For the realization of molecular electronics, one essential goal is the ability to systematically fabricate molecular functional components in a well-controlled manner. Experimental techniques have been developed such that π-stacked ethylbenzene molecules can now be routinely induced to self-assemble on an H-terminated Si(100) surface at precise locations and along precise directions. Electron transport calculations predict that such molecular wires could indeed carry an electrical current, but the Si substrate may play a considerable role as a competing pathway for conducting electrons. In this work, we investigate the effect of placing substituent groups of varying electron donating or withdrawing strengths on the ethylbenzene molecules to determine how they would affect the transport properties of such molecular wires. The systems consist of a line of π-stacked ethylbenzene molecules covalently bonded to a Si substrate. The ethylbenzene line is bridging two Al electrodes to model current through the molecular stack. For our transport calculations, we employ a first-principles technique where density functional theory (DFT) is used within the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism (NEGF). The calculated density of states suggest that substituent groups are an effective way to shift molecular states relative to the electronic states associated with the Si substrate. The electron transmission spectra obtained from the NEGF–DFT calculations reveal that the transport properties could also be extensively modulated by changing substituent groups. For certain molecules, it is possible to have a transmission peak at the Fermi level of the electrodes, corresponding to high conduction through the molecular wire with essentially no leakage into the Si substrate.