Article

Compositional characteristics of sour cherry kernel and its oil as influenced by different extraction and roasting conditions

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Sour cherry seeds arise as a waste material during processing of the fruits into processed products such as canned or frozen sour cherry, and sour cherry juice. This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of the kernels in depth for potential utilization as a source of oil, protein and dietary fibers. The kernel was found to contain 17.0% of oil, 29.3% of proteins and 30.3% of dietary fibers. Conventional hexane and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) were used to extract oil from the kernels. The kernel oil was found to contain palmitic acid (6.4%), stearic acid (1.2%), oleic acid (46.3%), linoleic acid (41.5%), and linolenic acid (4.6%). Extraction technique had no significant effect on fatty acid composition of kernel oil. The oil extracted by hexane contained significantly higher levels of tocopherols and β-carotene than the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The effect of ethanol used as a co-solvent in both extraction techniques on the composition of oil was determined. Using ethanol with both hexane and SC-CO2 increased total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and β-carotene content of oil. Roasting kernels at 160 °C for 30 min decreased total tocopherols (9.8%), but increased total phenolic content (4.5 times) and hydroxymethylfurfural (1.4 mg/L) in resulting oil.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Sour cherry seed SCS (also named pit and stone) is another by-product of sour cherry processing such as SCJ, canned or frozen cher- ries. It accounts for 7 -15% of the whole fruit ( Popa et al., 2011;Yılmaz and G€ okmen, 2013;Chaovanalikit and Wrolstad, 2004). Currently, large amounts of SCS are dis- carded at the processing plants. ...
... SCS consists of two main parts: shell (75 -80%) and ker- nel (20 -25%) (Yılmaz and G€ okmen, 2013;Korlesky et al., 2016). While the shell is mostly used as fuel or seen as waste, the kernel is used as an oil source. ...
... The phenolic groups in the kernel were reported as flavonoids, anthocya- nidins, stilbenes, catechins, flavins, procyanidins such as resveratrol, rhamnetin, malvidin, delphinidin, pinocembrin, naringenin, quercetin, dihydroquercetin, peonidin, apigenin, gallic acid, and other antioxidants (e.g. gallotannin) with a TP content of 53.87 mg GAE/100 g ( Popa et al., 2011;Yılmaz and G€ okmen, 2013;Bak et al., 2006;Bak et al., 2011;T osaki et al., 2010). Apart from the rich oil content, the sour cherry kernel has another remarkable potential to util- ize, thanks to its antioxidant components. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sour (tart) cherry is an industrial fruit where a considerable amount of by-products remain after processing. Sour cherry by-products consist of pomace (skin and flesh) and seeds (pit, stone) which remain after the fruit juice and IQF processes. Sour cherry pomace is characterized with a high content of phenolic compounds and the seed constitutes a high oil yield with beneficial effects on human health because of their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. There has been a great interest in sour cherry by-products due to the increasing production rate of sour cherry worldwide and the increasing efforts on seeking bioactive compounds from natural sources as functional food. Thus, there have been a number of studies regarding the sour cherry pomace and sour cherry seed, especially in the last five years. The present review summarizes the chemical, biological, functional, and technological properties of the sour cherry pomace and sour cherry seed with their current and potential applications.
... TPs showed qualitative and quantitative differences in context to seed genotype, extraction techniques, and analysis methods (Afonso et al., 2020). Further, roasting of sour cherry kernel increased TPs and their extractability (Yilmaz and Gökmen, 2013), although the underlying mechanism and the utility of this process in other seeds and has yet to be determined. In addition, Siberian plum seed extracted using Soxhlet extraction with different solvents (n-hexane, n-heptane, acetone, ethyl acetate or mixture of chloroform: methanol (2:1 v/v) revealed that vanillic acid was the most abundant (29.1-88.1 mg/100 g), upon extraction with acetone, as well as the highest levels of syringic and chlorogenic acids upon using acetone and ethyl acetate, respectively. ...
... Another study preformed on 5 apricot seeds grown in Poland showed the highest oil level in the "Somo" cv. at 44.2% dw versus lowest at 32.2% dw in "Harcot". Moreover, cherry seed oil yield of 68.5 g/kg with variation according to the fruit varieties or geographical origin (Siano et al., 2016;Yilmaz and Gökmen, 2013). Comparable oil levels were detected in sweet cherry seeds, grown in South Italy obtained using Soxhlet extraction (Siano et al., 2016) with a yield of 30.3-40.3% dw (Górnas¨et al., 2016). ...
... (Górnaś, Rudzińska, Raczyk, Mišina, Soliven, et al., 2016). Sour cherry seed represents a good source of monounsaturated omega-9 i.e., oleic acid at 46.3% and omega-6 i.e., linoleic acid of 41.5% fatty acids (Yilmaz and Gökmen 2013). The enrichment of oleic acid in cherry seed renders it a promising alternative to olive oil. ...
... Sweet cherry oil showed had a low level of PV and FFA with a high level of TPC and AC and should be utilized as edible oil. TPC and AC value of this study were in conformity with Yılmaz and Gökmen (2013) study. Table 1 showed the fatty acid composition of sweet cherry seed oil. ...
... Oleic and linoleic acid content was reported as 37.5 % and 40 % in Comes, Farines, Aumelas, and Soulier (1992) study. Linolenic acid content was 12.40 %. Yılmaz and Gökmen (2013) and Bernardo-Gil et al. (2001) reported similar linolenic acid in sour cherry and sweet cherry oil respectively. Their results were comparable with our results. ...
... -tocopherol showed a small amount. Our results were similar to the tocopherol content of sour cherry oil reported by Yılmaz and Gökmen (2013). Table 3 showed the individual phenolic composition of sweet cherry seed oil. ...
... In literature, there are some limited number of studies with mostly solvent extracted sour cherry and cherry seed oils for their main components analysis [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. In none of these studies, volatile compositions, thermal properties, sensory analysis and consumer tests were performed. ...
... In this study, the goal was to get their oils, but after cold pressing the oil, the meals could be used for protein extraction, and probably for dietary fiber production. 232 Yilmaz and Gökmen determined around 29.3% protein and 17% oil in some sour cherry kernels [17]. Similarly, Kamel and Kakuda measured around 31.7% crude protein and 41.9% crude oil in cherry kernels [14]. ...
... and 19.34-27.87 mgGAE/L, and 1.44-2.20 and 2.06-2.23 mmolTEAC/L, respectively [17]. Since they measured these values per liter of the oil sample, it is not possible for direct comparison. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to produce cold press oils from sour cherry and cherry kernels and to characterize the oils for possible edible and non-edible usages. The oil yield was 55.9% and 51.3% with cold pressing, respectively. Although common oil physico-chemical properties were in accordance, their peroxide values were higher. Further, oil thermal properties, fatty acids, sterols and tocopherols compositions were determined. A total of 20 different volatile compounds were quantified in both samples. Both oil samples were described sensorially with 8 definition terms by the panel. Also, a consumer hedonic test was completed. Results indicated that although both oils are nutritious samples, their oxidation status was exceeding the limit value. Cherry syrup, astringent, and menthol were detected as negative sensory attributes. Consumer test scores indicated a neutrality for their appearance, aroma and flavor attributes. Overall, these cold press oils evaluated as not proper for direct edible consumption, but could be used in nutraceuticals, cosmetics and for energy generation purposes.
... Sour cherry kernels are rich in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids with their corresponding concentrations of 46.6%, 29.3%, and 17.0%, respectively. Regarding its amino acid composition, sour cherry kernel contains glutamic acid at most, and lysine, a limiting essential amino acid in most cereals, is present in relatively high quantity in sour cherry kernel [10]. Various research groups have investigated utilization of sour cherry kernel as a source of oil [5,[10][11][12][13]. ...
... Regarding its amino acid composition, sour cherry kernel contains glutamic acid at most, and lysine, a limiting essential amino acid in most cereals, is present in relatively high quantity in sour cherry kernel [10]. Various research groups have investigated utilization of sour cherry kernel as a source of oil [5,[10][11][12][13]. ...
... The insignificance of the change in pH on protein yield may stem from high solubility of SCKPI at alkaline pH intervals (8)(9)(10)(11). Since the solubility of SCKPI was above 85% ("Physicochemical and Functional Properties" section) for each pH values studied, a high extraction yield can be performed without significant differences between conditions related to pH within the ranges in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kernel of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is a valuable source of protein generated as byproduct during processing of sour cherries. In this study, optimisation of protein extraction yield from sour cherry kernel was investigated using response surface methodology. Optimum conditions for alkaline solubilisation/isoelectric precipitation extraction were identified as pH 8.5, 1:10 solid-to-solvent ratio, and 1 h extraction time to obtain a protein yield of 63.8% for a protein content of 88.3%. The isoelectric precipitation point of sour cherry kernel protein isolate (SCKPI) was shown to be 4.2 and a high solubility of 85.3% was found at neutral pH. Results showed that SCKPI had a substantially high in vitro protein digestibility (95.7%). Other physicochemical properties such as water- and oil-holding capacities, gelling capacity, emulsion stability, foaming capacity as well as thermal properties were also reported and ensured comparable functionalities indicating a great potential as a valuable plant-based protein source for the food industry. Graphic Abstract
... Sour cherry is widely used across North America, Europe, and Asia. e global production of sour cherry fruit has increased during the past few years and has reached 14.1 to 38.1 million tons in the years 2006 to 2016 [1]. Nowadays, sour cherry can be used as a kind of fresh fruit as well as juice, dried product, syrup, additive, and jam. is fruit is a rich source of phytochemicals and nutraceuticals, including anthocyanins with bioactive properties such as antioxidation and anti-inflammation, which could inhibit tumor development and prevent colon cancer [1]. ...
... e global production of sour cherry fruit has increased during the past few years and has reached 14.1 to 38.1 million tons in the years 2006 to 2016 [1]. Nowadays, sour cherry can be used as a kind of fresh fruit as well as juice, dried product, syrup, additive, and jam. is fruit is a rich source of phytochemicals and nutraceuticals, including anthocyanins with bioactive properties such as antioxidation and anti-inflammation, which could inhibit tumor development and prevent colon cancer [1]. sour cherry pomace improves the functional properties of the cookies and their stability during storage [3]. ...
... sour cherry pomace improves the functional properties of the cookies and their stability during storage [3]. Sour cherry kernels are the other main byproducts during canning or freezing (also known as pit or stone), which make up about 7-15% of the total fruit weight [1]. In addition, this byproduct of sour cherry processing is a good source of phenolic and antioxidant compounds, fat, protein, and dietary fiber. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to extract oil from fresh sour cherry kernel (Cerasus vulgaris Miller) using the cold press method. The oil content and moisture were obtained as 31.89% and 4%, respectively. The organoleptic assessment of the oil was acceptable and the free fatty acid value was obtained as 1.36 (mg KOH/g oil). In addition, peroxide value and anisidine index of sour cherry kernel oil were obtained as 0.99 meqO2/kg oil and 0.15, respectively. The predominant fatty acids were linoleic acid (42.34%), oleic acid (35.45%), α-eleostearic acid (9.34%), and palmitic acid (6.54%), respectively. The kernel oil contained nine major triacylglycerols consisting of OLL (20.44%), OOL (16.99%), LLL (8.20%), LLEl (7.28%), PLO (7.24%), OElO (5.03%), OOO (4.70%), ElLO (4.54%), PLL (4.35%), and POO (3%), respectively. The most abundant sterol compounds were β-sitosterol (83.55%), ∆5-avenasterol (6.8%), sitostanol (4.8%), campesterol (3.5%), and stigmasterol (0.53%), respectively. Also, antioxidant activity, total phenol content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total tannin content (TTC), and total tocopherol content were obtained as 73.22%, 33.44 mg GA/g dry matter, 177.84 mg/L, 46.37 mg/g dry matter, and 1.21 mg GA/g dry matter, 832.5 mg/kg oil, respectively. The amount of amygdalin in the oil sample was not detectable.
... Avocado seed oil (Joshua et al.,201 ) Jackfruit seed oil (Fernandes et al.,201 ) apaya seed oil (Samaram et al., 2013) Custardapple seed oil (Rana,201 ) omegranate seed oil (Drinic et al., 2020) Sweet cherry seed oil ( Siano et al., 2016) Sour cherry seed oil (Yilmaz & Gokmen, 2013) umpkin seed oil (Siano et al., 2016) ndecanoic acid (C 11 (Jiao et al., 2014). These eight typical popular fruits and vegetables produce a large number of by-products during the production process, and these unutilized agricultural materials, which are considered as waste products of the food industry, are often a cause of environmental pollution. ...
... %), soybean (18-20%), and olive (1 -3 %) (O'Brien, 2008). Secondly, Yilmaz and Gokmen (2013) demonstrated that the sour cherry kernel oil composed of mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (C 18 2 ) (40.6%) and linolenic acid (C 18 3 ) ( .1%), and monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C 18 1 ) (46.8%). On the contrary, the sum of saturated fatty acids (dominated by palmitic acid and stearic acid) was less than 10% in the kernel oil (Yilmaz & Gokmen, 2013). ...
... Secondly, Yilmaz and Gokmen (2013) demonstrated that the sour cherry kernel oil composed of mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (C 18 2 ) (40.6%) and linolenic acid (C 18 3 ) ( .1%), and monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C 18 1 ) (46.8%). On the contrary, the sum of saturated fatty acids (dominated by palmitic acid and stearic acid) was less than 10% in the kernel oil (Yilmaz & Gokmen, 2013). Thirdly, variety kinds of important vitamins and provitamins are abundant in sour cherry seed oil, such as tocopherols (428.62 mg L) and β-carotene (8.4 mg L). ...
Article
This paper discusses the chemical compositions and health benefits of several kinds of oils which are extracted from new resources, including avocado seed oil, jackfruit seed oil, papaya seed oil, custard-apple seed oil, pomegranate seed oil, cherry seed oil, and pumpkin seed oil. In addition, the beneficial components found in these oils provide a future trend towards the utilization of seed oils as functional foods in the prevention and management of various chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the development prospects of some seed oils, such as papaya seed oil or custard-apple seed oil, need to be further studied and reconsidered due to the unconfirmed edibility. Furthermore, some other hindrances need to be solved to make better use of these valuable food industry by-products.
... The oil content in the kernels has been reported to be between 17 and 30% fresh weight, measured as the total oil yield obtained using different extraction methods (Table 6). Sour cherry kernel oil is a known source of fatty acids [48][49][50][51][52][53][54], which are important components in the human diet. Contemporarily, tocopherols and tocotrienols (tocochromanols), i.e. vitamin E-active components and strong liposoluble antioxidants, have been reported in different works [48,49,51,53,54]. ...
... Sour cherry kernel oil is a known source of fatty acids [48][49][50][51][52][53][54], which are important components in the human diet. Contemporarily, tocopherols and tocotrienols (tocochromanols), i.e. vitamin E-active components and strong liposoluble antioxidants, have been reported in different works [48,49,51,53,54]. Furthermore, several authors also reported phenolic compounds [51,53] and sterols [48,49]. ...
... Contemporarily, tocopherols and tocotrienols (tocochromanols), i.e. vitamin E-active components and strong liposoluble antioxidants, have been reported in different works [48,49,51,53,54]. Furthermore, several authors also reported phenolic compounds [51,53] and sterols [48,49]. Korlesky [49,51]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In a circular economy, products are made from renewable resources and the waste streams generated during production are either reused, recycled or recovered. The Biocascade methodology considers bio-waste as a resource that can be exploited to produce high-value products such as pharmaceuticals, food ingredients and nutrients; and low-value products such as feed, energy or soil conditioners. The Biocascade principle ensures optimal biomass exploitation by following a hierarchy from high-to-low value, where the waste from one process is the starting material for the next. Biowaste from plant origin is a very suitable resource for applying the Biocascade methodology, both in terms of worldwide production and of variety of components. In this review, the biowaste from sour cherry wine, ornamental kalanchoe plants and red clover feed production, have been examined for processing using a Biocascade approach. Starting from the biowaste characterization, the most relevant components have been identified highlighting their potential uses. The extraction methodology is then discussed in terms of solvent used, operating conditions and yield. Based on the information retrieved from literature, different process flowsheets have been proposed to maximize the use of the biowaste following the Biocascade perspective and targeting zero-waste generation. Please read the full article here: https://link.springer.com/epdf/10.1007/s12649-020-01082-6?sharing_token=c63munoNjBKieEHNmu4GBve4RwlQNchNByi7wbcMAY5fCE8UPEkanRT_Bqls9i1BfcVBvA4U81WNu0f2bCi7p6mmJQIFF9vP7TxocIP563qJLIx9Ud4LDxojQLaCnePfjuLoV8IC6ZwcgnWNbJx712J6j0alA_yRod4Nvkq9KJg%3D
... The mean crude fat and crude protein content of sour cherry kernel were 41.3 and 31.3%, respectively. The results obtained for the content of crude protein were generally consistent with those reported by Kazempour-Samak et al. [6] 29.3% and Lazos [11] 25.3% [11]. P. cerasus kernels were found to be rich in oil (31.6%, on average); however, the differences for individual cultivars were noticeable. ...
... The mean crude fat and crude protein content of sour cherry kernel were 41.3 and 31.3%, respectively. The results obtained for the content of crude protein were generally consistent with those reported by Kazempour-Samak et al. [6] 29.3% and Lazos [11] 25.3% [11]. P. cerasus kernels were found to be rich in oil (31.6%, on average); however, the differences for individual cultivars were noticeable. ...
... According to another study, the sour cherry kernel contained 36.1 [13], 31.89 [6], 26.0 [11], 22.5 [10], and 17.0% [12] of oil. ...
Article
Full-text available
New plant oils as a potential natural source of nutraceutical compounds are still being sought. The main components of eight cultivars (‘Koral’, ‘Lucyna’, ‘Montmorency’, ‘Naumburger’, ‘Wanda’, ‘Wigor’, ‘Wołyńska’, and ‘Wróble’) of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) grown in Poland, including crude fat, protein, and oil content, were evaluated. The extracted oils were analysed for chemical and biological activity. The oils had an average peroxide value of 1.49 mEq O2/kg, acid value of 1.20 mg KOH/g, a saponification value of 184 mg of KOH/g, and iodine value of 120 g I2/100 g of oil. The sour cherry oil contained linoleic (39.1–46.2%) and oleic (25.4–41.0%) acids as the major components with smaller concentrations of α-eleostearic acid (8.00–15.62%), palmitic acid (5.45–7.41%), and stearic acid (2.49–3.17%). The content of sterols and squalene varied significantly in all the studied cultivars and ranged between 336–973 mg/100 g and 66–102 mg/100 g of oil. The contents of total tocochromanols, polyphenols, and carotenoids were 119–164, 19.6–29.5, and 0.56–1.61 mg/100 g oil, respectively. The cultivar providing the highest amounts of oil and characterised by the highest content of PUFA (including linoleic acid), plant sterols, α-and β-tocopherol, as well as the highest total polyphenol and total carotenoids content was been found to be ‘Naumburger’. The antioxidant capacity of sour cherry kernel oils, measured using the DPPH• and ABTS•+ methods, ranged from 57.7 to 63.5 and from 38.2 to 43.2 mg trolox/100 g oil, respectively. The results of the present study provide important information about potential possibilities of application of Prunus cerasus kernel oils in cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals offering health benefits.
... It is relevant to comment that species and variety are relevant factors that affect the content of oil (Chamli et al. 2017;Górnaś et al. 2017;Maikhuri et al. 2021;Zhang et al. 2021b). Along with high content, the oil obtained from kernels is also rich in unsaturated fatty acids that composes up to 93.7 g/100 g oil (Yilmaz and Gökmen 2013;Amiran, Shafaghat, and Shafaghatlonbar 2015;Zhou et al. 2016;Chamli et al. 2017;Maikhuri et al. 2021;Sodeifian and Sajadian 2021). The identification of fatty acids revealed that oleic acid (C18:1) is the main fatty acid followed by linoleic acid (C18:2) in kernels from peach, apricot, nectarine, and sour cherry. ...
... The Prunus fruits by-products contain several minor bioactive compounds such as carotenoids. These compounds were reported in the peach kernel (Nowicka and Wojdyło 2019), sour cherry kernel (Yilmaz and Gökmen 2013), peach peel (Dabbou et al. 2017), donut peach peel (Loizzo et al. 2015), and apricot leaves (Zeb, Khadim, and Ali 2017). Some of the carotenoids found in peach peel are β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene as well as low amount of lutein. ...
... Apricot leaves also contain carotenoids wherein the main compound is lutein, followed by α-and β-carotene isomers in smaller proportions (Zeb, Khadim, and Ali 2017). Tocopherols and tocotrienols were also reported in kernels of apricot ) and sour cherry (Yilmaz and Gökmen 2013). It is interesting to notice that the presence of squalene and sterols were also indicated in kernel of apricot (Amiran, Shafaghat, and Shafaghatlonbar 2015;Rudzińska et al. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Food processing, especially the juice industry, is an important sector that generate million tons of residues every. Due to the increasing concern about waste generation and the interest in its valorization, the reutilization of by-products generated from the processing of popular fruits of the Prunus genus (rich in high-added value compounds) has gained the spotlight in the food area. This review aims to provide an overview of the high added-value compounds found in the residues of Prunus fruits (peach, nectarine, donut peach, plum, cherry, and apricot) processing and applications in the food science area. Collective (pomace) and individual (kernels, peels, and leaves) residues from Prunus fruits processing contains polyphenols (especially flavonoids and anthocyanins), lipophilic compounds (such as unsaturated fatty acids, carotenes, tocopherols, sterols, and squalene), proteins (bioactive peptides and essential amino acids) that are wasted. Applications are increasingly expanding from the flour from the kernels to encapsulated bioactive compounds, active films, and ingredients with technological relevance for the quality of bread, cookies, ice cream, clean label meat products and extruded foods. Advances to increasing safety has also been reported against anti-nutritional (amygdalin) and toxic compounds (aflatoxin and pesticides) due to advances in emerging processing technologies and strategic use of resources.
... Therefore, sour cherry is mostly used for the production of juice, concentrate, jam, puree, marmalade or pie filling while sweet cherry is generally consumed fresh (Toydemir et al. 2013;Yılmaz et al. 2018). Worldwide total sour cherry production is about 1.38 million tons in 2016 (FAOSTAT 2017), approximately 85% of which is processed into various food products (Toydemir et al. 2013), creating a high amount of seed as a waste material that causes an important disposal issue for the food industry (Yılmaz and Gökmen 2013). Currently, large amounts of seeds are discarded at the processing plants. ...
... dietary fibre and 17.0-41.9% oil (Korlesky et al. 2016;Yılmaz and Gökmen 2013;Bak et al. 2010;Kamel and Kakuda 1992;Lazos 1991). García et al. (2015) has also showed the presence of antioxidant and antihypertensive peptides in sour cherry kernel proteins. ...
... The proximate composition of SCKF was similar to those reported in the literature. The moisture content of sour cherry kernel was recorded as 3.91% (Yılmaz and Gökmen 2013). The protein content of sour cherry kernel was found to be 25.3% by Lazos (1991) and 37.80% by Kamel and Kakuda (1992). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aims of this research were to examine the effect of pH on extraction of proteins from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) kernels, and to investigate the functional properties of the resulting protein concentrate. The optimum pH values for the protein extraction and isoelectric precipitation were determined as 10.0 and 4.5, respectively. The protein concentrate contained 4.03 ± 0.16% moisture, 3.31 ± 0.17% ash, 2.94 ± 0.36% carbohydrate, 1.93 ± 0.16% lipid, and 80.48 ± 2.38% protein. Water holding capacity, oil holding capacity and the least gelling concentration of the protein concentrate were 2.42 ± 0.09 g water/g, 1.73 ± 0.17 g oil/g and 8%, respectively. Results showed that emulsifying activity and stability indices, foaming capacity and stability of protein concentrate were 38.91 ± 2.50 m²/g, 37.49 ± 2.41 min, 35.00 ± 3.54% and 71.80 ± 7.25% (after 30 min), respectively. The functional and chemical properties of the protein concentrate indicate that it may find application as functional ingredient for various food products.
... TPs showed qualitative and quantitative differences in context to seed genotype, extraction techniques, and analysis methods (Afonso et al., 2020). Further, roasting of sour cherry kernel increased TPs and their extractability (Yilmaz and Gökmen, 2013), although the underlying mechanism and the utility of this process in other seeds and has yet to be determined. In addition, Siberian plum seed extracted using Soxhlet extraction with different solvents (n-hexane, n-heptane, acetone, ethyl acetate or mixture of chloroform: methanol (2:1 v/v) revealed that vanillic acid was the most abundant (29.1-88.1 mg/100 g), upon extraction with acetone, as well as the highest levels of syringic and chlorogenic acids upon using acetone and ethyl acetate, respectively. ...
... Another study preformed on 5 apricot seeds grown in Poland showed the highest oil level in the "Somo" cv. at 44.2% dw versus lowest at 32.2% dw in "Harcot". Moreover, cherry seed oil yield of 68.5 g/kg with variation according to the fruit varieties or geographical origin (Siano et al., 2016;Yilmaz and Gökmen, 2013). Comparable oil levels were detected in sweet cherry seeds, grown in South Italy obtained using Soxhlet extraction (Siano et al., 2016) with a yield of 30.3-40.3% dw (Górnas¨et al., 2016). ...
... (Górnaś, Rudzińska, Raczyk, Mišina, Soliven, et al., 2016). Sour cherry seed represents a good source of monounsaturated omega-9 i.e., oleic acid at 46.3% and omega-6 i.e., linoleic acid of 41.5% fatty acids (Yilmaz and Gökmen 2013). The enrichment of oleic acid in cherry seed renders it a promising alternative to olive oil. ...
Article
Valorization of byproducts generated during food processing has recently attracted considerable attention, especially processes with high wastage rates. In this review we present a detailed analysis of the phytochemical composition of Prunus seed oil and extracts as potential sources of unsaturated fatty acids, phenolics, and phytosterols. Besides their nutritional value these seeds, especially apricot and peach seeds, could be exploited to produce value-added products such as food enhancers, and antioxidants. Optimum extraction methods of Prunus seeds are discussed to improve yield and lessen environmental hazards associated with typical solvent extraction-based methods. This review presents the best valorization practices for one of the largest cultivated fruit seeds worldwide and its different applications in food and functional food industries.
... Kang et al. [11] examined the process of burning dried coffee grounds. The described research shows high quality coffee grounds as a biofuel, as evidenced by the The cherry stone, which is usually removed from the fruit, depending on the variety, constitutes from 8% to 15% of the total weight of the fruit [20][21], thus, tens of thousands of tons of waste are produced annually in the world, and at the present time they are only used to a small extent [22]. Cherry stones after purification from the remains of the pulp and drying can fulfill the role of filling in toys for children or in so-called dry hot water bottles [20]. ...
... Rye bran used in the research is shown in Figure 2. The cherry stone, which is usually removed from the fruit, depending on the variety, constitutes from 8% to 15% of the total weight of the fruit [20][21], thus, tens of thousands of tons of waste are produced annually in the world, and at the present time they are only used to a small extent [22]. Cherry stones after purification from the remains of the pulp and drying can fulfill the role of filling in toys for children or in so-called dry hot water bottles [20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the presented research was to determine the suitability of cherry stones as a solid fuel. Mixtures of cherry stones with the addition of 10%, 15%, and 20% rye bran as a binder were subjected to the pressure agglomeration process in a rotary matrix working system (170, 220, and 270 rpm). The density of pellets, their kinetic durability, and power demand of the granulator's device for each mix were determined. The highest quality was characterized by pellets containing 20% rye bran, which were combusted in a 25 kW boiler with a retort grate. The concentration of CO, CO 2 , NO, SO 2 , HCl, and O 2 in the exhaust gas was tested. On the basis of the results of combustion, high heating value (HHV), low heating value (LHV), and elemental analysis, it was found that pellets from cherry stones with the addition of rye bran can serve as a substitute for wood pellets in low-power installations.
... According to Yılmaz and Gokmen, sour cherry kernel contains about 17-36% oil. The oil content is rich in biologically active compounds, such as essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, sterols, tocopherols, and squalene, and has been used for the purposes of cosmetics, health, and pharmaceutical industries [18]. The polyphenols of oil have an antioxidant effect that are associated with the reduction of some diseases such as cancer, coronary, cardiovascular [19,20]. ...
... The tubes were mixed by a vortex mixer for 60 min and centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 5 min. After centrifugation, the supernatants transferred to the other tubes and were stored at −20 °C until bioactive analyses [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The kernel of cherry, which is obtained from the waste of cherry fruit processing, is classified among non-consumable wastes. In the present study, kernel oil of sour cherry (Cerasus vulgaris Miller) was extracted using cold pressing method and its chemical composition and antibacterial properties against Gram-positive (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes), as well as Gram-negative bacteria (i.e. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) were evaluated using disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods at concentrations of 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, 300 μg/mL, 500 μg/mL, and 800 μg/mL for 24 h and 48 h. The results showed kernel oil of Prunus cerasus L. was rich in polyphenols, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and tocopherol. The kernel oil of Prunus cerasus L. inhibited the growth of all microbial species tested especially Gram-positive strains. The most sensitive microorganism (lowest MIC) among the studied microorganisms was Listeria monocytogenes (MIC: 100 mg/mL). Moreover, Listeria monocytogenes had the largest growth inhibition zone. With increasing oil concentration, the growth inhibition zone increased. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect, based on the study time (24 h and 48 h), didn’t reveal any significantly difference (p < 0.05). Antibacterial properties of Cerasus vulgaris Miller kernel oil were less than those of gentamicin.
... Some kernels are unavailable for processing, i.e. those from fresh fruit directly consumed by people, but they can be easily collected from the plants where cherries are processed. Nutritionally, cherry kernel contains 3.9% moisture, 17.0% oil, 29.3% proteins, and 30.3% dietary fibres (YILMAZ and GOKMEN, 2013). Recently, extracts taken from cherry fruit, stalk or leaves have been used for medical and food industrial applications because their extracts reduce oxidative stress, decrease inflammation, and/or suppress tumours (XU et al., 2004), increase glucose tolerance (GHOSH and KONISHI, 2007), and inhibit uric acid production (JACOB et al., 2003). ...
... The colour of sour cherries depends on degradation of chlorophyll (SERRANO et al., 2005) and anthocyanins, which are phenolic components (flavonoids) present in high amounts in fruits or kernels (YILMAZ and GOKMEN, 2013). Numerous studies have been done on anthocyanins and colour change in sweet cherries (MOZETIČ et al., 2004;GONÇALVES et al., 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to determine the effects of diets supplemented with fermented or non-fermented cherry kernels on growth performance, ileal histology, caecum microflora, and some meat quality parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 120 male broilers (1 day of age, Ross 308) were allocated randomly to three treatments with 5 replicates per treatment. Control groups (CONT) were provided the basal diet without cherry kernel powder, while treatment groups were provided the basal diet supplemented with either non-fermented cherry kernel powder at 10 g/kg of feed (C) or fermented cherry kernel powder at 10 g/kg of feed (FC). From 1 to 42 days of age, the C and FC treatments had a higher feed intake compared to CONT (P< 0.01). However, feed conversion ratio (FRC) of these birds was lower compared to CONT (P< 0.05). There were no differences between C and FC in terms of FCR, and body weight gain (BWG) for all treatments for the same time period (P> 0.05). None of the carcass and slaughter parameters, except for the bursa of Fabricius (P< 0.01), were affected by any of the treatments (P> 0.05). In the FC treatment the highest lightness, yellowness, hue angle, chroma, and colour difference values for breast meat were recorded (P< 0.01). The villus heights of chickens in the C and FC treatments were higher than those of CONT (P< 0.01). The C treatment increased Lactobacillus acidophilus counts in the caecum compared to the other groups (P< 0.05). These results showed that both cherry kernel treatments (C and FC) could have the potential as feed additive to promote growth performance (especially for BWG in the starter period), intestinal health and meat colour in broiler. Zusammenfassung Ziel der Studie war, den Einfluss von Diäten, die mit fermentierten oder nicht fermentierten Kirschkernen ergänzt wurden, auf die Wachstumsleistung, die Histologie des Ileums, die Mikroflora des Blinddarms und einige Fleischqualitätsparameter von Broilern zu untersuchen. Insgesamt wurden 120 männliche Broiler (Alter 1 d, Ross 308) nach dem Zufallsprinzip drei Versuchsgruppen mit jeweils fünf Wiederholungen zugeordnet. Die Kontrollgruppe (CONT) erhielt das Grundfuttermittel ohne Kirschkernpulver. Das Futter der Versuchsgruppen wurde entweder mit 10 g/kg Futter aus nicht fermentiertem Kirschkernpulver(C) oder mit 10 g/kg fermentiertem Kirschkernpulver (FC) ergänzt. Im Alter von 1 bis 42 Tagen erreichten die C und FC Gruppen eine höhere Futteraufnahme im Vergleich zur CONT (P< 0.05). Die Futterverwertung (FRC) war bei diesen Gruppen niedriger als in der CONT (P< 0.05). Es gab keine Unterschiede zwischen C und FC Gruppe in Bezug auf FRC und Gewichtszunahme (BWG) (P> 0.05). Schlachtkörper-und Schlachtparameter, mit Ausnahme der Bursa Fabricius (P < 0,01), wurden durch die Art der Fütterung nicht beeinflusst (P> 0.05). Die höchste Helligkeit, Gelbfärbung, Farbsättigung, der höchste Farbwert und Farbunterschied (∆D-Werte) wurden für das Brustfleisch der FC Gruppe ermittelt (P< 0.01). Die Darmzotten der Broiler in der C-und FC-Gruppe waren höher als die in der CONT (P< 0.01). Mit C ergänzte Futtermittel führten zu einer Erhöhung der Anzahl von Lactobacillus acidophilus im Blinddarm im Vergleich zu allen anderen Versuchsgruppen (P< 0.05). Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sowohl nicht fermentiertes als auch fermentiertes Kirschkernpulver als Futtermittelergänzung genutzt werden können, um die Wachstumsleistung (insbesondere BWG in der Anfangsperiode), die Darmgesundheit und die Fleischfarbe von Broilern zu verbessern. Stichworte
... Türkiye'de 2017 yılında toplam vişne üretimi 181.874 ton'dur [9]. Bu yüzden vişnenin işlenmesi sırasında yüksek miktarda vişne çekirdeği atık olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır [10]. Vişne çekirdeğinden üretilen pirolitik çarın adsorban olarak kullanımı sağlanabilirse ekonomik bir değer kazanarak katma değer sağlayacaktır. ...
... Bu sonuçtan hareketle, sistem tasarımı yapılırken en uygun giderim verimi ile adsorban performansı arasında optimum bir seçim yapılması gereklidir. Kitosan kaplı vişne çekirdeği kabuğu 24,50 mg/g Kitosan 35,60 mg/g [31] Kitosan kaplı kuşburnu çekirdeği kabuğu 34,13 mg/g [32] Manyetik siklodekstrinkitosan/grafen oksit 67,66 mg/g [33] Hindistan cevizi ağacı kabuğu aktif karbonu 3,46 mg/g [34] Yağ palmiyesi kabuğu aktif karbonu 44,68 mg/g [4] Kitosan kaplı yağ palmiyesi kabuğu aktif karbonu 52,68 mg/g Sülfürik asit ile muamele edilmiş kitosan kaplı yağ palmiyesi kabuğu aktif karbonu 60,25 mg/g Fe3O4-Kitosan kompoziti 90,9 mg/g [5] Çapraz bağlı manyetik kitosan boncukları 69,4 mg/g [18] Hindistan cevizi kabuğu ticari aktif karbonu 4,72 mg/g [35] Nitrik asit ile oksitlenmiş Hindistan cevizi kabuğu ticari aktif karbonu 10 ...
... The increase in antioxidant capacity and the number of peaks present in the free phenolic DDS-RB sample (Figure 5b) compared to free phenolic NS-RB sample (Figure 5a) is most likely due to the heating process used during stabilization treatments. Similar findings were also reported elsewhere (Juániz et al., 2016;Xu, Ye, Chen, & Liu, 2007;Yılmaz & Gökmen, 2013). In the study by Xu et al. (2007), an increase in citrus peel-derived free phenolic compounds was observed after heat treatment. ...
... In the study by Xu et al. (2007), an increase in citrus peel-derived free phenolic compounds was observed after heat treatment. Yılmaz and Gökmen (2013) stated that roasting kernels at 160°C for 30 min resulted in an increase in the total phenolic content by 4.5-fold in the resulting kernel oil. In addition, Juániz et al. (2016) reported that after heat treatment, there was an increase in the total polyphenol content in vegetables. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rice bran (RB), a by‐product of the rice milling process is known to be a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of RB stabilisation treatments, usually applied to inhibit rancidification, on its phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant assays were performed on RB that were exposed to extrusion, drum‐drying, microwave and oven stabilisation treatments. Chemical profiling was conducted using Ultra‐High Performance Liquid Chromatography (uHPLC) coupled to an ABTS‐online system; and Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC‐QTOF‐MS). Extrusion and drum‐dried stabilisation increased TPC when compared to non‐stabilised RB (NS‐RB). All stabilisation treatments increased antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging activity. uHPLC/ online ABTS and LC‐QTOF‐MS identified all treatments to increase the concentration of free phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity compared to NS‐RB. More specifically, drum‐dried RB significantly altered RB phenolic composition when compared to all other treatments. All stabilisation treatments significantly altered TPC and antioxidant activity of RB. Drum‐dried RB treatment was most effective in improving free phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that drum‐dried stabilisation treatment may be a crucial technique that can be applied to RB to ensure essential phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity remain intact, thereby adding value to the functional and nutritional quality of RB.
... High amounts of kernels are discarded during the processing of sour cherry. But these kernels have the potential to improve growth performance and meat quality in poultry due to their phenolic components and beta carotene content (Kim et al., 2005;Yilmaz and Gokmen, 2013). However, the inclusion of raw sour cherry kernel (RC) in poultry diets can be limited due to its low methionine content and high cellulose content, as well as possessing antinutritional factors, such as cyanogenic glyco-sides, which have a harmful effect on the growth performance of broiler chickens (Arbouche et al., 2012;Altop, 2019). ...
... RC contains high amounts of beta carotene (Yilmaz and Gokmen, 2013). Nevertheless, the b* value of meat samples was not altered by dietary RC. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sour cherry kernels are waste products of the fruit juice industry. Solid-state fermentation has great potential for recycling the agro-industrial residues. In the present study, the effect of raw sour cherry kernel (RC) and fermented sour cherry kernel (FC) by Aspergillus niger on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality in broiler chickens was investigated. A total of 343 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to 7 treatments with 7 replicates for each treatment and 7 birds in each replicate. The chicks were fed on a basal diet (control) and basal diet supplemented with RC or FC at the 1, 2, and 4% level. Dietary RC improved (P < 0.001) the feed conversion ratio (FCR) at the 1% inclusion level although chicks fed 2 and 4% RC had lower (P < 0.01) body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), and feed intake (FI) from day 1 to 42, compared with that of the birds in the control group. Dietary FC with 1% inclusion level increased (P ≤ 0.05) BWG from day 22 to 42 and also enhanced (P < 0.001) the FCR from day 1 to 42. However, 4% dietary FC had an adverse effect (P < 0.01) on BW, BWG, FI, and the FCR, compared with the control group. The bursa of Fabricius weight was raised (P < 0.01) as the supplemental FC level increased. Dietary RC and FC elevated gut weight (P < 0.01) and length (P ≤ 0.05). Broilers fed on 2% FC had a higher (P ≤ 0.05) ash level and a lower (P ≤ 0.05) b* value in thigh meat, compared with the 2% RC group. The results indicate that FC can be used in broiler nutrition up to 2% level although RC can be added to broiler diets up to 1% level without a detrimental effect on growth performance. Dietary inclusion of 1% RC or FC can be recommended due to the positive effects on broiler chickens.
... However, sour cherry pomace has been reported to contain several types of bioactive secondary metabolites. On the one hand, the kernel on its seeds contain oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, βcarotene, and phenolic compounds that can be extracted in organic solvents or in supercritical conditions (Yılmaz and Gökmen, 2013). The skins and flesh are on the other hand rich in phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids (Yılmaz et al. 2018). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The production of sour cherry wine results in large amounts of biowaste known as press cake or pomace. This pomace contains among others the fruit skin and flesh that have been previously reported to be a rich source of anthocyanins and phenolic acids. These components can be extracted and formulated to be used as natural pigments, nutraceuticals or cosmeceuticals. In the present work, sour cherry wine pomace has been extracted in aqueous buffers and ultrafiltered using ceramic membranes. Two enzyme formulations based on pectinases and cellulases have been added to the extraction media, and their influence on the extraction yield in batch mode, ultrafiltration performance and product degradation has been assessed. Sour cherry wine pomace has been found to contain relatively low amounts of anthocyanins (48.6 ± 0.9 mg kg-1) and phenolic acids (82.1 ± 2.9 mg kg-1) as compared to biowaste from other sour cherry food products. The use of enzyme formulations based on cellulase and pectinase was not shown to improve the total amount of anthocyanin and phenolic acids extracted. However, an increase in ultrafiltration permeate flux was observed when the enzymes were used.
... The cherry kernel constitutes 14.6% of the weight of the cherry fruit and as a result of food processes, is produced in large quantities as waste [8]. Pyrolytic charcoal was obtained from the cherry kernel shell which is an agricultural waste and obtained pyrolytic charcoal (CKSC) was used as adsorbent for Cr(VI) adsorption, in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, cherry kernel shell pyrolytic charcoal was synthesized (CKSC) and composite beads were obtained by blending this pyrolytic charcoal with chitosan and Fe2O3 nanoparticles (Fe-C-CKSC). Cr(VI) adsorption from aqueous solutions by Fe-C-CKSC composite beads and CKSC adsorbents was studied comparatively. The effects of Cr(VI) initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH and temperature parameters on Cr(VI) adsorption were investigated. Adsorption reached an equilibrium point within 120 min for CKSC and Fe-C-CKSC adsorbents. The maximum Cr(VI) removal was obtained at the initial pH value of 1.56 for CKSC and 2.00 for Fe-C-CKSC. The optimum adsorbent dosage was found to be 5 g/L for CKSC and 3 g/L for Fe-C-CKSC. Based on the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacities were calculated as 14.455 mg/g and 47.576 mg/g for CKSC and Fe-C-CKSC, respectively. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies were performed. As a result of adsorption kinetics calculations, adsorption was found to be consistent with the pseudo second order kinetic model. Characterization of the synthesized adsorbents was performed by SEM, BET, FTIR and elemental analysis. This study has shown that low cost adsorbents CKSC and Fe-C-CKSC can be used in Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions.
... Total annual production of sour cherry reached 1.2 million tonnes worldwide in 2017 (FAOSTAT, 2017). Cherry kernels are discarded after being separated from the fleshy parts in fruit juice factories (Yilmaz and Gokmen, 2013). Kernel wastes might cause environmental pollution if not disposed properly. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary raw sour cherry kernel (RC) or fermented sour cherry kernel (FC) on apparent digestibility, ileal morphology, and caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Raw sour cherry kernel was fermented by Aspergillus niger for 7 D. A total of 343 one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were assigned to 7 dietary treatments consisting of 7 replicates of 7 broilers each. All birds were fed with a commercial diet or diets supplemented with 1%, 2%, or 4% RC or FC. The experimental period was 42 D. Apparent dry matter (DM), nitrogen and ash digestibilities were diminished (P < 0.05) by dietary RC inclusion, although dietary FC did not negatively affect (P > 0.05) nutrient digestibility. Dietary 1% FC increased (P < 0.01) the villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH:CD) compared with the other treatment groups, although RC4 reduced the villus height (VH, P < 0.001) and VH:CD (P < 0.01), compared with the control group. Dietary treatments had no effect (P > 0.05) on the crypt depth (CD). Birds fed 1% FC had the highest (P < 0.05) caecal Lactobacillus spp. counts among the treatment groups. Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli counts in cecum were not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatments. The results showed that the dietary inclusion of 1% FC improved ileal morphology and caecal microflora without any adverse effect on the apparent digestibility. These results indicate that FC has the potential to be a feed additive which improves intestinal health for broiler diets.
... Yılmaz and Gökmen [35] obtained oil from the seed by solvent extraction in their study for the characterization of sour cherry kernels. In addition, they obtained oil by supercritical fluid extraction method and examined the effect of these extraction methods on the composition of the cherry kernel oil. ...
... The seed is composed of woody shell and kernel. Protein, carbohydrate and lipid fractions present in the kernel and could be considered as a good source of nutritive macromolecules [17]. Therefore, the kernel can be used for the extraction of oil. ...
Article
In this study, sour cherry seed oil (SCSO) loaded gum Arabic (GA)-Maltodextrin (MD) microcapsules were developed by using spray-drying technique. The optimum processing conditions determined using the response surface methodology (RSM) were as follows: a weight ratio of GA to MD (GA:MD composition) of 1:11, a weight ratio of oil to total solid (core-wall ratio) of 20%, and inlet temperature of 195 °C. SCSO powder (SCSOP) was characterized in terms of morphology and size using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a laser particle diameter analyzer. The presence of SCSO in GA/MD matrix was confirmed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The thermal stability of the SCSOP was assessed using thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Microencapsulation provided a remarkable oxidative stability to SCSOP compared to free sour cherry oil. The antimicrobial potential of the microcapsules were assessed against pathogenic bacteria, yeast and mold.
... Food, pharmacy, cosmetics, and chemistry industries tend to utilize this technique because of its many advantages in industrial scale. These industries widely use plant origin by-products to recover antioxidant-rich compounds including lycopene, phenolics, seed oils, etc. [67][68][69]. Although the installation cost is perhaps the highest, the supercritical fluid extraction is almost the best method in terms of efficiency. ...
Chapter
The plant origin materials have long been an important source of antioxidant compounds having both health and technological benefits. The increasing production brings about an immense disposal rates of the agro-food by-products including husk, bran, seed, stem, leaf, and peel residues that should be recovered as considering economic and environmental issues. These plant-based by-products generally contain even higher concentrations of antioxidant constituents compared to edible parts. However, the recovery of value-added compounds from the by-products of plant sources is challenging due to their lignocellulosic cellular structures. Therefore, scientific studies have intensively focused on the novel extraction protocols along with additional purification steps, e.g., membrane separation via ultrafiltration and diafiltration, especially in the last 10 years. The novel and often referred as green extraction techniques include deep eutectic solvent, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, etc. Optimization of process variables is also highly effective on the final product quality as well as the recovery yield and energy/solvent consumption. The functional food market is estimated to reach 275 billion US dollars within the next 5 years. Among this widespread portfolio, antioxidant fortified products have an important place in terms of economic benefits so integration of eco-friendly, high-efficient, and low-cost novel techniques into the commercial applications on the recovery of antioxidant compounds should be extended.
... A significant amount of pomace is left over after juice extraction. The stalks, seeds, and flesh of P. cerasus L. are produced as waste materials of industrial sour cherry juice production (Gözke and Açıkalın, 2020;Yılmaz and Gökmen, 2013). As a result, stalk waste based modified biochar is a good option for reducing solid-waste handling issues and producing a low-cost, environmentally friendly sorbent material for CFX removal. ...
Article
Water pollution caused by antibiotics is a serious environmental problem in recent years. Using biochar to remove such pharmaceutical pollutants has recently emerged as a promising option. After H3PO4 modification, a new waste-based biochar (MPCWSB500) from sour cherry stalk was successfully synthesized to remove ciprofloxacin (CFX) from aquatic media, and modification of feedstock has significantly improved the adsorption capacity of biochar. MPCWSB500 is suitable for both batch and continuous treatment systems. The CFX sorption was systematically studied using various kinetics and isotherm models. The surface characteristics of the modified biochar and the possible CFX−biochar interactions were investigated by BET, FT−IR, and SEM−EDX analysis. Short operation time, high sorption capacity (410.06 mg g−1), and nearly 100% removal efficiency were recorded as significant findings at optimum experimental conditions (pH: 6.3, contact time: 40 min, MPCWSB500 dose: 15 mg). Furthermore, the modified biochar exhibited more than 95% CFX removal efficiency in continuous mode at all flow rates (1–10 mL min−1). Its sorption performance was minimally affected by the presence of Cl−, K+, Na+, and NO3− ions in the adsorption medium. In addition, up to 5 sorption-desorption cycles, biochar regeneration and recycling produced satisfactory results. The proposed biochar was also successfully used to remove CFX from simulated hospital wastewater and synthetic urine samples. These features are all important advantages for its real applications. Overall, our research offers a practical approach for removing CFX from the polluted aquatic environment.
... The kernel of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), which are members of Prunus species like mahaleb are added to the mahaleb kernel for adulteration. Fruit seeds emerge as waste in food processes such as freezing, drying, canning, and fruit juice production (Yılmaz and Gökmen 2013). The kernel obtained from sour cherry and apricot seeds, which are produced as waste from food processes, is added to mahaleb to reduce the cost. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prunus mahaleb L. (mahaleb) kernel was used in food products due to its pleasant flavour. In this study, it was aimed to determine the adulteration of mahaleb kernel using sour cherry and apricot kernel. Adulteration of mahaleb kernel cannot be determined by proximate composition, colour values (L*, a*, and b*), and powder characteristics (particle density, bulk density, tapped density, flowability, cohesiveness, wettability, solubility, and dispersibility). On the other hand, volatile compounds could be used in the determination of adulteration. Styrene was determined to be a marker to identify sour cherry adulteration. Also, ethyl acetate and sulphur dioxide were determined to be distinctive in apricot kernel adulteration. While the main volatile compound of mahaleb kernel was coumarin (57.01 mg/kg), the main volatile compound became benzaldehyde when mahaleb was adulterated with more than 5% sour cherry kernel or more than 10% apricot kernel.
... Previous studies indicated that sour cherry fruits had flesh ratios between 85.0% and 93.0% (Chaovanalikit and Wrolstad 2004;Popa et al. 2011;Yilmaz and Gokmen 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Turkey has rich sour cherry germplasm and wild-grown sour cherry trees and shrubs in abundance throughout the country. Turkish people prefer to consume sour cherry fruits in processed form as jam and juice rather than fresh. This study was conducted in the Ispir district, located in northeastern Turkey. Some important morphological (aroma, fruit and juice color, fruit flesh ratio, fruit shape, fruit weight, and harvest date) and biochemical (total antioxidant capacity, soluble solid content, total acidity, total anthocyanin, total phenolic, vitamin C, and cancer cell proliferation inhibition activity) characteristics of 26 wild-grown sour cherry genotypes were evaluated. The results show that wild sour cherry genotypes differ from each other in terms of most of the morphological and biochemical characteristics. The genotypes exhibited wide variation of harvest dates (occurring between 28 June and 2 August), fruit weight (2.04 g–3.16 g), total phenolic content (240–320 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g), total anthocyanin content (135–205 mg cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside equivalent/100 g), and antioxidant capacity (7.75–11.80 mmol Trolox/100 g). The majority of wild genotypes had higher cancer cell proliferation inhibition activity than cv. Kutahya. The results indicate that the wild sour cherry fruits presented here have appropriate characteristics such as being well adapted to climate conditions. The bioactive content of fruits could provide new agricultural and industrial prospects.
... Food, pharmacy, cosmetics, and chemistry industries tend to utilize this technique because of its many advantages in industrial scale. These industries widely use plant origin by-products to recover antioxidant-rich compounds including lycopene, phenolics, seed oils, etc. [67][68][69]. Although the installation cost is perhaps the highest, the supercritical fluid extraction is almost the best method in terms of efficiency. ...
... Yilmaz and Gokmen analyzed the effect of extraction technique on fatty acid composition of sour cherry kernel lipids. They indicate that the oil extracted from sour cherry seed kernel either by hexane or SC-CO2 methods is rich in certain bioactive compounds like polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, β -carotene and phenolic compounds (Yılmaz & Gökmen, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
An increased environmental awareness has led to new trends in food industry, which are reflected in intensive studies on exploitation of fruit processing by-products. Additionally, consumers’ tendency to a healthy lifestyle has initiated the development of diverse functional food products. High amounts of by-products, such as peels, seeds, and stones, are discarded during fruit processing. It represents a problem both from the environmental and the economic point of view. On the other hand, the resulting residues are potential sources of numerous bioactive compounds. Therefore, fruit processing by-products such as substrates for the extraction of phenolic compounds, natural pigments, dietary fibers, protein isolates and oils attract great interest. These extracts have a great potential for the development of dietary supplements and new functional food products with beneficial health effects. However, bioactive compounds are susceptible to degradation, which represents a critical factor for their successful incorporation into food products. In this regard, the main challenge is to ensure the stability of bioactive compounds during processing, storage and in the gastrointestinal tract, i.e. to preserve their bioactivity and bioavailability. This challenge could be accomplished by the use of encapsulation. Namely, the formation of a physical barrier between an active compound and its surrounding is an effective way of protection. The present paper indicates the potential of by-products originating from the processing of apples, grapes, plums, raspberries and sour cherries as sources of bioactive compounds. It also points out the benefits that could be achieved by the encapsulation of bioactive compounds extracted from fruit processing by-products in order to develop new functional food products.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the aim is to explain some quality properties of five different kinds of seed oils produced by the cold pressed extraction method. Coffee bean, pomegranate seed, cherry seed, apricot seed, and fig kernel cold pressed oils that are produced in the domestic market of Turkey were evaluated in terms of their some quality characteristics such as peroxide values, free fatty acidity, and UV-specific extinction values, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The highest levels of peroxide values and free fatty acid values were determined in coffee bean oil with abundances of 26.34 mEqO2/kg oil and 2.07 mg KOH/g oil, respectively. Coffee bean oil also had relatively high UV-specific extinction values (K232 values 4.04 and K270 values 3.99). In the results of the total phenolic compound analysis performed to recognize the effects on health, this value was highest in coffee bean oil, with 1380 mg GAE/L oil. The results of the highest antioxidant activity were examined in the fig kernel oil. These values were compared with the studies in the literature and evaluated according to the legal boundaries.
Article
Black cumin seed (BCS) is a novel oil source with potential health benefits. This study investigates the influence of infrared (IR) and dry air (DA) roasting (140, 160 and 180 °C for 5 and 10 min) on BCS oil quality characteristics. Results revealed that the oxidative stability index (OSI), Maillard reaction products (MRPs), chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were increased while acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV) and color values were decreased in DA roasted (180°C for 10 min) BCS oil compared to other DA and IR treatments. DA and IR roasting slightly influenced the fatty acid composition (FAC) of BCS oils. FTIR spectra showed minor changes in peak intensities (at 2854, 2929 and 3008 cm⁻¹) of DA and IR roasted BCS oils. DA roasting proved more effective than IR roasting. The oil from the DA roasted BCS at 180°C for 10 min had significantly higher oil quality and oxidative stability.
Article
Full-text available
Aim(s): The sour cherry pit oil (SCPO) displays the potent anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. In the present study, we have produced the SCPO nanoemulsion (SCPO-NE) to evaluate their anticancer impacts on breast cancer comparing with its un-processed oil. Methods: We employed an ultrasonication method to formulate the stable SCPO-NE. Their size, stability, and morphology were measured. Then, their cytotoxic impacts and apoptotic activity were checked on MCF7 breast cancer cells and compared with the normal Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF). Finally, their anti-tumor effect was studied on murine breast cancer model (inoculated with TUBO cancer cells). Results: The results indicated the 36.5 nm stable SCPO-NE significantly decreased the MCF7 cells viability comparing with normal HFF cells, and reduced the tumor size in the murine model. Conclusion: We suggest that SCPO-NEs are able to efficiently inhibit breast cancer progression in both MCF7 cells and murine breast cancer model through apoptotic death induction.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to develop models based on linear dimensions or shape factors, and the sets of combined linear dimensions and shape factors for discrimination of sour cherry pits of different cultivars (‘Debreceni botermo’, ‘Łutówka’, ‘Nefris’, ‘Kelleris’). The geometric parameters were calculated using image processing. The pits of different sour cherry cultivars statistically significantly differed in terms of selected dimensions and shape factors. The discriminative models built based on linear dimensions produced average accuracies of up to 95% for distinguishing the pit cultivars in the case of ‘Nefris’ vs. ‘Kelleris’ and 72% for all four cultivars. The average accuracies for the discriminative models built based on shape factors were up to 95% for the ‘Nefris’ and ‘Kelleris’ pits and 73% for four cultivars. The models combining the linear dimensions and shape factors produced accuracies reaching 96% for the ‘Nefris’ vs. ‘Kelleris’ pits and 75% for all cultivars. The geometric parameters with high discriminative power may be used for distinguishing different cultivars of sour cherry pits. It can be of great importance for practical applications. It may allow avoiding the adulteration and mixing of different cultivars.
Article
Roasting is widely applied in oil processing and employs high temperatures (90–260°C) to heat oilseeds evenly. Roasting improves the extraction yield of oil by the generation of pores in the oilseed cell walls, which facilitates the movement of oil from oilseed during subsequent extraction. It also affects the nutritional value and palatability of the prepared oil, which has attracted consumers’ attention. An appropriate roasting process contributes to better extraction of bioactive compounds, particularly increasing the total polyphenol content in the oil. Correspondingly, extracted oil exhibits higher antioxidant capacity and oxidation stability after roasting the oilseeds due to better extraction of endogenous antioxidants and the generation of Maillard reaction products. Furthermore, roasting process is critical for the formation of aroma-active volatiles and the improvement of desired sensory characteristics, so it is indispensable for the production of fragrant oil. However, some harmful components are inevitably generated during roasting, including oxidation products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and acrylamide. Monitoring and controlling the concentrations of harmful compounds in the oil during the roasting process is important. Therefore, this review updates how roasting affect the quality and safety of oils and provides useful insight into regulation of the roasting process based on bioactive compounds, sensory characteristics, and safety of oils. Further research is required to assess the nutritional value and safety of roasted oils in vivo and to develop a customized roasting process for various oilseeds to produce good-quality oils.
Article
Full-text available
Eco‐friendly composite materials have received more attention in recent years, and research has shown that biostructures have great potential as a solution to meet the needs of sustainability in product design and potential food packaging. In this study, the mechanical, thermal, morphological, water absorption properties and water vapor permeability of bio‐composites based on polyethylene and sour cherry shell powder (SCS) (0% –7.5%) have been investigated. It was observed that 2.5% of sour cherry shell increased elastic modulus and tensile strength and improved mechanical properties. Composites without adding sour cherry shell show 1.28% water absorption. Decreased water absorption was observed for treated composites containing 2.5% of sour cherry shell, and its amount was 1.26%. The presence of sour cherry shell increased the bio‐composite resistance to moisture absorption, but the addition had little effect on the thermal process properties of polyethylene. Vapor permeability in sour cherry shell / polyethylene bio‐composites, which was a significant difference between samples with sour cherry shells (2.5%–7.5%) and samples without sour cherry shells. Results indicated that polyethylene/sour cherry shell composites could be used to replace polyethylene in application such as stretch film, shrink film, and bags of fruit.
Article
The current study has been done with the goal of biodiesel synthesis of sour cherry kernel oil (SCKO). SCKO is a potential novel and free source for biodiesel production. SCKs have an oil content of ∼25%, so the SCKs can be considered as a suitable source for producing fuel from wastes. SCKO has a low acid value (0.9 mg KOH/g). Therefore, the transesterification reaction performed to produce biodiesel from SCKO in one step. Then, the physicochemical properties of biodiesel analyzed. The transesterification reaction performed in the constant condition of temperature of 65 °C, cycle of 1 s, and amplitude of 100%. The effects of process parameters including catalyst amount, time, and methanol: oil molar ratio on biodiesel yield investigated and the reaction process optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the maximum biodiesel yield of 91.9% obtains in the condition of the methanol: oil molar ratio of 8.21:1, catalyst amount of 1.35 w/w%, and reaction time of 2.5 min. Moreover, the result of the Physicochemical properties of SCKO biodiesel are as follows: density of 0.881 gr/cm³, kinematic viscosity of 5.03 mm²/s, flash point of 158 °C, cloud point of 5 °C, and pour point of (−7) °C. All properties of the produced biodiesel of SCKO complies with standard ASTM 6751 and EN 14214. Moreover, in comparison of the diesel fuel, biodiesel obtained from SCKO enhance properties including cloud point, flash point, and pour point. Hence, SCKO is an attractive and valuable source for biodiesel production.
Article
The present work aims to optimize the parameters that affect the oil yield using solvent extraction technique. Acacia nilotica (non-edible feedstock) has been suggested as the “Miracle plant” is one of the important tree species found in the arid and semi arid zones of the world. The technique employed to extract oil from Acacia nilotica was Soxhlet extraction. Acacia nilotica due to its non-edible nature, can be converted to biodiesel there by it helps in solving the debate between food and fuel. The extraction were performed using n-Hexane as the solvent at 3:1, 5:1 and 7:1 (v/w) solid to solvent ratios and at three different extraction time periods of 4, 5 and 6 (hrs). The reaction temperature ranges between 60 °C and 70 °C. The optimization was done with the help of Response surface methodology (RSM) generated from the software Design Expert version 7.1.5 using the D-optimal design. The parameters analysed are solvent to seed ratio, reaction temperature and extraction time.
Chapter
This research work focus on the performance of vaagai wood in oil expelling wood crusher. It is based on crushing the seeds by the wood crusher. The requirements of wood are not to absorb oil during seed crushing and there should not be any physical and chemical reactions between the wood and the seed. This oil expeller is made by using available material in local. The experiments are conducted with three different crushers (Stainless steel, redwood and vaagai wood). The results show that temperature of extracted oil is low for vaagai wood crusher. This crusher also extracts high viscosity 31, 26, and 37% compared to steel crusher for peanut, sesame, and soybean oil, respectively. Finally, the quantity of oil extracted is nearly equal to stainless steel crusher. These machines are very compact and can be used for domestic purpose.
Thesis
Drying is a preservation process commonly used in the food industry. Today, hot-air drying is commonly used to preserve products that do not have a long shelf life such as fruit and vegetables. However, considering the quality losses and long drying times of the final products dried by this method, new drying techniques have started to be used recently. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of microwave-vacuum drying (<10% moisture content) on the drying time characteristic and some quality properties of rosehip. In accordance with this purpose, the drying process was performed under different microwave power (50, 100, and 150 W) and absolute pressures (40, 75 and 110 mbar). Power and pressure effects on quality characteristics were determined. Freeze drying and hot air drying (60 ° C-1.5 m / s) methods were also investigated. The effect of three drying methods on some chemical and physical quality characteristics of dried rose hip was determined and compared. The drying time to the target moisture content by microwave-vacuum method is 75-195 minutes. The shortest drying time was observed under high power and low absolute pressure conditions. In all chemical analysis results (total phenolic content, total antioxidant activity amount and ascorbic acid amount), the lowest value was found in hot-air dried samples. Dried samples with hot-air were found to have the lowest value in all chemical analysis results (Total phenolic content, total antioxidant activity amount and ascorbic acid amount). Total phenolic content was highest in all microwave-vacuum dried samples. Most of the microwave vacuum dried samples had higher total antioxidant activity amount than freeze-dried samples. However, the highest amount of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was obtained in freeze-dried samples after fresh sample. While the dried samples with Microwave-vacum and freeze drying had a similar open and porous microstructure, the dried samples with hot-air had a completely closed and non-porous structure. Therefore, the rehydration rate values of microwave-vacuum and freeze drying samples were higher than those of hot-air samples. At high microwave powers (150 W) and freze drying dried samples were found rehydration rate was highest and there was no statistically significant difference between them.
Article
Sour cherry seed oil (SCSO) and pomegranate seed oil (PSO) were extracted by using cold‐press technology and characterized in terms of physicochemical properties, bioactive compound contents, biological activity, and spectroscopic features. They were rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). The predominant carotenoid was Zeaxanthin (13.15 mg/kg) for SCSO and β‐carotene (33.45 mg/kg) for PSO. Naringenin, ellagic acid, resveratrol, kaempferol, catechin, gallic acid were found to be the major secondary metabolites in the samples by LC/MS‐MS. Further analysis of phenolic compounds and fatty acids were conducted by using 13C and 1H NMR. Functional groups of the oils were analyzed by FT‐IR spectra. DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and CUPRAC assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activity. The α‐glucosidase inhibition activity of SCSO and PSO was 4.38 and 5.16 mg/mL, respectively. SCSO exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus although the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was inhibited by the PSO.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate bioactivity related properties of wild mustard parts (WMP) including the leaves, flowers, stems, fruits, and seeds. The biomass and ion composition of WMP were analyzed by elemental analyzer and ion chromatography, respectively. Extraction conditions of phenolics were optimized with Response Surface Methodology by taking into consideration 3 factors such as the ratio of ethanol to water, temperature, and time. LC–ESI–MS/MS was used for the identification of phenolics in WMP. The principal phenolic compounds in the leaves, flowers and seeds of wild mustard were kaempferol, hydroxycinnamic acid, and catechin, respectively, whereas vanillic acid was dominant in the stems and fruits. The antioxidant capacities of WMP were 1.88–15.56, 309.61–775.63, 25.46–87.24, and 193.58–617.08 µmol TE/g for DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and CUPRAC, respectively. Antioxidant capacity of the flowers was in all cases superior to the other parts irrespectively of the antioxidant capacity method being used. Therefore, the flower extract was transformed into powder in order to determine the potentiality of it as an ingredient for the enrichment of food formulations. Powdered flower extract (PFE) was incorporated into ice cream at the levels of 0.3–0.9%. The sensory scores indicated that PFE had almost no effects on texture related properties of ice cream, whereas overall acceptability of PFE enriched ice creams decreased as the amount of PFE increased. PFE also showed antimicrobial activity on selected food-borne pathogens, most notably on Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Wild mustard can be evaluated as a source of natural phenolic antioxidant compounds in different industries.
Article
The effect of binding of the flavonoid, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and green tea extract (GTE) to beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and micellar casein (micellar casein isolate, MCI) on protein digestibility was investigated. β-Lg resisted digestion by pepsin, but in the presence of EGCG digestion of β-Lg was enhanced. Binding of EGCG to β-Lg was identified by nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining and found, by isothermal titration calorimetry, to be an enthalpy-driven exothermic process, with a binding constant of 19950 L/mol. Binding promoted a more rapid digestion of β-Lg during simulated upper duodenal digestion. NBT staining indicated a loss of binding of EGCG to β-Lg during combined gastric and distal small intestinal digestion and correlated with cleavage of β-Lg. However, increased β-Lg heteromer formation and reduced β-Lg monomer digestibility were observed for the β-Lg-GTE complex. MCI was more digestible than β-Lg during pepsin digestion, but reduced digestibility was observed for both MCI-EGCG and MCI-GTE complexes, with loss of binding during intestinal digestion. Free radical scavenging capacity (FRSC) of EGCG remained stable for the β-Lg-EGCG complex throughout the gastric and intestinal phases of digestion, but this was significantly lowered for the MCI-EGCG complex. These results indicated that polyphenols bind to milk proteins modulating the in vitro digestibility and FRSC of β-Lg and MCI as a result of complex formation.
Article
This research work was undertaken to evaluate the physicochemical parameters of oil from the cherry kernel non-irradiated and irradiated at 3 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation for two storage periods (0 and 12 months). The acid value, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value, iodine value, saponification value refractive index (peroxide value), and the color parameters of cherry kernel oils were determined. The results indicated that the extracted cherry kernel oils were liquid at room temperature with color varying from light yellow to deep red. The physicochemical properties of cherry kernel oils including acid value, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, iodine value, saponification value, and refractive index values were 1.19 mg KOH g-1, 9.01 meq2 kg-1, 0.014 mg MDA kg-1, 99.48 KOH g-1 I2 100 g-1, 194.50 mg KOH g-1, and 1.472, respectively. Generally, gamma irradiation doses and storage time increased acid value, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and refractive index value of cherry kernel oils, whereas no significant (p > 0.05) change due to irradiation was recorded in iodine value, saponification value, and in color parameter (L*, a*, b*, and ΔE values) of cherry kernel oils. However, the properties of cherry kernel oils revealed that the cherry kernel is a good source of oil which could be used for industrial purposes.
Article
The aim of the present investigation is to find a better replacement to edible oils. Prosopis Julifera (non-edible feedstock) is one of the important tree species in the arid and semi arid zones of the world. The fruits (Pods) of Prosopis Julifera were cleaned, cracked and powdered before oil extraction. Extraction of oil from Prosopis Julifera was carried out by soxhlet apparatus using different solvents at 3:1 to 9:1 (w/v) solid to solvent ratios and the extraction time periods were 3–10 (hrs). Polar and non-polar solvents such as Petroleum Ether, n-Pentane, Ethyl acetate, Iso-propanol, Hexane, Methanol, and Ethanol were used. Using gas chromatography (GC), Fatty acid methyl esters were separated, identified and quantified. In order to analyse the qualitative nature of the oil extracted, performance of different solvents in terms of Saponification value, Acid value, Iodine value, refractive index and free fatty acids were determined by suitable tests. The test results indicate that irrespective of the solvent used, the oil yield was found be increasing when there is the increase in the solid to solvent ratio, reaction time period and reaction temperature. However the maximum amount of oil yield 36.9% was obtained using methanol at the solid to solvent ratio of 1: 9 (w/v), the reaction temperature of 60 °C for a time period of 9 (hrs). Hence it can be concluded that the oil produced from the non edible Prosopis Julifera could be a best alternate in the future days to come.
Article
Introduction and aim: Oils are usually obtained (by pressing or extraction) from such plant raw materials as rapeseed, sunflower, flax and soy. Currently, there is an increasing interest among consumers of new types of oil obtained from non-traditional plant raw materials. A lot of attention is paid to seeds and stones of fruit, which are also the main by-product in the food industry. However, the use of seeds and stones of fruit as raw materials largely depends on the fat content and the fatty acid composition. Therefore, this article aims to collect literature data on the share of individual fatty acids in plant oils obtained from seeds and stones of fruits, also to present their impact on human health. Brief description of the state of knowledge: Literature data on the share of fatty acids in oils obtained from seeds of fruits such as apples, pears, red raspberries, and from stones such as sour cherries, plums, apricots, were collected in tables. On their basis, parameters such as minimum (MIN) and maximum (MAX) values, mean value (MV), standard deviation (SD) were determined, and the coefficient of variation (CV) for particular acids was estimated. The share of unsaturated acids in oils obtained from seeds and stones of fruit was over 88% (sour cherry stones oil) - 95% (red raspberry seeds oil). The share of C18:1 acid was in the range of 12.80% (red raspberry seeds oil) - 69.32% (plum stones oil), share of C18:2 acid 19.71% (plum stones oil) - 67.94% (apple seeds oil), and share of C18:3 acid 0.16% (plum stones oil) - 30.19% (red raspberry seeds oil). The share of saturated fatty acids in oils from seeds and stones of fruit was relatively low, in range of 4% (red raspberry seeds oil) - 12% (sour cherry stones oil), the main acid of this group was C16:0 acid (2.89% (red raspberry seeds oil) - 9.43% (sour cherry stones oil)). The share of other individual fatty acids from both this groups usually was lower than 1%. The ratio of fatty acids from n-3 and n-6 families ranged 1:1.75 (red raspberry seeds oil) - 1:237.76 (pear seeds oil). Summary: Analysis of the literature data showed that oils from seeds and stones of fruits are a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids (they play many important functions in the human body), in particular C18:1 and C18:2 acids. The share of saturated acids is low, only C16:0 occurs in significant quantities. The ratio of acids from the n-3 and n-6 families in oils (except for red raspberry seeds oil) is unfavorable, this limits its use in the food industry.
Article
Full-text available
Compositional changes of rice germ oils prepared at different roasting temperatures (160–180°C) and times (5–15 min) from rice germ were evaluated and compared with those of unroasted rice germ oil. The color development and phosphorus content of oils increased significantly as roasting temperature and time increased, whereas the FA compositions of rice germ oils did not change with roasting temperature and time. Four phospholipid classes, i.e., PE, PI, PA and PC, were identified. PE had the lowest stability under roasting conditions. There were no significant differences in γ-oryzanol levels of rice germ oils prepared at different roasting temperatures and times. Four tocopherol isomers (α−, β−, γ−, and δ-tocopherol) and three tocotrienol isomers (α−, γ−, and δ-tocotrienol) were identified, but no β-tocotrienol was detectable. The content of α− and γ−tocopherol in rice germ oil gradually increased as roasting temperature and time increased.
Article
Full-text available
Tomato seeds represent a very large waste by-product from the processing of tomatoes into products such as tomato juice, sauce and paste. One potential use for these seeds is as a source of vegetable oil. This research investigated the oil content of tomato seeds using several extraction techniques as well as an examination of the oil extracts to determine the composition of the minor constituents such as phytosterol and antioxidant composition. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the tomato seed oils were also measured and correlated with antioxidant contents. This research demonstrated that tomato seed oil yield was highest using hot ethanol and followed by hot hexane and finally SC-CO2. The SC-CO2 treatment, however, had the highest total phytosterol content as well as highest individual phytosterol content. Sitosterol, cycloartanol, and stigmasterol were the most abundant phytosterols present in the extracts. The highest concentrations of antioxidants were found in the hexane extract. The most abundant antioxidants found in the tomato seed oils were all-trans-lycopene, cis-3-lycopene and β-carotene. ORAC was highest for the hexane extract. Oil yield was inversely proportional to both α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol content and positively correlated with cis-3-lycopene content. ORAC values were positively correlated with only all-trans-lycopene and cis-3-lycopene demonstrating their role as antioxidants in the tomato seed oil. KeywordsTomato seed oil-Supercritical carbon dioxide-Accelerated solvent extraction-Phytosterol-Antioxidant-ORAC
Article
Full-text available
In this work the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of biologically active, high valued compounds such as carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene), tocopherols, fatty acids and sitosterols from industrial tomato waste was investigated. The differences of two samples of different sources and the effect of air-dried and deep-frozen storages were also reported. The effects of extraction parameters (pressure and temperature) on the extraction yields and the compositions of the products were determined with statistical analysis. Supercritical fluid extraction was compared to conventional extraction processes of tomato pomace samples. The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography, by high-performance liquid chromatography and by TLC-densitometry. The extraction yields and the amounts of lycopene, tocopherols and sitosterols depend on the experimental conditions. The product obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction at 460 bar and 80 °C contained the highest concentration of carotenoids with 90.1% of lycopene, while products rich in tocopherols and phytosterol were obtained above 300 bar and 40 °C.
Article
Peach seed oil was extracted using supercritical CO2 at 40 and 51°C and pressures of 15.0 and 19.8MPa. Carbon dioxide modified with 2.5 and 5.0mol% ethanol was also used in similar experiments. Two different extraction cells were used to analyze the effects of the cell size and the solvent flow rate on the initial extraction yield. At the optimum conditions, the extraction yield was 70% of that obtained by a Soxhlet extraction in liquid hexane. Low solvent flow rates allowed the determination of the oil solubility in pure carbon dioxide at the conditions of temperature and pressure of supercritical fluid extractions. The extracted peach oils were characterized with respect to fatty acids and tocopherols content by CG and HPLC, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the composition among the oils obtained using supercritical CO2 or modified CO2 and the Soxhlet extraction using hexane. Upon further optimization, supercritical fluid extraction is shown to be a good alternative to conventional liquid extraction.
Article
This study describes a method for the determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) and 2-furfural (F) in oils. The method entails liquid-liquid extraction and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Spiked hazelnut oil was used to test the accuracy and reliability of the method. Furan compounds were extracted from oil using 70% methanol. Mean recoveries were 97 +/- 2% and 99 +/- 1% for HMF and F, respectively. To investigate the presence of HMF and F in oils, seven oily nuts and seeds were roasted at 180 degrees C for 30 min. Different oils were found to contain HMF and F ranging from 0.8 to 13.8 and 1.4 to 8.7 mg/kg, respectively. Increasing solvent polarity also increased the rate of HMF transferred to the oil. Spectral analyses of the 70% methanol extracts indicated that absorbance at 285 nm may be used to monitor the accumulation of furan compounds in oil phase during the roasting process of nuts. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
This review provides an updated overview of the most important applications of supercritical fluids in the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant matrices. The main factors influencing the extraction yields, solubility, and manufacturing costs are described. Aspects concerning the operational processing in the extraction and fractionation are also discussed. The data compiled herein are focused on the extraction of essential oils, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols. KeywordsSupercritical extraction-Bioactive compounds-Fundamentals-Applications-Manufacturing cost
Article
Pulses, nuts and seeds represent an important part of human diet in many countries and epidemiological studies associated their consumption with many health benefits. These foods are often consumed after roasting that may destroy some bioactive compounds, but it can also form antioxidant compounds through the Maillard reaction. In this paper, a direct procedure for the extraction-independent measurement of the total antioxidant capacity named QUENCHER was applied to raw and roasted pulses, nuts and seeds. The results highlighted a high value of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) for some raw seed and pulses showing marked inter-varietal differences among beans examined. TAC value measured by QUENCHER was generally higher than that found using multiple extraction procedure. The effect of roasting on the TAC is the result of the thermal degradation of naturally occurring antioxidant compounds and the formation of new Maillard reaction products having antioxidant activity. In most of the foods studied, the final balance was negative with a substantial loss of antioxidant activity upon roasting. The main driver of the final TAC is the presence of reactants: in rich-starch materials, such as chickpea, cashew and borlotti beans, roasting is accompanied by a progressive increase in TAC, which is likely related with the formation of antioxidant Maillard reaction products.
Article
Copper has traditionally been added to precipitated iron Fischer–Tropsch (FT) catalysts to facilitate reduction of Fe2O3 to zero valent iron during activation [M.E. Dry, in: J.R. Anderson and M. Boudart (eds), Catalysis Science and Technology, Vol. 1 (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981) p. 179] by lowering the reduction temperature when activating with hydrogen, carbon monoxide or syngas [R.J. O'Brien et al., Catal. Today 36 (1997) 325]. This is particularly important when activating with hydrogen because metallic iron which is formed will sinter easily if the temperature is too high; however, it is not as critical when activating with carbon monoxide or syngas because iron carbides are formed and they are not as susceptible to sintering. The effect of copper on activity and selectivity has not been studied as thoroughly as its effect on catalyst activation. Klbel reported that copper loadings less than 0.1% (weight % relative to iron) were sufficient to produce an active catalyst and that increased copper loading had no effect on FT activity [H. Klbel and M. Ralek, Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 21 (1980) 225]. It has previously been shown that copper increases the activity of precipitated iron catalysts when operating at low temperature (et al., Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 29 (1990) 194]. In addition, they reported that copper increased the average molecular weight of the product and increased hydrogenation of alkenes and isomerization of 1-alkenes. Soled et al., have reported that promotion with copper in conjunction with potassium increased FT activity but had little effect on alkene selectivity [S.L. Soled et al., Top. Catal. 2 (1995) 193]. Water gas shift activity and FT selectivity have been shown to depend on syngas conversion [A.P. Raje and B.H. Davis, Catal. Today 36 (1997) 335]. To determine the true impact of copper on FT selectivity and water gas shift activity comparisons should be done at similar conversion. No such study has been reported for the effects of copper. Herein are reported the effects of copper on FT activity and selectivity and water gas shift activity over a wide range of syngas conversions.
Article
A simple and rapid procedure was developed for the direct measurement of the antioxidant capacity of cereals. It entails grinding of cereals, mixing with 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) reagent, centrifugation and measure of the absorbance. The ABTS reagent was dissolved in a mixture of ethanol:water (50:50, v/v), instead of 100% ethanol, in order to overcome low solubility of water-soluble antioxidant compounds of some cereals. A reaction time of 30 min allowed plateau values to be reached during the antioxidant capacity measurement of cereal samples. The accuracy of the direct procedure was confirmed by measuring, in solid state, the antioxidant activity of pure phenolic compounds.The direct procedure gave results of total antioxidant capacities significantly higher than those determined by the traditional procedure (multiple extraction followed by alkaline hydrolysis) for most whole meal cereals, suggesting that such a procedure was not always sufficient to properly assess the antioxidant capacity of bound phenolic compounds in cereals. The proposed extraction-independent procedure for measuring antioxidant capacity of cereals will facilitate the inter-laboratory data comparison, the construction of reliable antioxidant capacity database and the screening of large sampling of cereals for their nutraceutical characteristics.
Article
Pumpkin seed oil is a common salad oil in Austria. It is not only of interest because of its typical taste but also because of its potential in curing prostate disease. Besides the fatty acids, the micronutrients, which comprise vitamin E, phytosterols and lignans, are of special interest. Since the seeds are roasted before pressing of the oil, changes occur in the composition of the fatty acids and micronutrients. The oxidation-sensitive linoleic acid decreases from 54.6 to 54.2% whereas the concentrations of the vitamin E isomers show a decrease during the first 40 min of about 30% followed by an increase during the last 20 min to about the same level as at the beginning of the roasting process. The concentrations of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol in the fresh dried seeds are 37.5 and 383 μg/g, respectively. The concentration of the tocotrienols is about one third of the corresponding tocopherols. The initial concentration of the total sterols (1710 μg/g) increases to 1930 μg/g. The increases of the sterols and vitamin E during the roasting process could be attributed to the changes of the seed meal, since at the end of the roasting the oil emerges from the seeds resulting in altered chemical behaviour of the extraction process. Secoisolariciresinol, which is only detectable at the beginning with a concentration of 3.8 μg/g, is destroyed after 20 min.
Article
The chemical composition and oxidative stability of safflower oil prepared from the seed roasted, at different roasting temperatures (140–180 °C), were evaluated and compared with those of unroasted safflower oil. The colour development and phosphorus content of oils increased significantly as roasting temperature increased. The fatty acid compositions of safflower oils did not change with roasting temperature. The major fatty acid was linoleic acid (ca. 80%). Four phospholipid classes, namely, PE, PI, PA and PC, were identified. The major phospholipid component of safflower seed oil is PI. However, the proportion of PI in the safflower oil increased significantly as roasting temperature increased (P<0.05), but, PE in safflower oil decreased significantly as roasting temperature increased (P<0.05). Tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues were identified, namely, α-, β-, and γ-tocopherols, and γ- and δ-tocotrienols, whereas no δ-tocopherol, or α-, and β-tocotrienols were detected. The major tocopherol in safflower oil was α-tocopherol. The content of α-tocopherol in safflower oil gradually increased from 441 to 520 mg/kg as roasting temperature increased from 140 to 180 °C. The oxidative stability showed that, as the roasting temperature increased, the oxidative stability of safflower oil increased.
Article
The importance of food fibres has led to the development of a large and potential market for fibre-rich products and ingredients and nowadays there is a trend to find new sources of dietary fibre (DF), such as agronomic by-products that have traditionally been undervalued. Although there have been great achievements in this research field, further investigations are needed for designing ‘new food systems’ that consider the precise functionality of DF from both technological and physiological points of view.Present knowledge about different aspects of DF and future potential applications of fibres and/or its components as functional foods or ingredients will be the focus of this report.
Article
Isolation of minor lipid components from complex lipid mixtures is receiving increased attention due to their biological activity and health benefits. Therefore, properties, health benefits and processing aspects of minor bioactive lipid components were reviewed. Literature solubility data of binary mixtures of minor lipid components (β-carotene, α-tocopherol, stigmasterol and squalene) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) were correlated using Chrastil’s equation to determine the general trends of solubility behavior as affected by operating conditions and solute properties. Model parameters were estimated for the whole temperature range (a, b, k) and at each temperature (b′, k′). The slopes of solubility isotherms (k′) were in the range of 4.9–10.6 for β-carotene, 4.5–9.6 for α-tocopherol, 4.9–8.0 for stigmasterol and 7.3–7.6 for squalene. Estimated model parameters were used to compare solubility behavior of these solutes with components of olein glyceride series (oleic acid and triolein) as representatives of major lipid classes found in fats and oils. The findings provide the basis for the study of multicomponent lipid mixtures. Differences in the solubility behavior of components and the effect of operating conditions on solubility can be exploited for fractionation of these multicomponent mixtures to isolate the bioactive minor lipid components.
Article
This study describes a rapid and sensitive analytical method for the determination of amino acids in foods and drinks. The method entailed dilution or extraction of amino acids from foods using the mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid (50:50, v/v). Chromatographic separation of underivatized amino acids was performed using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography within a runtime of 6 min. Both hydrophobicity and charge of the side chain played important roles on the elution order of amino acids under the chromatographic conditions. High-resolution mass spectrometry allowed qualitative and quantitative detection of amino acids in complex food matrices. Its response was found linear over a concentration range of 0.25-10 μg/ml. The method could be successfully applied to various foods and drinks to profile individual amino acids. Mean percentage recoveries of amino acids from different matrices were 88.5% or higher with residual standard deviation of less than 5.0%.
Article
A plant-based diet reduces the risk for the development of several chronic diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or cancer due to natural compounds found in plants. Numerous cereals, berries, fruits, and vegetables, including sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), which is a favored fruit worldwide, contain biological active components. The antioxidant components of the sour cherry seed kernel have not been investigated until now. The aim of our study was to isolate and analyze the bioactive constituents of sour cherry seed kernel. We separated the oil fraction of the kernel; then the remaining solid fraction was dried, and the oil-free kernel extract was further analyzed. Our results show that sour cherry seed kernel oil contains vegetable oils including unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acids, alpha-tocopherol, tocotrienols, and tocopherol-like components. The components of the solid fraction include various bioactive structures such as polyphenols, flavonoids, vegetable acids, and pro- and anthocyanidins, which could have useful therapeutic effects in the prevention of various vascular diseases.
Article
Antioxidant activities of extracts derived from sesame seed by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction and by n-hexane were determined using alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and linoleic acid system methods. The highest extracted yield was given at 35 degrees C, 40 MPa, and a CO(2) flow rate of 2.5 mL min(-1) by an orthogonal experiment. The yields of extracts increased with increasing pressure, and yields at 40 and 30 MPa were higher than that by solvent extraction at 46.50%. Results from the linoleic acid system showed that the antioxidant activity follows the order: extract at 35 degrees C, 20 MPa > BHT > extract at 55 degrees C, 40 MPa > extract at 55 degrees C, 30 MPa > Trolox > solvent extraction > alpha-tocopherol. The SC-CO(2) extracts exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activities comparable to that by n-hexane extraction. The extracts at 30 MPa presented the highest antioxidant activities assessed in the DPPH method. At 20 MPa, the EC(50) increased with temperature, which indicated that the antioxidant activity was decreased in a temperature-dependent manner. The significant differences of antioxidant activities were found between the extracts by SC-CO(2) extraction and n-hexane. However, no significant differences were exhibited among the extracts by SC-CO(2) extraction. The vitamin E concentrations were also significantly higher in SC-CO(2) extracts than in n-hexane extracts, and its concentrations in extracts corresponded with the antioxidant activity of extracts.
Article
The effects of kernel extract obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed on the postischemic cardiac recovery were studied in isolated working rat hearts. Rats were treated with various daily doses of the extract for 14 days, and hearts were then isolated and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and tachycardia (VT) fell from their control values of 92% and 100% to 50% (not significant) and 58% (not significant), 17% (P<0.05), and 25% (P<0.05) with the doses of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Lower concentrations of the extract (1 and 5 mg/kg) failed to significantly reduce the incidence of VF and VT during reperfusion. Sour cherry seed kernel extract (10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly improved the postischemic recovery of cardiac function (coronary flow, aortic flow, and left ventricular developed pressure) during reperfusion. We have also demonstrated that the extract-induced protection in cardiac function significantly reflected in a reduction of infarct size. Immunohistochemistry indicates that a reduction in caspase-3 activity and apoptotic cells by the extract, beside other potential action mechanisms of proanthocyanidin, trans-resveratrol, and flavonoid components of the extract, could be responsible for the cardioprotection in ischemic-reperfused myocardium.
American Association of Cereal Chemists Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists Direct evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted pulses, nuts and seeds
  • References Aacc Ar
  • ¸ Gökmen
  • V Pellegrini
  • N Fogliano
References AACC, 1991. American Association of Cereal Chemists. Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. Aç ar, Ö.C ¸., Gökmen, V., Pellegrini, N., Fogliano, V., 2009. Direct evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted pulses, nuts and seeds. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 229, 961–969.
Food and Agricultural commodities production
  • Fao Statistics
FAO Statistics. (2010). Food and Agricultural commodities production. URL: http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx. (03.05.12).
Raw materials Fats and Oils: Formulating and Processing for Applications
  • O Brien
O'Brien, R.D., 2004. Raw materials. In: O'Brien, R.D. (Ed.), Fats and Oils: Formulating and Processing for Applications. CRC Press, Washington, pp. 1–55.
Supercritical fluid extraction of specialty oils Supercritical Fluid Extrac-tion of Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds
  • T F Temelli
  • M D A Saldana
  • P H L Moquin
  • Sun
  • Mei
Temelli, T.F., Saldana, M.D.A., Moquin, P.H.L., Sun, Mei., 2007. Supercritical fluid extraction of specialty oils. In: Martine, Jose, L. (Eds.), Supercritical Fluid Extrac-tion of Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds. CRC Press, Washington, pp. 51–101.
American Association of Cereal Chemists. Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists
AACC, 1991. American Association of Cereal Chemists. Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists.
United States Department of Agriculture
USDA, 2012. United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statics Service. Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts.