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UNISDR terminology on disaster risk reduction, United Nations

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... A "Disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources" (UNISDR, 2009). As such, the COVID-19 pandemic may be considered as a biological disaster we are facing in the contemporary. ...
... Preparedness is the main component in the disaster cycle. "Disaster preparedness is the knowledge and capacities developed by governments, professional response and recovery organizations, communities, and individuals to effectively anticipate respond to, and recover from, the impacts of likely, imminent, or current hazard events or conditions" (UNISDR, 2009). The aim is to predict the disaster, if possible, prevent them, mitigate their impact, and respond effectively. ...
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COVID-19 is a contagious respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. As such, it is challenging to maintain the safety of healthcare workers while delivering care to patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The health sector has thus implemented various strategies to enhance hospital preparedness and ensure safety. The aim of this study is then to assess the hospital’s preparedness for COVID-19 at a base hospital in Galle District, to ensure safety. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among medical officers and nursing officers in Galle district. A self-administered questionnaire and an observational checklist were used to collect data. Response rate was 90.52%. Majority were female 88.8% (n=221). Majority of the participants were between 30-39 years of age (n=144 %). Study sample consisted of 62 (24%) medical officers and 196 (76%) nursing officers and the majority (n=152, 58.9%) had more than 10 years of work experience. Furthermore, the majority 81.4% (n=210) were aware of updates about guidelines and circulars regarding COVID-19 issued by the Ministry of Health. Frequent hand washing was practiced by 96.9% (n=250) while social distancing was not practiced by a considerable number of participants (n=77, 29.8%). 90.7% (n=234) participants were not exposed to training on outbreak management. A considerable proportion was not confident about the correct practice of donning and doffing (n=60, 23.2%). The absence of a dedicated respiratory ward and a separate venue at emergency treatment unit to manage patients with respiratory symptoms were noted. There were deficiencies of adherence to social distancing, training, self-confidence and physical arrangement of hospital. Ergo, it is noted that implementing training programs on outbreak response and building trust between the institution and staff on safety will improve the preparedness in future outbreaks.
... The main idea of counterfactual disaster risk analysis is to explore alternative branches of history to assess past situations where a disaster might have occurred but was averted or failed to materialise (Woo, 2018). Impacts associated with a past event, i.e., a realised event, can be expressed as the function of the 1) Hazard, the likelihood of potentially damaging events, 2) Exposure, the characteristics of assets such as people, buildings and infrastructure and 3) Vulnerability, the susceptibility of the exposed assets to sustain impact for a given hazard intensity (UNISDR, 2009). Then, we can write the losses from the realised event as ...
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In the aftermath of a disaster, news and research attention is focused almost entirely on catastrophic narratives and the various drivers that may have led to the disaster. Learning from failure is essential to preventing future disasters. However, hyperfixation on the catastrophe obscures potential successes at the local scale, which could serve as important examples and learning resources in effective risk mitigation. To highlight effective risk mitigation actions that would otherwise remain unnoticed, we propose the use of probabilistic downward counterfactual analysis. This approach uses counterfactual modelling of a past hazard event with consequences made worse (i.e. downward counterfactual) by the absence of the mitigation intervention. The approach follows probabilistic risk analysis procedures where uncertainties in the simulated events and outcomes are accounted for and propagated. We demonstrate the method using a case study of Nepal’s School Earthquake Safety Program, implemented before the 2015 M w 7.8 Gorkha earthquake. Using a school building database for Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, we present two applications: 1) the quantification of lives saved during the Gorkha earthquake as a result of the retrofitting of schools in Kathmandu Valley since 1997, 2) the quantification of the annual expected lives saved if the pilot retrofitting program was extended to all school buildings in Kathmandu Valley based on a probabilistic seismic hazard model. The shift in focus from realised outcome to counterfactual alternative enables the quantification of the benefits of risk reduction programs amidst disaster, or for a hazard that has yet to unfold. Such quantified counterfactual analysis can be used to celebrate successful risk reduction interventions, providing important positive reinforcement to decision-makers with political bravery to commit to the implementation of effective measures.
... One way to reduce disasters' impacts on the nation and its communities is to build and enhance resilience (Ahangama & Prasanna, 2015;Mayunga, 2009;Renschler et al., 2010). United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) defines resilience as "the ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions" (UNISDR, 2009). Therefore, it is crucial to strengthen the physical components' resilience in affected areas. ...
... Damages from natural hazards threaten lives, livelihoods and infrastructure. Wealth and population growth magnify the impact of natural hazards (Mendelsohn et al. 2012;UNISDR 2015;Tellman et al. 2021) even without accounting for the long-term impacts on society (Noy & duPont 2018). Such is the case of Australia, the focus of this study, a country prone to frequent, severe, and increasingly unpredictable natural hazards (Hanna & McIver 2018; Commonwealth of Australia 2020). ...
Article
People living in Australia are highly exposed to risks from extreme weather events including floods, bushfires and tropical cyclones. Communication is crucial in emergencies, to prepare for risks, warn people, reduce impacts, save lives and increase resilience. Social media has become increasingly important for both sourcing and disseminating information during natural hazards. The vast amount of data generated by social media users can be analysed for situational awareness, impacts and community sentiments during natural hazards. The full potential for social media to fulfil these roles in Australia is not yet well understood. In this study, we provide a literature review about the use of social media during natural hazards in Australia. We then assess public preferences for the use of social media during natural hazards using data collected through an online survey (n = 1665). Results suggest that social media is still largely underutilised for emergency communication. However, those with a high capacity to prepare for emergencies were more likely to use social media during natural hazards than those who relied on decisions being made by local authorities. Respondents’ age did not explain the use of social media during natural hazards, but gender did with women more likely to do so than men. The presence of children in a household increased the use of social media during natural hazards, suggesting that the family structure plays a role in disaster communication. Finally, the main barriers to using social media during natural hazards were the spread of conflicting information and rumours on social media.
... In this context, understanding vulnerability is critical to disaster risk management. Disaster risk is defined as the product of the relationship of the exogenous hazard with the endogenous vulnerability of the exposed settlements (UNISDR, 2009). On the other hand, since the range of activities for controlling natural hazards is very limited, efforts tend to focus on the identification and mitigation of vulnerability in order to reduce disaster risks (Giovene di Girasole & Cannatella, 2017). ...
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This article investigates the relation occurred between architecture, culture, and identity by addressing how a tradition has been maintained in the architecture design of the present. Two opposites, however arguably relevant, categories exist in the literature. One conceives identity as being merely a ‘static’ entity coined with one meaning regardless of the history. By contrast, the other category pays attention to the history. It echoes a ‘contextual construct’ of meanings in its theory to help architecture configure a place’s identity through each place’s peculiarities infused by culture. A ‘contextual construct’ weighs up history laying, therefore, the seeds for a profound architecture design of the present. Analysis in this article follows the second category’s path and turns to Rasem Badran’s synthesis considered in this article as a particular case. The conclusions, drawn here, are not intended to offer utopias solutions, but rather, evoke further exploration and investigation.
... al. 2003). Vulnerability is defined as "The conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards" (UNISDR 2009(UNISDR , 2015. Further, Wisner et al. (2004: 11) explains vulnerability as the characteristics of a person or group and their situation that influence their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural hazard. ...
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The study analyzes the individuals’ risk management strategies and determinants of preparedness for drought in Madhya Pradesh, India. It employs the descriptive and binary logistic regression on primary data and show that more than one earning member, access to social safety schemes, migration, irrigation facilities and diversified employment are the important risk management strategies. Gender, social group, income, non-migration, employment status and the interaction of ‘access to government schemes and gender’ are the statistically significant determinants in order, increasing the odds of preparedness against droughts. However, in the sub-sample of farmers, the main predictor variables are gender, non-migration, social group, crop losses and income. The study is novel to generate the field evidences with respect to risk management and drought preparedness, making noteworthy contributions to the disaster literature. The results advocate to strengthen the outreach and access of the social safety schemes in the drought-affected areas. Individuals are expected to build self-resilience to cost-effectively supplement the government limited efforts and capacity. These findings are important and equally applicable to the governments, policymakers and individuals residing in the other drought-affected regions with similar socio-economic characteristics of respondents.
... Recently much attention has been paid to ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) as an alternative countermeasure for naturel disasters. Disaster risk is usually expressed as the interaction between hazard, exposure and vulnerability (UNISDR, 2009). Eco-DRR utilizes various functions of ecosystems for reducing the risk of disaster events by lowering either or combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability, as well as for sustainably managing and protecting natural resources provided by ecosystems and biodiversity (Cohen-Shacham et al., 2016;Renaud et al., 2016;Sebesvari et al., 2019). ...
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Ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) has attracted increased attention as a sustainable way to achieve both disaster risk reduction and biodiversity conservation, although there have been few quantitative evaluations of the potential impacts of Eco-DRR on biodiversity. Here, we examined the influences of flood hazard and land-use patterns on biodiversity by focusing on the species richness of plants, butterflies and odonates, and the abundance of two frog species in a rural landscape of Wakasa town, Fukui Prefecture, Japan. The direct effect of exposure to flood hazard on the studied taxa was not significant, whereas landscape factors associated with flood hazard significantly influenced either of the taxa in different magnitudes. We then exercised a scenario analysis by replacing urban land-use by non-urban, agricultural land-use (paddy fields in this case) to reduce exposure to flood hazard and projected the impacts on biodiversity. Our results demonstrated that the land-use replacement potentially reduces the risk of flooding by up to 5.19 billion yen (ca. 46 million US$) and, at the same time, positively influences the species richness and abundance, although the ecological impacts are different depending on taxon and spatial location. The land-use replacement was expected to result in the increase of plant richness and abundance of Daruma pond frog at a location by up to 16 and 25%, respectively. On the other hand, butterfly richness at a location was presumed to decrease by until −68%, probably due to their dependence on domestic gardens. The abundance of Japanese wrinkled frog did not show such a clear spatial variation. This study highlights the significance of land-use replacement as an Eco-DRR measure to reduce the disaster risk and conserve biodiversity in the agricultural landscape.
... To some extent, the connation of disaster framing used in this article partially overlaps another common concept within the disaster literature, public awareness. Public awareness refers to "the extent of common knowledge about disaster risks, the factors that lead to disasters and the actions that can be taken individually and collectively to reduce exposure and vulnerability to hazards" (UN-ISDR, 2009). It has been documented that disaster framing and disaster awareness play roles in the decision-making process for precautions against many hazards (Tekeli-Yeşil et al., 2011; This article is protected by copyright. ...
Article
The role of religious belief in disasters has become a burgeoning research area in recent years. There is concern among disaster researchers about resilience enhancement, but knowledge about the religious belief‐disaster resilience nexus is limited. This article shows that religious belief can generate disaster resilience through the pathways of disaster framing, mental health, and disaster behaviour. Drawing on interviews conducted with Tibetan Buddhist believers in the Yushu earthquake‐struck area, this study indicates that the notions of Tibetan Buddhism, including karma, the four primary elements, impermanence, and existence being equal, as well as religious practices, such as prayer, chanting and the god dance, helped locals make sense of the occurrence of the earthquake, obtain spiritual support in the aftermath of the earthquake, foster a sense of community, and develop a prosocial post‐earthquake environment. These religious notions and practices also assisted in sustaining a faith‐based network consisting of two kinds of important local social relationships, i.e., layperson‐layperson and layperson‐monk relationships, which increased local disaster resilience at the level of response behaviour. The findings enrich our understanding of the religious source of disaster resilience and offer insights for disaster risk reduction in religious regions, especially in areas where Buddhist belief is prevalent.
... DRR is "the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to eleven hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events" (p.10). In short, DRR aims to prevent new and reduce existing disaster risk by addressing hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and capacity (UNISDR, 2009). ...
Preprint
The project examines opportunities and challenges to converge DRR and CCA in agriculture sector in Cambodia. The fieldwork was conducted in two ACs in Kampong Cham and Tbong Khmum.
... In the context of disaster risk, resilience of a system exposed to hazards is the ability to resist, absorb, accommodate, adapt to, transform and recover from the impacts of the hazard efficiently ensuring the preservation and restoration of its essential basic performance through risk management (UNISDR, 2009). According to Batica et al. (2013) adding resilience to flood risk management is about incorporating the characteristics of resilience into the traditional flood risk management cycle which includes, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. ...
Article
To address many societal challenges it is important to improve the resilience of the food system. Research is needed to quantify and analyse the resilience of food systems in different contexts. Is it possible to have a standardised description of resilience of a food system with a measurable set of indicators? To address this question we started by developing an ontology of resilience for food systems based on literature study and using insights from semantic technologies. Our exploration identifies a number of impossible trinities in resilience research on which choices must be made in the definition and measurement of resilience. Our findings are relevant to policy decisions in choosing the proper ‘type’ of resilience and researchers to identify the relevant research problem.
... Natural hazards are occurring all over the world that lead to disasters can cause tremendous socioeconomic and environmental consequences and impacts. According to the United nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR, 2009) 1) , natural hazard is the natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption or environmental damage whereas disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. Natural disasters can be occurred due to physical phenomena caused either by rapid or slow onset events or hazards which can be geophysical, hydrological, climatological, meteorological or biological. ...
Conference Paper
This article presents an overview of different types of natural disasters; and highlights the climate related disasters, incidences and damages in Japan. There is an increasing trend in the occurrence of natural disasters and it is likely that climate change aggravates the devastating impacts of disasters. Natural disasters can be occurred due to physical phenomena caused either by rapid or slow onset events which can be geophysical, hydrological, climatological, meteorological or biological. Climate-related disasters are generally caused by climatic factors which often represent climatological, hydrological and meteorological hazards. Climate-related disasters are becoming increasingly frequent and mainly caused by storm surges, floods, extreme temperature and landslide due to heavy rainfall. According to EM-DAT database (2019), in terms of occurrence, climate-related disasters represented 48% of all recorded events i.e. 8,564 over the past 29 years (1990-2018) where floods were the most frequent type of disasters, accounted 45% of all recorded events which affected 2.97 billion people, the majority of whom (96%) live in Asia. Japan faces frequent occurrence of natural disasters such as geophysical (earthquake, tsunami, floods and landslides) and climate-related including typhoon, tornado and tropical cyclone, heavy rainfall, consequent floods and landslides. In Japan, the intensity of climate-related disasters has also increased which cause a huge toll of fatalities, injuries and consequent economic damages. From 1990 to 2018, there were 146 incidents of climate-related disasters occurred in Japan which caused of 2981 fatalities (including missing lives) and 180,491 injured people and huge damages of housing property which makes 14344 peoples homeless. In addition, 4 million people were affected with huge damages of economic loss about US$ 102 billion. The discussion on the initiatives, plans and programs for disaster mitigation and management is not covered in this article which can be in the future study. However, addressing risks and vulnerability of climate-related disasters requires proper policy-making that is more responsive and flexible as well as measures to disaster prevention and education, preparedness and recovery are considered and understood by the public and private agencies, community groups, and different stakeholders.
... People, on the other hand, would tend to settle in, or gravitate towards, different areas -from the working to living places, up to the areas devoted to social aggregation -thus recording fluctuations in exposure to specific hazards changing with the location (Hewitt, 1997;UNISDR, 2009;Wisner, 2012). Exposure is known as a precondition for vulnerability, since a specific positioning or occupancy, in the absence of active mitigation countermeasures, can make unsafe -hence vulnerable -even otherwise safe assets or people (Hewitt, 1997;Lindell, 2011). ...
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Among the most recent directions of urban morphology research is its integration with disaster studies, in support of disaster risk reduction (DRR) efforts at the urban scale. Yet, the built and unbuilt components of urban form are still disproportionately investigated for DRR purposes, with predominant approaches centred on buildings leaving the DRR potential of the urban spatial network relatively under-investigated. This paper, at the intersection of urban morphology and disaster studies, is the first of a series looking at the spatial component of urban form through the lens of risk, with a focus on urban vulnerability to earthquakes. After discussing how the interplay of configuration, governance, and use of space impact urban disaster risk in earthquake-prone settlements, the paper introduces a method for the exposure assessment of urban spatial layout. The method, applied on the configurational analysis of four settlements hit by the 2016 Central Italy Earthquakes, associates disaster risk variables to the urban spatial network's core elements. It develops (i) a theoretical re-definition of the significant disaster risk variables in relation to configurational measures; and (ii) an integrated spatial analysis workflow for visualisation and classification of street segments and routes based on their degree of exposure, to inform both ordinary and emergency planning. In (i), the spatial-configurational dimensions of disaster concepts (hazard, exposure) are identified to unfold the spatial potential in DRR. In (ii), the spatial analysis workflow builds upon the recently developed applications of space syntax angular segment analysis on the OSM RCL network, by combining Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) with land use and disaster-related datasets, to generate hybrid exposure segment maps within the ArcGIS environment. The paper provides a twofold contribution: recontextualization and incorporation of space syntax theoretical knowledge into DRR, and innovative employ of existing applications for a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach to urban vulnerability assessment.
... For the development of mitigation strategies for these perils, detailed knowledge about affiliated risks is in demand. As an important constituent element of natural hazard risk, the exposure and vulnerability need to be determined (UNISDR 2009). In particular, it is crucial to have detailed information about the spatiotemporal distribution of population as well as about the properties of the building inventory with respect to an expected level of seismic ground shaking. ...
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Exposure is an essential component of risk models and describes elements that are endangered by a hazard and susceptible to damage. The associated vulnerability characterizes the likelihood of experiencing damage (which can translate into losses) at a certain level of hazard intensity. Frequently, the compilation of exposure information is the costliest component (in terms of time and labor) of risk assessment procedures. Existing models often describe exposure in an aggregated manner, e.g., by relying on statistical/census data for given administrative entities. Nowadays, earth observation techniques allow the collection of spatially continuous information for large geographic areas while enabling a high geometric and temporal resolution. Consequently, we exploit measurements from the earth observation missions TanDEM-X and Sentinel-2, which collect data on a global scale, to characterize the built environment in terms of constituting morphologic properties, namely built-up density and height. Subsequently, we use this information to constrain existing exposure data in a spatial disaggregation approach. Thereby, we establish dasymetric methods for disaggregation. The results are presented for the city of Santiago de Chile, which is prone to natural hazards such as earthquakes. We present loss estimations due to seismic ground shaking and corresponding sensitivity as a function of the resolution properties of the exposure data used in the model. The experimental results underline the benefits of deploying modern earth observation technologies for refined exposure mapping and related earthquake loss estimation with enhanced accuracy properties.
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Flooding and erosion will pose increasing challenges to urban settlements and critical infrastructure, such as roads and power grids in the future. Improved projections on the impact of climate change to critical infrastructure are essential to assist future planning. This paper uses hydro-sedimentary modelling to predict river erosion threats to electricity transmission infrastructure in an urbanised river valley under multiple increasing flow magnitude scenarios. We use a coupled hydrodynamic and landscape evolution model, CAESAR-Lisflood, to simulate river channel changes along a reach of the River Mersey, UK from the present day to 2050. A range of synthetic flow scenarios, based on recent hydrological records, was used in the model ranging from ‘no change’ up to a flow with 50% higher magnitude. The results revealed: (1) riverbank erosion will pose significant threats to several transmission towers located along the river, requiring intervention to avoid destabilisation by the moving channel; (2) the total area of floodplain erosion and deposition ≥0.5 m deep was positively related to increasing projected flow magnitudes. However, through running a ‘low’ and ‘high’ erosion version of the model, the simulations revealed these threats were most sensitive to the calibration of the erosion component of the model, illustrating the challenges and uncertainty in forecasting long-term river channel change; and (3) how long-term simulations can assist in adaptation planning for electricity transmission towers. Further reach- and catchment-scale modelling will be necessary to determine the timings of large floods more accurately, which produce the most significant erosion and deposition events, and to evaluate the efficacy of protections to transmission towers.
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Key nodes of sea lanes are important hubs for global trade and cargo transportation and play important roles in ensuring the safety of maritime transportation and maintaining the stability of the global supply chain. The safety guarantee of key nodes of sea lanes is facing more risks and higher requirements currently because the global shipping industry is gradually recovering. This paper focuses on key nodes of sea lanes, conducting regional security risk assessment and risk spatial scale visualization. A set of security risk assessment and visualization study methods for key nodes of sea lanes is constructed, which includes constructing a security risk assessment index system of key nodes of sea lanes with 25 indicators selected from three risk categories (hazard, vulnerability and exposure, and mitigation capacity) and using geospatial analysis to form the multi-criteria spatial mapping layers and then creating comprehensive risk layers to realize the risk visualization in the strait area by weighted overlaying based on the combined weights calculated by Analytic Hierarchy Process and Grey Relational Analysis. After taking the Tsugaru Strait and Makassar Strait as case studies, the results show that the comprehensive risk layers can effectively present the spatial distribution of security risks of key nodes of sea lanes, reflecting the spatial changes of risk levels (i.e., very low, low, medium, high and very high) and the methods can precisely identify and analyze crucial factors affecting the security risk of key nodes. These findings may strengthen the risk prevention and improve the safety of the navigation environment in the strait to ensure the safety and stability of maritime trade.
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The human ecosystems embrace complex human-dominated systems, which often result in disparaging multifaceted social and ecological outcomes in various localities of the world. Green infrastructure (GI) with a well-planned and managed spatial organization and network of multifunctional landscapes does not only help improve the quality of life, but also promotes the multifunctional use of natural capital and enhances the resiliency of urban systems by enabling “disaster risk reduction”, or “DRR”, in real practice. To achieve more socially and ecologically resilient cities, the engagement of GI into the spatial network of the human ecosystem is inevitable. Moving on from this argument, the research utilizes several quantitative analysis tools, including space syntax methodology, graph theory, depth map analysis, linkage mapper analysis, and Arc-GIS to model the complex spatial patterns of the human ecosystem in the city center of Amman. To conclude, the study provides both theoretical evidence and practical assessment tools for the implementation of urban GI towards the sustenance of the social and ecological resiliency and NDRR within complex inner-city human ecosystems. The theoretical framework of this study embraces a novel contribution toward how resiliency and DRR theories can be merged into real practice through the utilization of a new methodological approach wherein the analysis, measurement, and visualization of human ecosystem spatial networks can be realized.
Chapter
Beyond the normative definitions of an all-encompassing development as a goal to achieve, exploring the diverse, complex, and sometimes contradictory relationships between development and risk leads to question both concepts, each one through the lens of the other. The present chapter represents a contribution to the so-called “risk-informed,” or “risk-based” development decision-making, policy and planning. The authors attempt to unveil the complex relationship between risk and development on one side, and risk mitigation and development planning on the other: what risks, by whom, for whom. How do risks (re)generate, how are they transferred and (re)distributed through development and development planning? How the latter can become a risk mitigation process for those more at risk, even at the expense of development gains? The chapter gives evidence of the necessity for risk-based development planning and investigates its scope and objectives, the appropriate planning paradigm, governance process, tools and scales involved. The chapter embraces the broad range of hazards covered by the Sendai Framework for DRR 2015–2030, i.e., natural, manmade, environmental, biological and technological as well as multi-hazard conditions. In geographical terms, the examples and case studies offered illustrate situations from the developed and developing world, urban and rural regions, coastal and inland, and a wide range of scales, from supra-national to local.KeywordsRisk-based developmentRisk-informed development planningCommunity resilienceCommunity vulnerabilityLivelihood vulnerabilityVulnerability inequalitiesRisk transfer
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El patrimonio cultural inmueble ha sido parte de numerosos enfoques teóricos para una adecuada aplicación en la restauración arquitectónica. Últimamente el campo de la ingeniería, integrado a estudios multidisciplinares, ha encaminado su interés para un mejor análisis de construcciones históricas; mismo que está relacionado principalmente con sus características mecánicas y efectos en estados estáticos y dinámicos. Por otra parte, los fenómenos naturales pueden derivar en desastres vinculados al patrimonio cultural edificado. Estos factores han sido estudiados para planear diversas estrategias de prevención, evitando su pérdida. Así surgen las evaluaciones de vulnerabilidad sísmica desde una óptica de inspección, junto con los posibles daños existentes o futuros, en caso de algún evento sísmico. Los estudios de vulnerabilidad símica estarían articulados dentro de un plan de prevención para proponer estrategias de mitigación y/o preparación ante el desastre. El presente trabajo es un análisis basado en una breve perspectiva teórica e institucional hacia un acercamiento de la vulnerabilidad sísmica en edificios históricos, el cual tiene por objetivo explicar e interrelacionar principios básicos aportados en los últimos años. De esta manera, se incluye un acercamiento de métodos detallados o simplificados referentes a diversos casos del patrimonio cultural inmueble. Finalmente, se propone integrar la relevancia de los análisis estructurales como herramienta complementaria, así como el uso de tecnologías presentes dentro del proceso de restauración y/o rehabilitación.
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El Atlas Ambiental de Arequipa se constituye en una publicación de carácter académico con fines didácticos, que nace como una iniciativa del Dr. Carlos Zeballos Velarde quien lideró un grupo de investigadores y estudiantes, bajo el auspicio de la Universidad Católica de Santa María. Este documento se constituye en una herramienta de educación ambiental de uso masivo con una metodología científica pero un lenguaje asequible, directamente ligado a varios de los 17 objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible aprobados por la ONU dentro de la Agenda 2030 sobre el Desarrollo Sostenible, con el objeto de tener una oportunidad para que las diferentes sociedades mejoren la vida de todos, sin dejar a nadie atrás y donde podemos resaltar la defensa del medio ambiente y el combate al cambio climático.
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Because of variations in socio-environmental vulnerability, men, women, children, ethnic groups, and the elderly are affected disproportionately during climate disasters. Indigenous people are among the poorest in the world. Still, with a global representation of only 5%, indigenous people protect 80% of the biodiversity on the planet. Women are especially active in environmental care and ecosystem restoration. However, the dominant mindset in the North American political scenario has prioritized military security over environmental conflicts. Their reference object was the state. The values at risk are sovereignty and territorial integrity, reducing interest in people and nature. Gender security focuses on women, indigenous and vulnerable groups, analysing gender relations, equity, and empowerment to overcome the patriarchal worldview and institutions represented by transnational corporations, churches, and authoritarian governments. Latin America, especially Central America and Mexico (Mesoamerica), are highly affected by climate change. Indigenous women are also the poorest in the whole region. They have a limited capacity for adaptation and little governmental support. They often live in abrupt mountain regions or have migrated into unsafe slums of megacities. Indigenous Aymaras in the Andes have developed resilience and new ways to overcome pandemics, disasters, and poverty through their indigenous cosmovision of ‘living well.’ It entails equilibrium between the requirements of nature and humans, which includes happiness as a guiding principle of life and equal behaviour among men and women. It embraces personal and family spheres and the environment, work, and diversion. Indigenous Zapatistas in Chiapas live in peace with and in equity. Their participative governance has eliminated the exploitation of women by men. Zapatistas have negotiated conflicts through consensus about sometimes-contradictory issues, where leaders obey the people within their shell model (caracoles). Their judicial system has evolved thanks to prevention, reintegration, self-reliance, and care about the most vulnerable, including nature and ecosystem services.KeywordsClimate changeLatin AmericaMesoamericaGender securityIndigenous womenResilienceSelf-relianceLiving wellCosmovisionParticipative governance
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This chapter explores an approach to address the challenge of adaptation planning in the management of marine resources under a changing climate. The authors address this challenge by developing an analytical approach to manage both uncertainties associated with the changing climate and anthropogenic changes and providing marine and coastal resource managers with a prospective assessment of the potential impacts associated with climate change on coastal and marine resources. The study presents the case of southern and central west coast of Florida in the United States, a low-lying landscape highly susceptible to various climate change impacts including sea level rise, changes in temperature and other where the authors worked with numerous scientists, managers, and a broad base of stakeholders to create a participatory process for adaptation planning. It has shown that adaptation planning must be approached in a holistic manner which considers resource vulnerabilities, identifies activities that mitigate those vulnerabilities, and includes components that identify when to implement the activities. Taken together, the approach that was outlined presents a comprehensive treatment of climate adaptation planning which addresses both the interests of species conservation and societal values, both of which must be accounted for if effective species conservation is to be achieved.KeywordsClimate adaptationMonitoring toolSustainable marine planningFlorida
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Küresel ölçekte iklim değişikliğinin yıkıcı etkileri giderek daha hızlı, daha yaygın ve daha şiddetli bir biçimde görülmeye devam etmektedir. İklim ile ilişkili aşırı hava olayları ve afetler sadece can ve mal kayıplarına neden olmamakta, bunun yanı sıra çevreyi ve tüm canlıları, ekonomileri ve toplumsal yapıyı da etkilemektedir. Hükümetlerarası İklim Değişikliği Paneli (IPCC) tarafından yapılan çalışmalarda söz konusu olumsuz sonuçların önümüzdeki süreçte de artarak devam edeceğinin bilimsel kanıtlarıyla ortaya konulmuş olması, iklim dirençli kalkınma yaklaşımının ele alınmasına ve özellikle nüfusun, yatırımların, ekonomik faaliyetlerin yoğunlaştığı kentsel alanlara odaklanılmasına neden olmuştur. Bu doğrultuda bu çalışmanın amacı, iklim dirençli kalkınma yaklaşımının kentleşme politikası bağlamında değerlendirilmesidir. Çalışmada, iklim değişikliğinden kaynaklanan veya iklim değişikliğinin etkilerinin kötüleştirdiği biyofiziksel, ekonomik ve sosyal stres faktörlerinin kentsel dirençliliği etkilediği ve söz konusu stres faktörlerine karşı dirençliliğin sağlanmasında sera gazı azaltımı ve iklim değişikliğine uyum eylemlerini bir arada ele alan iklim dirençli kalkınma yaklaşımının önemli bir fırsat penceresi sunduğu sonucu elde edilmiştir. İklim dirençli kalkınma yaklaşımının hayata geçirilmesinin, Birleşmiş Milletler Sürdürülebilir Kalkınma Amaçları’ndan 13.’sü olan İklim Eylemi temelinde diğer amaçların da gerçekleştirilmesine uygun şartların sağlanmasını beraberinde getireceği çalışmada elde edilen bir diğer önemli sonuçtur.
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The water crisis in recent decades has caused much concern around the world. The future of water is uncertain, with four million people facing severe water shortages in one month a year. The resilient approach is relatively new and effective and can best establish the right relationship between humans and the environment that is resilient to a variety of challenges and at the same time flexible. Water resource resilience management, while ensuring citizens' access to safe water, ensures that the system can return to its original state, provide services and pre-crisis performance in the face of any crisis or challenge. Among these, one of the uses that have significant water consumption is green and public spaces. The present study intends to examine the statistics of resilience in green and open spaces of Mashhad and how water consumption patterns in these spaces determine the extent to which these patterns correspond to the resilience indicators by examining the statistics, numbers, and figures in the above documents. Whether there is a need to improve them or not, and finally, by examining and recognizing the existing potentials, to provide solutions appropriate to them. This research has been done by descriptive-analytical research method to analyze quantitative and qualitative information obtained by SWOT method to provide solutions to increase the resilience of water resources, although this crisis and challenge in water-sensitive countries that have limited water resources and the population quickly is increasing and requires more attention and planning. Introduction:
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This research paper shows the relationship between the rise of disasters caused by natural disasters and the rise of vulnerability in cities around the world.
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Purpose. The research aimed to develop an integrated and systematic method for assessing risk in contemporary public art collections. The research outlines key elements of a public-art risk-management plan. Emphasis is placed on enhancing heritage protection from natural hazards and extreme events related to climate change and, more significantly, on how such a plan can strengthen resilience in the social and historic built environment. Methodology. To develop the method, the World Heritage Historic Center of San Gimignano (Italy), comprising both medieval heritage and contemporary public art, is investigated because of its unique cultural landscape. The landscape’s contemporary elements exist as the result of several cultural initiatives: Affinità Elettive (1994), Arte all’Arte (1998-2005), and UmoCA (2011). This research highlights how the ensured survival of San Gimignano’s public art is severely conditioned by the coexistence of physical, contextual, and managerial factors (hazards and vulnerabilities). Findings. Based on case studies, the research develops indicators and criteria for vulnerability and risk analysis. Moreover, the integration of public art into, and its contribution to, general DRM frameworks is discussed. Despite the fact that public art’s values can contribute to the resilience of historic urban centers, the research reveals important challenges to overcome if public art is to be incorporated into general risk-management policies. Originality. In light of this, a risk-analysis model has been developed following international policies and frameworks, the results of which could be integrated into the general-management and conservation plan for the contemporary collections in the public space. Moreover, in recognition of the importance of social, cultural, and economic processes in the conservation of public spaces, a values assessment has been incorporated into the risk management framework.
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A landslide early warning system based on monitoring acoustic emission (AE) generated by slope movements has been developed that can deliver alerts direct to a community at risk, with relevance to low- and middle-income countries. The Community Slope SAFE (Sensors for Acoustic Failure Early-warning) (CSS) approach uses steel waveguides driven into the slope to transmit detected high frequency noise (AE) to a sensor at the ground surface. CSS gives a measure of slope displacement rate. Continuously measured AE is compared to a pre-defined trigger level that is indicative of decreasing slope stability (i.e., landslide initiation), and a visual and audible alert automatically generated so that a community can follow a pre-defined course of action (e.g., evacuation). This paper describes the CSS approach and details a field trial of the system at two sites in Hakha, Chin Sate, Myanmar. The trial, which included training a group of youth Landslide Response Volunteers to install and operate the CSS system, increased landslide awareness and knowledge in the Hakha community, delivered the required real-time continuous operation, and demonstrated the practicality of using the CSS system for community landslide protection.
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Предмет на настоящата книга е взаимодействието между природните обекти и човешките същества; по-конкретно между водите и хората. А централният проблем на изследването засяга въпросите как тези обекти биват интегрирани в обществото, или по-точно как те се оказват значими участници вътре в обществото, и какви са следствията от това: как се случва “опитомяването” на природните обекти; как “дивата” вода се превръща в управляем ресурс от ключова важност за социалното?
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