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De ingekorte schaal voor algemene, emotionele en sociale eenzaamheid

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Loneliness is an indicator of social well-being and pertains to the feeling of missing an intimate relationship (emotional loneliness) or missing a wider social network (social loneliness). The 11-item De Jong Gierveld scale has proved to be a valid and reliable measuring instrument for overall, emotional and social loneliness, although its length has sometimes rendered it difficult to use the scale in large surveys. In this study, we empirically tested a shortened version of the scale on data from two surveys (N = 9448). Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the specification of two latent factors. Congruent validity and the relationship with determinants (partner status, health) proved to be optimal. The 6-item De Jong Gierveld scale is a reliable and valid measuring instrument for overall, emotional and social loneliness, which is suitable for large surveys. Tijdschr Gerontol Geriat 2008; 39: 4-15
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... Als we de kwantiteit van een sociaal netwerk opvatten als de frequentie van contact met familie, buren of vrienden kunnen we kwaliteit ervan beschrijven als de mate waarin het netwerk als waardevol wordt ervaren. In deze rapportage onderscheiden we, in navolging van De Jong Gierveld en Van Tilburg (2008), emotionele eenzaamheid (waarbij een intieme relatie of vertrouwenspersoon ontbreekt) en sociale eenzaamheid (waarbij een bredere kring van contacten ontbreekt en gevoelens van leegte en verlatenheid spelen). ...
... Voor de meting van eenzaamheid maken we gebruik van de eenzaamheidsschaal zoals ontwikkeld door De Jong Gierveld en Van Tilburg (2008). Zij maken onderscheid in emotionele eenzaamheid (waarbij een intieme relatie of vertrouwenspersoon ontbreekt) en sociale eenzaamheid (waarbij een bredere kring van contacten ontbreekt en gevoelens van leegte en verlatenheid spelen). ...
... Research has repeatedly shown that severe feelings of loneliness negatively affect quality of life (De Jong Gierveld & Van Tilburg, 2008;De Witte & Van Regenmortel, 2019a;Janssen, 2013;Machielse, 2016;Ten Bruggencate et al., 2018). In this respect, research finds that people with a migration background are lonelier than people without a migration background, and that this is not only assigned to demographic, socio-economic and health factors (Vancluysen & Van Craen, 2011;Wu & Penning, 2015). ...
... Further, loneliness can be split up into emotional and social loneliness: whereas emotional loneliness refers to the absence of a meaningful, intimate and exclusive relationship (e.g. with a partner or close friend), social loneliness refers to the lack of an adequate, broad social network of friends and acquaintances (De Jong Gierveld et al., 2006;Weiss, 1973). From this follows that both intimate and peripheral relationships are important to avoid loneliness (De Jong Gierveld & Van Tilburg, 2008). Whereas intimate relations relate to a feeling of love and belonging, peripheral relations make people feel connected to society (Ten Bruggencate et al., 2018). ...
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Feelings of severe loneliness negatively affect the quality of life of older adults. Although research has repeatedly shown that immigrants are more confronted with loneliness due to various migration-related characteristics, little is known about the specific relation between loneliness and generational status. Therefore, based on the sixth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this study investigates the relation between loneliness and migration among older adults of 50 years or older in Belgium. In this respect, this study goes beyond an immigrant versus non-immigrant dichotomy by differentiating between first and second generation immigrants and by taking into account the specific region of origin. The results show that not only first but also second generation immigrants have higher loneliness levels than natives, which implies that various migration-related factors that correlate with loneliness are passed on from the first to the second generation. This difference in loneliness levels is mainly explained by a worse health situation of people with a migration background, more than by specific demographic or social network characteristics. As a result, the enhancement of the health situation would not only result in lower loneliness levels of people with and without a migration background, but it would also reduce the loneliness inequality between those two groups.
... De Jong Gierveld Lonelinessscale: The de Jong Gierveld Loneliness scale [36][37][38] consists of 11 items to measure overall, emotional and social loneliness. The scale consists of five positively worded statements and six negatively formulated statements. ...
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... d Tennant, Hiller [35], raw scores were converted to metric scores as required for the (S)WEMWBS. e de Jong Gierveld and van Tilburg [36], answer scale formally ranges from 1 (No!) to 5 (Yes!). f Derogatis [37], answer scale formally ranges from 0 (Not at all) to 4 (Extremely). ...
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