Article

Characterization of Essential Oil from Citrus aurantium L. Flowers: Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

Authors:
  • Higher Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology of Mahdia
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Citrus aurantium L. essential oil is commonly used as a flavouring agent. In the present study, the essential oil of fresh Citrus aurantium L. (CaEO) flowers cultivated in North East of Tunisia (Nabeul) was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. 33 compounds were identified, representing 99% of the total oil. Limonene (27.5%) was the main component followed by E-nerolidol (17.5%), α-terpineol (14%), α-terpinyl acetate (11.7%) and E. E-farnesol (8%). The antimicrobial activity of the CaEO was evaluated against a panel of 13 bacteria and 8 fungal strains using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results have shown that the CaEO exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested species. The investigation of the mode of action of the CaEO by the time-kill curve showed a drastic bactericidal effect after 5 min using a concentration of 624 μg/ml. The antioxidant activities of the CaEO were assayed by DPPH and beta carotene tests. Results showed that CaEO displayed an excellent DPPH scavenging ability with an IC50 of 1.8 μg/ml and a strong Beta-carotene bleaching inhibition after 120 min of incubation with an IC50 of 15.3 μg/ml. The results suggested that the CaEO possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and is therefore a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Ten microliters of cell suspension were added to each test well. MIC (%) values were assessed as the lowest LmEO concentration that inhibited the visible growth of each tested bacterium [5]. As an indicator of microorganism growth, 25 µL of thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (0.5 mg/mL) (Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany) was added to the wells and incubated for 30 min. ...
... The negative control showed no inhibitory effect against the tested bacteria. The microorganisms tested in the present study are among the most important human pathogens known to be opportunistic to humans and animals and to cause food contamination and spoilage [5]. The results obtained are of great importance, especially in the case of B. cereus and S. aureus, which are well known for their resistance to several phytochemicals, and food production, and for the production of several types of enterotoxins that cause gastroenteritis [25]. ...
... However, the synergistic effect of minor constituents should be taken into consideration in overall antimicrobial activity. In fact, both the synergistic effects and the chemical diversity of major and minor constituents present in the essential oils account for their overall biological activity [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was directed towards the investigation of the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Tunisian halophyte Lobularia maritime (LmEO). The antibacterial effects against major food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria were tested using the well diffusion method, followed by the determination of the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. The essential oil has shown strong antimicrobial activity against eight pathogenic strains, which was attributed mostly to predominant constituents of the essential oil: benzyl alcohol, linalool, terpien-4-ol and globulol, as well as to synergistic effects of its major and minor constituents. Considering strong antimicrobial effects of the tested essential oil, it was further tested as a natural alternative to food preservatives, using minced beef meat as a model system. Minced beef meat was spiked with 0.019, 0.038, and 0.076% of the essential oil and stored during 14 days at 4 °C, monitoring its microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory properties. Chemical analyses revealed that meat treated with 0.076% of LmEO at underwent a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in primary and secondary lipid oxidation and reduced metmyoglobin accumulation compared with control samples. Furthermore, microflora proliferation in the meat model system spiked with 0.076% of LmEO was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in comparison to control. In addition, two multivariate exploratory techniques, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical analysis (HCA), were applied to the obtained data sets to describe the relationship between the main characteristics of the meat samples with and without essential oil addition. The chemometric approach highlighted the relationships between meat quality parameters. Overall, results indicated that the essential oil of Lobularia maritima deserves to be considered as a natural preservative in the meat industry.
... Citrus aurantium L. peel essential oil (pEOCa) was obtained according to a previously reported extraction method. 20 The peel rinds were squeezed to break the utricles and release the oil, which was collected by extraction with n-hexane. The solution was then dried over Na 2 SO 4 and concentrated under a stream of N 2. The Oil yield was calculated as: ...
... CCl 4 : Carbon tetrachloride; pEOCa: Peels essential oil of Citrus aurantium; TBARS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances which can be explained by the abundance of the monoterpene hydrocarbons and also by the overall oil constituents found.60 It seems to be a general trend that EOs mainly composed of oxygenated monoterpenes and/or sesquiterpenes; have greater antioxidant properties.20 These activities may be attributed to the presence of 1,8-Cineole, α-Pinene, β-Pinene, and limonene found in pEOCa.61 ...
... However, it is difficult to attribute the antioxidant effect to the whole EO, to one or few active compounds. Both minor and major compounds should make a significant contribution to the oil's activity.20,60 pEOCa can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants. ...
Article
The present study aimed (1) to investigate the chemical composition as well as the anti‐inflammatory properties and in vitro antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium peel essential oil (p EOCa ) and (2) to evaluate its potential effect in vivo. The main results showed that the major components of p EOCa are Limonene and Linalool. Additionally, DPPH scavenging ability and β‐carotene bleaching inhibition tests confirmed the antioxidant capacity of p EOCa . Our oil reduced the production of NO by LPS‐stimulated RAW264,7 macrophages in a concentration‐dependent. This inhibition occurred at a transcriptional level. p EOCa in CCl4 treated rats alleviated hepatotoxicity as monitored by the improvement of hepatic oxidative stress biomarkers levels plasma biochemical parameters, and DNA molecule aspect. Furthermore, the mRNA gene expression of Cu‐Zn SOD, CAT, and GPx increased under CCl4+ p EOCa exposure to reach the same value to the control. Similarly, antioxidant activities of these three enzymes changed in accordance with the mRNA levels. These results were confirmed by the histological results. It seems obvious that the treatment with p EOCa prevented liver damage induced by CCl4, thus preventing the harmful effects of free radicals.
... Then, appropriate screening procedures are needed to relate to the potential future applications (Suhr and Nielsen, 2003). Hsouna et al. (2013) studied EO of fresh C. aurantium L. (CaEO) flowers cultivated in north east Tunisia (Nabeul). The monoterpenes components were limonene and α-terpineol (27.5% and 14%, respectively), along with E-β-ocimene (4.3%) and δ-3-carene (2.4%). ...
... The inhibition zones were in the range 1.4-22 mm (Iturriaga et al., 2012). Citrus aurantium essential oil showed an antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.312-2.5 mg/mL and 0.625-2.5 mg/mL, respectively (Hsouna et al., 2013). The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative, and these differences could be attributed in part to the great complexity of the double membrane-containing cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria. ...
... This finding suggests that the loss of intracellular ATP may be due to the lack of synthesis or increased hydrolysis of ATP. The possible uptake of the oil/vapor into the cell may be interfering with normal cellular function rather than increased permeability of the cell membrane to ATP. Hsouna et al. (2013) investigated also the antifungal activity of CaEO by measuring the growth inhibition zone (GIZ) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) against various fungal species. They reported the capacity of this EO to control Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus fumigants (GIZ = 15-22 mm; MFC = 0.078-1.25 mg/mL), Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium culmorum (GIZ = 19-22 mm; MFC = 0.078-0.156 ...
Chapter
The chemico-physical and composite characteristics of food and food products make them susceptible to microbial spoilage. Additives of CO2 in food products such as soft drinks can reduce growth of some microorganisms and induce others. Thermal treatments, to which ingredients and intermediate and final products can be subjected, affect the stability of these products. Since polyethylene terephthalate packaging cannot be thermally treated due the susceptibility of plastic material to heating, food and beverage stability relies upon the addition of preservatives, generally weak acids, such as sorbic and benzoic acids. New strategies for the stabilization of food free from traditional preservatives are constantly being investigated by the manufacturers. In fact, consumers are inclined to consider these preservatives as extraneous and unsafe because they have no connection with the food matrix. Furthermore preservatives could undergo chemical transformations giving origin to toxic compounds. In this scenario, the search for new strategies and new antimicrobials for stabilization of food and beverages has become a central goal for producers. Aromatic compounds and essential oils are an interesting alternative. However, their organoleptic impact and the variable composition of the essential oils (which can be reflected in their antimicrobial activity) limit the industrial use of these substances as preservatives. Furthermore, a stabilization strategy without the addition of excessive concentrations of the flavoring agent seems to be difficult to be realized. Bitter orange oils are obtained from different parts (peels, leaves, and flowers) of Citrus aurantium species. The most abundant component of the bitter oil is the monoterpene limonene that represents 65–97% of the oil, depending on several factors, mainly the extraction method, harvesting time of the plant material, and mainly the geographic origin of the oil. Bitter oil has been reported to possess various pharmacological properties. In this chapter, the antispoilage, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and flavoring property of bitter orange oil (C. aurantium species) for food preservation are discussed.
... Citrus aurantium L. peel essential oil (pEOCa) was obtained according to a previously reported extraction method. 20 The peel rinds were squeezed to break the utricles and release the oil, which was collected by extraction with n-hexane. The solution was then dried over Na 2 SO 4 and concentrated under a stream of N 2. The Oil yield was calculated as: ...
... CCl 4 : Carbon tetrachloride; pEOCa: Peels essential oil of Citrus aurantium; TBARS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances which can be explained by the abundance of the monoterpene hydrocarbons and also by the overall oil constituents found.60 It seems to be a general trend that EOs mainly composed of oxygenated monoterpenes and/or sesquiterpenes; have greater antioxidant properties.20 These activities may be attributed to the presence of 1,8-Cineole, α-Pinene, β-Pinene, and limonene found in pEOCa.61 ...
... However, it is difficult to attribute the antioxidant effect to the whole EO, to one or few active compounds. Both minor and major compounds should make a significant contribution to the oil's activity.20,60 pEOCa can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants. ...
... The chemical composition of EO of sour orange (Citrus aurantium) was assessed in different plant parts during different seasons. Many studies were focused on EO extract from C. aurantium peels and Limonene was found to be the major component [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. In contrast, other studies carried out on EO extract from C. aurantium flowers showed that Linalool and Linalyl acetate are the main components [13,14,20,21]. ...
... These values were typically low and concur with those reported in Tunisian and Serbian EO of C. aurantium [12,16]. In contrast, hydrosol and ethanol extracts from C. auriatium from Turkey have shown significant antioxidant activities [18]. Indeed, in this report [18], ethanol and hydrosol were used as solvents, while our study used EO as extracted by hydrodistillation. ...
... In contrast, hydrosol and ethanol extracts from C. auriatium from Turkey have shown significant antioxidant activities [18]. Indeed, in this report [18], ethanol and hydrosol were used as solvents, while our study used EO as extracted by hydrodistillation. Moreover, many of the antioxidant activities observed in C. aurantium have been assessed in EO extracted from different organs or byproducts of Citrus transformation industries. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.), which belongs to the Rutaceae family, is used around the Mediterranean Sea for ornamental and agronomic purposes as a rootstock for the Citrus species. Peels and flowers, the most-used parts of Citrus aurantium L., have constituted a largely promising area of research for their many medicinal properties. However, the leaves of sour orange have not yet been studied extensively. The present study aimed at investigating the essential oil composition of sour orange leaves grown in Algeria and determining their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Essential oil composition of leaves harvested before flowering was determined by GC-MS. Total phenol content, antioxidant activities (DPPH) and elastase and collagenase inhibition were assessed. Forty-three volatile compounds were detected in essential oil from leaves with a yield of 0.57%. The major compounds were linalool, linalyl acetate and α-Terpineol. Results show that the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of essential oil are low, 3.48 ± 0.10 mg/g (Gallic Acid Equivalent/EO) and IC50 > 10,000 mg·L−1, respectively. In contrast, EO present an interesting level of elastase and collagenase inhibition. This result emphasizes the potential interest of the essential oil of sour orange mainly in relation to its anti-aging mechanism.
... The smooth muscle component is mediated by the ryanodine receptor (RyR) signaling pathway, while the endothelial component is mediated by the nitric oxide-soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway (Kang et al., 2016). Moreover, Neroli showed a robust antioxidant activity (Ammar et al., 2012 (Anwar et al., 2015;Ben Hsouna et al., 2013). It was antifungal against Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigants, A. nidulans, A. niger, Fusarium culmorum, F. graminearum, and F. oxysporum (Ammar et al., 2012;Heydari et al., 2018;Ben Hsouna et al., 2013;Anwar et al., 2015). ...
... Moreover, Neroli showed a robust antioxidant activity (Ammar et al., 2012 (Anwar et al., 2015;Ben Hsouna et al., 2013). It was antifungal against Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigants, A. nidulans, A. niger, Fusarium culmorum, F. graminearum, and F. oxysporum (Ammar et al., 2012;Heydari et al., 2018;Ben Hsouna et al., 2013;Anwar et al., 2015). Neroli oil also showed anti-amoebic activity against Entamoeba histolytica (Karthikeyan and Karthikeyan, 2014). ...
Article
Members of Citrus L. (Rutaceae) are evergreen shrubs or small trees cultivated all over the world. The genus that includes the volatile secondary metabolites from fruit peel, leaf, and flower oils is Citrus. Citrus flowers are famous for their sweet, pleasant, and highly desirable scent. The color and odor of Citrus flowers are major contributors in attracting pollinators and repelling herbivores. In this article, we will compare the properties of several Citrus floral essential oils and take a closer look at the most frequently examined among them, Neroli (Citrus aurantium var. amaraflos.) essential oil
... Interestingly, the C. aurantium flower extract showed anti-amnesic and repairing effects on memory, learning impairments, and behavioral disorders induced by scopolamine, and has the potential to treat Alzheimer's disease [72]. Neroli EO inhibits the growth of several bacteria including Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia [53,79], as well as several fungi including Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. fumigatus, Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. culmorum, and Alternaria alternata [20,53,75,79]. ...
... Interestingly, the C. aurantium flower extract showed anti-amnesic and repairing effects on memory, learning impairments, and behavioral disorders induced by scopolamine, and has the potential to treat Alzheimer's disease [72]. Neroli EO inhibits the growth of several bacteria including Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia [53,79], as well as several fungi including Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. fumigatus, Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. culmorum, and Alternaria alternata [20,53,75,79]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Citrus fruits have been a commercially important crop for thousands of years. In addition, Citrus essential oils are valuable in the perfume, food, and beverage industries, and have also enjoyed use as aromatherapy and medicinal agents. This review summarizes the important biological activities and safety considerations of the essential oils of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), neroli (Citrus aurantium), orange petitgrain (Citrus aurantium), mandarin (Citrus reticulata), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi), bergamot (Citrus bergamia), Yuzu (Citrus junos), and kumquat (Citrus japonica).
... The antimicrobial activity of essential oils is typically linked to their main components [17]. Petitgrain oil is characterized with high content of oxygenated monoterpenes, mostly linalyl acetate (48.06%) and linalool (26.88%) (tab. ...
... Ellouze et al. [4] registered that petitgrain oils were most effective against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were more sensitive to the essential oils), and weak against Gram-negative strains. Essential oil from bitter orange flowers examined by Hsouna et al. [17] inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the concentration range from 0.312-2.5 mg/ml and 0.625-2.5 mg/ml, respectively. The fungistatic activity of this essential oil was even stronger. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Due to its low cost and easy availability on the market, the petitgrain oil is commonly used in food, cosmetics, and aromatherapy. Objective: The examination of chemical composition and antibacterial activity of commercial petitgrain oil. Methods: Identification of chemical components of the petitgrain oil was performed by gas chromatography (GC). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBC/MFC) were determined using macrodilution method for the reference strains of bacteria and fungi. Results: Twenty components were identified. The petitgrain oil contained mostly oxygenated monoterpene hydrocarbons (98.01%), and the main components included linalyl acetate (48.06%) and linalool (26.88%). The MIC/MBC of the petitgrain oil for bacteria was in the range of 0.63-5.0/1.25-5.0 mg/ml and for fungi in the range of 1.25-40/5.0-80 mg/ml. Conclusion: The petitgrain oil had higher antibacterial activity than antifungal activity. Bacillus subtilis among the tested bacteria and Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum among the fungi were found to be highly inhibited by the petitgrain oil.
... The antioxidant activity the McEO increased from 20% to 90.02% (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay compared to ascorbic acid as shown in Figure 2), and from 5% to 85% (β-carotene bleaching assay compared to BHT as shown in Figure 3) when McEO concentrations increased from 2to 50 µg/ml. The antioxidant activities of McEO may be mainly due to its major constituents and also to its unique chemical composition(Ben Hsouna, Hamdi, Ben Halima, & Abdelkafi, 2013;Dongmo et al., 2008;Ennajar et al., 2009;Guleria et al., 2012). Nonetheless, both F I G U R E 1 Cell viability of essential oil on MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines using MTT assay minor and major components contribute to the biological activity of essential oils(Ben hsouna et al., 2013;Ennajar et al., 2009). ...
... The antioxidant activities of McEO may be mainly due to its major constituents and also to its unique chemical composition(Ben Hsouna, Hamdi, Ben Halima, & Abdelkafi, 2013;Dongmo et al., 2008;Ennajar et al., 2009;Guleria et al., 2012). Nonetheless, both F I G U R E 1 Cell viability of essential oil on MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines using MTT assay minor and major components contribute to the biological activity of essential oils(Ben hsouna et al., 2013;Ennajar et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this research, the chemical composition and biological properties of Tunisian Myrtus communis (McEO) flowers were investigated. The antibacterial effect of McEO toward some bacteria was assessed, alone and in combination with nisin. The major components of McEO were α‐pinene, 1,8‐cineol, limonene, and linalool. McEO exhibited cytotoxicity toward HepG2 and MCF‐7 cell lines. The microbiological data showed that Gram‐positive bacteria were more susceptible to McEO. McEO had a bactericidal effect against L. monocytogenes. McEO is able to prevent lipid oxidation, microbial development at noncytotoxic concentrations, when used alone or in combination with nisin. It can improve sensory attributes within acceptable limits and improve the conservation of shelf life of minced beef meat during the 4°C storage period. The most potent preservative effect was obtained with the mixture: 0.8% McEO with 500 IU/g of nisin. This combination may be a good alternative for the development of natural preservatives. This research investigates the capacity of essential oils extracted from the Tunisian Myrtus communis (McEO) flowers as a natural alternative to preserve minced beef.
... Several methods use DPPH free radical to ascertain extract antioxidant potential (Ben Hsouna et al., 2013). LmPS DPPH scavenging activity was proportional to extract concentration. ...
... The antioxidant property of a compound may be correlated with its reducing effect, which is mainly associated with reductones, able to interrupt free radical chain (Ben Hsouna et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the extraction and the characterization of a novel heteropolysaccharide from Tunisian halophyte Lobularia maritima (LmPS). We were also interested in its antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‐induced liver injury in rats. LmPS physicochemical properties were evaluated by thin‐layer chromatography (TLC), high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and UV absorption. According to TLC and HPLC results, LmPS was a heteropolysaccharide composed of glucose, galactose, and xylose. Its molecular weight was 130.62 kDa. This heteropolysaccharide was characterized by a significant antioxidant potential and was efficient against oxidative stress and CCL4‐induced hepatotoxicity in rat Wistar models (n = 8) treated with a single dose of LmPS 250 mg/kg of body weight. This was evidenced by a significant increase in serum marker enzymes specially aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The cytokines released after stimulation of rats with LmPS showed high anti‐inflammatory profiles with an increased rate of interleukine‐10 (IL‐10) with 0.03 pg/mL compared to animals treated only with CCl4. On the contrary, we noticed a decrease of the other cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α: TNF‐α, interleukine‐6: IL‐6, transforming growth factor beta 1: TGF‐β1) with average concentration values of
... Simoes et al. [26] found that trans-nerolidol in combination with synthetic antibiotics ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin enhances their antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli. Essential oils containing trans-nerolidol have been reported to inhibit the growth of quite a number of bacteria including S. aureus [27][28][29], S. epidermidis [30], E. coli, and P. aeruginosa [28,29]. Nerolidol (a mixture of cis-and trans-nerolidol) is also used as a food flavoring agent [27]. ...
... Simoes et al. [26] found that trans-nerolidol in combination with synthetic antibiotics ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin enhances their antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli. Essential oils containing trans-nerolidol have been reported to inhibit the growth of quite a number of bacteria including S. aureus [27][28][29], S. epidermidis [30], E. coli, and P. aeruginosa [28,29]. Nerolidol (a mixture of cis-and trans-nerolidol) is also used as a food flavoring agent [27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we performed the chemical characterization of Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC. (Myrtaceae) essential oil from Amazonian Ecuador and the assessment of its bioactivity in terms of cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity as starting point for possible applicative uses. M. splendens essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID): the major components were found to be trans-nerolidol (67.81%) and α-bisabolol (17.51%). Furthermore, we assessed the cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (breast), A549 (lung) human tumor cell lines, and HaCaT (human keratinocytes) non-tumor cell line through 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test: promising results in terms of selectivity and efficacy against the MCF-7 cell line (IC50 of 5.59 ± 0.13 μg/mL at 48 h) were obtained, mainly due to α-bisabolol. Furthermore, antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria were performed through High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) bioautographic assay and microdilution method: trans-nerolidol and β-cedren-9-one were the main molecules responsible for the low antibacterial effects against human pathogens. Nevertheless, interesting values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were noticeable against phytopathogen strains. Radical scavenging activity performed by HPTLC bioautographic and spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) approaches were negligible. In conclusion, the essential oil revealed a good potential for plant defense and anti-cancer applications.
... Tal como se encontró en este estudio, en donde el aceite esencial de mandarina en sus variedades Arrayana y Oneco, mostraron un efecto antimicrobiano sobre Fusobacterium nucleatum, una especie bacteriana clave en la formación de biopelículas (Socransky & Haffajee, 2005). En este estudio sin embargo, la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial fue dependiente de la concentración, lo cual podría ser explicado por la complejidad de la envoltura celular de doble membrana de los microorganismos gram negativos como F. nucleatum (Ben et al., 2013) que podrían reaccionan ante sustancias antimicrobianas difundiendo la sustancia tóxica al medio externo y llevando los demás compuestos, al medio interno (Pendleton, 2011). Esto podría dar cuenta de la resistencia, el efecto bacteriostático y no bactericida en algunas especies bacterianas como Prevotella intermedia y Porphyromonas gingivalis ante la presencia de aceites esenciales derivados de cítricos (Hussain et al, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
LLa clorhexidina como tratamiento de la enfermedad periodontal ha logrado efectos bactericidas sobre periodontopatógenos y biopelícula oral. Su uso genera efectos adversos, por lo tanto se presentan alternativas naturales con efecto antimicrobiano similar. Los aceites esenciales han demostrado efectividad en el control de la placa dental, sin los efectos adversos de la clorhexidina. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto bacteriostático y bactericida del aceite esencial de mandarina contra Fusobacterium nucleatum. Se realizó extracción por expresión del aceite esencial de cáscaras de mandarina (variedades Arrayana y Oneco). Se evaluaron concentraciones al 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% y 100% del aceite esencial diluido en Tween al 0,02%. El efecto bacteriostático y bactericida se determinó por pruebas de sensibilidad antimicrobiana por difusión en disco. Como control positivo se utilizó Clorhexidina 0,2% y agua como control negativo. Se midió halo de inhibición (mm) y se determinó ausencia o presencia de crecimiento bacteriano a partir de unidades formadoras de colonias. Para comparación de proporciones de la actividad bacteriostática y bactericida, se realizó prueba de Fisher y T student (IC 95% p = 0,05). El halo de inhibición a una concentración del 100% mostró comportamiento similar a clorhexidina (p<0,05). Concentraciones al 100% y 80% fueron bactericidas, al 60%, 40% y 20% presentaron comportamiento bacteriostático. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en las proporciones de inhibición entre las dos variedades de mandarina (p>0,05). El uso de aceites esenciales de mandarina podría ser una alternativa complementaria al tratamiento de la enfermedad periodontal.
... There is no activity against the selected bacteria and yeast under tested concentration but the flower oils exhibited noteworthy inhibitory effects against one fungus, A. niger with value MIC at 100 μg/mL. The result of antimicrobial bioactivity of the calamondin flower oil obtained was similar to that other citrus flower oils were previously reported (30). antimicrobial activity analysis, C. microcarpa flower oil inhibited against a fungus, A. niger, while the leaf essential oil exhibited inhibitory effects against six microbial strains including one Gram negative bacteria, two Gram positive bacteria, one fungus and two yeasts. ...
Article
Content of essential oils in flower and leaf of Citrus microcarpa was 1.1 and 0.8% (v/w), respectively. The flower oil was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons in which limonene (74.5%) was determined as a major component. The dominant constituents found in the calamondin leaf oil were sesquiterpene (82.0%) with elemol (37.5%) as a major component. The obtained thermal data showed that thermal stability of flower and leaf oils was up to 80 and 110 °C, respectively. A study of TG isothermal volatilization at 42.5 °C showed the mass loss of the essential oils as a function of exposition time. Antioxidant assays using both DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging methods exhibited antioxidant activity of flower and leaf essential oils was higher than that of vitamin C. The leaf essential oil exhibited inhibitory effects against six microbial strains while the flower oil inhibited only one fungus strain, A. niger.
... Die hier dargestellten Ergebnisse zeigen eine Wirksamkeit der ätherischen Öle gegen grampositive und gramnegative Erreger. Zuvor wurde bereits für ätherische Öle anderer Arzneipflanzen in humanmedizinischen [49] und lebensmittelchemischen Studien [49,50] [51]. Die genannten Bestandteile führen zu einer erhöhten Permeabilität der bakteriellen Zellmembran mit nachfolgendem Verlust von lebenswichtigen Kaliumionen und einer pH-Wert-Senkung durch den Ausstrom von Protonen [51,52]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Bacteria of Veterinary Relevance from Clinical Isolates of Dogs, Cats, and Horses Introduction: Essential oils are the basis for aromatherapy. They are supposed to have an antibacterial activity. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils against a broad range of clinical isolates of bacteria which are relevant for veterinary medicine. Methods: The antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was detected using the agar diffusion test. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria of clinical isolates of dogs, cats, and horses from veterinary routine diagnostic were used. Classification of antibacterial activity in not, lowly, moderately, and highly effective resulted from the size of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth. Results: Overall, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were susceptible against essential oils. They showed an in vitro antibacterial activity against staphylococci including methicillin-resistant strains. Pasteurella multocida was rather sensitive, in great contrast to the totally resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tea tree, oregano, and winter savory oil seemed to be the most potent oils. In addition, lemongrass oil and thyme oil showed a good activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. Conclusion: Essential oils have an in vitro antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of dogs, cats, and horses. This study conducts basic information for the use of essential oils in veterinary medicine. Clearly, tendencies in the spectrum of efficacy of essential oils can be found, but no generalizing assertion about their activity against specific pathogenic bacteria in an individual patient should be made. Thus, before the beginning of a therapy with essential oils, their respective individual activity should be tested by an aromatogram.
... The essential oil from C. aurantium inhibited growth of F. oxysporum but lesser than P. oxilicum these finding agreed with [11] who found antifungal activity of C. aurantium flowers against growth of 8 species of fungus included F. oxysporum. ...
... Anthemis nobilis is believed to ease inflammation and L. angustifolia assists with healing and regeneration [25]. Citrus aurantium (neroli) flower oil has displayed antioxidant activity [120], and the main component of M. alternifolia (terpinen-4-ol) has the ability to hinder tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1, interleukin-8, and interleukin-10, and prostaglandin E 2 [300]. The anti-inflammatory activity of C. bergamia has been proven by several studies in vitro or on animal models [301,302]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological use, with at least 1500 combinations. This review explores the fundamental knowledge available on the antimicrobial properties against pathogens responsible for dermatological infections and compares the scientific evidence to what is recommended for use in common layman’s literature. Also included is a review of combinations with other essential oils and antimicrobials. The minimum inhibitory concentration dilution method is the preferred means of determining antimicrobial activity. While dermatological skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus have been well studied, other pathogens such as Streptococcus pyogenes , Propionibacterium acnes , Haemophilus influenzae , and Brevibacterium species have been sorely neglected. Combination studies incorporating oil blends, as well as interactions with conventional antimicrobials, have shown that mostly synergy is reported. Very few viral studies of relevance to the skin have been made. Encouragement is made for further research into essential oil combinations with other essential oils, antimicrobials, and carrier oils.
... [12] Sour orange essential oil is known as neroli oil. Antifungal [13] , antimicrobial [14] , antioxidant [15] , and anti-inflammatory activities [16] of neroli oil have been identified. Wang et al. [17] evaluated the antioxidant activity of neroli oil. ...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of UV and X-ray treatments on oxidative stability of soybean oil were evaluated during accelerated storage. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of neroli oil incorporated into soybean oil was compared with those of BHT and β-carotene. UV and X-ray treated samples had significantly higher peroxide (105.00 and 191.99 meq O2/kg, respectively), anisidine (62.30 and 153.80 mg/kg, respectively), and Totox values (272.3 and 453.43, respectively) than non-irradiated samples (75.74 meq O2/kg, 26.50 mg/kg, and 177.98, respectively). The X-ray radiation accelerated the oxidation of soybean oil more significantly than UV radiation did. This could be due to the fact that X-ray radiation has a higher energy content. In addition, neroli oil proved its antioxidant activity in soybean oil. Nonetheless, neroli oil had a lower antioxidant activity than BHT – a chemical agent – while β-carotene was neither antioxidant nor pro-oxidant. In conclusion, neroli oil can improve the oxidative stability of irradiated and non-irradiated soybean oil.
... Regarding antioxidant activity, all tested EO did not possess the same efficiency: the IC50 varied from 0.05 g.L -1 for angelica seeds EO to 6.7 g.L -1 for thuya EO. These results are in accordance with the range of IC50 found in literature where IC50 varied from 0.001 to 1.5 g.L -1 depending on EO tested [15][16][17]. These antioxidant activities were also compared to a well-known antioxidant standard, Trolox®, and expressed in terms of TEAC. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of natural drugs based on essential oils (EO) is now a days arousing great interest. Indeed, EO are showing high efficiency as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory drugs within the human organism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of 9 EO isolated from angelica (roots and seeds), chives, chervil, garlic, leek, onion, shallots and thuya plants, in the presence and absence of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD). 1) EO antioxidant properties, assessed by DPPH assay, and 2) anti-inflammatory activities were determined thanks to the inhibition of albumin denaturation test. Our results showed that angelica seeds EO presented the highest antioxidant activity (IC50=0.05g.L-1) while the thuya EO has the lowest (IC50=6.7 g.L-1). Whereas highest anti-inflammatory activity was obtained by angelica seeds EO (IC50=0.42 g.L-1) while garlic EO (IC50=52.3 g.L-1) presented the lowest one. The presence of HP-β-CD did not significantly improve the EO biological activities. Our findings evidenced that EO coming from shallots, onions and angelica seeds are of interest to be used as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory additives. However, the encapsulation of EO in HP-β-CD was not of interest at tested biological activities in our experimental conditions.
... 2.5 Antibacterial effect of M. piperita L. EO against phytopathogenic bacteria The agar disc diffusion method was employed for the determination of antibacterial activities of the EOs in question 16,17 . Briefly, a suspension of the tested microorganism 0.1 mL of 10 8 cells/mL was spread on the solid media plates. ...
Article
This study was undertaken to determine the antibacterial efficacy of the essential oil (EO) of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), in vitro and in vivo, against the phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens). The EO composition of M. piperita L. was investigated by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with 26 identified volatile constituents. The major constituents were menthol (33.59%) and iso-menthone (33.00%). This EO exerted a bactericidal activity against multiple strains of Agrobacterium species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 0.01 to 12.50 mg/mL. In planta experiments, M. piperita EO, tested at concentration of 200 mg/mL, completely inhibited the formation of tumors on tomato plants inoculated with pathogenic strain A. tumefaciens ATCC 23308T. These results suggest that M. piperita EO could be used to control plant bacterial disease caused by A. tumefaciens.
... Considering that limonene is the major compound of the EO of Citrus, this compound has good antioxidant properties [57]. Additionally, other compounds, such as linalool and borneol, have antitumor effects; sabinene and pinene have anti-inflammatory activity; and citral exhibits analgesic functions [58][59][60][61][62]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present work, essential oils (EOs) extracted from different parts of sour orange Citrus aurantium (green leaves/twigs, small branches, wooden branches, and branch bark) were studied through gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Furthermore, the EOs in the amounts of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 µL were studied for their antibacterial activity against three pathogenic bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Dickeya solani, and Erwinia amylovora. The main EO compounds in the leaves/twigs were 4-terpineol (22.59%), D-limonene (16.67%), 4-carvomenthenol (12.84%), and linalool (7.82%). In small green branches, they were D-limonene (71.57%), dodecane (4.80%), oleic acid (2.72%), and trans-palmitoleic acid (2.62%), while in branch bark were D-limonene (54.61%), γ-terpinene (6.68%), dodecane (5.73%), and dimethyl anthranilate (3.13%), and in branch wood were D-limonene (38.13%), dimethyl anthranilate (8.13%), (-)-β-fenchol (6.83%), and dodecane (5.31%). At 25 µL, the EO from branches showed the highest activity against A. tumefaciens (IZ value of 17.66 mm), and leaves/twigs EO against D. solani and E. amylovora had an IZ value of 17.33 mm. It could be concluded for the first time that the wood and branch bark of C. aurantium are a source of phytochemicals, with D-limonene being the predominant compound in the EO, with potential antibacterial activities. The compounds identified in all the studied parts might be appropriate for many applications, such as antimicrobial agents, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
... Antioxidants can inhibit or delay the oxidation of oxidizable substrates, and this appears to be very important in the prevention of oxidative stress, which is suggested as one of the leading causes of many oxidation-related diseases [4]. Resistance against antibiotics by pathogenic bacteria is a major concern in the anti-infective therapy of both humans and animals [5]. Recently, many consumers prefer additive free foods or a safer approach like the utilization of more effective antioxidant and antibacterial agents from natural origins. ...
Article
Full-text available
Premna microphylla Turczaninow, an erect shrub, was widely used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat dysentery, appendicitis, and infections. In this study, the essential oil from P. microphylla Turcz. was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC (Gas Chromatography) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer). Fifty-six compounds were identified in the oil which comprised about 97.2% of the total composition of the oil. Major components of the oil were blumenol C (49.7%), ß-cedrene (6.1%), limonene (3.8%), a-guaiene (3.3%), cryptone (3.1%), and a-cyperone (2.7%). Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro biological activities displayed by the oil obtained from the aerial parts of P. microphylla, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. For this, the IC50 value was estimated to be 0.451 mg/mL. The essential oil of P. microphylla exhibited considerable antibacterial capacity against Escherichia coli with an MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) value of 0.15 mg/mL, along with noticeable antibacterial ability against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC value of 0.27 mg/mL. However, the essential oil did not show significant activity against fungus. The oil was tested for its cytotoxic activity towards HepG2 (liver hepatocellular cells) and MCF-7 Cells (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line) using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay, and exerted cytotoxic activity with an IC50 of 0.072 and 0.188 mg/mL for 72 h. In conclusion, the essential oil from P. microphylla is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as cytotoxic activity. Thus, it has the potential for utilization in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.
... [1] As a source of bioactive compounds Citrus aurantium L. essential oil has been recognized as antioxidative, antimicrobial, antiulcerogenic, neuroprotective, antianxiety and anti-larvicidal agent. [2][3][4][5] In this study we analyzed chemical composition of essential oil obtained from the peel of bitter orange. In addition, we compared chemical composition as well as antioxidative potential of the oils obtained by two methods -hydrodistillation and cold pressing. ...
Article
In this study, it was shown that the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from bitter orange peel (Aurantiiamari flavedo, Citrusaurantium L., from Croatia) depends on the method of isolation. The peel essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and cold press method, and their chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty two components were characterized by mass spectra and linear retention indices. Limonene was found as dominant compound in both hydrodistillation and cold press essential oil with 91.1 % and 51.3 %, respectively. When comparing the chemical composition of two oils, a significant difference in percentage composition of three major compounds, limonene, linalool and hexadecanoic acid was observed. The antioxidant activity of the oils was tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method (DPPH). Both oils showed very poor antioxidant activity.
... In general, Gram-negative bacteria exhibit higher resistance to EOs compared to Gram-positive bacteria. This resistance is conferred by hydrophilic lipopolysaccharides present in the outer membrane of these Gram-negative bacteria, which serve as barriers blocking the entry of the macromolecules and hydrophobic compounds of the EO into the cell membrane (Hyldgaard et al. 2012;Hsouna et al. 2013). Fisher and Phillips (2009) reported the uptake of Citrus EOs into the cell, leading to the formation of vacuoles and causing complete cell lysis in two Gram-positive bacteria, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils (EOs) extracted from Citrus peels contain 85%–99% volatile components (a mixture of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and their oxygenated derivatives) and 1%–15% non-volatile compounds. Citrus EOs have been long known for their antimicrobial properties, owing to which these EOs have a diverse range of applications. However, no studies have reported the applicability of Citrus EOs for the control of bacterial and yeast contaminants in the bioethanol industry. In this regard, the present review aimed to explore the feasibility of Citrus EOs in this industry. The Web of Science database was searched for reports that described the association of Citrus EOs with the most common microorganisms in the bioethanol industry to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs as antimicrobial agents in this context. The objective of the review was to suggest a novel antimicrobial that could replace sulfuric acid and antibiotics as the commonly used antimicrobial agents in the bioethanol industry. Citrus EOs exhibit antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus, which is the main bacterial genus that contaminates this fermentation process. The present report also confirms the selective action of these EOs on the contaminating yeasts and not/less on ethanol-producing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, however further studies should be conducted to investigate the effects of Citrus EOs in yeast-bacterium co-culture.
... Hydrodistillation is used to extract essential oils and bioactive compounds from C. aurantium flowers [70][71][72][73][74], peels [12,40,75], and leaves [28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Citrus genus is a prominent staple crop globally. Long-term breeding and much hybridization engendered a myriad of species, each characterized by a specific metabolism generating different secondary metabolites. Citrus aurantium L., commonly recognized as sour or bitter orange, can exceptionally be distinguished from other Citrus species by unique characteristics. It is a fruit with distinctive flavor, rich in nutrients and phytochemicals which possess different health benefits. This paper presents an overview of the most recent studies done on the matter. It intends to provide an in-depth understanding of the biological activities and medicinal uses of active constituents existing in C. aurantium. Every plant part is first discussed separately with regards to its content in active constituents. All extraction methods, their concepts and yields, used to recover these valuable molecules from their original plant matrix are thoroughly reported.
... The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 13 test microorganisms from distinct species and environments were determined as previously described [19,21]. We utilized 100 µL/well sterile 96-well microplates. ...
Article
Full-text available
Thiamine (TA), also known as vitamin B1, is an essential amino acid derived from food sources for normal body function. TA is thought to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effects in addition to its nutritional benefits. The degree to which a number of microorganisms implicated in food rotting are sensitive to increasing concentrations of thiamine (TA), was examined. TA at increasing concentration was incubated with minced beef and then physicochemical and microbiological assessments were conducted. LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used to test TA’s anti inflammatory capabilities. Western blot analysis revealed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Finally, the ability of TA to act as a natural preservative was evaluated.
... In addition, a higher concentration of limonene in CREO leads to a better synergistic effect than that of CAEO. Based on these observations, it indicated that limonene had an influence on the antibacterial potential of EOs. is is in agreement to previous reports [16,20,[35][36][37] but in contrast to some other studies [14,31,38]. e antibacterial mechanism of citrus EOs has been described by a previous study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus aurantifolia are the edible plants which contain several biological properties including antibacterial activity. The aims of the present study were to determine the chemical compositions and evaluate antibacterial activities of citrus essential oils extracted from the fruit peels of C. reticulata (CREO) and C. aurantifolia (CAEO), alone and in combination with gentamicin, against a panel of clinically isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (n = 40) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) (n = 45). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that 12 and 25 compounds were identified in CREO and CAEO with the most predominant compound of limonene (62.9–72.5%). The antibacterial activities were determined by agar disk diffusion and resazurin-based microdilution methods. The results found that almost all MRSA isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin, and some isolates were resistant to gentamicin. CREO and CAEO exhibited inhibitory effects toward clinical isolates (MIC: 1.0–32.0 and 8.0–32.0 mg/mL, respectively), with a similar trend to limonene (MIC: 1.0–32.0 mg/mL). However, the higher antibacterial effects were found in CREO and limonene when compared to CAEO (p < 0.01). In combination effect, the results showed the synergistic interaction of gentamicin with CREO and limonene on the MRSA and MSSA isolates (FIC indexes: 0.012–0.258 and 0.012–0.375), but that interaction of gentamicin with CAEO was observed only on MRSA (FIC index: 0.012–0.016). These findings demonstrated the potential of these citrus essential oils as natural antibacterial agents that may contribute to reduce the emerging of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.
... Teneva et al. (2019) studying C. aurantium bark essential oil verified forty-eight compounds, in which the majority were d-limonene (85.22%), β-myrcene (4.30%) and pinene (1.29%). The Hsouna et al. (2013) found nine compounds, of which limonene (39.74%), β-pinene (25.44%) and α-terpineol (7.30%) were the major compounds. Shen et al. (2017) found as major compounds linalool (64.6%), α-terpineol (7.61%), and (R)-limonene (6.15%) in C. aurantium flowers. ...
Chapter
Essential oils are highly concentrated compounds extracted from plants that are frequently used for flavor and preservative properties due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Besides its large use, there is a lack of studies regarding its its safety as food ingredient. In this book chapter, we summarized the main essential oils used as food ingredient, describing its chemical composition, antioxidant activity and potential against food-borne pathogens, as well as studies reporting care in the safety of its use. In research using PubMed database with the keywords “essential oil”, “food”, and the list of oils Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by Food and Drug Association (FDA), the four oils with the highest research numbers were Origanum spp. (461), Thymus vulgaris (138), Citrus aurantium (113), and Rosmarinus officinalis (109). Most of the information available regarding safety are related to oral toxicity tests in laboratory animals. Overall, the data confirms most of the oils listed in GRAS as safety, although some of them have no data available or have study describing toxicity. This chapter highlights essential oils potential as natural alternative for increasing food shelf-life through multiple pathways of action, although clinical and toxicological studies can be improved.KeywordsEssential oilFoodAntimicrobialAntifungalAntioxidantToxicity Origanum Thymus vulgaris Rosmarinus officinalis Citrus aurantium
... Neroli EO is nowadays an iconic product in the fragrance industry, due to its olfactive profile (Floral, orange blossom, green, methyl-like, and honeyed) in demand in the perfume industry (Berger, 2007). Many biological studies have reported neurotonic properties (Duval, 2012) and antimicrobial, antioxidant (Ammar et al., 2012;Dosoky and Setzer, 2018;Hsouna et al., 2013;Sarrou et al., 2013), anticonvulsant (Azanchi et al., 2014), analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities (Khodabakhsh et al., 2015) for this EO. Currently, this EO (C. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Les matières naturelles aromatiques, telles que les huiles essentielles, que l’on retrouve sur le marché, ne sont pas toujours authentiques, bien que ces produits soient vendus comme étant 100% purs et naturels. Certains fournisseurs fraudent leurs produits afin de réduire les coûts de production, d’améliorer la qualité des huiles essentielles ou encore pour augmenter artificiellement les volumes de production. Les huiles essentielles sont adultérées en ajoutant des produits à moindre coût, incluant des matières naturelles moins chères et des molécules d’origine pétrochimique. Des méthodes d’authentification appropriées sont nécessaires pour contrôler la naturalité et la pureté des huiles essentielles. La détermination des ratios isotopiques stables et l’analyse énantiosélective de composés spécifiques, associées à la recherche de traces de précurseurs de synthèses, permettent d’authentifier de nombreuses huiles essentielles (gaulthérie, alliacées, néroli, menthe crépue, cannelle et cypriol). Le contrôle de ces produits naturels requiert l’établissement de banques de données, constituées d’échantillons parfaitement tracés pour l’authenticité de leurs origines. La méthodologie mise en place a permis de développer de nouveaux outils pertinents pour l’authentification, comprenant le développement de l’analyse isotopique de composés ciblés pour la mesure du δ18O et du δ34S, et d’identifier de nouvelles fraudes, comprenant les ajouts de composés enrichis en 14C et les molécules issues d’hémisynthèses.
... The minimum inhibition concentrations ranged between 0.16-10 mg/ml; the oil had the highest activity against Rhizopus stolonifera and the least activity to Pseudomonas spp. Table 2 shows the presence of compounds like myristicin, limonene, phytol, and methyl salicylate in abundance, all of which have been reported to show the antimicrobial property [16,[105][106][107][108]. The antimicrobial property of this oil should be expected because, according to Table 1, methyl salicylate an ester, limonene, a hydrocarbon both have antifungal and antibacterial properties. ...
Article
Full-text available
Compounds useful for drugs, cosmetics, and food have been obtained directly or indirectly from living organisms over the years. However, there has been a renewed interest in getting useful compounds from living organisms, especially plants. Essential oils, interchangeably called volatile oils, are bioactive compounds found in minute quantities in some plants. Essential or volatile oils have been known for years to find usefulness in foods, drugs (antimicrobial, antifungal), and cosmetics. This review attempts to summarize information on the essential oil from Ficus species concerning their morphology, pharmacology, bioactivity, and application. This was achieved by gathering information on essential oils from different Ficus species. Essential oils from Ficus species are a good source of bioactive compounds for use in drug, food, and cosmetic industries. It is worthy to note that Nigerian Figs were characterized by the high presence of phytol and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, and these compounds are, therefore, seen as markers. Furthermore, this review presents numerous insights on how to best harness the different potentials of the essential oils and possibilities to be examined.
... Bitter orange originated from India, and its oil, peel, flowers, and leaves are classified as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food additives in Korea [8]. A previous study on the antibacterial activity of C. aurantium flowers confirmed their efficacy against all tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species [9]. Another study also reported the antimicrobial activities of citrus extracts against the biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The halal food market is steadily increasing. The use of alcohol for any reason is strictly prohibited in halal foods; however, ethanol is widely used as a preservative for commercial rice cakes (tteok). The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of natural substances as alternative preservatives for rice cakes. Four different solutions were tested: distilled water (control), ethanol, grapefruit seed extract (GSE), and a mixture of citric extracts and organic acids (MCO). We investigated the total plate count (TPC), yeast and mold counts, color, texture profile assays (TPA), and sensory evaluation. Significant reductions of 3.65 log CFU were observed in TPC in rice cake treated with MCO solution after 28 days of storage. However, mold and yeast counts were only reduced by ethanol treatment. Among the physical texture properties analysis, hardness was maintained for the 28 days in all samples. The total color difference values (ΔE) revealed no significant color changes in any rice cake compared to the controls. The ethanol-treated rice cake scored the lowest for overall preference and desired hardness.
... These indicated that the EO from aerial parts of coriander possessed the highest free radical scavenging capacity using the DPPH • scavenging assay. These results are in line with results found in the literature, depicting IC 50 values ranging from 0.001 to 1.5 g L −1 , depending on the tested EO, including Allium cepa L., Citrus aurantium, Myrtus communis, and Eucalyptus oleosa EO [59][60][61][62]. So as to compare the antioxidant capacity of the EO to that of a well-known antioxidant standard, Trolox ® , the obtained results were also expressed in terms of TEAC. ...
Article
Full-text available
The potential of essential oils (EO), distilled from two aromatic plants—clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)—in view of applications as natural therapeutic agents was evaluated in vitro. These two were cultivated on a trace element (TE)-polluted soil, as part of a phytomanagement approach, with the addition of a mycorrhizal inoculant, evaluated for its contribution regarding plant establishment, growth, and biomass production. The evaluation of EO as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, with considerations regarding the potential influence of the TE-pollution and of the mycorrhizal inoculation on the EO chemical compositions, were the key focuses. Besides, to overcome EO bioavailability and target accession issues, the encapsulation of EO in β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was also assessed. Firstly, clary sage EO was characterized by high proportions of linalyl acetate (51–63%) and linalool (10–17%), coriander seeds EO by a high proportion of linalool (75–83%) and lesser relative amounts of γ-terpinene (6–9%) and α-pinene (3–5%) and coriander aerial parts EO by 2-decenal (38–51%) and linalool (22–39%). EO chemical compositions were unaffected by both soil pollution and mycorrhizal inoculation. Of the three tested EO, the one from aerial parts of coriander displayed the most significant biological effects, especially regarding anti-inflammatory potential. Furthermore, all tested EO exerted promising antioxidant effects (IC50 values ranging from 9 to 38 g L−1). However, EO encapsulation in β-CD did not show a significant improvement of EO biological properties in these experimental conditions. These findings suggest that marginal lands polluted by TE could be used for the production of EO displaying faithful chemical compositions and valuable biological activities, with a non-food perspective.
... They are volatile chemicals emitted by plants to defend against viruses, bacteria, saccharomyces, molds, and protozoans [69] or to prevent decay and herbivore attacks. Phytoncides also exhibit other beneficial effects, such as anti-microbial, antibacterial [70], anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-stress, analgesic, and anti-spoilage activities, and they can be used as food preservatives [36,[71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82]. They also exhibit anti-mycoplasmal activity [83], anti-larvicidal activity against malaria [84,85] and dengue [86], anti-septic activity, and anthelminthic activity; in addition, they facilitate wound healing [87], can act as cholesterol inhibitors [88], can enhance sleep [89][90][91], and even enhance bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics [92,93]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Chemical compounds from plants have been used as a medicinal source for various diseases. Aromachology is a unique field that studies the olfactory effects after inhaling aromatic compounds. Aromatherapy is a complementary treatment methodology involving the use of essential oils containing phytoncides and other volatile organic compounds for various physical and mental illnesses. Phytoncides possess an inherent medicinal property. Their health benefits range from treating stress, immunosuppression, blood pressure, respiratory diseases, anxiety, and pain to anti-microbial, anti-larvicidal, antiseptic , anti-cancer effects, etc. Recent advancements in aromatherapy include forest bathing or forest therapy. The inhalation of phytoncide-rich forest air has been proven to reduce stress-induced immunosuppression, normalize immune function and neuroendocrine hormone levels, and, thus, restore physiological and psychological health. The intricate mechanisms related to how aroma converts into olfactory signals and how the olfactory signals relieve physical and mental illness still pose enormous questions and are the subject of ongoing research. Aroma-therapy using the aroma of essential oils/phytoncides could be more innovative and attractive to patients. Moreover, with fewer side effects, this field might be recognized as a new field of complementary medicine in alleviating some forms of physical and mental distress. Essential oils are important assets in aromatherapy, cosmetics, and food preservatives. The use of essential oils as an aromatherapeutic agent is widespread. Detailed reports on the effects of EOs in aromatherapy and their pharmacological effects are required to uncover its complete biological mechanism. This review is about the evolution of research related to phytoncides containing EOs in treating various ailments and provides comprehensive details from complementary medicine.
... This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved antibacterial activity of bitter orange flower essential oil against foodborne and spoiling bacteria, due to the presence of high concentrations of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes (Hsouna et al., 2013). ...
Article
In this research, hydrodistillation ultrasonic‐assisted green technique was applied to extract the essential oils from bitter orange peel. The effects of independent factors (volume/mass ratio (X1), ultrasonic time (X2) and hydrodistillation extraction time (X3)) on the quantitative, phenolic and antioxidant properties of essential oils were investigated. Linear and quadratic polynomial models with suitable ANOVA results (model p‐values <0.0003, R2 values of 0.84‐0.95, adjusted R2 values of 0.82‐0.90, predicted R2 values of 0.71‐0.75, and lack of fit p‐values >0.5) were used for fitting the responses. Two optimal extraction conditions for bitter orange peel essential oils were determined as follows: optimum responses (OR) with maximum essential oil volume (0.99 ml), maximum TPC (108.33 mg GAE/100 ml) and minimum IC50 (251.56 µl) could be achieved at X1: 6.00 ml/g, X2: 39.10 min and X3: 4.72 h, and optimum phenolic compounds (OP) with maximum TPC of 190.75 mg GAE/100 ml could be obtained at X1: 13.89 ml/gr, X2: 3.75 min and X3: 4.92 h. The most predicted values for optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental data. The disk diffusion experiments showed high antimicrobial activities of the optimum essential oils against E. coli. The GC‐MS results proved limonene was the main compound in both optimum essential oils. These bitter orange peel essential oils with suitable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and healthy compositions, could be considered as dietary and pharmaceutical supplements.
... 10 Essential oil from C. aurantium displayed moderate to strong antimicrobial properties and excellent DPPH scavenging properties. 11 To the best of our knowledge, no studies have compared the content of hypnotic components in EDD isolated by different extraction methods. In this study, EDD was obtained by separate steam and water distillation (SWD), hydrodistillation (HD) and ultrasound-assisted hydrodistillation (UHD), and the chemical composition and content of the oils were compared by GC-MS analysis. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to analyze the content of hypnotic components in the essential oil from Citrus aurantium flowers (EDD), extracted by different methods, and to characterize its sedative-hypnotic effects. The sedative-hypnotic capacity of EDD was evaluated using pentobarbital-induced sleeping assays, locomotor activity tests and GABA A receptor antagonists. The results showed that EDD extracted by steam and water distillation (SWD), hydrodistillation (HD), and ultrasound-assisted hydrodistillation (UHD) had as their main components linalool, linalyl acetate, and limonene, comprising more than 55% of the total peak area. Compared with EDD extracted by HD and UHD, the total content of linalool and linalyl acetate in EDD obtained by SWD was highest, whereas the content of limonene in EDD extracted by the 3 different methods was not different. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of EDD resulted in reduced sleep latency and increased sleep duration of mice, as well as reduced locomotor activity, which was proven by decreases in the total distance travelled, average velocity, number of activities, and central distance. Interestingly, intraperitoneal injection of EDD had better sedative and hypnotic effects than oral ingestion. In vitro assays using SH-SY5Y cells showed that EDD dose-dependently increased Cl ⁻ influx, which could be blocked by the GABA A receptor antagonists, picrotoxin, bicuculline, and flumazenil, suggesting that EDD promoted sedative-hypnotic activity by potentiating GABA A receptor-mediated Cl ⁻ current responses. Altogether, these results suggest that the important hypnotic-sedative activity of EDD appears to be due to the effects of limonene, and particularly the high contents of linalool and linalyl acetate, which were effectively extracted by SWD.
... New research has revealed that bitter orange peel and juice is considered as a natural antioxidant [51]. The ability of this plant to scavenge free radicals is higher than the standard antioxidant, ascorbic acid [52]. An animal study has been conducted by Pultriniet al., who evaluated Citrus aurantium essential oil efficacy in OCD on the animal model of marbleburying behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that has a significant effect on the quality of life. The most effective treatment for OCD is the combination of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). However, several adverse effects have been linked with this usual pharmacotherapy, and it is unsuccessful in many patients. The exact pathophysiology of OCD is not completely known, though the role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis has been proposed recently. This review presents an overview of animal and human studies of antioxidant treatment for OCD. The use of antioxidants against oxidative stress is a novel treatment for several neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Among antioxidants, NAC was one of the most studied drugs on OCD, and it showed a significant improvement in OCD symptoms. Thus, antioxidants could be promising as an adjuvant treatment for OCD. However, a limited number of human studies are conducted on these agents, and for better judgment, human studies with a large sample size are necessary.
... Our results are in aggrement with this research, because we also found that E. coli and S. cerevisiae were susceptible to the essential oils from C. aurantium fruit peels. Hsouna et al. (2013) investigated antimicrobial activity of the essential oil extracted from fresh C. aurantium flowers cultivated in North East of Tunisia. It was found that the growth of all tested microorganisms was inhibited at varying degree. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from fruit peel of Citrus aurantium L. grown in West Anatolian ecological conditions, were investigated. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined with the use of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) method. Essential oils were obtained in a clevenger apparatus and their compositions were analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). According to the GC-MS results, dl-limonene (72.51%) and hexasiloxane (13.28%) were the major components in the essential oil obtained from C. aurantium Central population. Limonene (77.27%) and hexasiloxane (6.19%) dominated in the samples originated from Germencik region. Limonene (79.77%) was found to be in the highest concentration in the essential oil obtained from C. aurantium Koçarlı population. Limonene (95.70%) followed by β‑myrcene (0.76%) were the major components of the essential oil obtained from Citrus aurantium Nazilli population. MIC values ranged from 2.5 to 5 µL/mL for gram (−) bacteria and from 0.3125 to 5 µL/mL for gram (+) bacteria. Essential oil from Germencik region generally showed the best effect against fungi. Essential oil obtained from Citrus aurantium fruit peel could be an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents.
... In recent years, herbal medicine has begun to be used to treat many dermatological disorders such as itching and even severe forms of cancer [20,21]. So, the essential oils of Abies koreana, Anthemis aciphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Citrus aurantium, Eucalyptus globules, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha sp., Salvia sp. are used in the treatment of dermatological disorders [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] such as acne, fungal infection, or cancer. Also, EO from Afromomum danielli and Pogostemon elsholtzioides reduced blood pressure [30,31], EO from Salvia officinalis L., Citrus aurantifolia, Curcuma longa L. can improve hyperlipidemia [32][33][34], while EO from Lavandula angustifolia and Citrus aurantium reduce blood pressure and anxiety with acute coronary syndrome [35,36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of five essential oils (EO): pine oil, thyme oil, sage oil, fennel oil, and eucalyptus essential oils. To identify the chemical composition of the essential oils, we used gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). EO are predominantly characterized by the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes, except in the case of fennel essential oil which contains phenylpropanoids as its main components. The antimicrobial activity of the EO was highlighted on four standard microbial strains (two Gram-negative strains-Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853; one Gram-positive strain Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and one yeast strain-Candida albicans ATCC 10231). Antimicrobial activity was assessed by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zone, and by determining the values of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum concentration of biofilm eradication (MCBE). Analyzing the diameter values of the inhibition zones we observed increased efficiency of thyme essential oil, which showed the highest values for all tested microbial species. The results of tests performed in a liquid confirm the high sensitivity of the standard strain Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 to the action of all essential oils, the lowest values of MIC being recorded for sage and thyme essential oils. For the most essential oils tested in this study, the MCBE values are close to the MIC values, except for the pine EO which seems to have stimulated the adhesion of the yeast strain at concentrations lower than 5%. The study highlights the antimicrobial activity of the tested essential oils on Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains.
... Therefore, research of natural molecules with an antioxidant effect is essential to fight on the one side against free radicals and anomalies, and on the other side, eliminate the toxic effect of chemical antioxidants. Besides, resistance of pathogenic bacteria against antibiotics become a big concern to fight contagious diseases, for this reason, and to avoid the use of chemicals antibiotic, plant and plant extracts are used against pathogenic microorganisms 3 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Polianthes tuberosa L. (Amaryllidaceae) is an ornamental and medicinal plant. Its flowers and bulbs are used traditionally as a diuretic, emetic, against rashes and gonorrhea. The aim of this work was, to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bulbs and bulbils alkaloid extracts of P. tuberosa. Antiradical effect was assessed against DPPH radical. However, antimicrobial activity was measured through the disc diffusion method against Escherichae coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus resistant to Methicillin (MRSA) and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The scavenging effect against DPPH showed that the bulbs and bulbils alkaloids extracts exhibited an antiradical effect with IC50 = 0.231±0.017 mg/mL and 0.233±0.093 mg/mL respectively, less than the effect of vitamin C with IC50 = 0.0194±0.0002 mg/mL. Antimicrobial activity results reveal that both alkaloid bulbs extracts at 50 mg/mL did not have any inhibitory effect against the studied strains using the disc diffusion method. According to this work, bulbs and bulbils alkaloid extracts show a moderate antioxidant effect; that could be recommended as a natural antioxidant. Although tuberose bulbs were used traditionally as a soap substitute; bulbs alkaloid extract has no antimicrobial effect. Keywords: Polianthes tuberosa L., bulbs, bulbils, alkaloids, antiradical activity, antimicrobial activity.
Article
The essential oils from aromatic plants are extracted from the plant world and used for thousands of years for their therapeutic properties, particularly anti infectious, often in the form of non-medicinal products. They play a significant role in plant defense and forest against natural aggression, including the fight against drought. Their compounds, due to their physico-chemical characteristics are called volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This term is sometimes also used to describe other compounds, volatile at room temperature and carbon-based, but due to human activity and considered as pollutants, such as petrochemical derivatives in particular. Terpenes, active substances found in essential oils and used for their therapeutic properties are issued at rates that can influence the chemical composition of the atmosphere. It is therefore necessary, as with any treatment, to take into account the tolerance of these natural substances, well studied in more than 1800 items. More than 2000 publications since 1995 have been devoted to pharmacology terpenes: it is mentioned in this study, these anti-inflammatory, decongestant, antiseptic, antiviral, antifungal, anti-parasitic, mucolytics, bile ducts, healing. Biological effects of essential oils are validated by many reliable and serious studies, as also are well documented data of toxicity and tolerance. Their use in confined spaces and domestic, particularly in low doses, would be of great interest especially for their antimicrobial effects, namely virucidal, bactericidal and fungicidal. In the current state of scientific knowledge, the benefit/risk ratio would be more in favor of their use with a good command of the recommendations of doses emitted into the environment.
Article
The chemical constituents of essential oils obtained from Ficus asperifolia and Ficus capensis by hydrodistillation were determined by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by means of disc diffusion method against seven clinically important bacterial and two fungi strains. The main constituents of F. asperifolia were myristicin (16.4%), limonene (15.7%), phytol (11.1%), methyl salicylate (10.8%) and cyclododecane (9.9%). However, tricosane (52.2%), hexacosane (24.2%) and cyclcotetradecane (15.4%) were the principal constituents of F. capensis. The results also showed that both oils exhibited wide range of antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms. The zones of inhibition (IZ) ranged between 8.7 ± 3.1 and 28.3 ± 0.6 mm in F. capensis; and 9.3 ± 0.2 and 26.3 ± 5.5 mm in F. asperifolia, while, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values varied between 0.08 and 10.0 mg/mL (F. capensis) and 0.16 and 10 mg/mL (F. asperifolia).
Article
Full-text available
The physiological activity of the 50% ethanolic extract of Citrus aurantium flower before and after fermentation was investigated in this study. C. aurantium flowers grown in Taiwan were extracted using 100% methanol or 50% ethanol and then fermented by one of six microbes: four species of lactic acid bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus brevis) anaerobically cultivated in MRS broth and two species of mold (Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger) aerobically cultivated in potato dextrose broth. The 50% ethanolic extract of C. aurantium flowers exhibited higher tyrosinase inhibition (IC50: 200.8 ± 11.6 mg/L) and antioxidative activity than did a 100% methanolic extract (IC50: 274.1 ± 15.7 mg/L). The 50% ethanolic extract fermented by L. brevis (L. brevis–fermented extract) exhibited the highest yield (86.2% ± 1.2%) and physiological activity. The L. brevis–fermented extract exhibited over 5.2-, 13.5-, 12.5-, 3.17-, and 4.29-fold higher antityrosinase activity, antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, total flavonoid content, and antiwrinkle activity than did the unfermented extract. The L. brevis–fermented extract can be considered safe because it exerted no toxic effect on CCD-966SK or HEMn cells at concentrations of 400 and 200 mg/L, respectively. The fermented extract (40 mg/L) inhibited melanin formation, reducing it to 50.8% ± 2.3%. Furthermore, the L. brevis–fermented extract exhibited excellent antiaging and antiwrinkle activity, as determined from MMP-1, MMP-2, elastase, and collagenase activity. The improvement in physiological characteristics, especially the considerable formation of neohesperidin, is mainly attributable to biosynthesis or biotransformation by L. brevis during fermentation. In conclusion, the 50% ethanolic extract of C. aurantium flowers fermented with L. brevis can be used in cosmetics applications aiming for skin-whitening or antiwrinkle properties.
Article
This study reports on the inhibitory concentration of 59 commercial essential oils recommended for dermatological conditions, and identifies putative compounds responsible for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils were investigated for antimicrobial activity using minimum inhibitory concentration assays (MICs). Ten essential oils were identified as having superior antimicrobial activity in comparison to the other 49 oils. The essential oil compositions were determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the data analysed with the antimicrobial activity using multivariate tools. Orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) models were created for seven of the pathogens. Eugenol was identified as the main biomarker responsible for antimicrobial activity in the majority of the essential oils. The essential oils mostly displayed noteworthy antimicrobial activity, with five oils displaying broad-spectrum activity against the 13 tested micro-organisms. The antimicrobial efficacies of the essential oils highlight their potential in treating dermatological infections and through chemometric modelling, bioactive volatiles have been identified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
This study was carried out to determine phytochemical composition, in-vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of different solvent extracts of Cyprus Citrus aurantium L. flowers, which are commonly used as flavouring agents in desserts. Essential phytochemicals such as polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenes were detected in water, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane solvent extracts by GC/MS. The total phenolic (87.96 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (28.20 mg QE/g) contents were found to be significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in the methanol extracts with higher antioxidant activities with a significant correlation (r = 0.90). The methanol extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most sensitive one. Based on the MIC values, distinct concentrations of methanol extract were individually evaluated for their antimicrobial effect against natural flora and inoculated test pathogens in rice pudding for seven days at 8 °C. The application of methanol extract decreased the growth rate of all tested pathogens and natural flora in rice pudding. Results suggest the possibility of the application of methanol extract of Citrus aurantium flower as natural preservatives and for the isolation of bioactive agents for further use in the food and medicine industries.
Article
Full-text available
In this work, seven Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs) derived from flavedo of cultivars ‘Canaliculata’, ‘Consolei’, ‘Crispifolia’, ‘Fasciata’, ‘Foetifera’, ‘Listata’, and ‘Bizzaria’ were investigated. EOs were also combined in 1:1 (v/v) ratio to identify possible synergism or antagonism of actions. GC-MS analysis was done to investigate Eos’ phytochemical profiles. The antioxidant activity was studied by using a multi-target approach based on FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene bleaching tests. A great difference was observed in EOs’ phytochemical profiles. d-limonene (33.35–89.17%) was the main monoterpene hydrocarbon, and α-Pinene, β-myrcene, and β-linalool were identified in almost all samples. Among EOs, only C3 showed high quantitative and qualitative variability in its chemical composition. The chemical diversity of EOs was also demonstrated by PCA and HCA statistical analysis. Samples C2, C4, C5, C6, and C7 were statistically similar to each other, while C1 and C3 were characterized as having a different amount of other compounds and oxygenated monoterpenes, respectively, with respect to the other EOs mentioned. The global antioxidant score (GAS) revealed that among the tested EOs, C. aurantium ‘Fasciata’ EO had the highest antioxidant potential, with a GAS value of −0.47, whereas among combinations, the EO obtained by mixing ‘Canaliculata’ + ‘Bizzaria’ was the most active. Comparison by theoretical and real data on inhibitory concentration (IC50) and FRAP values did not reveal any significant effect of synergism or antagonism of actions to be valid in all biological applied tests. These findings, considered together, represent an important starting point to understand which compounds are responsible for the activities and their future possible industrial application.
Article
Full-text available
Citrus is a genus belonging to the Rutaceae family and includes important crops like orange, lemons, pummelos, grapefruits, limes, etc. Citrus essential oils (CEOs) consist of some major biologically active compounds like α-/β-pinene, sabinene, β-myrcene, d-limonene, linalool, α-humulene, and α-terpineol belonging to the monoterpenes, monoterpene aldehyde/alcohol, and sesquiterpenes group, respectively. These compounds possess several health beneficial properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, etc., in addition to antimicrobial properties, which have immense potential for food applications. Therefore, this review focused on the extraction, purification, and detection methods of CEOs along with their applications for food safety, packaging, and preservation. Further, the concerns of optimum dose and safe limits, their interaction effects with various food matrices and packaging materials, and possible allergic reactions associated with the use of CEOs in food applications were briefly discussed, which needs to be addressed in future research along with efficient, affordable, and "green" extraction methods to ensure CEOs as an ecofriendly, cost-effective, and natural alternative to synthetic chemical preservatives.
Article
The aim of this was to assessment chemical composition, antiproliferative of valuable essential oils from Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium flowers commonly used in Anatolia. According to the results of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, nerolidol (22.13 %), linalool (14.06 %) were found to be highest in the essential oil obtained from C. sinensis. Nerolidol (28.07 %), 2,6,10-dodecatriene-1-ol (15.11 %), were found to be highest in the essential oil obtained from C. aurantium. The antiproliferative activity for both natural products was conducted following the European Pharmacopoeia 8.0 protocol. According to this protocol, we investigated both products for in vitro antiproliferative activity against HeLa, HT29, A549, Hep3B, MCF7 cancer cells and FL normal cells using a cell proliferation assay, cytotoxicity assay (LDH), and phase-contrast microscopic image evaluation techniques. Both essential oils exhibited the strong antiproliferative effect together with low cytotoxicity values at the low and mid concentration (1.9-2.9 Log10 μg/mL). Both samples altered the morphological shape of the cells from being cell shrinkage and rounding to being decreased cell elongation and volume at high concentration (2.9-4.4 Log10 μg/mL). However, these essentials oils caused high cytotoxic effect against FL normal cells compared to that of cancer cells, indicating that these were not promising suitable antiproliferative agents against cells tested. We believe that both essential oils need to be developed by making a more rational research because they have affected normal FL cells. As a conclusion, it seems substantial to continue to improve both essential oils to help the cancer problem further.
Article
Full-text available
Lemon, lime, orange, grapefruit, bergamot, mandarin and bitter orange species which have major characteristic specialities of Rutaceae family, have antimicrobial activities on pathogene microorganisms. Probiotic microorganisms have valuable effects on human body and inhibition of probiotics causes many diseases. In this present study, it was aimed to determine indicate probiotic resistance against natural antimicrobial agents (as essential oils) compare to pathogenes in previous studies. Analysis of essential oils (Eos) from were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS, analysis of Eos antimicrobial and antifungal activity from were analyzed by Microdilution test. Limonene (%95.29) and Linalool (%34.94) were found as major compounds of EOs respectively. All essential oils have antimicrobial activities on probiotic microorganisms.
Article
Full-text available
Myrtus communis L. (Myrtle) is one of the most important aromatic and medicinal species from the Myrtaceae family. It is traditionally used as antiseptic, disinfectant drug and hypoglycemic agent. The aim of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of Myrtus communis essential oil (McEO) on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rat. Thirty two adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 each: (1) a control group; (2) was given a single dose of CCl4 (1 mL kg⁻¹ in 1% olive oil. ip) on the 14th day (3) were given during 15 days a daily i.p. injection of McEO at 250 mL kg⁻¹ b.w (4) a group was pretreated with McEO and intoxicated with CCl4 on the 14th day. The major components of McEO are α-pinene (35.20%), 1,8-cineole (17%), linalool (6.17%) and limonene (8.94%) which accounted for 67.31% of the whole oil. The antioxidant activity of McEO was evaluated using DPPH scavenging ability, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity. Moreover, the effect of McEO (250 mg kg⁻¹ body weight BW) administrated for 14 consecutive days was evaluated in wistar rat. Administration of a single dose of CCl4 caused hepatotoxicity as monitored by an increase in lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) as well in protein carbonyl level but decreased in antioxidant markers in the liver tissue. The McEO pre-treatment significantly prevented the increased plasma levels of hepatic markers and lipid levels induced by CCl4 in rats. Furthermore, this fraction improved biochemical and histological parameters as compared to CCl4-treated group. Our results suggest that M. communis contains promising substances to counteract the CCl4 intoxication and which may be efficient in the prevention of hepatotoxicity complications.
Article
Full-text available
The present study evaluates the chemical profiling of the essential oil of a halophyte, L. maritima (LmEO), and its protective potential against CCl4-induced oxidative stress in rats. Forty compounds have been identified in LmEO. The major components are α-pinene (3.51%), benzyl alcohol (8.65%), linalool (22.43%), pulegone (3.33%), 1-phenyl butanone (7.33%), globulol (4.32%), γ-terpinene (6.15%), terpinen-4-ol (4.31%), α-terpineol (3.9%), ledol (3.59%), epi-α-cadinol (3.05%) and α-cadinol (4.91%). In comparison with the CCl4-intoxicated group, LmEO treatment resulted in decreased liver serum marker enzymes, decreased lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant enzyme levels, with overall further amelioration of oxidative stress. The administration of LmEO to CCl4-treated rats at a dose of 250 mg kg⁻¹ body weight significantly reduced the toxic effects and the oxidative stress on the liver, thus validating the traditional medicinal claim of this plant. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of LmEO was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 cells. Our oil could modulate the inflammatory mode of the macrophages by causing reduction in iNOS and COX2 enzymes as well as in IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α cytokine levels. These findings suggest that LmEO exerts anti-inflammatory effects by regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines.
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives: The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) leaf, ripe and unripe peel essential oils, cultivated in southwest of Iran, were investigated. Materials and Methods: The analysis of chemical composition of hydro-distilled essential oils was carried out by GC-MS. The disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution were used to assay the antimicrobial effect of achieved essential oils. Results: According to the GC-MS analysis, 34, 39 and 21 components were determined in the leaf, ripe and unripe peel, respectively. The results revealed that the main components of all essential oils were linalool and limonene. The oxygenated monoterpene and hydrocarbonated monoterpene were the main chemical groups of leaf and peel essential oils, respectively. Although all of the examined essential oils had antimicrobial potential, the leaf and unripe peel essential oils with MIC of 4.67 mg/ml were the most effective against the bacteria and yeast species, respectively, and the ripe peel essential oil was the weakest one. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was controlled in the treated orange juices. The antifungal activity of essential oils was increased by rising up in their concentration and decreased by passing time. Unripe and ripe essential oils showed the strongest and weakest anti yeast potential, respectively. Conclusions: The essential oils of leaves and ripe and unripe peels of bitter orange could be used as natural preservatives in food industry.
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various extracts (prepared by using solvents of varying polarity) of Salvia tomentosa (Miller). The essential oil was particularly found to possess strong antimicrobial activity while other non-polar extracts and subfractions showed moderate activities while polar extracts remained almost inactive. GC and GC/MS analyses of the oil resulted in the identification of 44 compounds, representing 97.7% of the oil; β-pinene (39.7%), α-pinene (10.9%) and camphor (9.7%) were the main components. The samples were also subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In the first case, the free radical scavenging activity of aqueous methanol extract (MW) was superior to all other extracts (IC50=18.7 μg/ml). Polar extracts exhibited stronger activities than non-polar extracts. In the case of the linoleic acid system, oxidation of the linoleic acid was effectively inhibited by the polar subfraction of the MW extract, while the oil was less effective. The MW extract showed 90.6% inhibition, that is close to the synthetic antioxidant BHT.
Article
Full-text available
Clove bud essential oil (CEO) and its major individual phenolic constituent eugenol were formulated as nanoparticles in water-based microemulsion systems. The oil titration method was used to incorporate different amounts of the oil and eugenol in the micellar solution of Tween-20. The Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were evaluated using the DPPH* free radical scavenging assay and the agar disc dilution method, respectively. Results showed that microemulsion improved the evaluated activities of CEO and eugenol compared with the crude counterparts. Individual eugenol microemulsion was more effective than CEO microemulsion which contained only 61.7% eugenol among its constituents. The results of this study could have potential applications in water-based disinfectants, preservation and flavoring of food and in personal hygiene products. It may also have promising applications in the nutraceutical and functional beverage field.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of distillation time (DT) (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 240, 360, 480 minutes) on yield, oil profile and antioxidant capacity of female Juniperus scopulorum trees. Analysis of the data revealed that essential oil yields reached a maximum of 0.77% at 240 minutes DT; the concentrations of alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, myrcene and para-cymene decreased with longer DT; and the concentrations of cis-sabinene hydrate and linalool/trans-sabinene hydrate reached maximum at 40 minutes DT, whereas that of pregeijerene-B, delta-carene reached maximum at 240 minutes DT. The concentrations of alpha-terpinene, limonene, gamma-terpinene and 4-terpineol reached their maximum at 360 minutes DT, whereas terpinolene, alpha-eudesmol/ beta-eudesmol and 8-alpha acetoxyelemol reached maximum at 480 minutes DT. The yield of various essential oil constituents increased with increasing DT and reached maximum at 240 minutes or longer. The antioxidant capacity of J. scopulorum leaf essential oil increased with longer DT and was highest at 480 minutes DT. In conclusion, DT can be used as a tool to obtain an essential oil with differential composition and antioxidant activity. This paper can be used as a reference for comparing reports where different DTs were applied to extract essential oil from the leaves of female J. scopulorum.
Article
Full-text available
A detailed analysis of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil from Sardinia and Corsica (-pinene/verbenone/bornyl acetate chemotype) was carried out using GC–RI, GC–MS and 13C-NMR, on the bulk sample or after repeated chromatography. Fifty-eight compounds were identified. The antimicrobial activity of two Sardinian samples was investigated and both exhibited a moderate antibacterial activity. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive (MIC 2.5–4 mg/ml) than Gram-negative bacteria. Killing time experiments demonstrated that prolonged times (60 min) are needed to completely inactivate the bacterial inoculum. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Full-text available
The replacement of synthetic antioxidants by safe natural antioxidants fosters research on the screening of vegetables and food as sources of new antioxidants. Moreover, oxidative degeneration of cells is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. On the basis of these considerations this work aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties [by using the diphenyl picryl hydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and ferric reducing ability of plasma assays, and the β-carotene bleaching test] and the anti-cholinesterase activity of Citrus aurantifolia peel and leaves from different areas of growth. Methanol extracts of the peel and leaves demonstrated the strongest radical scavenging activity. A similar trend was observed with the reducing ability, with values from 112.1 to 146.0 µmol L(-1) Fe(II) g(-1) . The relationship between phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity was statistically investigated. Based on analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography, the most abundant flavonoids found in C. aurantifolia extracts were apigenin, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol and nobiletin. n-Hexane fractions of both peel and leaves showed a good acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC(50) values in the range 91.4-107.4 µg mL(-1) . Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as most common components. The findings of this study suggest a potential use of C. aurantifolia peel and leaves for supplements for human health. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Article
Full-text available
The compositions of essential oils isolated from nine samples of three Thymus species (Thymus algeriensis, Thymus pallescens and Thymus dréatensis) were analysed by GC and GC–MS, and a total of 114 components were identified. T. pallescens collected from various regions showed a great similarity in their compositions and were characterised by carvacrol (44.4–57.7%), p-cymene (10.3–17.3%) and γ-terpinene (10.8–14.2%) as the major components for four samples; only one sample was thymol-rich (49.3%) with a small amount of carvacrol (9.0%). On the other hand, T. algeriensis showed a chemical polymorphism, even for samples from the same location, and two new chemotypes for this species were proposed. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes were the predominant class (76.3%) in T. dreatensis oil, with linalool (30.4%), thymol (20.2%) and geraniol (19.6%) as the principal constituents. The oils were screened for their possible antioxidant activities by four complementary assays, namely DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power. The two new chemotypes of T. algeriensis exhibited strong hydroxyl radical scavenging (IC50 = 2.2–3.3 μg/ml), but were not or only slightly active against the other radicals and exhibited a weak reducing power. Despite their chemical similarity, T. pallescens oils sometimes produced significant differences in their antioxidant activities. The essential oils were also screened for their antimicrobial activity against five bacteria (three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative) and one yeast (Candida albicans). The tested essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms used, in particular against two important pathogens, C. albicans and Helicobacter pylori.
Article
Full-text available
A novel, lipid-degrading bacterium (strain AHD-1) was isolated from soil regularly contaminated with washing-machine wastewater in Sfax, Tunisia. When this strain was grown in a medium containing 2% triacylglycerol, the hydrolysis products were found to be diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols and free fatty acids. This strain was an aerobic, mesophilic, Gram-negative, motile, non-sporulating bacterium, capable of growing optimally at pH 7 and 27 degrees C. The predominant fatty acids were found to be C16:1omega7c (31%), C16:0 (28.1%), C18:1 omega7c (16.3%) and C17:0 (5.8%). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that this isolate is a new strain belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Strain AHD-1 was found to be closely related to Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603T, Pseudomonas gessardii CIP 105469T and Pseudomonas libanensis CIP 105460T with 99.7%, 99.56% and 99.54% of similarity, respectively.
Article
Full-text available
Research into the mode of action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree oil) is briefly reviewed. Its mode of action is interpreted in terms of the membrane-toxicity of its monoterpenoid components and different approaches for determining cell membrane damage are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The MICs of rabeprazole sodium (RPZ), a newly developed benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor (PPI), against 133 clinicalHelicobacter pylori strains revealed a higher degree of activity than the another two PPIs, lansoprazole and omeprazole. Time-kill curve assays of RPZ, when combined with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, or metronidazole, disclosed that synergistic effects were demonstrated in combination with each antibiotic examined. Moreover, no apparent antagonistic effect appeared among all of the strains tested.
Article
Full-text available
A standardized mixture of Chinese herbs has recently been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for chronic atopic eczema in placebo controlled trials in the UK. Aqueous decoctions of this formulated mixture (PSE 222), the placebo mixture, and their component herbs were examined for antioxidant activity to determine whether antioxidant activity could account for the anti-eczema activity. Two measures of antioxidant activity were employed: the DPPH assay for non-specific hydrogen atom (or electron) donating activity and a superoxide scavenging assay. Antioxidant activity was detected in some components of both the active and placebo mixtures, but the formulated active mixture (PSE 222) was significantly more effective than the formulated placebo mixture. Further studies are needed to elucidate the in vivo significance of this result.
Article
Full-text available
FULL TEXT available free from http://aac.asm.org/content/46/6/1914.full.pdf+html The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement of the optical density at 620 nm, although cells became disproportionately sensitive to subsequent autolysis. Loss of 260-nm-absorbing material occurred after treatment with concentrations equivalent to the MIC, particularly after treatment with 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpineol. S. aureus organisms treated with tea tree oil or its components at the MIC or two times the MIC showed a significant loss of tolerance to NaCl. When the agents were tested at one-half the MIC, only 1,8-cineole significantly reduced the tolerance of S. aureus to NaCl. Electron microscopy of terpinen-4-ol-treated cells showed the formation of mesosomes and the loss of cytoplasmic contents. The predisposition to lysis, the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material, the loss of tolerance to NaCl, and the altered morphology seen by electron microscopy all suggest that tea tree oil and its components compromise the cytoplasmic membrane.
Article
Full-text available
The chemical composition of the essential oils of Achillea holosericea, Achillea taygetea, Achillea fraasii was determined by GC/MS analysis. Among the ninety-five assayed constituents, camphor, borneol and 1,8-cineol were found to be the major components. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of these essential oils was evaluated against six bacteria indicating that the first is totally inactive, while the other two possess moderate to strong activities mainly against the Gram negative strains. The essential oil of A. fraasii was also active against the tested pathogenic fungi.
Article
Full-text available
Citrus aurantium L. is commonly used as an alternative treatment for insomnia, anxiety and epilepsy. Essential oil from peel (EOP) and hydroethanolic (70% w/v) extract (HE) from leaves were obtained. Hexanic (HF), dichloromethanic (DF) and final aqueous (AF) fractions were obtained from HE by successive partitions. Swiss male mice (35-45 g) were treated orally with 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of these preparations 30 min before the experiments for the evaluation of the sedative/hypnotic activity (sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital - SPB: 40 mg/kg, i.p.), anxiolytic activity (elevated plus maze--EPM) and anticonvulsant activity (induced by pentylenetetrazole--PTZ: 85 mg/kg, sc or by maximal electroshock--MES: 50 mA, 0.11 s, corneal). The results showed that EOP (0.5 g/kg) increased the latency period of tonic seizures in both convulsing experimental models. This effect was not dose-dependent. Treatment with 1.0 g/kg increased the sleeping time induced by barbiturates and the time spent in the open arms of the EPM. Specific tests indicated that the preparation, in both doses used, did not promote deficits in general activity or motor coordination. HF and DF fractions (1.0 g/kg) did not interfere in the epileptic seizures, but were able to enhance the sleeping time induced by barbiturates. The results obtained with EOP in the anxiety model, and with EOP, HF and DF in the sedation model, are in accord with the ethnopharmacological use of Citrus aurantium L., which could be useful in primary medical care, after toxicological investigation.
Article
Full-text available
Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet and are widespread constituents of fruits, vegetables, cereals, dry legumes, chocolate, and beverages, such as tea, coffee, or wine. Experimental studies on animals or cultured human cell lines support a role of polyphenols in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, or osteoporosis. However, it is very difficult to predict from these results the effects of polyphenol intake on disease prevention in humans. One of the reasons is that these studies have often been conducted at doses or concentrations far beyond those documented in humans. The few clinical studies on biomarkers of oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and tumor or bone resorption biomarkers have often led to contradictory results. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown an inverse association between the risk of myocardial infarction and the consumption of tea and wine or the intake level of some particular flavonoids, but no clear associations have been found between cancer risk and polyphenol consumption. More human studies are needed to provide clear evidence of their health protective effects and to better evaluate the risks possibly resulting from too high a polyphenol consumption.
Chapter
Most food grade proteins derived from animal sources do not lend themselves to incorporation into certain formulated and synthesized food products without major preparative procedures. Animal proteins are, also, steadily increasing in cost and are becoming less available. In many cases oil-seed products extend, supplement, or replace more costly ingredients without detracting from the quality of the finished food. Oil-seed proteins may also be used to supplement or replace foods from other plant sources in order to enhance their nutritional value or alter their sensory characteristics.
Article
Salvia fructicosa essential oil analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed high contents of 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone, and camphor, representing 47.48%, 11.93%, and 9.04% of the total oil, respectively. The essential oil and its isolated components thujone and 1,8-cineole exhibited antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial strains, while camphor was almost inactive against all of the bacteria tested. The essential oil was bactericidal at 1/4000 dilution, and dilutions up to 1/10000 caused considerable decrease in bacterial growth rates. The essential oil of S. fructicosa and the three main components exhibited cytotoxic activity against African Green Monkey kidney (Vero) cells and high levels of virucidal activity against herpes simplex virus 1, a ubiquitous human virus. Keywords: Salvia fructicosa; essential oil; antimicrobial activity; cytotoxicity; antiviral activity (herpes simplex virus); camphor; 1,8-cineole; thujone
Article
Nutritional research on the health benefits of substances in plant foods has recently advanced to a new stage. The research frontier has moved from study of classical vitamin deficiency diseases to study of the thousands of phytochemicals that may have important physiological effects. Recent research suggests that citrus fruit consumers may be getting another health benefit from orange juice and other citrus products called limonoids, which appear to possess substantial anticancer activity. Limonoids are highly oxidized triterpenes present in Rutaceae and Maliaceae families. Several citrus limonoids have recently been subjected to anticancer screening utilizing laboratory animals and human breast cancer cells. The experimental results described that citrus limonoids may provide substantial anticancer actions. The compounds have been shown to be free of toxic effects in animal models, so potential exists for the use of limonoids against human cancer in either natural fruits, in citrus fortified with limonoids, or in purified forms of specific limonoids. Although the initial studies are very promising they have been conducted primarily with in vitro cell culture and animal models. Thus, research is needed to determine whether the limonoids may be useful in preventing or treating cancer in humans. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The essential oil in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Herba Artemisiae Scopariae (HAC) grown in China was obtained by hydrodistillation and studied by GC and GC-MS. Twenty compounds were identified representing 96.6% of the essential oil, of which the most prominent were n-hexadecanoic acid (33.1%), caryophyllene oxide (19.1%) and spathulenol (9.9%). The antioxidant activity of the essential oil (25-400 µg/ml) of HAC was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The essential oil of HAC exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, which possess a good potential for use in the food and pharmaceutical industry.
Article
The antimicrobial properties of essential oils (EOs) have been recognised for centuries and, with growing demand from changes in legislation, consumer trends and increasing isolation of antibiotic resistant pathogens, alternatives to chemical-based bactericides need to be found. Citrus oils not only lend themselves to use in food but also are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and have been found to be inhibitory both in direct oil and vapour form against a range of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This group of oils may provide the natural antimicrobials that the food industry requires to fulfil both its requirements and those of the consumer.
Article
Antioxidants minimize oxidation of the lipid components in foods. There is an increasing interest in the use of natural and/or synthetic antioxidants in food preservation, but it is important to evaluate such compounds fully for both antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties. The properties of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, hydroxytyrosol and zingerone were characterized in detail. Thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol and hydroxytyrosol decreased peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes in the presence of iron(III) and ascorbate, but zingerone had only a weak inhibitory effect on the system. The compounds were good scavengers of peroxyl radicals (CCl3O2; calculated rate constants > 106m−1 sec−1) generated by pulse radiolysis. Thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol and zingerone were not able to accelerate DNA damage in the bleomycin-Fe(III) system. Hydroxytyrosol promoted deoxyribose damage in the deoxyribose assay and also promoted DNA damage in the bleomycin-Fe(III) system. This promotion was inhibited strongly in the deoxyribose assay by the addition of bovine serum albumin to the reaction mixtures. Our data suggest that thymol, carvacrol and 6-gingerol possess useful antioxidant properties and may become important in the search for ‘natural’ replacements for ‘synthetic’ antioxidant food additives.
Article
The fate of antibiotics in the environment, and especially antibiotics used in animal husbandry, is subject to recent studies and the issue of this review. The assumed quantity of antibiotics excreted by animal husbandry adds up to thousands of tonnes per year. Administered medicines, their metabolites or degradation products reach the terrestrial and aquatic environment by the application of manure or slurry to areas used agriculturally, or by pasture-reared animals excreting directly on the land, followed by surface run-off, driftage or leaching in deeper layers of the earth. The scientific interest in antimicrobially active compounds in manure and soil, but also in surface and ground water, has increased during the last decade. On the one side, scientific interest has focused on the behaviour of antibiotics and their fate in the environment, on the other hand, their impact on environmental and other bacteria has become an issue of research. Analytical methods have now been developed appropriately and studies using these new techniques provide accurate data on concentrations of antimicrobial compounds and their residues in different organic matters. Some antibiotics seem to persist a long time in the environment, especially in soil, while others degrade very fast. Not only the fate of these pharmaceuticals but their origin as well is an object of scientific interest. Besides human input via wastewater and other effluents, livestock production has been recognised as a source of contamination. One main concern with regard to the excessive use of antibiotics in livestock production is the potential promotion of resistance and the resulting disadvantages in the therapeutic use of antimicrobials. Since the beginning of antibiotic therapy, more and more resistant bacterial strains have been isolated from environmental sources showing one or multiple resistance. There have been several attempts to use antibiotic resistance patterns in different bacteria as indicators for various sources of faecal pollution. This review gives an overview of the available data on the present use of veterinary antibiotics in agriculture, on the occurrence of antibiotic compounds and resistant bacteria in soil and water and demonstrates the need for further studies.
Article
Chemical fungicides provide the primary means for controlling postharvest fungal decay of fruit and vegetables. Continuous use of fungicides has faced two major obstacles—increasing public concern regarding contamination of perishables with fungicidal residues, and proliferation of resistance in the pathogen populations. The ultimate aim of recent research in this area has been the development and evaluation of various alternative control strategies to reduce dependency on synthetic fungicides. Several non-chemical treatments have been proposed for fungal decay control. Although these approaches have been shown to reduce postharvest rots of fruit and vegetables, each has limitations that can affect their commercial applicability. When used as stand-alone treatments, none of the non-chemical control methods has been clearly shown to offer a consistently economic level of disease control that warrants acceptance as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Recently, the exploitation of natural products to control decay and prolong storage life of perishables has received more and more attention. Biologically active natural products have the potential to replace synthetic fungicides. This review deals with exploitation of some natural products such as flavour compounds, acetic acid, jasmonates, glucosinolates, propolis, fusapyrone and deoxyfusapyrone, chitosan, essential oils and plant extracts for the management of fungal rotting of fruit and vegetables, thereby prolonging shelf life.
Article
There are a few reports on the antimicrobial activity of essential oils or their major constituents towards Shigella sp. The antimicrobial effect of basil and thyme essential oil and its major constituents thymol, p-cymene, estragol, linalool, and carvacrol was determined using the agar well diffusion assay. Thyme essential oil and thymol and carvacrol showed inhibition of Shigella sp. in the agar well diffusion method. The potential of thyme essential oil, thymol and carvacrol at 0.5% and 1.0% v/v for decontamination of lettuce was evaluated. A decrease of the shigellae was observed after washing with 0.5% while at 1% Shigella numbers dropped below the detection limit. However, the antimicrobial effect on a subsequent lettuce sample in the same decontamination solution was significantly decreased. In addition, application of thyme essential oil or thymol or carvacrol for decontamination is hampered by sensoric properties of the lettuce (browning, strong odour).
Article
The essential oil (EO) isolated by hydro-distillation from the peel of fully matured ripen fruits of Citrus reticulata Blanco were analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Thirty seven different components were identified constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil. The major components were limonene (46.7%), geranial (19.0%), neral (14.5%), geranyl acetate (3.9%), geraniol (3.5%), β-caryophyllene (2.6%), nerol (2.3%), neryl acetate (1.1%) etc. The antifungal activity of the oil was tested by poisoned food (PF) technique and the volatile activity (VA) assay against five plant pathogenic fungi viz Alternaria alternata (Aa), Rhizoctonia solani (Rs), Curvularia lunata (Cl), Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) and Helminthosporium oryzae (Ho). The oil showed better activity in VA assay. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Aa, Rs and Cl was 0.2 ml/100 ml whereas >0.2 ml/100 ml for Fo and Ho in PF technique. Fungal sporulation was also completely inhibited at 2 ml/100 ml of the oil except for Cl and Ho, which was only 0.5% (±0.5) and 0.25% (±0.25) respectively as compared to control.
Article
About 100 pure components of essential oils have been tested for their antioxidant effectiveness. The main classes of compounds, namely monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, benzene derivatives, and non isoprenoid components comprising alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, which are the most common constituents of essential oils, have been analysed. Two model systems for the antioxidant efficacy have been used; the first exploiting the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) method using egg yolk as oxydable substrate, the second measuring the formation of hydroperoxydienes from linoleic acid in a micellar system, using in both cases 2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP) as a radical initiator, and α-tocopherol as a reference compound. From a general point of view phenols were confirmed to possess the highest antioxidant activity. In particular some monoterpene hydrocarbons, namely, terpinolene, α- and γ-terpinene showed a significant protective action, whereas among the oxygenated components, beside the aforesaid phenols, allylic alcohols manifested an appreciable activity. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and non isoprenoid components subjected to this study showed a low, if any, antioxidant effect. The role of the different model systems and the relationship between structure and antioxidant effectiveness are discussed.
Article
Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oil constituents against Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Vibrio vulnificus was tested at 5, 10, 15, and 20% in 1% Tween 20 using a paper disk method. Eight constituents were then tested in liquid medium to determine minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC, respectively). V. vulnificus was most susceptible using disk assay. Carvacrol showed strong bactericidal activity against all tester strains, while limonene, nerolidol, and β-ionone were mostly inactive. Carvacrol was highly bactericidal against S. typhimurium and V. vulnificus in liquid medium (MBC 250 μg/mL). Citral and perillaldehyde had MBCs of 100 and 250 μg/mL against V. vulnificus. Terpineol and linalool were least potent against tester strains, with MBCs of 1000 μg/ mL. Citral, geraniol, and perillaldehyde at 500 μg/mL completely killed E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, and S. typhimurium, while citronellal at 250 μg/mL killed V. vulnificus. Therefore, these compounds could serve as potential antibacterial agents to inhibit pathogen growth in food.
Article
Anti-Candida activity of essential oils has been widely studied and as a consequence they are being investigated as possible alternatives or complementary therapeutic agents for candidosis. We reviewed the most studied essential oils concerning chemical composition and in vitro/in vivo studies under the perspective of their possible clinical use.