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Effects of blackberry juice on growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens and growth promotion of Lactobacillus

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... Berries, native North American fruits and their byproducts (pomaces) are of interest to researchers because of their potential market value and contribution to human health as well as their strong antimicrobial effect against several microbial pathogens [19][20][21][22]. Berries are rich in several phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, and other flavonoids [23,24]. ...
... There is evidence that flavanols that reach the large intestine may provide prebiotic-like benefits by promoting the at University of Maryland on May 14, 2015 http://japr.oxfordjournals.org/ Downloaded from growth of beneficial bacteria while inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria [21,29]. In addition, Biswas et al. [20] reported that blueberry juice had no effect on the growth of beneficial bacterial such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterum. ...
... We found that blackberry and blueberry pomace extracts inhibited the growth of S. Gallinarum and S. Pullorum in broth. In our previous studies, we also found that these extracts inhibited the growth of human enteric bacterial pathogens including Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and Listeria monocytogenes and poultry pathogen Pasteurella multocida [20][21][22]28]. Therefore, these bioactive compounds extracted from cheap, organic, and consumer-friendly byproducts of berry juice industry could act as natural feed additives for livestock production, especially for poultry. ...
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Fowl typhoid and pullorum disease, caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Gallinarum biovars Salmonella Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) and Salmonella Pullorum (S. Pullorum), remain large threat to the organic poultry industry. These infections are serious threats to poultry health and overall flock viability especially at their early age. These avian pathogens cause a significant production loss and price increase of poultry products especially organic poultry products due to lack of antibiotics use. As a result, alternative intervention strategies have become an urgent demand of the farmers. Natural antimicrobials from plant products, such as bioactive compounds from berry juice byproducts can play important role in such a situation. In this study, we showed that blackberry and blueberry pomace extracts inhibited S. Gallinarum and S. Pullorum growth in vitro. Two mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mL blackberry or blueberry pomace extract reduced the growth of both pathogens by more than 5 logs at 24 h in broth. In semisolid poultry fecal medium, which contains poultry gut nutrients available to the gut bacteria, 1.0 mg GAE/mL of both extracts reduced the growth of these pathogens by more than 2 logs at 24, 48, and 72-h time points. S. Gallinarum and S. Pullorum were completely inhibited by 1.0 mg GAE/mL both extracts in water. The growth of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) was unaffected in the presence of berry pomace extracts in broth but growth stimulation was observed in fecal medium when grown in presence of these extracts at 72 h. Moreover, L. plantarum completely inhibited S. Gallinarum and S. Pullorum when co-cultured in fecal medium in the presence of 1.0 mg GAE/mL of both pomace extracts. In this study, we conclude that bioactive extracts from berry pomace are potential antimicrobials for organic producers which will modulate poultry gut microflora and improve productivity, product safety, and quality.
... L. monocytogenes has been found in blueberries sampled from a fruit processing plant (95), but has not been linked to any outbreaks. Although many studies are available on the inhibitory effect of antioxidant extracts from berries on survival of multiple pathogens (11,19,40,43,53,56,74,75,80,87,94,108,141,143), there is little information on the growth of L. monocytogenes inoculated on whole raw berries. On one of the few available studies on the topic, Molinos et al. (89) reported no growth of L. monocytogenes populations on the surface of raspberries at 68C after 7 days, a 1.5-log CFU/g increase at 158C after 2 days, and a 1-log CFU/g increase at 228C after 2 days, which is consistent with our results. ...
... Sheng et al. (115) reported no significant growth (,0.5 log CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes on the surface of blueberries at 48C after 14 days, whereas Thang et al. (123) observed an initial nonbiologically significant increase of .0.5 log CFU/g at 1 to 28C on the surface of blueberries after 5 days, which was followed by a decline below the initial inoculation level after 15 more days. Although no prior studies on behavior of L. monocytogenes on whole raw blackberries were identified, Yang et al. (143) showed that addition of blackberry juice on milk resulted in significant inhibition of L. monocytogenes and other foodborne pathogens. A wide arrange of studies have looked into the potential antimicrobial effect of berries' juice (11,40,143), lyophilized berries (94,108), and phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin extracts from berries (19,40,43,53,56,74,75,87,94,108) against a whole array of pathogens, with variable inhibitory effects. ...
... Although no prior studies on behavior of L. monocytogenes on whole raw blackberries were identified, Yang et al. (143) showed that addition of blackberry juice on milk resulted in significant inhibition of L. monocytogenes and other foodborne pathogens. A wide arrange of studies have looked into the potential antimicrobial effect of berries' juice (11,40,143), lyophilized berries (94,108), and phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin extracts from berries (19,40,43,53,56,74,75,87,94,108) against a whole array of pathogens, with variable inhibitory effects. Cranberries have the best documented antimicrobial activity of all berries (43), and they have repeatedly shown to be effective on suppressing growth of L. monocytogenes (19,40,80,108,141) on multiple substrates, often displaying higher inhibitory power than extracts from other berries. ...
Article
Listeria monocytogenes causes relatively few outbreaks linked to whole fresh produce but triggers recalls each year in the United States. There are limited data on the influence of wet versus dry inoculation methods on pathogen growth on whole produce. A cocktail of five L. monocytogenes strains that included clinical, food, and environmental isolates associated with foodborne outbreaks and recalls was used. Cultures were combined to target a final wet inoculum concentration of 4 to 5 log CFU/mL. The dry inoculum was prepared by mixing wet inoculum with 100 g of sterile sand and drying for 24 h. Produce investigated belonged to major commodity families: Ericaceae (blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry), Rutaceae (lemon and mandarin orange), Rosaceae (sweet cherry), Solanaceae (tomato), Brassaceae (cauliflower and broccoli), and Apiaceae (carrot). Whole intact, inoculated fruit and vegetable commodities were incubated at 2, 12, 22, and 35 ± 2°C. Commodities were sampled for up to 28 days, and the experiment was replicated six times. The average maximum growth increase was obtained by measuring the maximum absolute increase for each replicate within a specific commodity, temperature, and inoculation method. Data for each commodity, replicate, and temperature were used to create primary growth or survival models describing the lag phase and growth or shoulder and decline as a function of time. Use of a liquid inoculum (versus dry inoculum) resulted in a markedly increased L. monocytogenes growth rate and growth magnitude on whole produce surfaces. Temperature highly influenced this difference: a greater effect seen with more commodities at higher temperatures (22 and 35°C) versus lower temperatures (2 and 12°C). These findings need to be explored for other commodities and pathogens. The degree to which wet or dry inoculation techniques more realistically mimic contamination conditions throughout the supply chain (e.g., production, harvest, postharvest, transportation, or retail) should be investigated. Highlights:
... Several reports indicates that foodborne pathogens are one of the main causes of death in the world. For example, in the United States, 1300 deaths are caused by 31 foodborne pathogens each year, in addition to 56000 hospitalizations and 9.4 million illnesses [14]. Campylobacter, Clostridium perfringens, E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Norovirus and Salmonella spp. ...
... Control of these foodborne enteric pathogens is a real challenge for food industry and public health agency. Moreover, it is very difficult to protect safety of food chains due to resurgence of multidrug resistant strains of foodborne pathogens [14]. Now probiotic therapy is thought to be an efficient way to improve the gut health and an alternative to antibiotic treatments. ...
... Probiotics, specifically LAB, are widely used in the food industry for fermentation but have gained attention from health professionals because of their potential useful effects. They contain many safe bioactive compounds such as bacteriocin to combat with bacterial pathogens [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years due to changes in lifestyle and eating behavior of the human populations, disease caused by contaminated food has increased significantly. Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enteric are three of the most important food borne bacterial pathogens and can lead to food borne diseases. Also today wide spread of resistance to antibiotics among bacteria occurs due to increased consumption of antibiotics. Therefore, there is a dire need for development of new types of safe antimicrobial compounds. In this field, the most extensive research and commercial practices are based on probiotic bacteria. Probiotics, specifically lactic acid bacteria, are broadly used in the food industry for fermentation. Furthermore, probiotics produce valuable antimicrobial products that results to health effects. Now, the use of probiotic for treatment of disease is thought to be an effective way to improve the gut health and an alternative for treatment by antibiotics. Probiotics contribute to food safety by inhibition of the growth of other bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria can be used as protective cultures to compete with several pathogens and undesired organisms. Since food safety has become a significant international concern, here we investigated application of lactic acid bacteria for controlling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes.
... [24][25][26][27] Furthermore, previous studies in our laboratory have provided evidence that berry juice also stimulates the growth of probiotics. 28 In this study, we aim at evaluating the combined effect of genetically modified LC with the over-expression of the linoleate isomerase gene and berry pomace phenolic extract (BPPE) against the survival ability of one of the major zoonotic pathogens, CJ, and its interaction with host cells. In addition, physicochemical properties and expression levels of pathogenic virulence mediatory genes were also investigated to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. ...
... Commercial blackberry and blueberry pomace samples (donated by Milne Fruit Products Inc., USA) were stored at −20°C and used to extract phenolic compounds according to the protocol previously described by Salaheen et al. and Yang et al. 26,28 A spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of total phenolic contents in blackberry and blueberry pomaces and expressed as the Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE). 29 Berry pomace phenolic extract (BPPE) was composed of blackberry and blueberry pomace extracts at a 1 : 1 (v/v) ratio. ...
... 17,22 The mechanism behind growth inhibition by the BPPE possibly involves phenolics damaging the bacterial cell membrane, and its role in inhibiting extracellular microbial enzyme secretion, obstruction on microbial metabolism and also increased growth of the probiotic strain in the presence of phenolic compounds may out-compete CJ in the growth media. 24,26,28 The combined effects of LC-CLA and BPPE were more pronounced against CJ pathogenesis; one of the most obvious reasons could be the increased growth of LC-CLA in the presence of BPPE. The BPPE in the presence of CFCS from the overnight culture of the probiotic strain was also able to reduce the growth of CJ and the explanation behind this inhibition may include acidic conditions generated by the metabolites from the probiotic strain, 33,34 and hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobial polypeptides produced by the probiotic strain. ...
Article
Campylobacter jejuni (CJ) is one of the predominant causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in the US and other developed countries. It causes campylobacteriosis through consumption of raw and undercooked poultry and poultry products. Probiotics and their metabolites such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) play crucial role in improving host health and act as antimicrobials against enteric pathogens. Further, prebiotics or prebiotic-like components such as bioactive phenolics from berry pomace can stimulate the growth of beneficial microbes including Lactobacillus casei (LC) and its metabolites, and competitively inhibit growth of enteric bacterial pathogens. In this study, we aimed to enhance the efficiency of antimicrobial/beneficial activities of LC and the amount of production of bioactive compounds by combining berry pomace phenolic extract (BPPE) and overproducing CLA in L. casei (LC-CLA). In mixed culture condition, LC-CLA in the presence of BPPE reduced the growth of CJ by more than 3 log CFU/ml within 48 h. Cell-free cultural supernatant (CFCS) of LC-CLA in the presence of BPPE also showed reduction of CJ within 24 h significantly. Interaction of CJ with cultured chicken fibroblast cells (DF-1), chicken macrophage (HD-11), and human epithelial cells (HeLa) were altered significantly. Treatments with BPPE and/or CFCS also altered the injured cell number, auto-aggregation capacity and cell surface hydrophobicity of CJ, significantly. Further, combined treatments with BPPE in the presence of LC-CLA altered the expression of multiple virulence genes such as ciaB, cdtB, cadF, flaA, flaB of CJ. Overall, BPPE enhanced the effect of LC-CLA in reduction of CJ survival ability, host cell-pathogen interactions, and virulence gene expression. This finding indicates that BPPE and LC-CLA in combination may be able to prevent colonization of CJ in poultry, reduce cross-contamination of poultry products and control poultry-borne campylobacteriosis in human.
... L. monocytogenes has been found in blueberries sampled from a fruit processing plant (95), but has not been linked to any outbreaks. Although many studies are available on the inhibitory effect of antioxidant extracts from berries on survival of multiple pathogens (11,19,40,43,53,56,74,75,80,87,94,108,141,143), there is little information on the growth of L. monocytogenes inoculated on whole raw berries. On one of the few available studies on the topic, Molinos et al. (89) reported no growth of L. monocytogenes populations on the surface of raspberries at 68C after 7 days, a 1.5-log CFU/g increase at 158C after 2 days, and a 1-log CFU/g increase at 228C after 2 days, which is consistent with our results. ...
... Sheng et al. (115) reported no significant growth (,0.5 log CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes on the surface of blueberries at 48C after 14 days, whereas Thang et al. (123) observed an initial nonbiologically significant increase of .0.5 log CFU/g at 1 to 28C on the surface of blueberries after 5 days, which was followed by a decline below the initial inoculation level after 15 more days. Although no prior studies on behavior of L. monocytogenes on whole raw blackberries were identified, Yang et al. (143) showed that addition of blackberry juice on milk resulted in significant inhibition of L. monocytogenes and other foodborne pathogens. A wide arrange of studies have looked into the potential antimicrobial effect of berries' juice (11,40,143), lyophilized berries (94,108), and phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin extracts from berries (19,40,43,53,56,74,75,87,94,108) against a whole array of pathogens, with variable inhibitory effects. ...
... Although no prior studies on behavior of L. monocytogenes on whole raw blackberries were identified, Yang et al. (143) showed that addition of blackberry juice on milk resulted in significant inhibition of L. monocytogenes and other foodborne pathogens. A wide arrange of studies have looked into the potential antimicrobial effect of berries' juice (11,40,143), lyophilized berries (94,108), and phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin extracts from berries (19,40,43,53,56,74,75,87,94,108) against a whole array of pathogens, with variable inhibitory effects. Cranberries have the best documented antimicrobial activity of all berries (43), and they have repeatedly shown to be effective on suppressing growth of L. monocytogenes (19,40,80,108,141) on multiple substrates, often displaying higher inhibitory power than extracts from other berries. ...
Article
Listeria monocytogenes was associated with more than 60 produce recalls, including tomato, cherry, broccoli, lemon, and lime, between 2017 and 2020. This study describes the effects of temperature, time, and food substrate as factors influencing L. monocytogenes behavior on whole intact raw fruits and vegetables. Ten intact whole fruit and vegetable commodities were chosen based on data gaps identified in a systematic literature review. Produce investigated belong to major commodity families: Ericaceae (blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry), Rutaceae (lemon and mandarin orange), Roseaceae (sweet cherry), Solanaceae (tomato), Brassaceae (cauliflower and broccoli), and Apiaceae (carrot). A cocktail of five L. monocytogenes strains that included clinical, food, or environmental isolates linked to foodborne outbreaks was used to inoculate intact whole fruits and vegetables. Samples were incubated at 2, 12, 22, 30, and 35°C with relative humidities matched to typical real-world conditions. Foods were sampled (n = 6) for up to 28 days, depending on temperature. Growth and decline rates were estimated using DMFit, an Excel add-in. Growth rates were compared with ComBase modeling predictions for L. monocytogenes. Almost every experiment showed initial growth, followed by subsequent decline. L. monocytogenes was able to grow on the whole intact surface of all produce tested, except for carrot. The 10 produce commodities supported growth of L. monocytogenes at 22 and 35°C. Growth and survival at 2 and 12°C varied by produce commodity. The standard deviation of the square root growth and decline rates showed significantly larger variability in both growth and decline rates within replicates as temperature increased. When L. monocytogenes growth occurred, it was conservatively modeled by ComBase Predictor, and growth was generally followed by decreases in concentration. This research will assist in understanding the risks of foodborne disease outbreaks and recalls associated with L. monocytogenes on fresh whole produce. Highlights:
... Fruit byproducts, especially blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) byproducts commonly known as pomace, contain bioactive phenolics including flavan, flavanone, flavones, glucuronides, glucosides, quinolones, catechol, coumarin, phenols, luteolines, tannins, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, xanthoxic acid [12]. Recent reports have shown that berry pomace phenolic extracts (BPEs) are antimicrobial against a wide variety of enteric bacterial pathogens [13][14][15][16] and in the presence of BPEs, growth of beneficial bacterial/probiotic is enhanced with increased production of the bioactive metabolites [17][18][19][20]. ...
... Changes of physicochemical properties including cell surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation and injured cell ratio of EHEC were evaluated following the methodologies previously described [16] with modifications in culture condition. In brief, EHEC was grown in LB broth or LB broth with BPEs (0.1 mg/ml GAE or 0.5 mg/ml GAE or 1.0 mg/ml GAE) or CFCSs collected from Lc or Lc + CLA in combination with BPEs at 37 °C for 18 h. ...
... The ability of EHEC to form biofilms on glass surfaces in the absence or presence of CFCSs and/or BPEs was performed following the method previously described [16]. Briefly, 100 µl of EHEC, containing approximately 5 × 10 5 CFU/ml, was inoculated in triplicate in wells of 6-well plates (Corning, USA) containing 22 × 22 mm 2 glass slides. ...
Article
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Background: Majority of enteric infections are foodborne and antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and treatment. However, probiotics or prebiotics or their combination offer a potential alternative intervention strategy for improving the host health and preventing foodborne pathogen colonization/infections in reservoir. Further, bioengineered probiotics expressing bioactive products to achieve specific function is highly desirable. Recently, we over-expressed mcra (myosin cross-reactive antigen) gene in Lactobacillus casei (Lc) and developed a bioengineered probiotics Lc + CLA which produce higher amounts of metabolites including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Furthermore, we also reported that prebiotic like components such as berry pomace (byproduct) phenolic extracts (BPEs) can enhance the growth of probiotics and improved the beneficial effects of probiotics. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial effect of modified Lc + CLA in combination of BPEs on growth, survival and pathogenesis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Results: In mixed culture condition, the growth of EHEC was significantly reduced in the presence Lc + CLA and/or BPEs. Cell-free cultural supernatant (CFCS) collected from Lc or Lc + CLA strain also inhibited the growth and survival of EHEC and the inhibitory effects of CFCSs against EHEC were enhanced in the presence of BPEs in concentration dependent manner. Interaction between EHEC and intestinal epithelial INT-407 cells were also altered significantly in the presence of either Lc or Lc + CLA strain or their CFCSs with or without BPEs. The expression of multiple virulence genes and physicochemical properties of EHEC were also altered when the bacterial cells were pretreated with CFCSs and/or BPEs. Conclusions: These results showed that diet containing bioactive Lc + CLA and natural prebiotic like component such as BPEs might be an effective way to prevent foodborne infections with EHEC.
... Gıda kaynaklı enfeksiyonlarda, S. Enteritidis, L.monocytogenes, enterohemorajik E. coli O157:H7 gibi patojenler ilk sıralarda yer almakta ve dünya genelinde ölümcül sonuçlara sebep olabilmektedir. Buna karşın, fermente gıdaların üretiminde kullanılan probiyotikler, özellikle de laktik asit bakterileri (L casei, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus vb.) sağlık üzerindeki yararlı etkilerinin yanısıra, barsak sağlığını iyileştirici (akut ishal, yangısal barsak hastalıklarında) ve antibiyotik uygulamalarına alternatif olmaları sebebiyle dikkat çekmektedirler [23,25]. ...
... [14]. Böğürtlen, ahududu ve çilek meyveler üzerinde yapılan bir diğer çalışmada ise sıvı ve katı besiyerine ilave edilen 1 mg/mL dozdaki meyve sularının 24 saatte S. Typhimurium üzerinde inhibe edici etki gösterdiği [3], tam yağlı ve yağsız süte ilave edilen böğürtlen suyunun (%10, v/v) ise S. Typhimurium ve L. monocytogenes seviyelerinde 2-4 log kob/mL düzeylerinde azalmaya neden olduğu belirlenmiştir [25]. Gr (-) bakteriler, fenolik bileşiklerin toksik etkisinden kendilerini koruyabilmek için efflux pompa sistemine sahip iken, Gr (+) bakteriler kalın peptidoglikan hücre duvarları sayesinde kendilerini çevre koşullarına karşı koruyabilmektedir [31]. ...
... Bakteri hücre zarının seçici geçirgen özellikte ve hasar görmemiş olması, mikroorganizmaları antibakteriyel etkiden korumaktadır. Flavonollar, sitoplazmik membran fonksiyonlarını veya enerji metabolizmasını inhibe ederek etkili olurken [48], kateşinler ise, yüzey proteinleriyle etkileşime girerek ve/veya H2O2 oluşturarak bakteri hücrelerine oksidatif strese sokmakta [49], antosiyaninler ise, hücre zarına zarar verdiğinden protein ve nükleik asit kaybına neden olmakta, adenozin trifosfataz (ATPaz), süper oksit dismutaz (SOD) gibi enzimlerin daha düşük aktivite göstermesine neden olarak patojenlerin gelişmesini engellemektedir [23,25,28,50]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) has a significant place among berry fruits, and is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, studies on plant-derived antimicrobial agents against pathogens have increased. In this study, the antibacterial activity of fresh and dried blueberry fruit and leaf extracts grown in three different locations of Erdek and Kapıdağ, Turkey and phenolic standards were determined. The extracts and phenolic standards were tested against Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC 13076), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus spp. aureus (ATCC 29213), Enterobacter aerogenes (ATCC 13048), Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2b, Salmonella Typhimurium, Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B 548, Lactobacillus casei NRRL B 1922, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B 4495 by the disc diffusion method. Fresh and dried blueberry fruit and leaf extracts exhibited phenolic composition with a dose-dependent inhibitory effect against the growth of pathogens and probiotics. The dried leaf extracts were the most effective (20-25 mm) against all bacteria (except L. acidophilus NRRL B 4495) in comparison to positive control (24-26 mm) while syringic acid (16-26 mm), trans ferulic acid (14-26 mm), and naringin (14-26 mm) were the most effective and caffeic acid (16-18 mm), resveratrol (16-19 mm) and (+)-catechin (16-18 mm) were the least effective phenolics on all pathogens. S. Enteritidis (ATCC 13076) was the most resistant to phenolics, followed by L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2b and S. Typhimurium. Syringic acid, hesperidin, 3-hydroxyl-4-methoxy-cinnamic acid, and rutin hydrate were the effective phenolics on LAB. Results indicated that blueberry extracts are effective against pathogens and LABs (except L.acidophilus), and they may have an important potential as a natural preservative while phenolic standards may exhibit variations in their effects. Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Disc diffusion, Blueberry, Extract, Phenolics
... Therefore, some studies have made efforts to stimulate the growth and acidification of L. plantarum in milk using growthpromoter supplements at laboratory scale. Excellent sources of antioxidant vitamins, bioactive compounds, and minerals dramatically promoted the biomass yield of L. plantarum in skim and whole milk, such as 6 key amino acids and 1 purine required for L. plantarum ST-III (Ma et al., 2016), glycine and dipeptide (Leu-Leu and Gly-Gly) for L. plantarum N4 (Saguir et al., 2008), 10% blackberry juice (Yang et al., 2014), and fermented carrot juice (Demir et al., 2006). Although previous studies have showed certain promotion of the growth and acidification of L. plantarum in milk, at present there are no practice standards and guidelines for commercial food-grade ingredients on pure L. plantarum strain application in yogurt preparations. ...
... Similar promotive effects on growth were observed in experiments supplemented with adenine, amino acids, and blackberry juice for other L. plantarum strains (ST-III, WCFS1, and LPHS; Ma et al., 2016;Yang et al., 2014). The logarithms of viable counts of L. plantarum in fermented milk supplemented with 0.1 g/L adenine and 0.2 g/L amino acids (Ile, Leu, Val, Tyr, Met, and Phe) were 8.34 and 9.18 cfu/g at 24 and 48 h, respectively. ...
Article
Fermented dairy products have been recognized as the best carriers for the administration of probiotics. Because one of the potential probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, has poor proteolytic ability and weak acidifying capacity in milk fermentation, the aim of this study was to preliminarily investigate the stimulation effect of plant-based meals on L. plantarum CCFM8661 growth in milk, and subsequently develop a yogurt or yogurt drinks containing probiotic strain L. plantarum CCFM8661. Milk supplemented with different concentrations (5 to 10%, wt/wt) of oat extract and malt extract, inoculated with 2.5 × 10⁷ cfu/mL of L. plantarum CCFM8661, and then incubated at 35°C. The pH value, titration acidity, and viable cell counts during 48-h fermentation at 35°C and 25-d storage at 4°C, were determined at different intervals. The results showed that the promotion effects of oat extract and malt extract on L. plantarum CCFM8661 growth rate in milk were much stronger than almond, walnut, sweet corn, peanut, and soybean meals. In addition, the stimulation effect of oat extract was associated with its concentration, and was much stronger than that of malt extract. Furthermore, viable counts and titration acidity of yogurt were gradually increased in the oat extract group, whereas viable counts were gradually decreased and titration acidity were slightly increased in the malt extract group during the 25-d storage at 4°C.
... Bioactive phenolics from berries, especially blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) pomace as feed or water supplement to reduce pre-harvest level of Salmonella contamination in farm animals, specifically poultry, might be a feasible alternative. Antimicrobial effects of phenolics present in berry fruits and their pomaces against enteric bacterial pathogens have been extensively studied (Biswas et al., 2012;Puupponen-Pimiä et al., 2005;Salaheen et al., 2014a;Yang et al., 2014). In our previous studies, we showed the bactericidal effect of phenolic extracts from berry fruits on Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Pullorum, and Pasteurella multocida (Salaheen et al., 2014a(Salaheen et al., , 2014bSalaheen et al., 2015). ...
... After a series of studies on the effect of phenolic extracts from berry pomaces on pathogenic bacteria and probiotics (Salaheen et al., 2014a;Salaheen et al., 2014b;Yang et al., 2014;Salaheen et al., 2015), in this study, we present the bactericidal effect of these extracts against pathogenesis and colonization of Salmonella in chicken gut. However, this does not deny the bacteriostatic nature that was noticed from the use of sublethal concentrations of these phenolic extracts that showed growth inhibition after 24 h but revealed reduced or no effect after longer period of exposure. ...
... Consequently, alternative antimicrobials are essential to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry without the risk of antibiotic resistance development. Bioactive phenolics from berries, especially blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) and blueberry (Vaccinium Corymbosum) byproducts commonly known as pomace showed potential applicability due to their high abundance and antimicrobial effects against a wide variety of bacterial pathogens ( Salaheen, Almario, & Biswas, 2014;Salaheen, Nguyen, Hewes, & Biswas, 2014;Salaheen, Nguyen, Mui, & Biswas, 2015;Yang, Hewes, Salaheen, Federman, & Biswas, 2014). Modes of actions of berry phenolics on bacterial pathogens include cell membrane damage ( Lacombe, Tadepalli, Hwang, & Wu, 2013), inhibition of metabolic enzymes ( Scalbert, 1991), deprivation of important growth substrates ( Puupponen-Pimi€ a et al., 2005), and synergistic influence on the growth of probiotics for competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria ( Salaheen et al., 2015). ...
... Due to high abundance and availabilities of these fruits and their byproducts in the US, the berry pomaces can be considered a plausible and economic raw material for phenolics extraction and to be used in farm animal production as alternative antimicrobials. After a series of studies on the effect of berry phenolics on pathogenic bacteria ( Salaheen, Almario, et al., 2014;Salaheen, Nguyen, et al., 2014;Salaheen et al., 2015;Yang et al., 2014), including C. jejuni, in this study, we present the effect of these phenolics against colonization of C. jejuni in chicken cecum. We determined the bactericidal and bacteriostatic nature of BPE on C. jejuni in vitro. ...
Article
This study was designed to determine the effects of bioactive phenolics (BPE) extracted from blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) byproducts/pomaces on Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broiler cecum. We raised a total of 120 Cobb-500 broiler chicks in duplicate trials up to 3 weeks to determine the effect of BPE on the reduction of colonization using a C. jejuni RM1221 marker strain in broiler cecum. We observed that, as a water supplement, 1.0 g Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/L of BPE reduced C. jejuni colonization level by 1 log in three weeks old broiler cecum compared to the control group. 1 g GAE/L of BPE also resulted a complete inhibition of the C. jejuni marker strain in drinking water with a potential for reduced horizontal transfer in poultry flocks. In a separate experiment, we also raised a total of 200 Cobb-500 broilers in duplicate trials up to 6 weeks to investigate natural colonization of Campylobacter in presence of BPE and observed that 1.0 g GAE/L of BPE reduced natural colonization level of Campylobacter by 2 logs in broiler cecum as a water supplement. Relative expression of several C. jejuni stress response genes, including rod shape determining protein (mreB) were down-regulated in the presence of sub-lethal concentration of BPE. Prolonged exposure of C. jejuni to BPE resulted the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BPE to increase from 0.5 to 1.0 mg GAE/mL; however, after single sub-culture in BPE-free broth, the MIC value revived to 0.5 mg GAE/mL. Findings from this study reveal the high potential of berry phenolics as green antimicrobials against enteric pathogen Campylobacter and application in the reduction of pre-harvest colonization level of Campylobacter in poultry gut.
... It is worth to emphasize that both blackberry pomace extracts inhibited growth of the strains of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, which are major causative agents for over half of the foodborne illnesses. Control of these foodborne enteric pathogens is a challenge for public health agencies and food industry (10,34). ...
... Although there are several studies referring to antimicrobial potential of blackberry fruit, leaves and stem extracts (5,10,14), only a few studies of blackberry pomace extracts have been published to date. In those studies blackberry pomace extract showed moderate activity only against Serratia marcenscens and Bacillus strains (35) or did not show any antibacterial activity (36). ...
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A large volume of industrial waste of biological origin is produced annually worldwide, causing a serious disposal problem even though it is a huge source of beneficial compounds which may be used for their high nutritional and bioactive properties. The bio-potential of blackberry pomace (waste) obtained after juice separation from the Čačanska bestrna and Thornfree cultivars was evaluated. Higher amounts of total and monomeric anthocyanins, total phenolics, and total flavonoids were found in Thornfree pomace extract and demonstrated stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (2.12 mmol TEAC g-1) than Čačanska bestrna pomace extract (1.03 mmol TEAC g-1). Both extracts highly increased apoptosis/necrosis ratios in all investigated cell lines. The highest cell growth inhibition effects (EC50=52.5 - 64.7 μg mL-1) and the highest increase of apoptosis (AI=12.2) were obtained in breast adenocarcinoma cell line. Both blackberry pomace extracts inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. In the reference and wild bacterial strains MIC and MBC/MFC were achieved in the 0.39-25 mg mL-1 and 0.78-25 mg mL-1 range, respectively. Blackberry cultivar pomaces are rich source of phytochemicals with significant health promoting properties that could be further utilized as beneficial food ingredients. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 31044]
... Then, the research was extended to yet another pathogen; Campylobacter jenuni. Physicochemical and virulence genes were both affected by the extract [37]. In this occasion, the authors reported an economic approach for extraction [37]. ...
... Physicochemical and virulence genes were both affected by the extract [37]. In this occasion, the authors reported an economic approach for extraction [37]. A relevant feature since usually from natural sources is usually expensive and can hinder scale-up. ...
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This report is intended to give an overlook at the essential oil and phytochemical applications on food producing animals when applied to feed. The first part aims to illustrate that gas chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC/MS) has become powerful tool for phytochemistry and some examples of typical constituents found in essential oils; relevant cases are mentioned (especially those oils extracted from plants found in tropical regions). Secondly, a brief overview of the most recent research encompassing the in vitro ability of some essential oils and phytochemicals to limit food borne bacterial growth is depicted. Finally, herein the reader will find some recent and relevant examples of essential oils and phytochemicals that are commonly used as additives in the feed, based on their beneficial properties for the animal (with particular attention as potential substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters). Hence, the review focuses specifically on three parts: i. chemical composition and analysis of plant derived active substances ii. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant derived substances and iii. essential oils and extracts applications in feed including poultry, cattle, rabbits, fish, pigs, and examples of other species.
... New potential of blackberry juice application in food products may be by providing oxidative stability (Viljanen et al., 2005), but it can also be used as a preservative material in food processing and an agent against food-borne infections as a natural antimicrobial agent (Yang et al., 2014). The growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 was significantly decreased, while the growth of Lactobacillus strains was stimulated in milk and broth by blackberry juice (Yang et al., 2014). ...
... New potential of blackberry juice application in food products may be by providing oxidative stability (Viljanen et al., 2005), but it can also be used as a preservative material in food processing and an agent against food-borne infections as a natural antimicrobial agent (Yang et al., 2014). The growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 was significantly decreased, while the growth of Lactobacillus strains was stimulated in milk and broth by blackberry juice (Yang et al., 2014). ...
... Several reports indicate that food-borne pathogens are one of the main causes of death in the world. For example, in the United States, 1,300 deaths are caused by 31 food borne pathogens each year, in addition to 56,000 hospitalizations and 9.4 million illnesses (Yang et al., 2014). Campylobacter spp, Clostridium perfringens, E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Norovirus and Salmonella spp. ...
... Control of these food borne enteric pathogens is a real challenge for food industry and public health agency. Moreover, it is very difficult to protect safety of food chains due to resurgence of multidrug resistant strains of foodborne pathogens (Yang et al., 2014). ...
Article
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ABSTACT The ability to preserve foods using bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated directly from foods is an innovative approach. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of cell free supernatant of lactic acid bacteria isolated from food samples on selected spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. A total of 48 food stuffs such as cucumber, fresh fish, nunu, meat, ogi, cheese and yoghurt were obtained aseptically and analyzed. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated using MRS agar and bacteriocin positive isolates were screened using disk diffusion assay against the test organisms. Antimicrobial activities of the cell free supernatants (CFS) of five of the best bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria were tested against selected pathogens. The selected bacteriocin-positive isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The highest inhibition zone of 40.5mm was recorded against S. pyogenes by L. plantarum with the least inhibition zone of 20.2mm recorded against E. coli by L. acidophilus. All the compounds produced by the lactic acid bacteria were fully inactivated by some of the proteolytic enzymes, which indicated their proteinaceous nature. The antimicrobial activity of the cell free supernatant of bacteriocins-producing lactic acid bacteria isolated in this work could serve as potential biopreservatives to control foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.
... Other authors have previously reported similar growth promotion effect by extracts of various berry origins on Lactobacillus spp. For instance, Yang, Hewes, Salaheen, Federman, and Biswas (2014) found that 10% blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) juice supplementation promoted the growth of L. casei, L. plantarum and L. rhamnosus by 1-4 log CFU/ml while the growth of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes was inhibited. Similarly, Molan, Lila, Mawson, and De (2009) reported a 2-3 log CFU/ml increase in L. rhamnosus population after 48 h in the presence of 10% and 25% (vol/ vol) water-soluble blueberry (Vaccinium asheii Reade) extracts. ...
... The stimulation observed in Lactobacillus spp. could mainly be explained by the diverse nutritional options provided by CE; i.e. carbohydrates such as sugars (~78% in the CE used), xyloglucans and oligosaccharides, as well as the potential ability of Lactobacillus spp. to metabolize and/or interact with cranberry phenolic compounds (Demir, Bahçeci, & Acar, 2006;Hervert-Hernández, Pintado, Rotger, & Goñi, 2009;Ozcan, Sun, Rowley, & Sela, 2017;Sánchez-Patán et al., 2012;Yang et al., 2014). A number of mechanisms may account for the stimulatory effect of phenolic compounds. ...
Article
The effect of cranberry pomace extract (CE), on the growth of commonly used meat fermentation starter cultures, and selected foodborne pathogens were studied. Ten meat starter culture strains, belonging to genus Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Staphylococcus, and three pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes were grown in either dextrose-free De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth, or dextrose-free tryptic soy broth, respectively. Six CE concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25% wt/vol) were used. Changes in bacterial growth at 37 °C was monitored by measuring absorbance at 600 nm. Concentration-dependent growth stimulation was observed for all starter cultures studied. Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. demonstrated maximum stimulatory concentration (MSC) at 0.5–1.00% wt/vol CE. Unlike Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. was more sensitive to CE with complete growth inhibition at concentration of 0.50% wt/vol or higher CE. Reduced growth at higher CE levels could be attributed to the combined effect of inherited acidity and increased phenolic content. All pathogens studied showed a higher sensitivity towards CE than the starter cultures. Findings suggested that CE can potentially be used as a natural antimicrobial against foodborne pathogens and growth promoter for certain meat starter cultures.
... Berries, particularly blueberry and blackberry, have also been reported to exert antibacterial activities because of their rich content in phenolic compounds. A 10% blackberry juice reduced the growth of major foodborne pathogens such as EHEC, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes [11]. The bioactive phenolic compounds from blueberry and blackberry pomace extracts are also effective in reducing growth and colonization of Campylobacter jejuni [12,13] and Salmonella Typhimurium [14]. ...
... After incubation, serial dilutions were made in PBS and plated on MRS/BHI agar to count bacterial CFU. Each treatment was performed thrice with triplicate to ensure reproducibility [11]. ...
... Milk was used as a model to examine the antimicrobial property of ohelo berry juice in food matrices. It is conceivable that the effectiveness of antimicrobials would be weakened in food than in broth media because of possible interactions of antimicrobials with food components, inactivation by enzymatic modification, poor solubility, and uneven distribution [2,54,55]. The present study showed that L. monocytogenes in milk increased in 72 h from 6 log to 7.3 and 8.5 log CFU/mL at 7 and 37 • C, respectively (Figure 4). ...
... Furthermore, the 50% juice exhibited bacteriostatic effects on L. monocytogenes in milk throughout incubation at 7 • C. Similar observations were reported by Biswas et al. [56], who investigated the effectiveness of blueberry juice mixed with skim milk (1:1) on the growth of L. monocytogenes. They found that the counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced by about 1.5 log CFU/mL after a 72-h incubation at 37 • C. Additionally, Yang et al. [55] concluded that the growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited in both whole and skim milk supplemented with 10% blackberry juice stored at 37 • C for 72 h. No significant difference was observed between whole milk and skim milk. ...
Article
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Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen and causes illnesses with a high mortality rate in susceptible populations. Several dairy-related outbreaks have been attributed to contamination by L. monocytogenes, which requires antimicrobial interventions to enhance the safety of these products. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of the ohelo berry (Vaccinium calycinum), a Hawaiian wild relative of cranberry, against L. monocytogenes in culture media and milk products. The effect of ohelo berry juice at its sub-inhibitory concentrations on the physicochemical properties, biofilm formation, and gene expression of L. monocytogenes was also investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ohelo berry juice against L. monocytogenes was 12.5%. The sub-inhibitory concentration of ohelo berry juice (6.25%) significantly increased the auto-aggregation and decreased the hydrophobicity, swimming motility, swarming motility, and biofilm formation capability of L. monocytogenes. The relative expression of genes for motility (flaA), biofilm formation and disinfectant resistance (sigB), invasion (iap), listeriolysin (hly), and phospholipase (plcA) was significantly downregulated in L. monocytogenes treated by the 6.25% juice. L. monocytogenes was significantly inhibited in whole and skim milk supplemented with 50% ohelo berry juice, regardless of the fat content. These findings highlight the potential of ohelo berry as a natural preservative and functional food to prevent L. monocytogenes infection.
... In addition, a few studies have reported previously that certain berry extracts exhibited neutral or positive effects on growth of probiotics (Gyawali, Ibrahim, 2012;Lacombe, Wu, White, Tadepalli, Andre, 2012;Yang, Hewes, Salaheen, Federman, Biswas, 2014). For instance, Lacombe and co-workers found that Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were insensitive to phenolic fractions of blueberry with a low reduction in growth after inoculation. ...
... The following MIC and MBC tests also confirmed their high tolerance to the same fractions (Lacombe, Wu, White, Tadepalli, Andre, 2012). Yang et al. observed a growth increase of L. rhamnosus strains introduced by blackberry juice in two different broths (Yang, Hewes, Salaheen, Federman, Biswas, 2014). Rauha, et al., (2000). ...
Thesis
Food safety is of worldwide importance and in close relation to human daily life and wellbeing. Preservatives are often necessary to ensure the shelf life of food products. Despite the generally proven safety of synthetic food additives, there is an increasing demand for natural food preservatives due to the preference for natural foods by the consumers. Fruits and leaves of berry plants contain a large group of phenolic compounds as secondary metabolites. These compounds have anti-microbial and anti-oxidative functions. There is potential to produce natural food-preservatives using berry and leaf extracts of different berry species. The aims of this research were: 1) to determine phenolic profiles of food grade water-ethanol extracts of leaves and fruits of thirteen Finnish berry-bearing plants; 2) to evaluate their anti-oxidative activities and antimicrobial effects on foodborne pathogens; 3) to study the influence of genotype (cultivars) and annual variation on phenolic profiles of berries among 21 cultivars of Ribes nigrum. The total content of phenolic compounds was significantly higher in aqueous-ethanol extracts of the leaves than in the corresponding extracts of the berries (8–71 vs. 54–786 mg/100 mL). Sea buckthorn leaves had the highest total content of phenolics (606–786 mg/100 mL) due to the abundance of ellagitannins. In the leaf extract of lingonberry, β-p-Arbutin accounted for over 40% of the total phenolics (271 mg/100 mL), followed by (+)-catechin, procyanidins, and quercetin glycosides. The leaf extract of bilberry was rich in caffeoylquinic acid (80% of the total content of phenolics). Anthocyanins formed the most dominant group of phenolic compounds in the dark-skinned berries, whereas sea buckthorn berries contained mostly isorhamnetin glycosides. There was considerable variation in both anti-oxidative and anti-bacterial activities among the extracts with strong correlations with the total content of phenolics. Flavonoids correlated strongly with the activities measured with Folin-Ciocalteu, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) assays. The correlation was especially strong between the anti-oxidative activity and the content of proanthocyanins (procyanidin dimers and trimers), flavan-3-ols ((+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin), and glycosylated flavonols (quercetins). Anthocyanins and non-flavonoid phenolic compounds correlated highly to the activity of scavenging DPPH radicals. Non-flavonoid phenolic compounds had major contribution to inhibition of the growth of some bacterial species, example of which is the correlation between content of ellagitannins and inhibitory capacity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus strains. Eight extracts of fruits and leaves were chosen for fractionation using Sephadex LH-20 column, and the anti-oxidative and anti-microbial activities of the fractions were further studied in order to pinpoint the major phenolics contributing to these activities. The results suggested that ORAC activities of quercetin glycosides might decrease with increasing number of sugar moieties. For mono-glycosylquercetins, the nature of sugar moieties might also influence the capacity of quenching peroxyl-radicals. Compared to S. aureus strains, Escherichia coli showed a higher resistance to phenolics in the fractions studied. The content and constituent of phenolics in blackcurrant berries differed significantly across cultivars and the studied growing years. The varying concentration of phenolic acid derivatives was the major compositional diversities among the cultivars (cultivated in the same location) originating from Scotland, Lithuania, and Finland. The cultivars of the same origin were grouped based on the concentration of 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin and cyanidin. The berries harvested in the two studied years differed in the concentration of phenolic acid conjugates and glycosylated quercetins.
... [20]. In contrast, they do not inhibit Gram-positive bacteria, such as Lactobacillus sp., or do so only to a limited extent [21][22][23]. This gives the opportunity to use ellagitannin preparations in functional foods, especially those containing probiotics. ...
Article
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The paper presents the chemical characteristics of ellagitannins isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit and their in vitro and in situ antifungal activity against Geotrichum candidum ŁOCK 0511. The study investigated a complex preparation containing various raspberry ellagitannins at a concentration of 86% w/w, as well as pure lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6. The ellagitannin preparation was obtained by extracting raspberry press cake and purifying the extract using Amberlite XAD resin, while individual compounds were isolated by means of preparative HPLC. The complex preparation was analyzed for the content of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols using HPLC and LC-MS. The antifungal activity of the complex ellagitannin preparation and the isolated ellagitannins was determined for the strain Geotrichum candidum. The MIC and MFC values (10.0 mg/mL and 30.0 mg/mL, respectively) were found to be the same for lambertianin C, sanguiin H-6, and the complex ellagitannin preparation. The fungistatic activity of the studied ellagitannin preparation at a concentration of 10 mg/mL, as determined by the poisoned medium method, was 65.2% following 6 day incubation of Geotrichum candidum, with the linear growth rate of only 16.2 mm/day. The corresponding parameters for the control sample were 0% and 56 mm/day, respectively. The study demonstrated both in vitro and in situ antifungal activity of raspberry ellagitannins against Geotrichum candidum.
... Furthermore, these fruits are not only rich in phenolic substances, but also contain important micronutrients, such as vitamins A, B9, C and E, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc and selenium[6,17]. Many of these compounds have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects, because they act as chemopreventive agents targeting oxidation, UV radiation, with consequent damage to the DNA[17,18]. Moreover, their high level of fructose makes them valuable for individuals with diabetes and the high dietary fiber content is important because fruit pectin acts as an intestinal regulator[5]. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, such as berry fruits, reduces the risk of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutraceutical proprieties of wild and cultivated blackberry (Rubus sp.) and wild elderberry (Sambuca nigra) fruits produced in some regions of Southern Italy, such as Basilicata and Campania. METHODS: Liquid chromatography and HPLC-UV system were used for the identification and quantification of individual health-promoting compounds. RESULTS: A comparative analysis of nutraceutical compounds in berry fruits produced by different regions of South Italy showed a high significant variability inter species (p<0.05), independently on location area, with higher values for wild than cultivated blackberries for the major part of compounds. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, differences in the health-promoting compounds of berry fruits belonging from different areas of South Italy were reported.
... Blueberry and mulberry juice prevent obesity with the rich content of anthocyanins and phenolics (Wu et al., 2013). In addition in previous studies, antimicrobial activity of these fruits and juices on some microorganisms were investigated (Yang et al., 2014). ...
Article
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This study was evaluated the quality properties of traditional drink sherbets that are prepared from black mulberry and blueberry fruits. After production sherbets were investigated to determine their pH, acidity, °brix and colour values, total sugar, phenolic, anthocyanin and antioxidant contents. Moreover the sherbets stored at 4°C during 2 months and the changes in these quality properties were examined per month. As a result statistically significant changes were observed in the quality properties of these sherbets of black mulberry and blueberry fruits which are known with their rich content of phytochemical compounds. The results show that in blueberry sherbet the degradation of phenolics was faster than black mulberry sherbet. Anthocyanins that are higher in black mulberry sherbets after production were preserved better in blueberry sherbets at the end of 2 nd month. L * and a * values decreased for blackberry and blueberry sherbets during storage. b* value decreased from 5.59 to 4.92 for blackberry sherbet while it increased from 0.62 to 0.79 for blueberry sherbet at the end of the storage time.
... Mostly, natural antimicrobials are obtained from plant sources like clove, cinnamon, thyme, oregano, rosemary, garlic etc. These offer great potential to be used for packaging muscle-based products (Feng, Fu, & Yang, 2017;Feng, Ng, Mik s-Krajnik & Yang, 2017;Hosseini, Rezaei, Zandi, & Farahmandghavi, 2016b;Selmi & Sadok, 2008;Yang, Hewes, Salaheen, Federman, & Biswas, 2014Zakipour & Divband, 2012). Similarly, other natural antimicrobial agents are obtained from substances produced from bacterial and fungal actions such as natamycin, pediocin, polypeptide nisin and various bacteriocins. ...
Article
Since the beginning of the current millennium, innovations in food packaging systems have evolved as a response to the continuous changes in market trends and consumer’s preferences for convenient, safe, healthy and quality food products. Active packaging (AP) system provides such functionalities to facilitate these demands and offers role beyond the traditional protection and inert barrier to the external environment. Various AP components such as antimicrobials, antioxidants, O2 scavengers, CO2 emitters/absorbers, moisture regulators, flavor releasers, and absorbers have been deliberately included in the package system for augmenting packaging performance. These constituents delay or stop chemical, microbial, enzymatic and oxidative spoilage, control weight loss, retain color and integrity of meat based products. Currently, the use of edible or biodegradable materials, plant extracts and nanomaterials are expected to substitute synthetic additives due to their packaging and waste management notions. This article reviews the principles and technological advances as well as the global patents and future research trends in AP sector with their applications focused on meat products.
... This suggested that the protective mechanism of AIRs can be strain-dependent. Although phenolic compounds in by-products have been reported to exert some prebiotic effect (Yang, Hewes, Salaheen, Federman, & Biswas, 2014), there was no significant correlations between TPC of AIRs and their corresponding viability of three strains. Hence, SDF could be seen as a better carrier to prevent probiotics against heat shock. ...
Article
Traditional alcoholic extraction from by-products always discards insoluble fiber-rich residues, generating a new ‘waste’ stream. To recover these alcohol-insoluble residues (AIRs), we used an ethanol-washing method to obtain these dietary fiber concentrates from six agro-industrial by-products (blackcurrant pomace, banana peels, clementine peel, oat hull, potato peel and wheat bran) and applied them as probiotic carriers. The functionalities of absorption capacities and the antioxidant capacities in AIRs were characterized. The results showed that the alcohol-washing method to obtain AIRs did not result in a loss in the dietary fiber fraction. Fruit AIRs still contained a high content of bound phenolic compounds, displaying long-term ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging capacities during a 4-h incubation. Different AIRs varied in water and oil holding capacity and protein absorption capacity. The protective effects of AIRs on three lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LMG9433T, Lactobacillus casei LMG6904T and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LMG25859) against heat shock were also investigated in Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broth supplemented with 1% AIRs After an 18-h incubation at 37 °C, all AIRs did not influence the growth of probiotics, while they mostly increased the tolerance to the gastric digestion of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LMG25859, efficiently improved the viability of three strains after heat shock. Among six AIRs, the one extracted from clementine peel performed better in improving the viability of probiotic cells after heat shock than the other AIRs. Valorizing dietary fiber concentrate as probiotic carriers can promisingly replenish the whole chain of the food recovery from agro-industrial by-products.
... For example, researchers have developed active packaging systems that are capable of interacting with the food product, package headspace, and/or the environment to enhance product shelf-life [4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. Among these systems, antimicrobial active packaging has gained considerable interest for delaying/preventing microbial growth in the product via controlled delivery of antimicrobial agents from the package structure or add-on carrier components (e.g., label, sachet, insert) [4,[11][12][13]. By virtue of their large surface area, electrospun nonwoven fibers are promising materials for the development of antimicrobial active packaging. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fresh meat products are highly perishable and require optimal packaging conditions to maintain and potentially extend shelf-life. Recently, researchers have developed functional, active packaging systems that are capable of interacting with food products, package headspace, and/or the environment to enhance product shelf-life. Among these systems, antimicrobial/antioxidant active packaging has gained considerable interest for delaying/preventing microbial growth and deteriorative oxidation reactions. This study evaluated the effectiveness of active linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) films coated with a polycaprolactone/chitosan nonwoven (Film 1) or LLDPE films coated with a polycaprolactone/chitosan nonwoven fortified with Colombian propolis extract (Film 2). The active LLDPE films were evaluated for the preservation of fresh pork loin (longissimus dorsi) chops during refrigerated storage at 4 °C for up to 20 d. The meat samples were analyzed for pH, instrumental color, purge loss, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and microbial stability (aerobic mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria). The incorporation of the propolis-containing nonwoven layer provided antioxidant and antimicrobial properties to LLDPE film, as evidenced by improved color stability, no differences in lipid oxidation, and a delay of 4 d for the onset of bacteria growth of pork chops during the refrigerated storage period.
... Many plant derivatives and essential oils derived from the citrus fruits and other plants contain secondary metabolites that can inhibit bacterial growth (Burt and Reinders, 2003;Burt, 2004). Essential oils, or fractions thereof, have been traditionally used as flavoring agents in foods, and it has frequently been noted that many possess antimicrobial properties (Smith-Palmer et al., 1998;Alzoreky and Nakahara, 2003;Ahn et al., 2014;Salaheen et al., 2014a;Yang et al., 2014;Budri et al., 2015). One past study examined clove and cinnamon oil for use in the treatment of mastitis-causing S. aureus biofilms and found them to be effective in reducing preformed biofilms (Budri et al., 2015). ...
Article
This experiment examined the effects of cold-pressed, terpeneless citrus-derived oil (CDO) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which a major cause of contagious bovine mastitis, and invasion of bovine mammary cells (MAC-T). To determine minimum inhibitory concentration, we used the broth dilution method, using CDO concentrations range from 0.0125 to 0.4% with 2-fold dilutions. Growth inhibition was examined by adding 0.00, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625% CDO to 10(5) cfu/mL S. aureus in nutrient broth and enumerating colonies after serial dilution. In a 96-well plate, S. aureus (10(7) cfu/mL) was allowed to form a biofilm, treated with 0, 0.025, 0.5, or 1% CDO, and then was measured using a spectrophotometer. Cytotoxic effect on immortalized MAC-T cells was also examined at various concentrations of CDO using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. We observed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of CDO to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in vitro was 0.025% CDO. A time kill curve for CDO action on S. aureus over 4 h was generated. The CDO completely eliminated S. aureus after 3 h of incubation at a concentration of 0.25%, or after 2 h of incubation at concentrations of 0.05%. It was also observed that CDO had no effect on preformed biofilms except at a concentration of 0.05%, in which a significant reduction in the measured absorbance was noted. In addition, the association and invasion of S. aureus to MAC-T cells were significantly inhibited after 1 h of treatment with CDO. Citrus-derived oil was also able to increase cellular proliferation of MAC-T cells at concentrations up 0.05% and had no effect at a concentration of 0.1% after 1 h. Our data suggests that CDO should be considered for further research as a preventive and therapeutic against bovine mastitis.
... The stimulating influence of phenolics on the growth of probiotic bacteria has been discussed in a number of papers. Yang and co-workers found that 10 % blackberry juice showed positive effects on the growth of L. casei and L. plantarum (1-4 log CFU mL -1 ) (Yang et al. 2014), whereas other researchers have shown that epicatechin in 44.86-12.19 nmol g -1 concentration practically does not stimulate or inhibit the growth of L. casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Lee et al. 2006). ...
Article
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The aim of the study was to determine in vitro biological activity of fruit ethanol extract from Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai (Japanese quince, JQ) and its important constituents (-)-epicatechin (EC) and chlorogenic acid (CA). The study also investigated the structural changes in phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes, and erythrocyte membranes (RBC) induced by the extract. It was found that the extract effectively inhibits oxidation of RBC, induced by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), and PC liposomes, induced by UVB radiation and AAPH. Furthermore, JQ extract to a significant degree inhibited the activity of the enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, involved in inflammatory reactions. The extract has more than 2 times greater activity in relation to COX-2 than COX-1 (selectivity ratio 0.48). JQ extract stimulated growth of the beneficial intestinal bacteria Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum. In the fluorimetric method by means of the probes Laurdan, DPH and TMA-DPH, and (1)H-NMR, we examined the structural changes induced by JQ and its EC and CA components. The results show that JQ and its components induce a considerable increase of the packing order of the polar heads of lipids with a slight decrease in mobility of the acyl chains. Lipid membrane rigidification could hinder the diffusion of free radicals, resulting in inhibition of oxidative damage induced by physicochemical agents. JQ extract has the ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of human serum albumin through static quenching. This report thus could be of huge significance in the food industry, pharmacology, and clinical medicine.
... Berries such as blueberry, blackberry and raspberry possess antimicrobial effects towards foodborne pathogens. Incorporation of blackberry juice(10%) into milk, clearly demonstrated growth inhibition of pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7, while promoting the growth of probiotic L. casei, L. plantarum and L. rhamnosus during incubation period (Yang et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
Probiotics are live microorganisms consist with a single strain or mixture of different strains that beneficially affect the host animal, by improving its intestinal microbial balance, when ingested in sufficient numbers. Dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese can be considered as the major vehicle in delivering probiotics. However, there is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods such as fruit and vegetable juices due to vegetarianism, lactose intolerance and dairy allergies, and interest in low cholesterol foods. The survivability of probiotic microorganisms, which is the most critical issue in the manufacturing of probiotic food products, should be maintained during production and subsequent storage since the low viability of probiotics affects their functional properties such as gastrointestinal tolerance and adhesion to intestinal epithelium of the host. In this regard, fruit juices can be used as suitable non-dairy food carrier in probiotic delivery, since fruit juices contain high amounts of sugars, dietary fibre, vitamins, antioxidants and minerals which can enhance the viability of probiotics during manufacturing and storage. Conversely, low pH and high phenol concentration of some fruit juices may contribute for loss of probiotic viability. Further, addition of probiotic microorganisms into fruit juices may alter the unique physico-chemical and sensory characteristics as well as shelf life of fruit juices. This chapter mainly focuses on recent evidences in using various types of fruit juices as mode of probiotic delivery, effect of fruit juices on the functional efficacy of probiotics, influence of probiotics on the physico-chemical, nutritional and sensory properties of fruit juices, health benefits of probiotic fruit juices and future trends of probiotic applications in fruit juices.
... This finding is supported by previous studies that showed increased F/B ratios were associated with AGP supplementation in feed and growth promotion in broilers (Singh et al., 2013;Mancabelli et al., 2016). In previous in vitro co-culture studies conducted in our lab, growth stimulation in Firmicutes, specifically probiotic Lactobacillus strains was detected in the presence of berry extracts in broth, or chicken fecal medium and addition of berry extracts resulted in a selective bias toward probiotic population when co-cultured with pathogens (Yang et al., 2014;Salaheen et al., 2015). These findings indicate that an increased Firmicutes level in chicken ceca might be one of the many factors responsible for growth promotion in chickens with BPE supplementation. ...
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Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) are frequently used to enhance weight-gain in poultry production. However, there has been increasing concern over the impact of AGP on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens in the microbial community of the poultry gut. In this study, we adopted mass-spectrophotometric, phylogenetic, and shotgun-metagenomic approaches to evaluate bioactive phenolic extracts (BPE) from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) pomaces as AGP alternatives in broilers. We conducted two trials with 100 Cobb-500 broiler chicks (in each trial) in four equal groups that were provided water with no supplementation, supplemented with AGP (tylosin, neomycin sulfate, bacitracin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline), or supplemented with 0.1 g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L or 1.0 g GAE/L (during the last 72 h before euthanasia) of BPE for 6 weeks. When compared with the control group (water only), the chickens supplemented with AGP and 0.1 g GAE/L of BPE gained 9.5 and 5.8% more body weight, respectively. The microbiomes of both the AGP- and BPE-treated chickens had higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios. AGP supplementation appeared to be associated with higher relative abundance of bacteriophages and unique cecal resistomes compared with BPE supplementation or control. Functional characterization of cecal microbiomes revealed significant animal-to-animal variation in the relative abundance of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings established a baseline upon which mechanisms of plant-based performance enhancers in regulation of animal growth can be investigated. In addition, the data will aid in designing alternate strategies to improve animal growth performance and consequently production.
... The phenolic compounds from blackberries are considered the most relevant phytonutrients that could be related to the prevention and/or treatment of many human conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, cataracts, diabetes, asthma, hepatitis, arthritis, immune deficiency diseases (Skrovankova et al., 2015). It has also been demonstrated that blackberry may affect the activity of several human pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and the Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria (Yang et al., 2014). On the other hand, the antimicrobial effects of the blackberry have been shown in case of Gramnegative Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. ...
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Wild berry is an excellent source of phytonutrients and/or bioactive compounds associated with significant therapeutic properties, so that they have been utilized in folk medicine and traditional nutrition throughout centuries. Multiple health-promoting effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-heart and coronary disease properties were attributed to such wild berries. It has also been proved that berries could feature antimicrobial effects that could be of a great importance for the prevention of food-feed poisoning and fighting back antibiotic resistance. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial properties of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) crude and ethanolic extracts prepared from fruits obtained from the spontaneous flora of Eastern Carpathian Mountains situated in Transylvania. The antimicrobial effect of crude and alcoholic extracts were assessed on four Gram-negative, five Gram-positive bacteria and one yeast species using the agar diffusion method. The studied bacteria can cause food or feed spoilage and foodborne diseases. Our results indicate the significant inhibitory effect of lingonberry extracts in the case of Gram-negative bacteria like Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella Hartford, while among Gram-positive bacteria the strongest inhibitory effect was observed for Bacillus species like B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. mojavensis and Micrococcus luteus. The raspberry and blackberry extracts featured milder inhibitory effects in the case of the studied bacteria species. Furthermore, we have studied the crude or ethanolic extract combinations associated antimicrobial effects synergistic/additive or antagonistic properties. Interestingly, the triple and double ethanolic extract mixes had stronger antimicrobial properties, whereas the crude extract mixes showed relatively reduced effects, if any. Our results indicate that the antimicrobial activity of studied fruit extracts obtained from wild berries can vary upon the applied extraction method and their combination formulae, so that all these considerations must be taken into account when such fruit extracts are considered for foodstuff development.
... Salaheen et al. [10] reported that blackberry, had a restrictive effect on the development of the Campylobacter jejuni bacteria by lowering its virulence. In a different study, it was determined that blackberry juices prevent the development of foodborne disease factors such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli (O157: H7) [38]. Blackberry maintains product stabilization and improves health effects with these aspects. ...
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This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical and anti-microbial properties of some blackberry cultivars namely Chester, Jumbo, Bursa 1 and Bursa 2. According to results the, phenolic compounds such as total flavonoid and anthocyanin content were found in the range of 29.05 (Bursa 2) – (Jumbo) 44.13 mg catechin 100 mL-1 and 30.08 (Bursa 2) - 60.27 (Chester) mg cyanidin-3-glucoside 100 mL-1, respectively. Bursa 1 has been noted prominent in terms of antioxidant activity (63.73%), followed by Bursa 2 (52.84%), Chester (52.5%) and Jumbo (47.57%). Among the blacberry cultivars, Jumbo and Chester were found highly effective against to Candida albicans while similar anti-fungal effectiveness was found in Bursa 2 to Candida parapisilozis. Moreover, Bursa 2 and Chester showed strong anti-bacterial effects to Enterococcus faecalis whereas against to Staphylococcus aureus Bursa 1 and Jumbo were determined highly effective. Although antioxidant activity had a high level of positive relationship with total phenol (0.88***), it was negatively correlated with vitamin C (-0.51*) and total flavonoid amount (-0.58**). Due to Anthocyanins are a kind of flavonoid compounds, high positive correlation (0.70***) detected between these two characteristics.
... Coman et al. (2018) proved that extracts from plum and grape peels and different parts of elderberry that were rich in anthocyanins inhibited the growth of various pathogens (Bacillus cereus, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, E. coli, and Candida albicans) and stimulated the growth of probiotic microorganisms (Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lacticaseibacillus paracasei IMC 502®, and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum IMC 509), both axenic and conglomerate. Similarly, Yang et al. (2014) observed a significant growth inhibition of L. monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 when supplementing nutrient broth and milk with 10% blackberry juice; at the same time, they reported the stimulation of the growth of Lacticaseibacillus casei, L. plantarum, and L. rhamnosus in the same media. This study indicated that diluted blackberry juice could have an antimicrobial effect against pathogenic microorganisms and a prebiotic potential upon probiotic microorganisms. ...
Article
Anthocyanin-rich fruit beverages are of special interest as functional products due to their antioxidant activity, antimicrobial properties against pathogens, and, more recently, evidence of prebiotic potential. The stability and bioactivity of anthocyanins, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been extensively documented in beverage models and reviewed separately. This review summarizes the most recent works and methodologies used for the development of probiotic and synbiotic beverages based on anthocyanin-rich fruits with a synergistic perspective. Emphasis is made on key optimization factors and strategies that have allowed probiotic cultures to reach the minimum recommended doses to obtain health benefits at the end of the shelf life. The development of these beverages is limited by the high acidity and high content of phenolic compounds in anthocyanin-rich fruits. However, a proper selection of probiotic strains and strategies for their media adaptation may improve their viability in the beverages. Fermentation increases the viability of the probiotic cultures, improves the safety and stability of the product, and may increase its antioxidant capacity. Moreover, fermentation metabolites may synergistically enhance probiotic health benefits. On the other hand, the inoculation of probiotics without fermentation allows for synbiotic beverages with milder changes in terms of physicochemical and sensory attributes.
... Moreover, recently studies have demonstrated that anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins present in juice obtained from blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) have antimicrobial activity against different foodborne pathogens, whereas they significantly stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus species. This finding opens the possibility of new probiotic therapies to improve the gut health and an alternative to antibiotic treatments [3,4]. Accumulating evidences suggest that genotype has a profound influence on concentrations of bioactive compounds in berries [5,6]. ...
Article
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Berry fruits contain high levels of different phytochemicals, most of which are phenolic molecules. Fruits of the same cultivar from different locations and different harvest years have different chemical compositions, particularly related to polyphenols. The difference may be due to specific climatic conditions, the type of soil in which the plants grow, and the stresses to which the plants were subjected because these phytochemicals are produced as a defensemechanismthrough a secondarymetabolic process. For this reason, it is important to establish simple and reliable procedure to determine polyphenolic compounds in berry fruits considering the increasing attention on these compounds for different potential uses. In order to choose and to improve the most adequate analytical procedure for the determination of the polyphenolic substances in berry fruits, different methods were applied and compared on samples of elderberry and blackberry.
... E. coli O157:H7 is considered to be an intrinsically acidresistant bacterium, surviving actually unaffected during 2 to 7 h exposures at 37°C and pH 2.5 (Benjamin and Datta, 1995;Buchanan et al., 2004). The pathogen has been shown experimentally to survive in a various of foods including acid, such as black mulberry juice, apple cider, red muscadine juice, blackberry juice (Zhao et al., 1993;Kim et al., 2009;Karabiyikli et al., 2012;Yang et al., 2014). However, the type and concentration the organic acids influence the survival status of microorganisms (Breidt et al., 2004). ...
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This work reports the survival status of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium in homemade fig and mulberry vinegar. Each pathogen was separately inoculated in vinegar samples at approximately 7 log CFU/mL. The survival status of pathogens was examined at 20°C for 0, 15, 30 and 60 min, and 4, 8 and 24 h. The residual populations after 24 h were below detection limit for all species assayed. S. Typhimurium was much more sensitive to mulberry vinegar ( 6 log reduction in 30 min) than it is to fig vinegar ( 6 log reduction in 24 h). L. monocytogenes had an overall quite different behaviour, being the most sensitive species to fig vinegar ( 6 log reduction in 4 h) while being the most resistant one to mulberry vinegar ( 6 log reduction in 24 h). The total phenolic content of fig vinegar (767 mg GAE/L) was higher than mulberry vinegar (557.5 mg GAE/L). The results exhibited that antimicrobial activity of vinegar is mainly related to the contact time, test pathogen and physicochemical properties of vinegar.
... Berries belonging to the genus Rubus (cloudberry, blackberry, and raspberry) and Fragaria (strawberry) inhibited S. typhimurium (Puupponen-Pimia et al., 2001) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml on agar and in liquid culture over 24 h. Blackberry juice (10 per cent v/v) demonstrated a 2-4 log CFU/ml reduction in numbers of E. coli O157:H7, S. typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes in both skim and whole milk (Yang et al., 2014). ...
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OBJECTIVES Berries are distinct from other foods because of their unique compounds with bioprotective effects and antimicrobial/prebiotic properties. With new knowledge of how these unique phytochemicals differentially affect microbial communities, inhibit foodborne pathogens, and conserve beneficial species, the health claims associated with berries can be further substantiated. This review explores components of berries that have antimicrobial or prebiotic properties and incorporates new knowledge gained from both in vitro and in vivo experiments. CONCLUSIONS With the continued research efforts, antimicrobials and prebiotics derived from berries may provide an alternative to synthetic preservatives and antibiotics in addition to providing health benefits to consumers. Berries could be applied to food products or as dietary interventions through elucidating which compounds have antimicrobial properties and how pH and nutrient condition impact their efficacy. In addition, these compounds can be added to foods with beneficial microorganisms with minimal impact on their probiotic viability.
... For instance, L. pentosus isolated from traditionalChinese ham has been shown to inhibit Listeria growth in vitro(Zhou et al., 2008). Another study, showed that black berry juice can inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and E.coli significantly (1-3 log), while lactobacilli growth was stimulated by 1-4 log(Yang, Hewes, Salaheen, Federman, & Biswas, 2014).Supernatants obtained from lactic acid bacteria have also been shown to reduce L. monocytogenes growth (1-1.5 log) in tryptic-soy agar(Allende et al., 2007). ...
Article
The current study investigates the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus plantarum combined with water extract of garlic on microbial growth, chemical changes, and sensory attributes in ground beef samples at refrigeration condition (+4°C) up to 12 days of storage. in vitro study revealed that garlic extract combined with L. reuteri or L. plantarum caused 2.13 and 2.57 log reduction in the Listeria monocytogenes count, respectively. Combination of L. plantarum and 1% garlic extract significantly (p < .05) reduced aerobic mesophilic bacteria (1.64 log cycle) and L. monocytogenes (1.44 log cycle) counts in ground beef. Lipid oxidation was also significantly (p < .05) lower in samples treated with L. plantarum plus garlic extract (1%). Furthermore, higher sensory scores were received by samples treated with Lactobacillus plus garlic extract. In conclusion, the combination of L. plantarum and garlic extract was found to be suitable to use in ground beef by controlling the L. monocytogenes growth and increasing its shelf life. Garlic extract not only has an antimicrobial activity but also has a stimulatory effect on the Lactobacillus spp. growth. On the other hand, some Lactobacillus strains can inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Then, the combination of Lactobacillus and garlic extract may be used to produce new bio‐preserved and functional meat products. The current study indicated the potential of Lactobacillus combined with garlic extract to control microbial and chemical changes in ground beef. The combination of Lactobacillus plantarum and garlic extract significantly (p < .05) reduced Listeria monocytogenes counts and lipid oxidation rates and improved the sensory scores in ground beef.
... Hence, we could conclude that PO or CO-SLNs were effective in maintain the growth of L. plantarum in DW during the storage period. In a study by Yang et al. (2014), the effects of blackberry juice on bacteria including pathogens and probiotic bacteria in addition to nutritional value were investigated. The results demonstrated growth inhibitory effects of blackberry juice on food borne pathogens and growth promontory effect on Lactobacillus. ...
Article
This study was performed to investigate the effect of palm or coconut solid lipid nanoparticles (PO-SLNs or CO-SLNs) on growth of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) in milk during storage period. The PO or CO (0.1% or 1.0%) was dispersed both in distilled water (DW) and ultra high temperature milk (UHTM), and subsequently emulsified with Tween® 80 by ultrasonication (30% power, 2 min). Increase in particle size and encapsulation efficiency (EE%) in DW was observed with an increase in oil concentration, whereas a decrease in ζ-potential of SLNs was noted with an increment in oil concentration. Moreover, the CO-SLNs exhibited relatively smaller particle size and higher EE% than PO-SLNs. The CO-SLNs were found to be more stable than PO-SLNs. Higher lipid oxidation of PO or CO-SLNs in UHTM was observed during the storage test, when compared to PO or CO-SLNs in DW. However, there was no remarkable difference in lipid oxidation during storage period (p>0.05). In the growth test, the viability of L. plantarum in control (without PO or CO-SLNs in DW) exhibited a dramatic decrease with increasing storage period. In addition, viability of L. plantarum of PO or COSLNs in UHTM was higher than that of SLNs in DW. Based on the present study, production of SLNs containing PO or CO in UHTM is proposed, which can be used in lactobacilli fortified beverages in food industry.
... Berry fruits are rich sources of bioactive compounds, such as phenolics and organic acids, which have antimicrobial activities against many microorganisms, including human pathogens. The antimicrobial activities of blueberry and blackberry against foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter jejuni, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Biswas et al., 2012;Yang et al., 2014) were demonstrated. The antimicrobial activity of eight Nordic berries (bilberry, lingonberry, cranberry, red raspberry, strawberry, cloudberry, blackcurrant, and sea-buckthorn berry) and berry phenolics were reported by Puupponen-Pimiä et al. (2005b). ...
... Moreover, Amaretti et al. (2015) observed that Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria can also metabolize flavonoids. Yang et al. (2014) found that black berry juice rich in flavonoids mostly contained anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, all of which promoted the growth of Lactobacilli strains confirming the capability of the flavonoids to increase Lactobacilli and improve the intestinal microflora community. Serra et al. (2006) showed that the tea flavonoids contained epicatechin, catechin, 3-O-methyl gallic acid which can suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria including Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile and Bacteroides spp. in humans. ...
... Salaheen et al. [10] reported that blackberry, had a restrictive effect on the development of the Campylobacter jejuni bacteria by lowering its virulence. In a different study, it was determined that blackberry juices prevent the development of foodborne disease factors such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli (O157: H7) [38]. Blackberry maintains product stabilization and improves health effects with these aspects. ...
Article
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This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical and anti-microbial properties of some blackberry cultivars namely Chester, Jumbo, Bursa 1 and Bursa 2. According to results the, phenolic compounds such as total flavonoid and anthocyanin content were found in the range of 29.05 (Bursa 2) – (Jumbo) 44.13 mg catechin 100 mL-1 and 30.08 (Bursa 2) - 60.27 (Chester) mg cyanidin-3-glucoside 100 mL-1, respectively. Bursa 1 has been noted prominent in terms of antioxidant activity (63.73%), followed by Bursa 2 (52.84%), Chester (52.5%) and Jumbo (47.57%). Among the blacberry cultivars, Jumbo and Chester were found highly effective against to Candida albicans while similar anti-fungal effectiveness was found in Bursa 2 to Candida parapisilozis. Moreover, Bursa 2 and Chester showed strong anti-bacterial effects to Enterococcus faecalis whereas against to Staphylococcus aureus Bursa 1 and Jumbo were determined highly effective. Although antioxidant activity had a high level of positive relationship with total phenol (0.88***), it was negatively correlated with vitamin C (-0.51*) and total flavonoid amount (-0.58**). Due to Anthocyanins are a kind of flavonoid compounds, high positive correlation (0.70***) detected between these two characteristics.
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Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in the dairy industry that does not always respond to antibiotic treatment. The major components of terpeneless, cold-pressed Valencia orange oil, citral, linalool, decanal, and valencene, were examined as potential alternative treatments for Staphylococcus aureus associated mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all four components against S. aureus was determined after 24 h incubation. Growth inhibition assay was performed for all effective components on S. aureus for either a 3 h or 72 h treatment. These components were tested for the ability to disrupt pre-formed S. aureus biofilms after 24 h of treatment by measuring absorbances at 540nm. Cytotoxicity against immortalized bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells was measured using MTT assay following a 1 h exposure. Only concentrations below the 50% cytostatic concentration (CC50) were used in an adherence and invasion assay of S. aureus on MAC-T cells and measurements of gene expression for virulence and biofilm genes via qPCR. The MICs of citral and linalool were 0.02% and 0.12%, respectively, but decanal and valencene were ineffective. Citral and linalool were capable of inhibiting growth of S. aureus after 24 h at their MIC values and inhibited pre-formed biofilms of S. aureus. The concentrations below CC50 were 0.02% for citral, and 0.12% for linalool. These concentrations inhibited the adhesion and invasion ability of S. aureus and downregulated virulence genes. Only 0.12% linalool downregulated the expression of S. aureus biofilm forming genes. These components should be considered in further in vivo study.
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Alicyclobacillus spp. is an important thermoacidophilic, spore-forming spoilage bacterium that is a major concern for beverage and juice industries. This study was undertaken to: (i) estimate the incidence of Alicyclobacillus spp. and A. acidoterrestris in Polish apple and dark berry juice concentrates, and (ii) evaluate the ability of isolated A. acidoterrestris strains to spoilage of these juices after dilution to single strength. Polish apple and berry juice concentrates were screened for the presence of Alicyclobacillus spp. between 2002 and 2015. Incidence of Alicyclobacillus spp. in apple juice concentrates (n=1164) range from 27.3 to 86.8 %, depending on the year. The species A. acidoterrestris accounted, depending on the year, from 12.7 to 100.0 % of all isolated strains. Among the dark berry juice concentrates (n=146), approximately 60.0 % were contaminated by Alicyclobacillus spp. Incidence of A. acidoterrestris strains in dark berry juice concentrates range from 4.2 % in blackcurrant up to 40.0 % in raspberry. Single strength apple juice promoted the growth of eight of the tested A. acidoterrestris strains (> 7 log cfu/ml) when was incubated at 45 °C. No A. acidoterrestris growth was observed in single strength chokeberry, raspberry, strawberry, cherry and blackcurrant juices during 28 days incubation at 45 ºC.
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The growing threat of emergent multidrug-resistant enteric bacterial pathogens, and their adopted virulence properties are directing to find alternative antimicrobials and/or development of dietaries that can improve host gut health and/or defense. Recently, we found that modified Lactobacillus casei (Lc + CLA) with increased production of conjugated linoleic acid has antimicrobial and other beneficial properties. Further, prebiotic alike products such as berry pomace extracts (BPEs), increase the growth of probiotics and inhibit the growth of certain bacterial pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial effect of genetically modified Lc + CLA along with BPEs against major enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST). In mixed culture condition, the growth of ST was significantly reduced in the presence of Lc + CLA and/or BPEs. Bacterial cell-free cultural supernatant (CFCS) collected from wild-type Lc or modified Lc + CLA strains also inhibited the growth and survival of ST, and those inhibitory effects were enhanced in the presence of BPEs. We also found that the interaction of the pathogen with cultured host (HD-11 and INT-407) cells were also altered in the presence of either Lc or Lc + CLA strain or their CFCSs significantly. Furthermore, the relative expression of genes related to ST virulence and physicochemical properties of ST was altered by the effect of CFCSs of either Lc or Lc + CLA. These findings indicate that a diet containing synbiotic, specifically linoleic acid, over-produced Lc + CLA and prebiotic product BPEs, might have the potential to be effective in controlling ST growth and pathogenesis.
Article
The use of probiotics as biopreservation agents of foodborne pathogens in food is becoming increasingly known. The aim of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L. rham. GG) and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (L. acidophilus LA-5) against Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in minimally processed pears during storage at 5, 10 and 20 °C at conditions simulating commercial application. Pear wedges were artificially inoculated with a suspension containing Salmonella, L. monocytogenes and/or the probiotic strains L. rham. GG or L. acidophilus LA-5, packaged and stored at 5, 10 and 20 °C. Microorganisms were periodically enumerated. L. acidophilus LA-5 did not shown any effect against pathogens. Salmonella was affected by co-inoculation with L. rham. GG at 10 and 20 °C, which reduced the population approximately 2-log units. Moreover, L. monocytogenes population was reduced approximately 3-log units at each temperature in presence of L. rham. GG. Probiotic populations were maintained throughout the experiment around 10⁷–10⁸ CFU g⁻¹, which is in the range known to develop its probiotic role (10⁶–10⁹ CFU g⁻¹). Our results demonstrated that L. rham. GG is able to control Salmonella and L. monocytogenes growth on fresh-cut pear.
Chapter
Berry fruits such as blueberries, cranberries, currants, grapes, pomegranate, raspberries, strawberries, and tomatoes are important ingredients for beverage production. The fruit itself contains abundance of health-promoting phytochemicals. The process of extracting and preserving the juice from berries should minimize the loss of valuable phytochemicals, maintain the natural organoleptic attributes of the fruit (flavor, aroma, taste, and color), and be safe for consumption. This chapter discusses the use of several conventional processing techniques to produce berry juices and how novel processing techniques, such as pulsed electric field and high hydrostatic pressure, could modify or accelerate the existing berry juice processing line in order to improve the juice quality without affecting the health-related compounds.
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Lactobacillus plantarum proliferates inefficiently in milk, mainly because its lack of cell envelope proteases and its inability to hydrolyse proteins in milk. Our previous study showed that this strain could grow well in milk with the addition of oat and malt extracts. To investigate the usage and preference for polypeptides and oligopeptides for this strain, sodium dodecyl sulphate‐polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS‐PAGE), o‐phthaldialdehyde (OPA), high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), plate counting, and other methods were used in this study. The results showed that proteins in fermented milk cannot be absorbed and utilised by L. plantarum, whereas polypeptides and oligopeptides provide available nitrogen sources for their growth. Short‐chain peptides were more conducive to absorption and utilisation than long‐chain peptides. In particular, peptides with molecular weights in the range of 200‐1400 Da in the oat extract and 100‐700 Da in the malt extract were preferentially absorbed and utilised.
Article
In this study, three potential probiotic strains were selected to ferment blueberry and blackberry juices. The viable cell counts of selected strains were increased by 0.4-0.7 log CFU/mL in berry juices environments after 48-h fermentation. Meanwhile, the contents of cyanindin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-glucoside decreased over 30%. Heatmap presented an upgrade trend of syringic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and lactic acid during fermentation. However, the contents of p-coumaric acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, critic acid and malic acid showed downgrade trend. The metabolism of phenolics probably contributed to the enhancement of the ABTS radical scavenging activity (40%-60%) in fermented berry juices. Moreover, the three strains presented different capacities on changing the quality of berry juices according to the PCA and LDA analysis. The contents of individual organic acids had positive correlations with sensory quality, especially for sourness. Overall, probiotic fermentation could improve the sensory quality of berry juices.
Article
The prebiotic effect of fructans is well known, including their beneficial influence on health. This study shows agave fructans impact as potential prebiotics, depending on their structure and polymerization degree (PD). The growth of seven probiotics and three pathogens was estimated by turbidimetric analysis and the latter (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) were submitted to growth inhibition tests in the presence of metabolites produced by probiotics. Lactobacillus casei and L. paracasei growth was optimal when supplemented with agave fructans. L. casei was grown in the presence of the extracted fractions obtained from Agave salmiana spp. crassipina (optical density (O.D.) 1.09 ± 0.02, 0.98 ± 0.03, 0.98 ± 0.07, low, medium and high PD, respectively), A. salmiana var. liso (0.85 ± 0.13), A. atrovirens (0.79 ± 0.03) and A. tequilana spp. (0.89 ± 0.03). The growth of L. paracasei was optimal when supplemented with those fractions obtained from the A. salmiana (O.D. 1.12 ± 0.02, 1.18 ± 0.02, 1.13 ± 0.007, low, medium and high PD, respectively) and A. tequilana var. cenizo (1.18 ± 0.01 and 1.15 ± 0.02, medium and high PD, respectively) species. Both bacteria were tested in order to assess enzyme activity using API ZYM galleries after they were grown on agave fructans. The results show an increase of five enzymes (cysteine-arylamidase, α-chymotrypsin, β-galactosidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and α-fucosidase).
Chapter
Modulation of the gut microbiota with feed and/or feed additives has become a promising and important strategy for the improvement of animal/human health and performance in recent years. Indeed, host genetics, age, infection/inflammation, exposure to antibiotics, and diet are the main factors involved in the composition of the host intestinal microbiota and intestinal environment. Sustainable feed additives can also be safe, consumer-friendly, and effective, and commonly have a beneficial effect on host health. Sustainable feed additives include plant by-products and/or prebiotics, probiotics, and animal-derived feed additives. Recent studies have reported that many natural plant by-products are not only rich in polyphenolic compounds but they are also antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and act as antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective compounds. Probiotics can also be a handful in maintaining the homeostasis in host gut in the presence or absence of prebiotics. In this chapter, we aim to focus on the factors involved and the mechanism by which the growth and the gut microflora modulation are done and ultimately improve the animal/host health and performance. Furthermore, the effect of various factors, specifically feed additives, on growth promotions of various animal food industries such as poultry, cattle, and swine will be also discussed.
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To investigate the antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds present in Finnish berries against probiotic bacteria and other intestinal bacteria, including pathogenic species. Antimicrobial activity of pure phenolic compounds representing flavonoids and phenolic acids, and eight extracts from common Finnish berries, was measured against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, including probiotic bacteria and the intestinal pathogen Salmonella. Antimicrobial activity was screened by an agar diffusion method and bacterial growth was measured in liquid culture as a more accurate assay. Myricetin inhibited the growth of all lactic acid bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract flora but it did not affect the Salmonella strain. In general, berry extracts inhibited the growth of Gram-negative but not Gram-positive bacteria. These variations may reflect differences in cell surface structures between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Cloudberry, raspberry and strawberry extracts were strong inhibitors of Salmonella. Sea buckthorn berry and blackcurrant showed the least activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Different bacterial species exhibit different sensitivities towards phenolics. These properties can be utilized in functional food development and in food preservative purposes.
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Berry fruits are rich sources of bioactive compounds, such as phenolics and organic acids, which have antimicrobial activities against human pathogens. Among different berries and berry phenolics, cranberry, cloudberry, raspberry, strawberry and bilberry especially possess clear antimicrobial effects against, e.g. Salmonella and Staphylococcus. Complex phenolic polymers, like ellagitannins, are strong antibacterial agents present in cloudberry and raspberry. Several mechanisms of action in the growth inhibition of bacteria are involved, such as destabilisation of cytoplasmic membrane, permeabilisation of plasma membrane, inhibition of extracellular microbial enzymes, direct actions on microbial metabolism and deprivation of the substrates required for microbial growth. Antimicrobial activity of berries may also be related to antiadherence of bacteria to epithelial cells, which is a prerequisite for colonisation and infection of many pathogens. Antimicrobial berry compounds may have important applications in the future as natural antimicrobial agents for food industry as well as for medicine. Some of the novel approaches are discussed.
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Antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of phenolic extracts of 12 Nordic berries were studied against selected human pathogenic microbes. The most sensitive bacteria on berry phenolics were Helicobacter pylori and Bacillus cereus. Campylobacter jejuni and Candida albicans were inhibited only with phenolic extracts of cloudberry, raspberry, and strawberry, which all were rich in ellagitannins. Cloudberry extract gave strong microbicidic effects on the basis of plate count with all studied strains. However, fluorescence staining of liquid cultures of virulent Salmonella showed viable cells not detectable by plate count adhering to cloudberry extract, whereas Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered to berry extracts were dead on the basis of their fluorescence and plate count. Phenolic extracts of cloudberry and raspberry disintegrated the outer membrane of examined Salmonella strains as indicated by 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN) uptake increase and analysis of liberation of [14C]galactose- lipopolysaccharide. Gallic acid effectively permeabilized the tested Salmonella strains, and significant increase in the NPN uptake was recorded. The stability of berry phenolics and their antimicrobial activity in berries stored frozen for a year were examined using Escherichia coli and nonvirulent Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium. The amount of phenolic compounds decreased in all berries, but their antimicrobial activity was not influenced accordingly. Cloudberry, in particular, showed constantly strong antimicrobial activity during the storage.
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Levels of obesity-linked non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and hypertension are highest among indigenous communities in North America. This is linked to changes in dietary pattern towards high calorie foods such as sugar, refined grain flour, and sweetened beverages. Therefore, a return to traditional dietary patterns may help to reduce these disease problems because of better balance of calories and beneficial nutrients. Further protective non-nutrient phenolic phytochemicals against NIDDM and hypertension are potentially high in these foods but less understood. In this study antidiabetic- and antihypertension-relevant potentials of phenolic phytochemicals were confirmed in select important traditional plant foods of indigenous communities such as pumpkin, beans, and maize using in vitro enzyme assays for -glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. In vitro inhibitory activities of these enzymes provide a strong biochemical rationale for further in vivo studies and dietary management strategy for NIDDM through the control of glucose absorption and reduction of associated hypertension. These enzyme inhibitory activities were further compared to total soluble phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the above-targeted plant foods. Pumpkin showed the best overall potential. Among the varieties of pumpkin extracts P5 (round orange) and P6 (spotted orange green) had high content of total phenolics and moderate antioxidant activity coupled to moderate to high alpha-glucosidase and ACE inhibitory activities. Therefore this phenolic antioxidant-enriched dietary strategy using specific traditional plant food combinations can generate a whole food profile that has the potential to reduce hyperglycemia-induced pathogenesis and also associated complications linked to cellular oxidation stress and hypertension.
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An investigation was carried out on the role of fruits on public health. Amount of nutrition value on different fruits of Bangladesh also examined. Fruits are not only good source of vitamins and minerals but also highly nutritive with anti carcinogenic value. The role of sufficient intake of fruits can prevent many life threatening diseases of human beings like diabetics, blood pressure, heart diseases and cancer. Altogether 39 fruits, the highest water portion 96.6 g was found in black berry and Jamun, and the lowest 4.3 g were found in coconut. The highest total minerals 1.7g was measured in date palm and the lowest 0.1 g was found in orange, black berry and Jamun. The maximum fiber 6.6 mg was found in coconut and the lowest 0.2 g was found in jackfruit and water melon. The highest Calorie 662 Kcal was found in coconut and the lowest 11 Kcal was measured in black berry and Jamun. The highest protein 3.5 g was found in elephant’s foot apple and the lowest 0.2 g was found in water melon. The highest fat 62.3 g was found in coconut and the lowest 0.1 g was found in jackfruit, ber, elephant’s foot apple, orange, Bullock’s heart/Custard apple, Hogplum, Olive, Aonla, River ebony and Water chestnut. The highest Carbohydrate 33.8 g was found in date palm and the lowest 1.4 g was found in black berry and Jamun. The highest 90 mg was found in Lime and the lowest 0.01g was found in River ebony. The highest amount of Fe 7.9 mg was found in water melon and the lowest 0.2 mg was found in Pummelo. The highest amount of Carotene 8300 μg was found in mango and the lowest 0 μg was found in litchi, ber, elephant’s foot apple, orange, lemon, Bullock’s heart/Custard apple, coconut, banana, Aonla and water chestnut. The highest amount of vitamin B-1 0.8 mg was found in elephant’s foot apple and the lowest 0.01 mg was found in Wax apple, tamarind and Rose apple. The highest amount of vitamin B-2 0.19 mg was found in Burmese grape and the lowest B-2 0.01 mg was found in orange, coconut and olive. The highest amount of vitamin C 463 mg was found in Aonla and Stargareberry, and the lowest 1 mg was found in coconut and water melon. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jsf.v8i1-2.14633 J. Sci. Foundation, 8(1&2): 111-118, June-December 2010
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Compounds found in berries exhibit a wide range of effects including antimicrobial activities. In this study, the antimicrobial properties of blueberry juice against the foodborne pathogens Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 were investigated. Inhibition was measured in 100% blueberry juice or a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of milk and blueberry juice with growth in 100% milk used as a control. The growth of all four pathogens was reduced below the detection level (100 cfu/mL) by blueberry juice, and reduced by 4–7 log cfu/mL in a mixture of milk and blueberry juice. The effects of blueberry juice on probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Bifidibacterium bifidis were also investigated. The growth was less in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of blueberry juice and skim milk as compared with milk alone, but these probiotic organisms were able to survive and grow. These data demonstrate the potential of blueberry juice for use as an all-natural antimicrobial. Foodborne pathogens sicken millions in the U.S.A. each year. The research reported here indicates that juice from blueberries can inhibit the growth of these foodborne bacteria. In addition, the blueberry juice did not substantially inhibit the growth of beneficial bacteria such as those found in yogurt.
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The antimicrobial effect of thirty HPLC fractions of different polarity obtained from two cranberry juices and three extracts (anthocyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds) isolated from frozen cranberries and pomace was investigated against seven bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin (ERV), Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes HPB 2812, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442; Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the maximal tolerated concentration (MTC) of each fraction were determined for each pathogen using a 96-well microtiter plate method. The results, reported in μg phenol/mL, indicated that all the bacterial strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were selectively inhibited by the cranberry phenolic compounds. All pathogens were very sensitive to at least seven fractions with MTCs below 2 μg phenol/mL and five fractions with MICs below 10 μg phenol/mL. In addition, four fractions rich in apolar phenolic compounds were very efficient against all bacteria with MICs below 10 μg phenol/mL, and twenty five fractions completely inhibited microbial growth with MICs below100 μg phenol/well. L. monocytogenes exhibited the highest sensitivity with twelve very active fractions (MTCs and MICs below 1 and 10 μg phenol/mL, respectively) while E. coli O157H7 was the least sensitive to twenty seven fractions (with the highest MICs). Also, it appears that the technological process to manufacture cranberry juice can reduce the antimicrobial activity of phenolic fractions.
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The antimicrobial effect of cranberry juice and of three cranberry extracts (water-soluble (E1) and apolar phenolic compounds (E2), and anthocyanins (E3)) was investigated against seven bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin (ERV), Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes HPB 2812, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213). Each cranberry sample was analyzed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the maximal tolerated concentration (MTC) at neutral pH. The results, reported in μg phenol/mL, indicated that all the bacterial strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were selectively inhibited by the cranberry phenolic compounds. The extract rich in water-soluble phenolic compounds caused the most important growth inhibitions. The bacteria ERV, and to a lesser degree, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli ATCC 25922, were the most sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of extract E1. The growth of P. aeruginosa and E. coli ATCC was also affected by the presence of the anthocyanin-rich cranberry extract E3, although the observed antibacterial effect was not as important as with extract E1. In general, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium were the most resistant to the antibacterial activity of the cranberry extracts. Within 30 min of exposure with pure neutralized cranberry juice, L. monocytogenes and ERV were completely inactivated.
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Blackberry wine was made from thawed fruit (Evergreen variety) by fermentation of pulp, depectinized juice, and high-temperature short-time (HTST)-treated and depectinized juice. The effects of fining and storage on pigment composition, color and appearance were investigated. Seven anthocyanin pigments (cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, a xylose-cyanidin derivative, two acylated cyanidin derivatives, cyanidin and a polymeric derivative) were detected in the juices and wines by HPLC. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was highly unstable during fermentation. Haze development and sediment formation occurred, and 85 to 100% of total anthocyanins degraded. Blackberry juice that had been HTST-pasteurized, depectinized and fined produced wine with the most stable color and best appearance after storage.
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Background and objective: Antimicrobial agents provide valuable adjunctive therapy for the prevention and the control of oral diseases. Limitations in their prolonged use have stimulated the search for new, naturally occurring agents with more specific activity and fewer adverse effects. Here we sought to determine the antibacterial properties of blackberry extract (BBE) in vitro against oral bacterial commensals and periodontopathogens. Material and methods: The effects of whole and fractionated BBE on the metabolism of 10 different oral bacteria were evaluated using the colorimetric water-soluble tetrazolium-1 assay. The bactericidal effects of whole BBE against Fusobacterium nucleatum were determined by quantitating the numbers of colony-forming units (CFUs). Cytotoxicity was determined in oral epithelial (OKF6) cells. Results: BBE at 350-1400 μg/mL reduced the metabolic activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis, F. nucleatum and Streptococcus mutans. The reduced metabolic activity observed for F. nucleatum corresponded to a reduction in the numbers of CFUs following exposure to BBE for as little as 1 h, indicative of its bactericidal properties. An anthocyanin-enriched fraction of BBE reduced the metabolic activity of F. nucleatum, but not of P. gingivalis or S. mutans, suggesting the contribution of species-specific agents in the whole BBE. Oral epithelial cell viability was not reduced following exposure to whole BBE (2.24-1400 μg/mL) for ≤ 6 h. Conclusion: BBE alters the metabolic activity of oral periodontopathogens while demonstrating a minimal effect on commensals. The specific antibacterial properties of BBE shown in this study, along with its previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties, make this natural extract a promising target as an adjunct for prevention and/or complementary therapy of periodontal infections.
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This study optimized the conditions of Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-442 cultivation in cashew apple juice, as well as, determined the proper inoculum amount and fermentation time. Moreover, it was investigated the survivability ability of L. casei in cashew apple juice during refrigerated storage (4 °C) for 42 days. The optimum conditions for probiotic cashew apple juice production were initial pH 6.4, fermentation temperature of 30 °C, inoculation level of 7.48 Log CFU/mL (L. casei) and 16 h of fermentation process. It was observed that the L. casei grew during the refrigerated storage. Viable cell counts were higher than 8.00 Log CFU/mL throughout the storage period (42 days). The values of lightness, yellowness and total color change increased and the values of redness reduced along the fermentation and refrigerated storage periods. The fermented juice with L. casei is a good and healthy alternative functional food containing probiotics. Cashew apple juice showed to be as efficient as dairy products for L. casei growth.
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Carrot juice (Daucus carota L.) is one of the most popular vegetable juices and represents a rich source of natural β-carotene. Vegetable juices are available either fermented or not fermented. With the production of lactofermented juices, carrot juices are microbiologically stable, delicious and potentially provide high nutritional value. In this study, Refik Saydam Kulfur Kolleksiyanu (RSKK) 1602 Lactobacillus plantarumis used as a starter culture in carrot mash. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that an initial bacteria concentration of 3 × 105 cfu/g mash resulted in the most preferred fermented carrot juice. The acidity of the fermented carrot juice can be adjusted by altering the population of the starter RSKK 1602 L. plantarum culture and the 15–16 h of fermentation time. A modified Gompertz equation was selected to describe the growth curve of RSKK 1602 L. plantarum in carrot mash.
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The antimicrobial properties of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) were studied against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus to determine which fractional components have antimicrobial effects and which microorganisms are most susceptible to these antimicrobial properties. Lowbush blueberry extract (F1) was separated using a C-18 Sep-Pak cartridge into monomeric phenolics (F2) and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins (F3). Fraction 3 was further separated into anthocyanins (F4) and proanthocyanidins (F5) using a LH-20 Sephadex column. Each fraction was initially screened for antimicrobial properties using agar diffusion assay. Treatments that demonstrated inhibition were further analyzed for inhibition in liquid culture. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using a two-fold dilution series and viable cell counts taken at 0 and 24 h to examine growth reduction. Fraction 3 demonstrated the lowest MICs/MBCs followed by F1, F2, F4, and F5. L. monocytogenes was the most susceptible to blueberry fraction treatment, followed by E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium. L. rhamnosus was the least susceptible to each fraction treatment. The results can be applied to the field of preventive medicine, food safety, and enrich the understanding of the health benefits of lowbush blueberries.
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We investigated the antimicrobial effect of constituents of the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon); sugar plus organic acids, phenolics, and anthocyanins, against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Each fractional component was assayed over a 24-h period with 5-log initial inocula to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), and log CFU/ml reductions, at their native pH and neutral pH. Each fraction produced significant reductions (P<0.05) at the native pH: MICs for sugars plus organic, phenolics, and anthocyanins were 5.6/2.6 Brix/acid (citric acid equivalents) 2.70g/L (gallic acid equivalent), and 14.80mg/L (cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent), respectively. Sugars plus organic acids at native pH (3) produced a reduction below detectable limits (<1 log CFU/ml) compared to the control at 24h for 11.3/5.2 and 5.6/2.6 Brix/acid. Phenolics at native pH (4) produced reductions below detectable limits compared to the control at 24h and initial inocula for treatments of 5.40 and 2.70g/L. Anthocyanins at native pH (2) produced reductions below detectable limits for treatments of 29.15 and 14.80mg/L cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents. Neutralized phenolics and anthocyanins had the same MIC and MBC as those at their native pH. Neutralized sugars plus organic acids did not inhibit bacterial growth compared to the control. Neutralized phenolics reduced bacteria below detectable limits in treatments of 5.40g/L and 2.70g/L compared to the control. Neutralized anthocyanins reduced bacterial growth below detectable limits at the concentration of 29.15mg/L, but at 14.80mg/L there was no significant reduction. Stationary-phase cells of E. coli O157:H7 were treated with 5% of each fraction in 0.8% NaCl for 20min and viewed under transmission electron microscopy. All fractions caused significant damage compared the control. Sugars plus organic acids caused visible osmotic stress, while phenolics and anthocyanins caused disintegration of the outer membrane.
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Fruits and leaves from different cultivars of thornless blackberry (Rubus sp.), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa D.) plants were analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic content. In addition, fruits were analyzed for total anthocyanin content. Blackberries and strawberries had the highest ORAC values during the green stages, whereas red raspberries had the highest ORAC activity at the ripe stage. Total anthocyanin content increased with maturity for all three species of fruits. Compared with fruits, leaves were found to have higher ORAC values. In fruits, ORAC values ranged from 7.8 to 33.7 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh berries (35. 0-162.1 micromol of TE/g of dry matter), whereas in leaves, ORAC values ranged from 69.7 to 182.2 micromol of TE/g of fresh leaves (205.0-728.8 micromol of TE/g of dry matter). As the leaves become older, the ORAC values and total phenolic contents decreased. The results showed a linear correlation between total phenolic content and ORAC activity for fruits and leaves. For ripe berries, a linear relationship existed between ORAC values and anthocyanin content. Of the ripe fruits tested, on the basis of wet weight of fruit, cv. Jewel black raspberry and blackberries may be the richest source for antioxidants. On the basis of the dry weight of fruit, strawberries had the highest ORAC activity followed by black raspberries (cv. Jewel), blackberries, and red raspberries.