food-abundant settings. However, as studies have mainly been conducted in European (Dutch) populations to date, we investigated whether the existence of the cognitive bias can be reasonably generalised across countries that vary on culturally-relevant domains, such as that of the USA and Japan. Furthermore, we investigated whether sociodemographic factors moderate the expression of the high-calorie spatial memory bias in different populations. Methods In a cross-cultural online experiment, we measured the food location memory of diverse participants from the USA (N = 72; 44.4% Male; 54 ± 15.99 years) and Japan (N = 74; 56.8% Male; 50.85 ± 17.32 years), using a validated computer-based spatial memory task with standardised images of high-calorie and low-calorie foods. To directly compare the magnitude of the high-calorie spatial memory bias in a broader cultural scope, we also included data from a previous online experiment that identically tested the food spatial memory of a Dutch sample (N = 405; 56.7% Male; 47.57 ± 17.48 years). Results In the US sample, individuals more accurately recalled (i.e. had lower pointing errors for) locations of high-calorie foods versus that of low-calorie alternatives (Mean difference = -99.23 pixels, 95% CI = [-197.19, -1.28]) – regardless of one’s hedonic preferences, familiarity with foods, and encoding times. Likewise, individuals in the Japanese sample displayed an enhanced memory for locations of high-calorie (savoury-tasting) foods (Mean difference = -40.41 pixels, 95% CI = [-76.14, -4.68]), while controlling for the same set of potential confounders. The magnitude of the high-calorie bias in spatial memory was similar across populations (i.e. the USA, Japan, and the Netherlands), as well as across diverse sociodemographic groups within a population. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the high-calorie bias in spatial memory transcends sociocultural boundaries. Since the cognitive bias may negatively impact on our dietary decisions, it would be wise to invest in strategies that intervene on our seemingly universal ability to efficiently locate calorie-rich foods.
... This intuition, however, seems to be dependent on culture (e.g. Jo & Lusk, 2018;Jo et al. 2016;Werle et al., 2013). Furthermore, studies have found that the healthy = untasty intuition is dependent on perceived healthiness of products, where health labels increase taste perception for healthy food and food without strong health connotations, but not for unhealthy food items (e. g. ...
Article
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The impact of nutrition and health claims (NHCs) on consumers is unclear, and research in this field has provided incongruent results. By exploring the role of carrier products and claim types together with consumer characteristics this study sought to shed light on some of these contradictory results. Based on 1494 participants in an online choice experiment and portion-size experiment, the results revealed that the impact of NHCs on consumers is dependent on product and claim type, as well as consumer characteristics of perceived reward, compensatory beliefs, health motivation, subjective nutritional knowledge and weight-goals. In general, the choice of products carrying a claim was related to an increased perceived healthiness, health interest in food and a sense of reward associated with NHCs, but negatively related to subjective nutritional knowledge. Especially products perceived unhealthy with reduction claims were related to compensatory beliefs about being able to eat more of the claimed product. However, while compensatory beliefs seemed to have a small but consistent role in resulting in higher portion sizes, NHCs only played a minor role at best in portion-size decisions. Overall, the results suggest that consumer perceptions of types of claims and products need to be verified case-by-case, but some commonalities seem to exist when categorizing products according to their perceived healthiness and type of claims. Furthermore, consumers who are concerned about weight or are high in compensatory beliefs may be especially responsive to nutrition claims, while nutritional knowledge may act as a barrier against potential health halos associated with claims.
... The more consumers pay attention to iconographic elements, the more they form product judgments (Underwood & Klein, 2002). Ingredients depicted on packaging facing induce a representation of the naturalness of the product (Rozin, 2005), which conveys healthiness in the product composition owing to the familiarity of natural ingredients and linked to tasty product (Werle, Trendel & Ardito, 2013). Also, ingredients depicted increase perceived pleasantness (Lancelot Miltgen, Pantin-Sohier, & Grohmann, 2016).To summarise, the literature highlights that visual cues on packaging might elicit representations of sensory information such as taste, along with increased judgment on product evaluation, depending on consumers' ability to process the packaging, level of cognitive resources and need for cognition. ...
Conference Paper
6 cours Albert Thomas-B.P. 8242-69355 Lyon Cedex 08, tel : 04 78 78 71 58 Résumé Dans un contexte fortement concurrentiel des produits alimentaires en supermarchés, les consommateurs ont des difficultés à traiter en profondeur les informations mentionnées sur un packaging. Cette recherche examine comment le nombre d'ingrédients représentés sur les packagings a une incidence sur l'évaluation du produit, en fonction de la capacité des consommateurs à traiter l'information. Une première étude révèle que, sous forte charge cognitive, les packagings illustrés avec plusieurs ingrédients induisent plus d'imagerie mentale de la saveur, favorisant une augmentation de l'intention d'achat. Dans une deuxième étude, il est montré que les consommateurs ayant un besoin de cognition fort et sous forte charge cognitive, le packaging sans ingrédients illustrés, est préféré lorsque les consommateurs sont motivés par la faim. En l'absence de charge cognitive, l'information est traitée centralement et l'évaluation ne dépend pas du nombre d'ingrédients représentés sur le packaging. Abstract In the highly competitive context of food product sales in supermarkets, consumers have difficulty processing information on a given package deeply. This research examines how the number of ingredients depicted on packaging impacts product evaluation, depending on consumers' ability to process information. One study find that, under high cognitive load, packages depicting many ingredients induce more mental taste imagery, heighten purchase intent. In another study, for consumers with high need for cognition under high cognitive load, packaging not depicting ingredients is preferred when consumers are motivated by hunger. Without cognitive load, information is processed centrally and evaluation does not depend on the number of ingredients depicted on packaging.
... Le packaging illustrant plusieurs images du même ingrédient aromatique devrait induire plus de similarité (Pieters et al., 2010) et de proximité selon la théorie de la Gestalt (Koffka, 1935), la distance psychologique avec le produit pourrait être réduite et expliquée le réalisme du goût et potentiellement la salubrité (Trope & Liberman, 2003). Ceci pourrait conduire à un effet de halo de santé et influencer le plaisir associé à la consommation (Werle et al., 2013). Enfin, nous recommandons au designer d'utiliser de nombreuses images d'ingrédients aromatiques pour positionner les produits comme savoureux et ayant une qualité intrinsèque supérieure. ...
Conference Paper
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RESUME : La perception biaisée du nombre d'images d'ingrédients aromatiques sur le packaging est étudiée. Tout d'abord, l'étude 1 (n= 183) examine l'impact de la répétition des images d'ingrédients aromatiques sur la quantité d'arôme perçue dans le produit, l'imagerie mentale gustative et le désir de manger le produit. Beaucoup d'images d'ingrédients aromatiques induisent une perception de plus de quantité d'ingrédients aromatiques, augmentent l'imagerie mentale gustative et induisent un plus grand désir de manger le produit comparativement à quelques images d'ingrédients aromatique. Deuxièmement, l'étude 2 (n=171) examine l'impact de la répétition de l'image des ingrédients aromatique sur la consommation du produit, selon la disponibilité des ressources cognitives. Lorsque les ressources cognitives sont disponibles, les consommateurs mangent moins de produits (vs. plus) lorsque le packaging représente de nombreuses (vs. peu) images d'ingrédients aromatiques. Lorsque les ressources cognitives sont mobilisées, la consommation de produits ne dépend pas du nombre d'images d'ingrédients aromatiques représentées sur le packaging. ABSTRACT: The biased perception of the number of flavor ingredient images depiction on packaging during product evaluation and consumption are investigated. First, study 1 (n=183) assessed the impact of flavor ingredient images repetition on packaging on perceived flavor quantity in the product, the mental taste imagery and the desire to eat the product. Many flavor ingredient images induce more flavor ingredient quantity, increase mental taste imagery and greater desire to eat the product compare to few flavor ingredient images. Second, study 2 (n=171) investigated the impact of flavor ingredient image repetition on packaging on product consumption depending on the availability of cognitive resources. When cognitive resources are available consumers have eaten less (vs. more) product with packaging depicting many (vs. few) flavor ingredient images. When cognitive resources are
... The well-established idea that brands build relationships with their consumers is known as a key success factor for companies on the marketplace (Kuenzel, S., & Vaux Halliday, S., 2008;Escalas & Bettman, 2009;Chernev, Hamilton, & Gal, 2011;Stokburger-Sauer, N., Ratneshwar, S., & Sen, S., 2012;Tuškej, U., Golob, U., & Podnar, K., 2013). Consumer-brand identification is one of the levers to strength this brand-consumer relationship (Fournier, 1998). ...
Conference Paper
A comparison between implicit self-identification to commercial brands and place-brands Structured Abstract Purpose-This study aims to compare self-brand identification for commercial brands and place-brands. Design/methodology/approach-An Implicit Association Test using "self" and "other" concepts and place and commercial brand logos is used to assess consumer-brand identification via the response latency (measure of association time). Three French regions are selected to reproduce the data collection. Findings-Commercial brands create more self-brand identification than place-brands. Within commercial brands, Global commercial brands create more self-brand identification than local commercial brands. Within place-brands, democratic place-brands create more self-brand identification than participative place brands. Research implications/limitations-This research provides a new method to measure self-brand identification and shows that inducing consumer in branding process does not enhances self-brand identification. Practical implications-Brand managers gain insights into the ability of various brands categories to enhance self-brand identification. Global commercial brands seem to be the better lever whereas participative place-brands seem to be useless to create identification. Originality/Value-Brand literature never considers identification via an implicit method whereas self-brand identification process is mainly unconscious. In using this method, this article emphasizes results opposite to the ones shown in previous research using explicit methods.
... These results are inconsistent with the intuitive belief that healthiness and hedonic tastes are inversely correlated with unhealthy foods being perceived to be more palatable (Raghunathan et al., 2006). However, it should be noted that healthiness and hedonic tastes can be positively correlated, at least for some consumers (Werle et al., 2013). Alternatively, the observed difference in the palatability ratings of healthy and unhealthy foods may depend on the specific foods being rated and/or certain characteristics of the participants. ...
Article
Previous research has documented the influence of eating together on people's food expectations and choices. We conducted an fMRI study to investigate the influence of the label "eating together" on behavioral and brain responses to healthy or unhealthy foods. The participants (N = 28, 13 females; mean age = 21.19) viewed food photos presented with a label of "eating together" or "eating alone" and estimated the palatability, pleasantness, and desirability of each food. The label "eating together" elicited more positive ratings for both healthy and unhealthy foods than the label "eating alone," and this effect of social context was larger for unhealthy than healthy foods. The label "eating together" also elicited greater activation in the left insula and the right posterior insula for unhealthy foods (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, whole-brain corrected, respectively). These findings suggest that a label of "eating together" can enhance the reward values of foods, with a potentially greater enhancement for unhealthy foods.
... However, studies on how people associate healthiness and tastiness of foods with each other show mixed results. Whereas Raghunathan et al. (2006) showed that people implicitly associated unhealthy foods with tastiness even if they explicitly reported that they did not, Werle, Trendel, and Ardito (2013) showed that people associated healthy foods more with tastiness, and Van der Heijden, Te Molder, De Graaf, & Jager (2020) showed that children as well as parents with a low SEP associated healthy foods with tastiness on implicit level, whereas children indicated unhealthy foods as tastier than healthy foods on explicit level. Thus, although research has shown that there are socioeconomic disparities in food consumption and food preference, and various determinants of eating behavior such as food costs, beliefs, associations, and liking have been identified, it remains unclear how such food beliefs, associations and likings play out in everyday life. ...
Article
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The present study explored how primary school-aged children from families with a low socioeconomic position produce ‘likes’ and ‘dislikes’ of foods during everyday family meals, and how these (dis)likes are understood and treated by their parents. It is crucial to understand how food preferences develop in the course of everyday life, as it is known that there are socioeconomic disparities in food preference and consumption, and that children from families with a low socioeconomic position have relatively poorer diets. Deploying an interactional approach to food preference, video recordings of 79 evening meals in families with a low socioeconomic position were analyzed using discursive psychology and conversation analysis. The analysis highlighted that children's food likes and dislikes were treated differently by their parents. While likes were routinely not responded to, agreed with or further elaborated, dislikes were predominantly oriented to as food refusals or treated as inappropriate, or non-genuine claims. Children's food assessments, i.e., likes and dislikes, were often disattended by parents when they appeared to be food preference displays. By contrast, assessments that accomplished social actions like refusals and complaints were more often responded to. The analysis also revealed the importance of distinguishing between assessments about food items in general, that were not currently being eaten, and assessments of food eaten here-and-now. All in all, the study evidences that and how assessment sequences open up interactional spaces where children and parents orient to and negotiate relative rights and responsibilities to know, to assess and to accomplish specific actions. Implications for food preference research are discussed.
... Although the dish label failed to increase total eye fixation time and health perception, the 'delicious' claim accompanied with happy eating characters might enhance older people's expected taste, as taste-focus label had an influence on people's taste expectation and acceptability (Liem, Aydin, & Zandstra, 2012;Fenger, Aschemann-Witzel, Hansen, & Grunert, 2015). Further, the possible inverse relationship between tastiness and healthiness under certain circumstances (the relationship might depend on factors such as eating culture and social interaction (Werle, Trendel, & Ardito, 2013) might drive older people to perceive the tastier dish as less healthy, which could explain why the dish with a label had a higher willingness to try but had a lower healthiness perception (Raghunathan, Naylor, & Hoyer, 2006). ...
Article
A visually appetising and vegetable-rich dish can be an alternative to the traditional dish for well-functioning older consumers. The aim of this study was to investigate older people’s evaluations towards dishes by incorporating dish attributes (main course, potatoes, vegetables, and dish label) with novel dish components. During the test, a total of 100 participants aged from 60-91 were invited to verbally rate their willingness to try, perceived familiarity and healthiness towards eight dish combinations presented randomly in the form of pictures. In the meanwhile, 31 participants’ eye motions for each dish picture were successfully recorded by an eye-tracker. Through conjoint analysis, main course and vegetables were found to have the highest influence on willingness to try, perceived familiarity, perceived healthiness, and total eye fixation time towards the dish. A labelled dish with meatballs, broccolis and plain potatoes was perceived as the most familiar dish. A dish with veggie balls, mixed vegetables and decorated potatoes was perceived as the healthiest. Older participants were most willing to try the dish consisting of mixed vegetables, veggie balls and decorated potatoes when the dish label was added. Females, who emphasised healthy eating and cared about price, variety, organic and health value of a dish were more willing to try veggie balls than meatballs. Regarding the eye metrics, most participants looked at the main course area first, and had the longest total eye fixation time on the dish valued as the healthiest. In the future, to meet older consumers’ demand for daily diet, appropriate selection of dish components with frequent food communication will be indispensable.
... Notably, the findings did show that healthy food products were consistently rated as more appealing, tasty, fresh, and pleasurable to eat compared to unhealthy food products, regardless of whether the food was displayed in motion or not. This is remarkable considering the well-documented human tendency to favor unhealthy food over healthy food [19,20,48]. Possibly, social desirability bias might explain these findings. ...
Article
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To tackle obesity, upgrading the image of healthy food is increasingly relevant. Rather than focusing on long-term benefits, an effective way to promote healthy food consumption through visual advertising is to increase its pleasure perception. We investigate whether implied motion, a popular trend in food pictures, affects food perceptions through anticipated consumption pleasure. Prior research shows that motion affects food perceptions, but these studies focused on limited food categories, using experiments with a single food stimulus, and mainly showing unhealthy food effects. Therefore, we aim to (1) replicate prior findings on the effects of food in motion on appeal, tastiness, healthiness, and freshness perceptions; (2) examine whether these effects differ for healthy and unhealthy food; and (3) investigate whether anticipated pleasure of consumption drives the effects of implied motion on food perceptions. Three between-subjects experiments (N = 626) reveal no evidence for the effectiveness of motion (vs. no motion) across a large variety of food products. We further show no differential effects for healthy versus unhealthy foods. Moreover, implied motion does not increase appeal or taste perceptions through anticipated pleasure. Considering the current replication crisis, these findings provide more nuanced insights into the effectiveness of motion in visual food advertising.
... Specifically, after variables were controlled for, takeaway and SSB eating patterns are associated with increased risk of psycho-pathological symptoms; these results were consistent with previous cross-sectional studies (29,65). One possible reason is that people find healthier foods to be tastier and more popular than unhealthy foods (66). ...
Article
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Background and Aim: The association of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and takeaway dietary pattern with psychological problems in Chinese children and adolescents has not been concretely reported. Our study aimed to investigate the association between SSB consumption, takeaway dietary pattern, and psychological and behavioral problems (PBPs). Methods: Cluster sampling method has been adopted from April to May 2019 to conduct a questionnaire survey among 30,188 children and adolescents in grades 1 to 12 from 14 schools in six streets in Bao'an District of Shenzhen. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of consumption of SSBs and takeaway patterns with PBPs, and PBPs were measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in primary, junior, and senior high school students. Results: A total of 33,801 primary, junior, and senior high school students (mean age = 12.44, SD = 3.47) ranging from 6 to 18 years old were recruited in this study using a health survey of children and adolescents in junior and senior high schools (grades 1–12), and 30,188 students with no missing data were finally analyzed (questionnaires with missing value >5% were excluded). The top three SSBs in the intake frequency were milk beverage drinks (not milk), vegetable protein drinks, and fruit and vegetable juice drinks. Adjusted for demographic factors, the higher the frequency of students consuming SSBs who have significantly higher PBPs, the higher the frequency of students with takeaway dietary patterns who also have significantly higher PBPs. More frequent intake of SSBs [odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95%CI = 2.0–2.47, p < 0.01] and higher takeaway dietary patterns (OR = 2.34, 95%CI = 1.81–3.03, p < 0.01) were associated with higher SDQ total difficulties scores. When low and medium consumption of SSB was compared, children and adolescents who have high SSB intake were more associated with total difficulties score (OR = 3.10, 95%CI = 2.67–3.59, p < 0.01), and when low and medium takeaway dietary patterns were compared, children and adolescents who have high takeaway dietary patterns were more associated with total difficulties score. The joint associations of SSBs and takeaway pattern with SDQ were stronger than the associations individually. Conclusions: Students consuming higher SSBs and having takeaway dietary pattern are associated with increased levels of PBPs individually and interactively. These results may have implications for mental health prevention in adolescents.
... Firstly, how to market products so that consumers make better food choices (see [14,15]) and secondly, how to help consumers make changes in their environment to help control their food consumption (see [16]). Both lines offer advice not only to the food industry but also to consumers because, despite the presence of the widely held belief that 'unhealthy = tasty' [17], consumers can make food choices that are both healthy and enjoyable [18,19]. The possibility to control the effect of this 'unhealthy = tasty' perception (and its potential to generate negative health consequences) should include the control of the volume of unhealthy but tasty food that is eaten. ...
Article
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Relative vices and virtues have traditionally been defined according to time-inconsistent preferences. Vice products exchange small immediate rewards (e.g., pleasure) for larger delayed costs (e.g., health), while virtue products exchange small immediate costs for larger delayed rewards. This definition can be criticized because there is evidence that small amounts of beer (or chocolate) convey a long-term health benefit, whereas large quantities impose a delayed cost. Thus, we assume that virtue products can become vice products when consumption is above a certain threshold. Survey data identifies alcoholic beer as a product that gives immediate rewards and does not impose a delayed cost. Our analysis reveals a consumption threshold that supports our assumptions.
... Ils correspondent également aux informations sensorielles véhiculées par le produit. Ainsi, l'évaluation sensorielle permet d'identifier les déterminants des préférences des consommateurs pour mieux satisfaire leurs goûts (Lange, 2001) fondés sur le transfert de sensation des caractéristiques comme le goût et la santé (Werle et al., 2013 ;Mai et al., 2016). Toutefois, même si la première fonction que remplissent les produits alimentaires est utilitaire (Aurier et Sirieix, 2016), le premier rôle fourni par les produits alimentaires regroupe des bénéfices tel le côté naturel, équilibré et nourrissant. ...
... This raises the question of whether the consumption of healthy food choices can also be associated with high eating happiness experienced in-the-moment, which would clearly contrast with the 'unhealthy = tasty' intuition. Initial evidence indeed supports this new perspective by showing that the mood-enhancing effects of eating are not necessarily related to unhealthy foods (Strahler & Nater, 2018;Wagner, Ahlstrom, Redden, Vickers, & Mann, 2014;Werle, Trendel, & Ardito, 2013). To examine the assumption that it is not just unhealthy foods that are tasty and make us happy, eating happiness needs to be comprehensively investigated in the moment of consumption. ...
... The lack of association with BMI and the very high mean score of this behaviour may suggest that the scale may not discriminate between visceral eating pleasure (i.e. the shortterm pleasure that derives from the relief of eating impulses) which is associated with overeating and obesity, and epicurean eating pleasure (i.e. the enduring eating pleasure that derives from aesthetic, sensory and symbolic value of eating experiences) which is associated with moderation [54]. This might particularly be the case in the province of Quebec because of the influence of both American and French cultures [55,56] in its food culture. Accordingly, visceral and epicurean types of eating pleasure were recently identified in the perceptions of eating pleasure among adults from Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
Article
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Purpose The Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ) is a newly developed questionnaire adapted from the widely used Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. This questionnaire assesses four food approach scales, namely hunger, food responsiveness, emotional overeating (EOE) and enjoyment of food, and four food avoidance scales, namely satiety responsiveness (SR), emotional undereating (EUE), food fussiness and slowness in eating (SE). This study aimed to validate a French version of the AEBQ in controlled conditions among French-speaking adults from Quebec, Canada. Methods The AEBQ was pre-tested through structured interviews with 30 individuals. Participants of the validation study (n = 197, aged 19–65 years) had their height and weight measured and completed the AEBQ, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Intuitive Eating Scale-2 to assess factorial structure, internal consistency and construct validity. Test–retest reliability over 2 weeks was assessed among 144 participants. Results Confirmatory factor analysis indicated an excellent model fit (NNFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.03, χ²/df = 1.17) and provided support for the use of the original 8-factor questionnaire. Internal consistency was adequate for most scales (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.66–0.94) and moderate to excellent test–retest reliability was observed for all scales (ICC = 0.70–90). Women showed higher levels of EOE and SR, and individuals with overweight and obesity showed higher levels of EOE and lower levels of EUE and SE. Construct validity was also supported by expected correlations with disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger from the TFEQ and intuitive eating. Conclusion This study indicates that the French AEBQ is a valid and reliable tool to measure eating behaviours in the adult population of Quebec. Level of evidence Level III: Evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case–control analytic studies. The data are cross-sectional, but all measurement were undertaken in controlled laboratory conditions and the study provided new information.
... A possible implication may be that in France, food status is defined by taste, whereas in the US: the healthier the food, the more status it is accorded. However, this has never been examined and is very possibly subject to other beliefs, such as, the belief of what constitutes a tasty meal: healthy foods for the French (Werle, Trendel, & Ardito, 2013), and unhealthy foods for Americans (Raghunathan, Naylor, & Hoyer, 2006). Therefore, we examined whether status-based food stereotypes are similar or different across a variety of countries: The United States, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and France. ...
Thesis
How can we reduce the social gradient in obesity if we do not know what causes it in the first place? This PhD thesis explores underlying explanations of the association between socioeconomic status and eating behaviors. Taking a social psychological approach, this thesis presents the results from a series of empirical studies that test how relative socioeconomic status affects decision-making. In particular, it examines how perceptions of one’s relative status affects impulsivity, and how someone else’s relative status influences beliefs about that person’s impulsivity. Together, these findings reveal both the existence and accuracy of impulsivity stereotypes. The findings suggest that (adherence to) these stereotypical behaviors are malleable and can be used in health interventions aimed at reducing health gradients.
... Both public organizations and private institutions (e.g., Weightwatchers) dedicated to helping diet-concerned consumers reach their health goals might develop effective communication campaigns by including, for example, a character who eats unhealthy food and a prompt to encourage viewers to imagine such consumption. Using unhealthy consumption imagery as a healthy eating promotion argument may be a promising way to prevent the wellknown boomerang effect of public policy campaigns aimed at reducing obesity that focus only on the health benefits of balanced diets (Werle and Cuny 2012;Werle, Trendel, and Ardito 2013). ...
Article
Both regulatory agencies and nonprofit organizations seek to understand how different tactics and appeals contained in food and public health advertisements might influence the food intake of an increasingly dieting-concerned population. This article addresses this important issue by examining how consumers who are concerned with their diets react to rich images of unhealthy food consumption. Results of two experiments show that exposure to food advertisements containing unhealthy food consumption imagery reduces food intake among consumers chronically concerned with dieting, whereas a third experiment shows a similar decrease in intended consumption when a public health advertisement portrays the consumption of unhealthy food. These findings in turn offer guidelines for maximizing the effectiveness of messages that attempt to promote healthy eating habits. Additionally, this research provides theoretical contributions to the self-control and mental imagery research domains which have public policy implications for regulatory agencies and nonprofit organizations.
... There may also be some interesting/salient individual differences to be aware of in this space too (cf. [105][106][107]). ...
Article
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Those stimuli that have a shiny/glossy visual appearance are typically rated as both attractive and attention capturing. Indeed, for millennia, shiny precious metals and glossy lacquerware have been used to enhance the presentation, and thus the perception, of food and drink. As such, one might have expected that adding a shiny/glossy appearance/finish to the outer packaging of food and beverage products would also be desirable. However, the latest research appears to show that many consumers have internalised an association between glossy packaging and greasy (or unhealthy) food products, while matte packaging tends to be associated with those foods that are more natural instead. Furthermore, it turns out that many consumers do not necessarily appreciate the attempt to capture their attention that glossy packaging so often affords. At the same time, it is important to recognise that somewhat different associations may apply in the case of inner versus outer food and beverage packaging. Shiny metallic (inner) packaging may well prime (rightly or wrongly) concerns about sustainability amongst consumers. Given the research that has been published in recent years, food and beverage manufacturers/marketers should think very carefully about whether or not to introduce such shiny/glossy finishes to their packaging.
... Les caractéristiques cognitives des représentations mentales vont concerner l'ensemble des aspects sémantiques descriptifs associés à l'aliment. Dans le cadre de l'alimentation, ces caractéristiques comprennent l'évaluation hédonique (positive/négative -j'aime/je n'aime pas), ainsi que les croyances à propos de l'aliment, comme par exemple « cet aliment est bon/mauvais pour la santé », ou bien « cet aliment est bon/mauvais au goût » (Raghunathan et al., 2006;Werle et al., 2013). Ces connaissances peuvent être déconnectées de la réalité scientifique, ce qui peut résulter en des attributions faussées, comme par exemple, la croyance selon laquelle « les fruits et les légumes font maigrir ». ...
Thesis
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L’obésité a une origine multifactorielle qui implique des facteurs biologiques, sociaux, psychologiques et environnementaux. Des études ont démontré que des particularités dans le traitement de l’information alimentaire constitueraient un facteur de maintien ou de développement de l’obésité chez certains adultes. Cette vulnérabilité conduirait les individus à avoir des biais attentionnels (i.e. tendance à orienter automatiquement leur attention) et un contrôle cognitif moins efficace (i.e. une difficulté à contrôler les processus cognitifs) face aux aliments. Ce phénomène serait renforcé par un environnement obésogène : un environnement abondant en nourriture et pauvre en possibilités de se dépenser physiquement. Au cours des cinq études présentées dans ce travail de thèse, les capacités cognitives et olfactives ainsi que les caractéristiques psychologiques d’adultes normo-pondéraux, en surpoids, et en obésité ont été mesurées. Pour mieux comprendre les particularités de traitement de l’information alimentaire, les biais cognitifs face aux aliments ont été mesurés (biais attentionnels et déficit de contrôle inhibiteur). Les participants étaient exposés à des odeurs alimentaires non-attentivement perçues (amorçage implicite) et attentivement perçues (amorçage explicite) afin de représenter les effets de l’environnement obésogène sur ces processus cognitifs. Pour explorer les particularités individuelles influençant le traitement de l’information, les capacités olfactives (identification et détection) et cognitives (inhibition et flexibilité) ainsi que les aspects psychologiques (qualité de vie, style alimentaire, image du corps) ont été caractérisés selon le statut pondéral. Nos résultats ont mis en évidence que tous les individus avaient un biais attentionnel envers les aliments et un déficit de contrôle inhibiteur face aux aliments en comparaison avec des stimuli neutres. Seul l’amorçage implicite a eu un effet sur les processus cognitifs, ce qui nous a permis de mettre en évidence un effet de cet amorçage spécifique aux processus automatiques. Cet effet était différent en fonction du type d’odeur et du statut pondéral, ce qui a permis de caractériser une vulnérabilité cognitive des individus en obésité aux odeurs d’aliments à haute densité énergétique. Ces stimuli pourraient ainsi agir comme un « modulateur » des processus cognitifs, de façon automatique et non-consciente. Bien que les capacités olfactives ne soient pas différentes en fonction du statut pondéral, les individus avec un Indice de Masse Corporelle élevé semblent avoir de moins bonnes capacités d’inhibition, un processus important dans l’autorégulation du comportement. Ce travail révèle une certaine sensibilité cognitive à l’environnement obésogène chez des individus de statut pondéral plus élevé. Par ailleurs l’utilisation de questionnaires a permis de mettre en avant plusieurs profils d’individus, certains individus semblant moins vulnérables aux conséquences négatives du surpoids et de l’obésité que d’autres. Une meilleure compréhension de l’obésité par la recherche et par la clinique pourrait permettre de prévenir et de prendre en charge l’obésité au niveau individuel, et sociétal.
Article
Boneless, skinless chicken breasts comprise almost 30% of total poultry sales and poultry remains US consumers' protein of choice. This research sought to determine whether consumers of chicken would pay a premium for a smoked chicken breast that was healthier and produced with less of a negative impact on the environment. Two balanced consumer panel groups were presented with information on the two value prospects of smoked chicken prepared with liquid smoke. The order of presentation of the health claims and the environmentally friendly claims were reversed to measure the impact of the order of presentation on consumers' willingness to pay. An Nth type auction showed that health claims elicited a greater premium; the highest average premium was approximately $7 including the baseline price following the health claims for the liquid smoked chicken. The order of presentation of the information did not affect the results. Consumers are willing to pay more for chicken that is deemed healthier and prepared with environmentally friendly ingredients.
Chapter
In this chapter, you will learn the relationship between attitudes and behavior, how to measure attitudes, how to change attitudes, and what implicit attitudes are and how to measure them. You will learn the following theories and models: Three-Component Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, Fishbein Model, Elaboration-Likelihood Model, and MODE Model.
Article
People are increasingly eating out in restaurants, where meals tend to be higher in calories, less nutritious, and contain more meat. In this paper, we argue that differences in the motivational processes behind people's food choices could help to explain why food choices made in restaurants are typically unhealthier and less sustainable than at home. Using online survey data from 301 Dutch respondents, we compared the influence of stable personal values and transient food choice motives on the healthiness and sustainability of meals chosen in a hypothetical choice task, which was geared to the home and restaurant consumption contexts. As expected, respondents opted for unhealthy and meat-based meals more often in the restaurant than the home context. Conservation values related negatively and self-transcendence values positively to choosing sustainable meals both in the home and in the restaurant context, although the relation with self-transcendence values was significantly weaker in the restaurant context. Also, taste and social eating were considered more important for choosing restaurant meals, while health was a more important motive for food choices at home. Finally, model comparisons revealed that motives were better predictors of healthy meal choices in both contexts, while the influence of values and motives on sustainable meal choices was more similar. In conclusion, the results from the present study enhance our understanding of differences between choosing home and restaurant meals by providing an account of the values and motives associated with the healthiness and sustainability of home and restaurant meal choices.
Article
An intuitive style in eating decision‐making, for example, basing decisions on one's gut feeling, has been related to a less healthy diet, whereas deliberately deciding what to eat, such as making plans about eating behavior, has been related to a healthier diet. The present study investigated whether nutrition knowledge, food preferences, and habit strength for healthy and unhealthy eating moderate these relationships. In total, 1245 participants took part in a preregistered cross‐sectional online survey. Results revealed that neither nutrition knowledge, nor liking of healthy or unhealthy foods, nor habit strength for healthy or unhealthy eating interacted with the preference for intuition or deliberation in eating decision‐making in affecting dietary intake (βs ≤ |.06|; ts ≤ |2.11|; ps ≥ .035). Instead, including the potential moderating variables in analyses rendered the effect of a preference for intuition largely non‐significant. In contrast, the positive effect of a preference for deliberation was largely stable even when including the potential moderating variables. Thus, the present study confirms the general health‐promoting effect of a preference for deliberation in eating decision‐making. In contrast, results speak in favor of a generally minor role of a preference for intuition for healthy or unhealthy eating.
Article
Using health claims on foods in the European Union and the United States for more than two decades did not have a noticeable positive impact on public health and neither on the innovation or sales of such food products. The objective was to assess the reasons for this limited impact using a narrative review approach. Consumers assess the value of health claims on foods case-by-case in a way that can be explored with the opportunity, ability, and motivation framework. Perceived relevance of a health claim seems to be an important motivational factor in consumer responses. Thus, targeted marketing of foods with health claims should be applied specifically to those consumers for which the claimed benefit is relevant. Language for the health claim should be used that is reflective for the scientific substantiation as well as credible and clearly understood by the target consumer. The food should be a credible carrier for the claimed benefit, and not be compromised on taste and other sensory properties. Finally, consumers should be made more aware of what health claims are, and what they are not, in relation to healthy eating. With these adaptations the use and impact of health claims may become more effective.
Article
Is this food healthy? Understanding how individuals evaluate food healthiness is important because their evaluation can affect their food choices and consumption quantities, potentially leading to obesity and other health problems. However, individuals often find it difficult to process the health information to evaluate food healthiness, so they rely on their intuition or lay beliefs to make the judgment. This paper reviews recent empirical findings to highlight how individuals use lay beliefs based on sensory cues (e.g., visual, taste) and cognitive cues (e.g., nutrition label, price) to infer food healthiness and how this perception of food healthiness affects their food consumption. We conclude by discussing possible future opportunities in lay beliefs and food perception.
Article
This article synthesizes recent findings on antecedents of healthy eating. We discuss consumer-related and environment-related forces that influence consumers’ healthy food choices and emphasize the duality of these forces so that they can facilitate but also prevent healthy eating. Specifically, our review documents how consumer lay beliefs, goals, and habits shape eating patterns. We further document the impact of environment-related forces on healthy consumption—focusing on intervention strategies and environmental changes (i.e., the trend towards online retail channels). Finally, we discuss three salient tensions (i.e., an innate craving for unhealthy food, a focus on single decisions, and a selective focus on self-control dilemmas) that emerge when taking a holistic view on existing research.
Article
Many people want to eat healthier but struggle to do so, in part due to a dominant perception that healthy foods are at odds with hedonic goals. Is the perception that healthy foods are less appealing than unhealthy foods represented in language across popular entertainment media and social media? Six studies analyzed dialogue about food in six cultural products – creations of a culture that reflect its perspectives – including movies, television, social media posts, food recipes, and food reviews. In Study 1 (N = 617 movies) and Study 2 (N = 27 television shows), healthy foods were described with fewer appealing descriptions (e.g., “couldn't stop eating”; d = 0.59 and d = 0.37, respectively) and more unappealing descriptions (e.g., “I hate peas”; d = -.57 and d = -.63, respectively) than unhealthy foods in characters' speech from the film and television industries. Using sources with richer descriptive language, Studies 3–6 analyzed popular American restaurants' Facebook posts (Study 3, N = 2275), recipe descriptions from Allrecipes.com (Study 4, N = 1000), Yelp reviews from six U.S. cities (Study 5, N = 4403), and Twitter tweets (Study 6, N = 10,000) for seven specific themes. Meta-analytic results across Studies 3–6 showed that healthy foods were specifically described as less craveworthy (d = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.44-0.59), less exciting (d = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.31-0.49), and less social (d = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.04-0.68) than unhealthy foods. Machine learning methods further generalized patterns across 1.6 million tweets spanning 42 different foods representing a range of nutritional quality. These data suggest that strategies to encourage healthy choices must counteract pervasive narratives that dissociate healthy foods from craveability, excitement, and social connection in individuals' everyday lives.
Article
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Nutrition labels conveying nutrition information using traffic light signals are becoming common, but traffic light signals' effectiveness to help consumers make healthy food decisions is still debated. In the current research, we propose gender differences in the usage of traffic light signals. In Study 1, we presented male and female participants with a nutrition label that we manipulated as either unhealthy or healthy by changing the nutrient amounts, and the nutrition label either had a green or red color frame surrounding it. Although both men and women responded equally to information conveyed in text form, men were more likely to rely on the color to help them assess the target food product's healthiness. We replicated this result in Study 2: Holistic thinking mediated the men's reliance on color labeling schemes when deciding to buy a targeted food product. These results suggest there are differences in the consumer groups (segmented by gender) for whom traffic light signals on food packaging would be beneficial in playing a role in healthy food decision-making. For policymakers, our findings indicate that target consumers need to be considered in nutrition labeling generally.
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Store atmospheres are inherently multisensory and constitute an important driver of consumer behaviour. The research suggests that background music (as one element of the multisensory atmosphere) can influence consumer preference and choice. However, the findings have been inconsistent as far as how background music influences people’s preferences for healthy vs. indulgent foods is concerned. By considering different music genres, food types, and tastes/flavours, we aimed to disentangle the mixed results that have been reported previously. Across two experiments (including one pre-registered replication), the participants rated their preferences for each of several options (healthy savoury, indulgent savoury, healthy sweet, indulgent sweet) while listening to one of four music genres (Jazz, Classical, Rock/Metal, and Hip-hop). The results of the two experiments consistently demonstrated that the effects of background music on food preferences were dependent on the interaction between music genre, food type (healthy vs. indulgent), and taste/flavour (sweet vs. savoury). Crucially, listening to Jazz and Classical music increased people’s preferences for healthy savoury foods (e.g., vegetable sandwich) as compared with Rock/Metal music. Listening to Rock/Metal, Hip-hop, and Jazz music increased people’s preferences for indulgent savoury foods (e.g., a beef sandwich) as compared with Classical music. Additionally, listening to Classical music increased people’s preferences for both healthier (e.g., low-fat milk) and indulgent (e.g., milk chocolate) sweet foods as compared with the other musical genres. The mediating role of emotions was also documented in these experiments. Specifically, positive valence mediated the relationship between music genre and sweet as well as healthier savoury foods, while the feeling of arousal mediated the relationship between music genre and indulgent savoury foods. These findings suggest that auditory atmospherics may influence consumers’ food preferences. Practical implications for store managers concerning when to select and use specific types of background music are made.
Whereas traditional self-report procedures and methods mainly tap into consumers explicit attitudes, the implicit cognition paradigm provide researchers and marketing practitioners with a unique tool to uncover consumer implicit attitudes, choices, decisions, and action tendencies. By means of the sheer extent and validated models and empirical studies in cognitive psychology, the application of implicit measures and techniques in marketing and consumer studies is in its infancy; thus, this special issue focuses on theories, tools and approaches for examining consumers unconscious attitude and sustainable consumption patterns. The objective of this special issue is to illustrate theoretical and methodological application of implicit consumer cognition paradigm in marketing and consumer studies. This special issue of Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services highlights the implicit cognition approach as a greater alternative in measuring consumer attitude and tendencies where scientist and marketers are impotent to capture.
Article
Objective Food and drink form a substantial part of health advice, and a significant part of pleasant or unpleasant memories, expectations and experiences. They can be divided into two categories in many ways, and the preferred way in which any person makes this division may be an indicator of how that person thinks about the food-drink domain, with potential health implications. Binary categorization is an uncommon technique but it offers a window into “default” categorization of the world. We employ two different methods to assess binary categorization, spontaneous categorizations, and ranking of a set of defined categorizations. Insofar as these two methods give convergent results, this would serve to strengthen the evidence provided by our findings. Methods: Samples of each of approximately 300 on-line American, French, and Indian adults spontaneously offered a preferred way of dichotomizing the food/drink domain. At a later point in the same questionnaire, they rank ordered the importance to them of each of five categorizations including natural versus processed, animal origin versus plant origin, and healthy versus unhealthy. Results The predominant categorization by both methods was healthy-unhealthy. The animal-plant origin categorization was rare. The correspondence between results for spontaneous nomination of dichotomies versus ranking a fixed list of dichotomies on importance is substantial, and is a form of validation of the spontaneous method. Discussion “Healthy-Unhealthy” is a continuum rather than a dichotomy, is subject to changing classifications by the nutrition-medical community, and is limited in value because small amounts of “unhealthy” foods are not unhealthy. In an important sense, “healthy-unhealthy” is an incorrect principle for dividing foods. Surprisingly, only a very small percent of individuals suggested (or ranked highly) animal origin versus plant origin, although this is a true dichotomy, and on biological and nutritional and sustainability grounds, this might be the most fundamental dichotomy.
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Though eating and taste are central to social and moral order, we know little about the mundane practices that socialize children into the world of food. This study pioneers direct observation of the practices involved in socializing taste. Utilizing Bourdieu's distinction between ‘the taste of necessity’ and ‘the taste of luxury/freedom ‘, it examines the discourse of taste that prevails at the dinner tables of middle‐class Caucasian American and Italian families. Across these families, food is depicted as nutrition, a material good, a reward, and pleasure. American families gave high priority to food as nutrition, a material good, and reward and low priority to food as pleasure; whereas Italian families gave priority to food as pleasure over all other qualities. American families devoted their dinner conversation to what children must eat for physiological and moral reasons, while the Italian families concentrated on what children and adults want to eat. Overwhelmingly, American children could obtain what they wanted to eat only after they finished what they must eat (dessert as reward). In addition, Italian adults encouraged children to express individual tastes as part of what it means to have a personality (child qua person); while at the American dinner table, adults typically treated the tastes of children as generically distinct (child qua child) from those of adults.
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À en croire les Américains, quand il s'agit de leur alimentation, les Français font preuve d'une étrange rigidité : ils mangent à heure fixe, veulent que les repas soient réglés comme papier à musique et passent toujours des heures à table. Ce qui choque les Français, c'est que les Américains mangent à toute vitesse, souvent en travaillant, presque toujours en faisant autre chose et d'une façon bien peu conviviale. Voici une grande enquête internationale sur les attitudes vis-à-vis de l'alimentation, du corps et de la santé, réalisée plusieurs années durant, sur plus de 7 000 personnes. Une véritable radiographie, précise et fouillée, des "mangeurs" contemporains dans six pays occidentaux et quatre langues. Au-delà de l'apparente homogénéisation des goûts et de l'émergence d'un marché planétaire de la pizza et du hamburger, une plongée passionnante au coeur de nos différences culturelles.
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For human beings, food is a critical contributor to physical well being, a major source of pleasure, worry and stress, a major occupant of waking time and, across the world, the single greatest category of expenditures. This is a first study of the way food functions in the minds and lives of people from four cultures. Adults and college students from Flemish Belgium, France, U.S.A. and Japan were surveyed with questions dealing with beliefs about the diet-health link, worry about food, the degree of consumption of foods modified to be "healthier" (e.g. reduced in salt or fat), the importance of food as a positive force in life, the tendency to associate foods with nutritional vs. culinary contexts, and satisfaction with the healthiness of one's own diet. In all domains except beliefs about the importance of diet for health, there are substantial country (and usually gender) differences. Generally, the group associating food most with health and least with pleasure is the Americans, and the group most food-pleasure-oriented and least food-health-oriented is the French. In all four countries, females, as opposed to males, show a pattern of attitudes that is more like the American pattern, and less like the French pattern. In either gender, French and Belgians tend to occupy the pleasure extreme, Americans the health extreme, with the Japanese in between. Ironically, the Americans, who do the most to alter their diet in the service of health, are the least likely to classify themselves as healthy eaters. We conclude that there are substantial cross-cultural differences in the extent to which food functions as a stressor vs. a pleasure. These differences may influence health and may partially account for national differences in rates of cardiovascular diseases (the "French paradox").
Article
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In reporting Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, researchers have most often used scoring conventions described in the first publication of the IAT (A.G. Greenwald, D.E. McGhee, & J.L.K. Schwartz, 1998). Demonstration IATs available on the Internet have produced large data sets that were used in the current article to evaluate alternative scoring procedures. Candidate new algorithms were examined in terms of their (a) correlations with parallel self-report measures, (b) resistance to an artifact associated with speed of responding, (c) internal consistency, (d) sensitivity to known influences on IAT measures, and (e) resistance to known procedural influences. The best-performing measure incorporates data from the IAT's practice trials, uses a metric that is calibrated by each respondent's latency variability, and includes a latency penalty for errors. This new algorithm strongly outperforms the earlier (conventional) procedure.
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Telephone interviews of 6000 representative adults from France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, the UK, and the USA, included two items on attitudes to variety. One had to do with whether the respondent preferred a choice of 10 versus 50 ice cream flavors. Ten choices were preferred by a majority of respondents from each country except the United States. A second item asked whether one expected a small or large menu choice in an upscale restaurant. A majority in all countries expected the small number of choices, but this expectation was lowest in the UK and USA. High variety expectations and preferences were weakly positively correlated (r=0.19). There was no substantial relation between a variety of demographic variables and variety preferences or expectations, except that older people were less inclined to prefer the high (50) variety in ice cream choices (r=0.28). The results suggest that the US, and the UK to some extent, focus on providing choices that cater to individual differences in preferences, whereas the continental European countries are more attached to communal eating values.
Article
In reporting Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, researchers have most often used scoring conventions described in the first publication of the IAT (A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998). Demonstration IATs available on the Internet have produced large data sets that were used in the current article to evaluate alternative scoring procedures. Candidate new algorithms were examined in terms of their (a) correlations with parallel self-report measures, (b) resistance to an artifact associated with speed of responding, (c) internal consistency, (d) sensitivity to known influences on IAT measures, and (e) resistance to known procedural influences. The best-performing measure incorporates data from the IAT's practice trials, uses a metric that is calibrated by each respondent's latency variability, and includes a latency penalty for errors. This new algorithm strongly outperforms the earlier (conventional) procedure.
Article
Across four experiments, the authors find that when information pertaining to the assessment of the healthiness of food items is provided, the less healthy the item is portrayed to be, (1) the better is its inferred taste, (2) the more it is enjoyed during actual consumption, and (3) the greater is the preference for it in choice tasks when a hedonic goal is more (versus less) salient. The authors obtain these effects both among consumers who report that they believe that healthiness and tastiness are negatively correlated and, to a lesser degree, among those who do not report such a belief. The authors also provide evidence that the association between the concepts of "unhealthy" and "tasty" operates at an implicit level. The authors discuss possibilities for controlling the effect of the unhealthy = tasty intuition (and its potential for causing negative health consequences), including controlling the volume of unhealthy but tasty food eaten, changing unhealthy foods to make them less unhealthy but still tasty, and providing consumers with better information about what constitutes "healthy."
Article
Due to the efforts of the modern health media and food industry some foods have been praised as healthful while at the same time others have been criticized as promoters of disease and obesity. Does this categorical thinking concerning foods influence judgements of the weight-enhancing properties of foods? In the present study, a group of snack names that were shown to possess positive reputations for health (e.g., raisins) along with snack names that were more disreputable in terms of wholesomeness (e.g., potato chips) were rated in terms of their capacity to promote weight gain. The results indicated that lower-calorie-disreputable snacks were always perceived to promote greater weight gain than much higher-calorie-reputable snacks. Further, fat content rather than sugar or carbohydrate content best predicted the respondents’ ratings. The good versus bad message that we have assimilated concerning food may be contributing to our weight troubles.
Article
Purpose and Methods This paper examines the social cognitive processes that regulate people's eating behavior. Specifically, we examine how eating behavior can be regulated by reflective, deliberative processes as well as automatic and habitual processes. Moreover, we consider how these processes operate when people are not only initiating a change in behavior but also maintaining the behavior over time. Results and Discussion Decomposing action control and behavior change into a 2 (reflective, automatic) × 2 (initiation, maintenance) matrix offers a useful way of conceptualizing the various determinants of eating behavior and suggests that different intervention strategies will be needed to target particular processes during respective phases of behavior change. The matrix also helps to identify key areas of intervention development that deserve attention.
Article
The influence of food type on the restrained eating pattern was examined. In Study 1, subjects rated the degree to which each of 149 foods were dietary permissable or dietary forbidden. The number of avoided foods correlated positively with restraint score. Study 2 compared Herman and Mack's (1975) 1- and 2-milk shake preloads to two nonforbidden preloads of equivalent calories. Food type, and not perceived calories, was found to be the element of the preload required to cause disinhibition among restrained eaters, both within the experiment and outside the experimental setting. Study 3 examined the effects of anticipated consumption (varying food type and calories) on the restrained eating pattern. Only restrained eaters anticipating a forbidden food (whether high or low in calories) were disinhibited. The restrained literature was reconsidered in light of the forbidden food hypothesis.
Article
In a first experiment, subjects verbalizing the stream of consciousness for a 5-min period were asked to try not to think of a white bear, but to ring a bell in case they did. As indicated both by mentions and by bell rings, they were unable to suppress the thought as instructed. On being asked after this suppression task to think about the white bear for a 5-min period, these subjects showed significantly more tokens of thought about the bear than did subjects who were asked to think about a white bear from the outset. These observations suggest that attempted thought suppression has paradoxical effects as a self-control strategy, perhaps even producing the very obsession or preoccupation that it is directed against. A second experiment replicated these findings and showed that subjects given a specific thought to use as a distracter during suppression were less likely to exhibit later preoccupation with the thought to be suppressed.
Article
An implicit association test (IAT) measures differential association of 2 target concepts with an attribute. The 2 concepts appear in a 2-choice task (2-choice task (e.g., flower vs. insect names), and the attribute in a 2nd task (e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant words for an evaluation attribute). When instructions oblige highly associated categories (e.g., flower + pleasant) to share a response key, performance is faster than when less associated categories (e.g., insect & pleasant) share a key. This performance difference implicitly measures differential association of the 2 concepts with the attribute. In 3 experiments, the IAT was sensitive to (a) near-universal evaluative differences (e.g., flower vs. insect), (b) expected individual differences in evaluative associations (Japanese + pleasant vs. Korean + pleasant for Japanese vs. Korean subjects), and (c) consciously disavowed evaluative differences (Black + pleasant vs. White + pleasant for self-described unprejudiced White subjects).
Article
Part of the "French paradox" can be explained by the fact that the French eat less than Americans. We document that French portion sizes are smaller in comparable restaurants, in the sizes of individual portions of foods (but not other items) in supermarkets, in portions specified in cookbooks, and in the prominence of "all you can eat" restaurants in dining guides. We also present data, from observations at McDonald's, that the French take longer to eat than Americans. Our results suggest that in the domain of eating, and more generally, more attention should be paid to ecological factors, even though their mechanism of operation is transparent, and hence less revealing of fundamental psychological processes. Ironically, although the French eat less than Americans, they seem to eat for a longer period of time, and hence have more food experience. The French can have their cake and eat it as well.
Article
Theoretically, low correlations between implicit and explicit measures can be due to (a) motivational biases in explicit self reports, (b) lack of introspective access to implicitly assessed representations, (c) factors influencing the retrieval of information from memory, (d) method-related characteristics of the two measures, or (e) complete independence of the underlying constructs. The present study addressed these questions from a meta-analytic perspective, investigating the correlation between the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit self-report measures. Based on a sample of 126 studies, the mean effect size was .24, with approximately half of the variability across correlations attributable to moderator variables. Correlations systematically increased as a function of (a) increasing spontaneity of self-reports and (b) increasing conceptual correspondence between measures. These results suggest that implicit and explicit measures are generally related but that higher order inferences and lack of conceptual correspondence can reduce the influence of automatic associations on explicit self-reports.
Article
Humans are biologically adapted to their ancestral food environment in which foods were dispersed and energy expenditure was required to obtain them. The modern developed world has a surplus of very accessible, inexpensive food. Amid the enormous variety of different foods are "super" foods, such as chocolate, which are particularly appealing and calorie dense. Energy output can be minimal to obtain large amounts of food. In terms of education (eg, in nutrition and risk-benefit thinking) and environment design, modern cultures have not kept pace with changes in the food world. Overweight and worrying about food result from this mismatch between human biological predispositions and the current food environment. The French have coped with this mismatch better than Americans. Although at least as healthy as Americans, they focus more on the experience of eating and less on the health effects of eating. They spend more time eating, but they eat less, partly because of smaller portion sizes. French traditions of moderation (versus American abundance), focus on quality (versus quantity), and emphasis on the joys of the moment (rather than making life comfortable and easy) support a healthier lifestyle. The French physical environment encourages slow, moderate social eating, minimal snacking, and more physical activity in daily life.
Article
One hundred and thirty-four non-dieting participants spent 5 min thinking aloud under three different conditions. Participants either suppressed or expressed thoughts of eating chocolate, or verbalised with no further instructions. After thinking aloud, all participants took part in a taste preference task where they tried two brands of chocolate and answered questions about their preference. Unbeknownst to participants the variable of interest was the amount of chocolate eaten, not their preference. Results indicated an interaction between condition (suppression vs. expression vs. control) and gender. Both male and female participants showed a behavioural rebound effect, consuming significantly more chocolate after suppression than participants in the verbalise only control group. However, in the expression group, a clear difference between males and females was manifested, while females ate a similar amount of chocolate in the expression and verbalise only control groups, males ate the most chocolate in the expression group and this was significantly greater than the amount eaten after suppression or the verbalise only control group.
Article
Our objective was to investigate whether people who use internal cues of satiation when eating a meal are likely to weigh less than people who instead rely on external cues. In addition to exploring the role that internal and external cues play in meal cessation, this study raises an overlooked explanation of the French paradox. A demographically-matched student sample of 133 Parisians and 145 Chicagoans completed a brief survey on meal cessation that asked the extent to which they agreed with statements associated with internal cessation cues and statements with external cessation cues. Their answers to these were compared across BMI levels and across countries. Normal-weight people indicated that they were more likely to be influenced by internal cues of meal cessation (p = 0.043), while overweight people indicated that they were more influenced by external cues (p = 0.005). Similarly, while the French were influenced by internal cues of meal cessation (p < 0.001), Americans were more influenced by external cues (p < 0.001). This research revisits Schachter's externality hypothesis and suggests that one's over-reliance on external cues may prove useful in offering a partial explanation of why BMI might vary across people and potentially across cultures. Relying on internal cues for meal cessation, rather than on external cues, may improve eating patterns over the long term.
Enquête épidémiologique nationale sur le surpoids et l'obésité Available online at Socializing taste
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Arranging the meal: A history of table service in France
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Flandrin, J.-L. (2007). Arranging the meal: A history of table service in France. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
The restraint scale: Assessment of dieting
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Physical activity and good nutrition: Essential elements to prevent chronic diseases and obesity
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Leavitt, M.O. (2008). Physical activity and good nutrition: Essential elements to prevent chronic diseases and obesity, centers for disease control and prevention, <http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/publications/aag/dnpa.htm>.
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