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Arts enrichment and preschool emotions for low-income children at risk

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Abstract

No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts Enrichment Program. At a level of p < .001, results indicate the following. First, within Kaleidoscope, children showed greater observed positive emotions such as interest, happiness, and pride, in music, dance, and visual arts classes, as compared to traditional early learning classes. Second, children at Kaleidoscope showed greater observed positive emotions than peers attending a comparison preschool that did not include full integration of the arts. Third, across the school year, children at Kaleidoscope showed greater growth in teacher-rated levels of positive and negative emotion regulation. The implication is that arts enrichment may promote social–emotional readiness to learn for low-income children at risk for school problems.

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... Researchers have investigated the developmental value of music in children and found positive effects of music on cognition, behavioral, emotional, and social development (Brown & Sax, 2013;Moreno et al., 2011;Schellenberg, 2004;Williams et al., 2014;Winsler et al., 2011). In addition to these benefits, music has the potential to help children build confidence and drive for success through commitment, persistence, and motivation (Rosevear, 2010). ...
... Between 1999Between -2000Between and 2003Between -2004, California schools experienced a 50% decrease in student enrollment in music classes and a 26.7% decrease in music teachers (Abril & Gault, 2006). This is especially unfortunate for low-income children of color, as several scholars argue that music and the arts can be especially helpful for children in poverty and have the potential to help reduce the achievement gap (Brown & Sax, 2013;Foran, 2009). The Turnaround Arts Initiative, for example, implemented high-quality arts education to low-income and underperforming school districts (Stoelinga et al., 2013). ...
... Previous research shows that musical experiences provide multiple benefits (Brown & Sax, 2013;Moreno et al., 2011;Schellenberg, 2004;Williams et al., 2014;Winsler et al., 2011). Arts engagement is related to improved academic performance and socioemotional skills and appears especially helpful for children in poverty and ELLs (Catterall et al., 2012;Eisner, 1998). ...
Article
Researchers attempting to show that music has positive effects on children need to understand and control for preexisting differences between those who do and do not select into musical participation in the first place. Within a large-scale, communitywide, prospective, longitudinal study of predominantly low-income, ethnically diverse students ( N = 31,332), we examined characteristics of students who did and did not enroll in music elective courses (band, choir, orchestra, guitar, other) in public middle schools (sixth, seventh, and eighth grades) in Miami. Predictor variables included gender, ethnicity, poverty, special education, English language learner status, fifth-grade English proficiency, prior academic performance (fifth-grade grade point average [GPA], standardized math and reading test scores), and initial school readiness skills (social, behavioral, cognitive, language, and motor skills) at age 4. Only 23% of middle school students enrolled in a music class in sixth, seventh, or eighth grade, with band having the highest enrollment, followed by choir, orchestra, and guitar. Being male and having greater cognitive skills at age 4 and higher fifth-grade GPA and reading skills were related to later music participation. Black students, students in special education, and those not proficient in English were less likely to participate in middle school music classes. Results varied somewhat by type of music.
... As children age, they become better able to regulate and control their own emotions (Elias & Berk, 2002). This ability is in turn associated with improved functioning as well as adjustment over time (Brown & Sax, 2013). ...
... • Compared with a matched-control group, toddlers in an arts integration program comprised of daily music, creative movement (dance), and visual arts displayed improvements in teacherrated positive and negative emotion regulation over the course of the school year (Brown & Sax, 2013). ...
... • In a single case, arts participation was found to be unrelated to emotion expression. While toddlers in an arts program expressed more positive emotion in their arts classes than their regular nonarts classes, they also expressed similar levels of negative emotions across all classes; furthermore, this rate of negative emotion expression did not differ when comparing toddlers from the arts program with those who did not participate in the arts program at all (Brown & Sax, 2013). ...
... Although the findings from this research have not always been consistent, there has been much support for the proposition that music is positively related to academic achievement, cognitive functioning, and behavioral changes. That said, while the outcomes have been positive for middle-class children few studies to date have examined the effects of music on low-income children's academic achievement and behavior (Brown & Sax, 2013;Brown, Benedett, & Armistead, 2010;Brown, Garnett, Velazquez-Martin, & Mellor, 2018). Moreover, even fewer studies have examined the relationship between the arts broadly defined and children's school readiness and overall development (National Endowment of the Arts, 2011Arts, , 2015. ...
... In general, the findings have suggested that exposure to the arts can enhance cognitive and learning skills, particularly for those children most at risk for poor developmental outcomes (National Endowment of the Arts, 2011). That said, to date, only a small number of studies have examined the effect of the visual arts on children's school readiness skills (Brown, Benedett, & Armistead, 2010;Brown & Sax, 2013;Brown et al., 2018). Results from this research have suggested that children who attend an arts program have better receptive vocabulary than children who do not attend such a program (Brown, Benedett, & Armistead, 2010) and have superior positive emotions (Brown & Sax, 2013). ...
... That said, to date, only a small number of studies have examined the effect of the visual arts on children's school readiness skills (Brown, Benedett, & Armistead, 2010;Brown & Sax, 2013;Brown et al., 2018). Results from this research have suggested that children who attend an arts program have better receptive vocabulary than children who do not attend such a program (Brown, Benedett, & Armistead, 2010) and have superior positive emotions (Brown & Sax, 2013). That said, while these results are promising, there is still a lack of research in this area, with the majority of studies examining the effect of music on developmental outcomes and school achievement. ...
... Two of the articles analyzed dealt with emotional regulation in relation to educational programs including music therapy and concluded that they favored emotional regulation. On the one hand, Brown and Sax [63] compared the emotional state and regulatory capacity of a group of students after attending a traditional education program or a program with a greater emphasis on arts education, including music education. It was found that individuals who participated in the latter showed a greater capacity to regulate emotions, both positive and negative. ...
... On the other hand, Venegas et al. [76] found that the use of an interdisciplinary application that used music to support the learning of graphical representation in mathematics generated positive emotional levels in students. Similarly, another study found that greater use of music education increased motivation levels among students [63]. Rauduvaite [70] found that the introduction of urban popular music into the classroom can promote meaningful values in education, partly due to the emotional bond that students have with this type of repertoire. ...
... Fourteen studies used musical training as the independent variable and obtained evidence that it improved diverse socio-emotional competencies, including: identifying emotions in images and/or texts [68]; a greater capacity to regulate emotions [63]; concentration and creativity [82]; students' ability to recognise emotions [73]; improved learning and mathematics [76]; a positive effect on children's self-expression, self-efficacy, and social skills [78]; improved the feelings experienced when attending class [69]; greater emotional awareness and motivation from singing [66]; increased empathy and positive feelings for learning [67]; influenced the effects of emotional understanding [64]; influenced emotional awareness, regulation and autonomy [80]; increased pro-social behavior in neurotypical children in relation to the social exclusion of autistic children [74]; promoted the development of pro-social skills [81]; improved behaviors such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, inattention and some defiant attitudes [83]; and increased children's motivation and thus their learning capacity [66]. ...
Article
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Interest in the study of emotions in education has grown in recent years. Some of our modern challenges, such as constantly adapting to new scenarios or the need for team work have justified the introduction of emotional competence into educational systems, while diverse studies confirm the relationship between music and emotional intelligence, so that the former could be used as a tool to develop the latter. The aim of this work was to examine the evidence for positive effects of music on the emotions of 3- to 12-year-old children, to which end a systematic re-view was carried out. Two reviewers independently evaluated 424 studies that were identified in MEDLINE, Psycinfo, and CINAHL databases, in order to determine whether they met the stated inclusion criteria. A total of 26 articles were selected for review. The results suggest several beneficial effects of music on children’s development, such as greater emotional intelligence, academic performance, and prosocial skills. It can therefore be concluded that music should be used in school settings, not only as an important subject in itself, but also as an educational tool within other subjects.
... Those participating in the creative dance and movement program showed greater improvement with regard to social skills as well as internalizing and externalizing problems as rated by parents and teachers who were blind to children's group membership. Brown and Sax (2013) studied Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool, a Head Start site where children participate in music, dance, and visual arts classes each day as well as regular early learning or homeroom. Children at Kaleidoscope showed greater expression of positive emotions in arts versus regular homeroom classes and, compared to peers attending a matched comparison site that was not arts enriched, showed greater growth in emotion regulation skills over the course of the year. ...
... Additionally, in a prior study of children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts Enrichment Program, Brown and Sax (2013) found an advantage in growth in emotion regulation skills across the school year for children attending Settlement's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts Enrichment Program compared with those attending a matched comparison site. The authors argued that the types of emotion training found in preschool emotions based prevention programs (e.g., Izard, Trentacosta, King, & Mostow, 2004) can also be found in arts education, which can be used to teach children to demonstrate, label, and compare intensities of emotion expressions; identify causes and consequences of emotions; and practice strategies for regulating emotions. ...
Article
This within-subjects experimental study investigated the influence of the arts on cortisol for economically disadvantaged children. Participants were 310 children, ages 3–5 years, who attended a Head Start preschool and were randomly assigned to participate in different schedules of arts and homeroom classes on different days of the week. Cortisol was sampled at morning baseline and after arts and homeroom classes on two different days at start, middle, and end of the year. For music, dance, and visual arts, grouped and separately, results of piecewise hierarchical linear modeling with time-varying predictors suggested cortisol was lower after an arts versus homeroom class at middle and end of the year but not start of the year. Implications concern the impact of arts on cortisol for children facing poverty risks.
... Studies have shown associations between participation in the arts (music, dance, visual art, drama, multiarts) and positive child outcomes. Children's exposure to high-quality arts classes is related to decreased stress in the classroom measured via cortisol levels, and enhanced positive emotion (Brown, Garnett, Anderson, & Laurenceau, 2017;Brown & Sax, 2013). During early childhood, music activities and instruction are linked to higher numeracy skills, attention regulation, and prosocial behavior years later, even after controlling for parent-child home reading activities and other covariates (Williams, Barrett, Welch, Abad, & Broughton, 2015). ...
... Although many studies have shown associations between participation in the arts in general and enhanced child cognitive, social, and academic outcomes (Brown et al., 2017;Brown & Sax, 2013;Catterall, 2009;Catterall et al., 2012;Elpus, 2013a) and some have explored positive benefits for dance engagement in particular (Gilbert, 2006;Greenfader & Brouillette, 2017;Kim, 2007;Lobo & Winsler, 2006;Minton, 2003;Morgan & Stengel-Mohr, 2014;Park, 2007;Rossberg-Gempton et al., 1999;Seham, 1997), much of the research is correlational and does not adequately control for preexisting selection effects-the many ways that students who do and do not get arts experiences are initially different. Further, studies often examine rather global arts experiences (Catterall, 2009;Catterall et al., 2012;Winsler et al., 2019) when outcomes associated with arts participation are likely to vary by the particular art form in question . ...
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Although research shows associations between adolescents general arts involvement and academic performance, little research documents links between enrollment in middle school dance elective courses and academic achievement, especially within low-income, urban populations. Further, differences between adolescents who do and do not have access to, or self-select into, middle school dance electives have yet to be identified. We prospectively followed a large (n = 31,332), ethnically diverse sample of children from preschool through 8th grade in Miami, Florida. About 7% of adolescents enrolled in a dance elective course at some point in middle school (6th- 8th grade), with the majority of those (68.8%) taking dance for only one year. Black students were more likely than White and Latinx students to attend middle schools that did not offer dance. When dance courses were available, males and Black students were less likely to select into a dance elective. Students who took dance in middle school showed greater initial social skills at age four and better prior academic achievement in elementary school compared with those who did not take dance. Importantly, controlling for all preexisting selection effects and prior academic achievement, dance engagement in middle school was associated with higher grade point averages and standardized test scores, better school attendance, and a lower likelihood of suspension during middle school, with stronger positive effects observed for taking dance electives for multiple years. Implications for future research and educational policy are discussed.
... Throughout Europe, art is part of the curriculum (Sylva, Ereky-Stevens, & Ariescu, 2015) and it has been recently highlighted as one key strategy to promote the skills and attitudes from birth through age 6 that knowledge-based societies require (Winner et al., 2013). In addition, preschoolers' involvement in the arts is associated with receptive vocabulary (Brown, Benedett, & Armistead, 2010), emergent literacy (Phillips, Gorton, Pinciotti, & Sachdev, 2010), emotion expression and regulation (Brown & Sax, 2013), and self-confidence (Kim, Wee, & Gilbert, 2017). ...
... Findings from this study highlight how educator's choices in artistic activities are associated with different patterns of interaction quality. There are abundant claims that artistic activities can advance the development of thinking and communication skills (Brown & Sax, 2013;Maynard & Ketter, 2013). However, it seems that to ensure these skills are met, one cannot overlook the characteristics and quality of the activities being delivered. ...
Article
Research Findings: In this study, we examine specific features of arts-related activities in crèche and its associations with the quality of group and child level interactions. Participants were 31 toddler classrooms and 50 children (Mage = 30.56; 52% girls). The quality of group level interactions was observed with the CLASS Toddler and the quality of child level interactions with the inCLASS Toddler. Results revealed that the vast majority of activities were Arts & crafts, conducted in small group, and were open-ended, although substantial variation was found. Findings further showed positive associations between active facilitation and the quality of interactions at both levels. Other activity features, such as the use of hands-on materials, social grouping and open-ended, were also associated with interaction quality. Practice or Policy: Results from the current study can inform crèche educators on how to better plan and conduct artistic activities. Arts & crafts activities can become especially fruitful moments for quality interactions, from the group and child perspectives, when the educator acts as a facilitator and co-player, providing materials that children can freely manipulate and giving children the freedom to create products from their imagination. Such suggestions are important to consider in arts-oriented curriculum guidelines for toddlers.
... Quasi-experimental evidence of ancillary effects for other arts domains, such as drama (Catterall, 2007;Elpus, 2013;Goldstein & Winner, 2012;Klorer & Robb, 2012;Podlozny, 2000), dance (Elpus, 2013;Kim, 2007;McMahon, Rose, & Parks, 2003;Seham, 1997), and visual art (Tishman, MacGillvray, & Palmer, 1999), or for a multiarts composite (E. D. Brown & Sax, 2013;R. Brown & Evans, 2002;Morrissey & Werner-Wilson, 2005), has also been found. Children in art-enriched preschools, for example, show enhanced positive emotion and emotion regulation compared to children in other schools (E. D. Brown & Sax, 2013;R. Brown & Evans, 2002). Beyond enhancing students' academics, the arts can also enhance stude ...
... , 2003;Seham, 1997), and visual art (Tishman, MacGillvray, & Palmer, 1999), or for a multiarts composite (E. D. Brown & Sax, 2013;R. Brown & Evans, 2002;Morrissey & Werner-Wilson, 2005), has also been found. Children in art-enriched preschools, for example, show enhanced positive emotion and emotion regulation compared to children in other schools (E. D. Brown & Sax, 2013;R. Brown & Evans, 2002). Beyond enhancing students' academics, the arts can also enhance students' engagement in school. For example, arts programs can incentivize youth to engage in coursework and feel more confident and motivated about learning (Nichols, 2015;Wright, John, Alaggia, & Sheel, 2006). Involvement in the arts during adolesc ...
Article
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It is critical for research on the effects of arts engagement to identify and carefully control for preexisting selection factors that differentiate those who do and do not get exposure to the arts. We prospectively followed a large and diverse sample of preschool children (n = 31,332; 61% Latino, 32% Black, 55% ELL, 81% free/reduced lunch) until they completed 6th, 7th, and/or 8th grade. School readiness was assessed during pre-K, and archival public-school data were collected in middle school. Overall, 40% of students took some kind of arts elective course (music, dance, drama, visual art) during middle school. Black students, males, students with disabilities, those previously retained, and those not English proficient had reduced odds of taking an arts class. Children with stronger school readiness skills at age 4 and stronger academics in 5th grade were more likely to enroll in arts-related courses. Importantly, controlling for prior variables associated with selection into the arts, including prior academic performance, students with exposure to an arts elective in middle school subsequently had significantly higher GPAs and math and reading scores, and decreased odds of school suspension, compared to students not exposed to the arts.
... Prior studies indicate that through engaging in creatively focused interventions (visual art and performance art), international middle and high school populations have made significant gains in empathy (Castillo et al., 2013;Ishaq, 2006). Music, theater, visual arts, and poetry have all been used to teach empathy and emotional awareness to children and adolescents in the USA and the UK (Brown & Sax, 2013;Goldstein & Winner, 2012;Gorrell, 2000;Ishaq, 2006;Rabinowitch et al., 2013). More specifically, research findings have shown that acting training increased empathy among elementary school-aged children (Goldstein & Winner, 2012); 8-11 year old children had higher emotional empathy scores following a musical group intervention (Rabinowitch et al., 2013); and arts-enrichment preschool children who took part in music, dance, and visual arts activities subsequently experienced greater emotion regulation (Brown & Sax, 2013), which has been proposed as a fundamental component of empathy (Decety & Lamm, 2006). ...
... Music, theater, visual arts, and poetry have all been used to teach empathy and emotional awareness to children and adolescents in the USA and the UK (Brown & Sax, 2013;Goldstein & Winner, 2012;Gorrell, 2000;Ishaq, 2006;Rabinowitch et al., 2013). More specifically, research findings have shown that acting training increased empathy among elementary school-aged children (Goldstein & Winner, 2012); 8-11 year old children had higher emotional empathy scores following a musical group intervention (Rabinowitch et al., 2013); and arts-enrichment preschool children who took part in music, dance, and visual arts activities subsequently experienced greater emotion regulation (Brown & Sax, 2013), which has been proposed as a fundamental component of empathy (Decety & Lamm, 2006). ...
Article
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Social-emotional learning (SEL) curricula are being increasingly implemented with young children; however, access to comprehensive programs can be prohibitive for programs limited by finances, time, or other factors. This article describes an exploratory case study that investigates the use of creative activity in the direct promotion of empathy and indirect promotion of other social-emotional skills for early elementary children in an urban-based after-school setting. A novel curriculum, Creating Compassion, which combines art engagement with explicit behavioral instruction, serves as a promising avenue for social-emotional skill development, and has particular importance for children from low-income households. Five children from racially minoritized backgrounds in grades kindergarten and first attended the Creating Compassion group intervention. Group-level data and individual data of direct behavior ratings suggested a modest increase in empathy development, responsible decision-making, and self-management skills and thereby provide a preliminary basis for further effectiveness investigation. Suggestions for future research in this area are discussed in addition to social justice implications.
... For example, critical and creative writing among elementary school-aged girls was found to be linked to development of gender identity, self-concept, and awareness of the self in relation to society (Jones, 2006). Brown and Sax (2013) examined the impact of a creative arts program among low income atrisk youth and found that participation in this program was associated with more positive emotions (based on student self-assessment) as well as teacher ratings of greater emotion regulation in the classroom. ...
... Few published studies exist that have systematically examined the impact programs like these have not only on skills-based learning, but also the psychological and emotional impact on the children who participate. Of those that have been reviewed (e.g., Brown & Sax, 2013;Turner & Senior, 2000;Byrgen, Boinkum, & Sven-Eric, 1996), there have been strong indications of positive impact on the well-being of the children who participated. We sought to address this limitation by adding to the small, but growing body of empirical literature investigating how afterschool creative arts programs impact the children who participated. ...
Article
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Nationwide budget cuts have forced many public school systems to significantly reduce opportunities for engaging in creative arts in the classroom despite the fact that such programs are associated with positive child outcomes. To address this deficit, we developed and executed the "Afterschool Creative Expression Program" (ASCEP) and opened it to 66 elementary school children attending a Title I school in the Southeast. Employing a process approach, which included using mentor texts, writing, editing, and revising, each child published one written piece. The program combined both writing and photography experiences to teach children how to write for authentic purposes, and through this process, encouraged these children to explore their identities. We used both quantitative and qualitative analyses to examine the program's effect on students' writing identities, as well as their overall experience of the program. Researchers used an open coding method to examine participant surveys. Findings of the study included the identification of three themes: 1) identity building, 2) importance of incorporating photography, and 3) the significant social aspect of the program. The implications of these themes and how they may inform future efforts to engage children in creative arts programs are discussed.
... Actualmente, se ha incrementado el interés por el estudio de las emociones en ámbitos educativos (Blasco-Magraner et al., 2021). Numerosos investigadores han analizado la importancia de la música en la infancia (Alegrado y Winsler, 2020;Brown y Sax, 2013;Corbeil et al., 2013;Theorell et al., 2018). Desde edades tempranas, bebés de 5 meses encontraron un significado social en aquellas melodías cantadas en vivo y experimentadas en casa por interlocutores sociales conocidos (Mehr et al., 2013). ...
... Desde esta perspectiva, la educación musical temprana incide positivamente sobre la expresión y regulación de las emociones positivas y negativas de los niños, incrementándose el número de emociones positivas observadas en comparación con sus iguales que no reciben este tipo de educación. En definitiva, el enriquecimiento artístico puede promover la preparación socioemocional para aprender la resolución de conflictos (Brown y Sax, 2013). De igual modo, el enriquecimiento artístico puede brindar oportunidades importantes para el desarrollo de habilidades pre-académicas, ya que actividades como la música y el movimiento estimulan los sentidos y el aprendizaje. ...
... An American study of an arts enrichment program for preschool children from low income families, found that the delivery of core EY learning -when enriched with culturally-sensitive and appropriate daily music, creative movement and visual arts classes -led to increases in pride, happiness, interest, positive emotions and greater emotional regulation amongst those children who attended than their peers. The implication from the study was that arts enrichment may help low income children's social-emotional readiness for school (Brown & Sax, 2013). ...
Research
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The report of an interdisciplinary collaborative action research project bringing together speech and language therapists and early childhood music-arts practitioners to develop new pedagogical approaches to working with children aged 2-4 years old with communication difficulties and their caregivers.
... McDonel (2013) discussed a program called MusicPlay where teachers incorporate selected songs that relate to math curriculum. Table 3.2 includes two interventions that also appear in Table 3.1 (Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts Enrichment Program and the Teaching Artists Project as per Sax, 2013, andMulker-Greenfader et al., 2015, respectively). These interventions are listed in both tables because the supporting evidence for some outcomes (those listed in Table 3.1) is stronger than the supporting evidence for other outcomes (those listed in Table 3.2). ...
... Other studies have examined relationships between the arts and emotional regulation. For example, toddlers in an arts integration program with multiple art forms were observed to have improvements in teacher-rated emotional regulation (Brown & Sax, 2013). Music participation studies have also found relationships between better emotional regulation (Gerry, Unrau, & Trainor, 2012) and improved expressive emotions (Mualem & Klein, 2013). ...
Article
Despite a growing body of literature examining the effects of arts exposure and participation for youth, little is known about the development of attitudes toward art in early childhood. In this study, we used an experimental research design to investigate the effect of arts exposure on the development of children's attitudes toward art. Applicant groups (n = 26) with students in kindergarten through 2nd grade (n = 2,253) were randomly assigned to participate in an art museum's educational program, which included pre-curricular materials, a visit to an art museum with a guided tour and arts-based activities, and post-curricular classroom materials. We collected original data from students in their classrooms that measured their attitudes toward art museums and art generally, as well as art knowledge. We found that exposure to the arts at an early age produced significant positive effects on the development of students' attitudes toward the arts. Our findings demonstrate that arts-based exposure facilitated by schools can be an effective strategy for developing positive orientations toward art in young children.
... Play offers benefits for children's self-efficacy, or competence, which is the essential willingness to undertake learning at home or at school (Epstein, 2000). Studies of the Kaleidoscope Head Start Preschool, where arts enrichment is significant, show the arts led to an increase in school readiness, emotion expression, and emotion regulation for low-income children (Brown et al., 2010;Brown & Sax, 2012). ...
... It supports the notion that creative arts are very important to practice in Head Start to ensure a successful learning for children. Brown and Sax (2013) examined whether arts enrichment improves positive emotions of 174 low-income at risk Head Start children. Ninety percent of the families were low-income based on federal poverty guideline. ...
... For example, participation in music-based activities (e.g., singing songs, listening to or dancing to music, playing musical instruments, etc.) has been positively associated with self-regulation (Williams, 2018), cognitive and intellectual development (Neville et al., 2008;Rauscher, 2009), 1 and motor development (Hallam, 2010). Further, music-based activities are often a component of arts-based and play-based educational programs, both of which have been effective at promoting learning in early childhood settings (Brown & Sax, 2013;Nicolopoulou et al., 2015). In particular, music has been found to support language and literacy outcomes (Bond, 2012;Franco et al., 2020;Moreno, 2009;Politimou et al., 2019). ...
Article
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This study reports preschool educators’ uses of music in educational settings, as well as challenges faced in incorporating music in the classroom in the U.S. Through a multiple-methods approach, data from two focus groups (N1 = 8, N2 = 6) and a survey (N = 119) are used to gain insight into how frequently preschool educators in the US use various types of music activities in their classrooms, for what purposes they do so, and what challenges they face in doing so. This study also sheds light on the current linguistic landscape of a sample of early childhood and care settings in the US, highlighting the importance of music activities as a tool to engage and teach children whose home language is different from the instructional language of English. Results indicate that preschool educators use music on a daily basis, for both academic and social-emotional purposes. Additionally, educators who have linguistically diverse students tend to use music more than those who have all English speakers in their classrooms. Finally, educators reported facing several challenges in accessing the necessary resources to lead music activities effectively in their classrooms.
... While literature on arts integration in the Pre-K environment is scarce, a 2013 study, ''Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk,'' found that art could help shape the emotions of preschool students who were introduced to a separate arts education program. Through a 3-year program, they found that the attitudes of young learners who had been exposed to arts education was much more positive and they were more socially capable than others in an early learning classes (Brown 2013). Arts Enrichment was used as a stand-alone experience, instead of being integrated into the current curriculum. ...
Article
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Education in the arts continues to struggle for inclusion in PreK-12 classrooms as public schools face increasing challenges from high stakes testing, Common Core politics, and endless budget cuts. Advocates point to the growing body of research linking art education to academic achievement as justification for arts’ continued inclusion in the curriculum. In its 2005 report, the National Association of State Boards of Education highlighted this research trend and called for stronger emphasis on arts in educational curricula (Meyer in Arts Educ Policy Rev 106(3):35–40, 2005). Yet despite the evidence, school districts across the nation have been slow to include more arts programming within the classroom. This study, however, examines one school district that did. In a collaborative project between a large urban school district and a local arts and science council, an arts integration program called Wolf Trap was implemented in economically disadvantaged pre-Kindergarten and first-grade classrooms at selected schools across the district. Objectives of the program were to: (a) improve school readiness skills among participants; (b) increase capacity of classroom teachers to learn and implement effective arts-based teaching strategies; and (c) increase the capacity of teaching artists to acquire and model effective arts-based teaching strategies. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the program using data from the teaching artists, classroom teachers, and the external evaluators. We discuss the program in detail and explain the methodology used in our evaluation. Finally, we present evidence that indicates the program’s success and we offer recommendations for program stakeholders.
... 29-30). Brown and Sax (2013) found greater emotional regulation and positive emotional expression among students of an artsintegrated Head Start program in comparison with students at a comparable preschool. In a quasi-experimental evaluation study of multiple arts education programs, Holochwost, et al. (2018) also found a positive effect on engagement among a subset of students: treatment students who were engaged in school before the programs began maintained engagement, while previously engaged comparison students became less engaged in school. ...
... Within the early education and care sector, professional qualifications such as certificates and diplomas have little consideration of music as either a content area or a teaching and learning strategy (Letts, 2015). Paradoxically, there is a substantial and growing body of literature that evidences the contributions of music learning and engagement to young children's development across a range of factors (for example, Moreno et al., 2009;Brown et al., 2010;Brown and Sax, 2013;Williams et al., 2015;Bugos and DeMarie, 2017). ...
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This paper reports the findings of a study that aimed to identify the music beliefs and values of educators in early childhood education and care settings in Australia. The aims of the study were 2-fold: to adapt and pilot a survey of music beliefs and values which might be implemented subsequently nationally in childcare settings; and, secondly, to identify the music beliefs and values held by early childhood and care educators concerning music in children's learning. The research questions that guided this component of the study were: What is the profile of early childhood and care educators? What beliefs and values for music engagement are held by early childhood and care educators? What shapes early childhood and care educators' music beliefs and values? Findings indicated that educators' beliefs and values on all items are above the mid-point indicating overall positive attitudes toward music despite the majority having no formal qualifications in music or a history of instrumental performance and/or singing. Given the overall positive attitudes toward music we suggest there is enormous potential within this population for further professional learning and development targeted at music and its potential wider benefits in young children's learning and lives.
... The arts have been used to support children's development in formal and informal schooling. Through the relevant empirical evidence, it was confirmed that they can support at-risk children in their cognitive development (Brown and Sax 2013;Brown, Benedett, and Armistead 2010). This was attributed to the fact that through the arts, students can have hands-on experiences and thus they gain a better understanding of the topic under investigation. ...
Article
Literacy as a social practice has a fundamental role in children’s lives especially in the early years context, in which social interactions are in the centre of knowledge achievement. Several pieces of research investigate the positive contribution of the arts in children’s literacy development in the early years settings. However, most of them focus on the aspect of emergent literacy and phonological awareness, with some indirect arguments about literacy as a social practice. Having this in mind and the importance of literacy as a social practice, this project was designed. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the arts in the development of literacy as a social practice in the early years settings. The intervention used the ‘Play and Learn through the Arts’ (PLA) programme for a full school year in a case study with 5–6-year-old children in Greece. The outcomes were measured using authentic assessment techniques and a semi-structure interview. The findings showed the positive contribution of the arts in the development of literacy as a social practice in the early years setting.
... The social-emotional-cultural learning space of the music group in a community context An arts enrichment programme for preschool children from low-income families (Brown and Sax 2013), found that the delivery of core EY learningwhen enriched with culturally-sensitive and appropriate daily music, creative movement and visual arts classesresulted in increased pride, happiness, interest, positive emotions and greater emotional regulation amongst those children who attended, compared with their peers. The implication from the study was that arts enrichment may help low-income children's social-emotional readiness for school. ...
Article
Young children’s speech and communication skills have been in the spotlight in recent years, often in association with parental socio-economic status and children’s ‘readiness’ for school. Finding innovative and open-ended ways to encourage children with communication difficulties to engage in interactive play was the premise for this action research project. By combining the theoretical knowledge and expertise of speech and language therapists with those of early childhood music-arts practitioners, the interdisciplinary research team expanded their understanding and practical approaches. Caregivers and children aged 24–48 months attended weekly SALTMusic¹1 Speech and language therapy-music.View all notes sessions. The team reflected together on their observations after every session, completing the ‘SALTMusic Scale’ for each child. Drawing together analyses from this tool, and other data collection methods, it was evident that children’s communication improved when the need to talk was removed and children and caregivers were encouraged to play with sound and make music together. This is an important study offering an evidence-informed approach to working with children and their caregivers that can relieve anxiety and build confidence. The quality of practice in the field is impacted by an increasingly reflective workforce who place theory and research as integral elements of their practice.
... Research has shown that expressive arts, including art, music, dance/movement, drama, and creative writing can enhance self-regulation in individuals who are experiencing distress or reactions from psychological trauma (Malchiodi, 2016). In addition, studies have shown that child engagement in music and dance is positively associated with emotion regulation (Brown & Sax Kacey, 2013;Gerry, Unrau, & Trainor, 2012). Other studies have demonstrated that for mature adults, the arts can defer dementia and reduce depression (Cohen, 2006;Kent & Li, 2013;Verghese et al., 2003). ...
Article
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Efforts are being made to examine how the arts help people reach their full potential and contribute to subjective well-being. The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between artistic consumption and consumer well-being. Specifically, consumer motives, represented as emotion regulation, and arts engagement are examined to assess the relationship between arts participation and life satisfaction. This assessment is carried out in 2 countries, the United States and Croatia. Findings from both countries indicate that emotion regulation is positively related to arts engagement. In turn, arts engagement is positively related to arts participation for consumers in both countries. Results, however, diverge for both countries with respect to the influence that artistic consumption has on global life satisfaction. For U.S. consumers, arts participation is positively related to life satisfaction; yet arts participation is not related to satisfaction for Croatian consumers. Implications for the role the arts play in contributing to consumer well-being are discussed.
... Art therapy efektif dalam menangani para pasien disorder yang memiliki kecenderungan bertindak kekerasan (Broek, De Vos, & Bernstein, 2011;Malchiodi, 2003). Penelitian lain juga menunjukan bahwa Art therapy bisa menjadi sarana belajar anak yang tidak membosankan untuk menurunkan perilaku agresif, meningkatkan regulasi emosi dan sangat efektif bagi anak yang mengalami peristiwa traumatis karena art therapy bisa memfasilitasi ekspresi emosi dalam setting yang aman (Atkinson & Robson, 2012;Aviv, Regev, & Guttmann, 2014;Bishop, 2012;Brown & Sack, 2013;Samadzadeh, Abbasi, & Shahbazzadegan, 2013;Khadar, Bapaour, & Sabourimoghaddam, 2013). Pemanfaatan seni dapat membantu anak untuk mengamplifikasi hubungan interpersonal yang belum terselesaikan dan memungkinkan terapis untuk menyadari pengalaman anak terlepas dari kemampuan verbal (Malchiodi, 2003;Rankanen, 2014 (Alavinezhad, Mousavi, & Sohrabi, 2014;Malchiodi, 2003). ...
Article
The purpose of this research is to examine the effectiveness of AKTIF Teacher training program to increase the teachers’ self-efficacy in teaching children with special needs. Untreated Control Group Design with Dependent pre-test and post-test sample method was used. 17 teachers were selected through purposive sampling method as experiment group and 5 teachers as control group. One-Way ANOVA test showed the three methods (case discussion, roleplay, and simulation) indicatedno fundamental difference in improving self-efficacy (F = 2.852, p = .091). Data analysis using the Mann Whitney U Test showed that the case discussion method significantly increased self-efficacy (zcase discussion = -2.410, p = .016; zsimulation = - 0.754, p = .451; zrole play = -1.916, p = .055). Wilcoxon-signed rank test showed that case discussion (p = 0.043) and roleplay (p = 0.035) were significant to improve self-efficacy, as opposed to simulation method which was not (p = 0.063).
... For example, arts activities are thought to enhance the development of the self, including increasing self-knowledge (Hansen et al., 2003), as well as providing opportunities for identity exploration (Eccles & Barber, 1999) and involvement in self-defining experiences (Coatsworth & Sharp, 2013) among adolescents. The expressiveness of art and drama activities is also likely to foster emotion regulation (Brouillette, 2010;Brown & Sax, 2013;Larson & Brown, 2007;Winsler, Ducenne, & Koury, 2011) and strengthen creative processes (see the review by Kourkouta, Rarra, Mavroeidi, & Prodromidis, 2014). In addition, participation in the performing arts has been associated with developing positive social relationships in childhood and adolescence, likely through positive interactions with extrafamilial adults and peers who share similar interests (Hille & Schupp, 2014; see the review by Hallam, 2010). ...
Article
The goals of the present study were (a) to explore different aspects of children's participation in structured performing arts activities (e.g., dance and music); and (b) to examine links between participation in performing arts and indices of socioemotional functioning. Participants were N = 166 children (75 boys and 91 girls) in Grade 1 (n = 70, Mage = 6.17 years, SD = 0.38), Grade 2 (n = 44, Mage = 7.07 years, SD = 0.26), and Grade 3 (n = 52, Mage = 8.06 years, SD = 0.37). Parents completed assessments of children's participation in performing arts (activity type, frequency, positive psychological engagement, and stress) and indices of socioemotional functioning. Among the results, children participated most often in dance (particularly girls) and music. There was some evidence to suggest that children were less engaged and experienced more stress in music compared to dance activities. However, participants in music were rated as having fewer peer relationship problems as compared to children who did not participate in performing arts activities. As well, stress in performing arts was positively associated with emotion problems and negatively associated with prosocial behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of the links between performing arts activities and young children's socioemotional functioning.
... In addition, such activities contribute to the development of verbal and non-verbal communication skills of children with special needs (Havlat, 2006;Stephenson, 2006). When the studies in the literature are examined, there are also important studies which reveal that music has a positive effect on the development of social skills (Akıncı & Alpagut, 2017) and also contributes to children's development in learning (Brown, Benedett, and Armistead, 2010;Brown and Sax, 2013;Moreno Marques, Santos, Santos, Castro & Besson, 2007;Williams, Barrett, Welch, Abad and Broughton, 2015). ...
... In addition, arts-enriched preschool environments that include music (particularly singing) are likely to improve children's school readiness and receptive vocabulary (Brown, Benedett & Armistead, 2010), literacy (Phillips, Gorton, Pinciotti & Sachdev, 2010;Hannon et al. 2016), cognitive reasoning (Portowitz, Lichtenstein, Egorova & Brand, 2009;Henriksson-Macaulay & Welch, 2015) and emotional regulation skills. Such impact is evidenced in children at risk in low-income families (Brown & Sax, 2013;Trehub et al. 2015;Corbeil et al. 2016). See also Barrett, 2016;Hallam, 2015;Henriksson-Macaulay & Welch, 2016;Welch, 2006 for reviews of related literature. ...
Technical Report
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‘Music for Change’ is a multi-year programme which aims to enhance children’s early development and improve rates of school readiness among pre-school children in northwest Westminster, an area of multiple deprivation in London. Devised to meet specific needs identified by the local authority’s Early Years Advisory Team, the project has a particular focus on supporting above average numbers of children with speech and language delay. A key strand of the project is a collaboration by Creative Future early years music specialists with NHS speech and language therapists (SLTs) from Central London Community Healthcare (CLCH). This started with a pilot project in the summer of 2015, and which has since then seen three distinct collaborative interventions in two nursery settings. The report covers the opening phase of the project in 2015-2016.
... Children need to have opportunities where they can validate their own achievements, such as being prideful and respectful of their artworks. For instance, Brown and Sax (2013) observed that underserved children in arts-integrated preschools showed more positive emotions, including satisfaction, than those in traditional preschool classrooms and linked this to impacting longer-term socio-emotional functioning. ...
Article
Latinx farmworker children are a vulnerable and disparate health population that confronts a myriad of threats to their emotional and behavioral health and subsequent development. Art therapy provides a potentially valuable and efficient strategy for preventing young children's mental health problems by providing a structured and engaging outlet for resolving the emotional sequelae of chronic adversity. A narrative-focused and trauma-processing art therapy program was implemented with 14 children aged between 3-5 years over 12 sessions in a bi-weekly format within a rural migrant head start program. We used a simple single group pre/posttest design to examine the impact of this intervention and saw improvement in all developmental areas using a specifically designed art therapy observation measure (ATC-PC) and a routine early development measure (LAP-3). However, it was unclear whether these changes were attributable to the art therapy program alone. Therefore, the findings of this pilot study warrant replication at a wider-scale. Additionally, the ATC-PC was shown to be a promising observation tool to document progress in art therapy with young children that also requires wider implementation and further testing.
... Live. addresses expression of these thoughts verbally as well as through art given that research shows that some children are better able to share difficult emotions through artistic outlets [35,36]. ...
Article
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of participation in Camp Dream. Speak. Live., an intensive therapy program, on the communication attitudes, peer relationships and quality of life of children who stutter. Method: Participants were 23 children who stutter (n=5 females; n=18 males; age range 4–14 years) who attended a weeklong intensive therapy program that was exclusively developed to address the affective and cognitive components of stuttering. Outcome measures included the KiddyCAT Communication Attitude Test for Preschool and Kindergarten Children who Stutter, the Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES), and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric Peer Relationships Form. Parents of children who participated in the program completed online parent proxy versions of the Kiddy-CAT, OASES, and PROMIS approximately one month after their child’s participation in Camp Dream. Speak. Live. concluded. Results: Results suggest that participation in Camp Dream. Speak. Live. led to significant increases in the child’s communication attitude, the child’s perception of his/her ability to make friends, and also significantly reduced the impact of stuttering on the child’s overall quality of life. Additionally, parents of children who participated in Camp Dream. Speak. Live. reported they observed positive increases in their child’s perception of his/her own ability to make friends as well as significant decreases in their child’s perspective of the impact of stuttering on his/her overall quality of life. Conclusion: Results support the notion that significant improvements in communication attitude as well as significant reductions in the impact of stuttering on overall quality of life can be achieved in a short period of time.
... Several recent studies have also investigated the relations between multi-component ECE program participation and SEL. For example, Brown and Sax (2013) reported on the SEL of preschoolers attending an arts-integrated Head Start site, the Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts Enrichment program ("Kaleidoscope"). The Kaleidoscope site combined traditional early learning strategies with comprehensive arts programming (e.g., visual art classes, dance and creative movement, music). ...
Article
Full-text available
Educators and researchers are increasingly interested in evaluating and promoting socio-emotional learning (SEL) beginning in early childhood (Newman & Dusunbury in 2015; Zigler & Trickett in American Psychologist 33(9):789–798 10.1037/0003-066X.33.9.789 , 1978). Decades of research have linked participation in high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs (e.g., public prekindergarten, Head Start) to multidimensional wellbeing. ECE programs also have demonstrated potential to be implemented at large scales with strong financial returns on investment. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of ECE programs on SEL, particularly compared to smaller-scale, skills-based SEL interventions. Furthermore, among studies that have examined SEL, there is a general lack of consensus about how to define and measure SEL in applied settings. The present paper begins to address these gaps in several ways. First, it discusses conceptual and methodological issues related to developmentally and culturally sensitive assessment of young children’s socio-emotional functioning. Second, it reviews the empirical research literature on the impacts of three types of early childhood programs (general prekindergarten programs; multi-component prekindergarten programs; and universal skills-based interventions) on SEL. Finally, it highlights future directions for research and practice.
... Na subcategoria exigências tria-se risco em indicadores de absentismo escolar, fraco comportamento pró-social e ausência de rotinas de estudo (e.g., Cordeiro et al., 2020;Legters & Balfanz, 2010;Neild et al., 2007). Na categoria "Recursos", rastreiam-se indicadores de risco nas dimensões recursos cognitivos, tais como déficits de atenção (Wolraich et al., 1998), déficit na memória de trabalho, na capacidade de planeamento, baixa capacidade de inibição (Thorell & Nyberg, 2008); recursos emocionais, tais como baixa autoestima, baixa regulação e imaturidade emocional (Bird & Sultman, 2010;Brown & Sax, 2013;Kratochwill & Shernoff, 2003); dificuldades de aprendizagem específicas na escrita (Maughan and Carroll, 2006), na consciência fonémica (Landerl et al, 2019), e sintomas de hiperatividade/impulsividade (Wolraich et al., 1998). ...
... Parents were more concerned about the social and emotional reasons for attending music group activities. There is some research evidence that group music making promotes social behaviour Tomasello 2009, 2010); music group activity has also been found to increase emotional empathy scores (Brown and Sax 2013). Young (2003) suggests that early music making is social-musical: her research found that children played the longest with instruments when a familiar adult played with them. ...
Article
This paper presents the findings of an interview study (phase one of a three-phase doctoral research project) that attempted to establish practitioners’ and parents’ views of why parent–child group music making activities are offered in interdisciplinary Children's Centres in England for the 0–3 years age range. These settings are community hubs where a range of services is available for families with children under five. The responses of individual parents and practitioners (total 20) to a standardised interview schedule gave rise to eight main themes: social, emotional, learning, teaching, parenting, musical, links-to-home, and organisational. Practitioners emphasised the learning and development benefits, whereas parents were more concerned about the social and emotional reasons for attending music groups. Practitioners and parents both emphasised the emotional benefits that resulted from participating in musical activities. These findings suggest that socialisation may be multi-dimensional in the music group: between parent and child and amongst the wider group. Practitioners’ knowledge of the benefits of music may not necessarily lead to appropriate pedagogical musical approaches and there are questions raised about musical ‘culture’ and links to and from home.
... Parent-child music therapy efficacy studies have also indicated that joint active music participation supports improved child-parent interactions and enhanced impulse control and self-regulation skills (Malloch et al., 2012;Pasiali, 2012). Galarce and colleagues (2012) reported enhanced self-regulation in terms of inappropriate speaking to others, while Brown and Sax (2013) found that an arts enriched programme including music helped emotional regulation skills in low-income children when compared to non arts programmes. ...
Book
There is accruing evidence which indicates that actively making music can contribute to the enhancement of a range of non-musical skills and lead to other beneficial outcomes.
... Embedding music and movement experiences within the early education setting, in both formal and informal ways, also holds promise in supporting early selfregulatory development. An arts-enriched preschool program that included daily music sessions improved parent-rated emotional regulation skills in low-income children (Brown and Sax 2013) compared to children attending a regular program. Researchers have also documented the value of guided group musical play in 6-7year-old children in providing opportunities for self-regulatory learning. ...
Article
Full-text available
Differences in early self-regulation skills contribute to disparities in success in early learning and school transition, as well as in childhood well-being. Self-regulation refers to managing emotional, cognitive, and behavioral processes that are conducive to positive adjustment and social relationships. Researchers have identified that various domains of learning and development are enhanced by musical training, and understanding about the neurological processes responsible for such effects is increasing. This paper argues that coordinated rhythmic movement activities in preschool are an effective approach to support the neurological bases of self-regulation. Evidence and theory related to beat synchronization, cognitive benefits of formal music training, and music therapy for clinical populations are discussed to argue that musical activities could be better leveraged in early childhood education. The paper concludes that preschool activities designed to stimulate beat synchronization and motor coordination skills and embedded in group activities can enhance young children’s motor, auditory, and self-regulatory functioning.
Article
The objective was to compare the engagement of children with peers and in activities, before and after participating in teacher guided play in the day care center. Twenty children aged between 36 and 46 months, in a philanthropic day care center, participated in 20 play sessions. Preceding and succeeding that period, they were filmed during free play for nine days. Simultaneously, an observer recorded interactive and play behaviors, focusing on each child for two minutes, and later completed her recordings with the images captured by the cameras. Observed play was categorized as solitary, parallel, associative and cooperative. Interactive behaviors were categorized as gregarious, friendly communication focused or not on toy and unfriendly communication focused or not on toy. Data from the two observation blocks were compared by means of the Wilcoxon Test. Increased time in solitary and joint play, increased positive interactions and reduced negative interactions suggest greater engagement after teacher-guided play.
Book
Available at: https://www.carnegiehall.org/uploadedFiles/Resources_and_Components/PDF/WMI/WhyMusicMatters.pdf
Article
Music is increasingly recognized as having a social role, insofar as it is linked to emotional regulation and to early interactions in infancy and the preschool years. The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine the impact of participating in an early childhood music programme on indices of socioemotional development in children under 6 years of age. The overall result showed a moderate effect size (N = 681, k = 11, d = 0.57, p < 0.001). Moderation analyses revealed that the type of assessment (observational measure, reported measure or other types of assessment) significantly influenced effect size (Q′ = 25.26, p < 0.001). No other moderation analysis was significant. Although these findings are promising, suggesting that participation in an early childhood music programme contribute to children’s socioemotional development, more rigorous studies are needed to assess the impact of participating in a music programme on socioemotional development.
Article
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There is a growing body of evidence that early engagement in active music-making impacts beneficially on children’s wider development. Recent research indicates that individual and shared music-making in family settings contributes to positive parenting practices and identity development in young children. Children who participate in shared music-making at age 3 are better prepared for school experiences at age 5. These findings suggest music should be a compulsory requirement in any early childhood programme. This article reports the findings of a case study investigation of the provision of music in an Australian Early Childhood Education Centre. Findings suggest that music provision is best supported when there is a high value for music amongst staff, there is a range of value-added as well as integrated uses of music, and there is sustained music professional development for all staff.
Article
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Deficits in self-regulation (SR) have been proposed as a potential contributor to child overweight/obesity, a public health concern that disproportionately affects children living in poverty. Although poverty is known to influence SR, SR has not been considered as a potential mechanism in the association between poverty and child obesity. The aim of the current paper was to systematically review the current literature to determine whether SR is a viable mechanism in the relationship between child exposure to poverty and later risk of overweight/obesity. We systematically review and summarize literature in three related areas with the aim of generating a developmentally informed model that accounts for the consistent association between poverty and child weight, specifically how: (1) poverty relates to child weight, (2) poverty relates to child SR, and (3) SR is associated with weight. To quantify the strength of associations for each pathway, effect sizes were collected and aggregated. Findings from the studies included suggest small but potentially meaningful associations between poverty and child SR and between SR and child weight. The conceptualization and measurement of SR, however, varied across literature studies and made it difficult to determine whether SR can feasibly connect poverty to child obesity. Although SR may be a promising potential target for obesity intervention for low-income children, additional research on how SR affects risk of obesity is crucial, especially based on the lack of success of the limited number of SR-promoting interventions for improving children’s weight outcomes.
Article
Early childhood curricula reflect guiding principles or beliefs about the knowledge, skills, and behavior that are considered important for learning in the early childhood setting. This study examined linkages between teachers’ and young children’s expression of and talk about emotions during interactions in early childhood programs, using either the Creative Curriculum or the more emotion-focused Responsive Classroom approach. The research also examined teachers’ and children’s emotion-related behavior in relation to the gender composition of the interactions and teachers’ social-emotional teaching practices. Participants were 117 preschoolers (64 girls) and their teachers. Teachers and children in the Creative Curriculum classrooms displayed proportionately more negative emotional expressions than their counterparts in classrooms adopting the Responsive Classroom approach. Teachers’ negative emotional expressions were also more likely when children expressed negative emotions. Teachers’ and children’s negative expressions were less likely when teachers reported high use of social-emotional teaching practices. Teachers’ emotion talk was also more likely when social-emotional teaching practices were high. Gender composition of the interactions was also predictive of teachers’ emotion-related behavior. Discussion focuses on the important effect of curricula in supporting teachers’ and young children’s expression of and emotion talk in the early childhood classroom.
Article
Self-regulation skills are an important predictor of school readiness and early school achievement. Research identifies that experiences of early stress in disadvantaged households can affect young children’s brain architecture, often manifested in poor self-regulatory functioning. Although there are documented benefits of coordinated movement activities to improve self-regulation, few interventions have focused exclusively on music and rhythmic activities. This study explores the effectiveness of a preschool intervention, delivered across 8 weeks, which focused on coordinated rhythmic movement with music to improve self-regulation and executive function. The study involved 113 children across three preschools in disadvantaged communities. The intervention group received 16 sessions of a rhythm and movement program over 8 weeks, whereas the control group undertook the usual preschool program. Executive functions were directly assessed, and teachers reported on children’s self-regulation before and after the intervention. Path analyses found positive intervention effects for emotional regulation reported by teachers and, for boys, on the measure of shifting in the executive function assessment. Teacher-reported cognitive and behavioral regulation also improved in one research site. These early findings suggest that a rhythm and movement intervention has the potential to support the development of self-regulation skills in preschool; however, further research is required.
Conference Paper
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Considering the increasing number of immigrant students attending the school system, the Italian context is a particularly appropriate example to study the phenomenon of bullying focused on nationality background. Students with an immigrant background are defined as those students who are either foreign-born or have at least one foreign-born parent (OECD, 2018). The focus of this paper is to present the key elements of a formative intervention based on art-laboratory to reduce bullying of students with an immigrant background. This objective is especially significant given that stressful life events, like bullying, can lead to depression, anxiety, and symptoms of other psychological problems, such as sleep disorders (Swearer, Hymel, 2015). In order to select the relevant factors, we briefly introduce the results of a national survey conducted in the context of a wider research program on bullying for modelling more adequate educational interventions (Marini et al., 2019).
Article
This meta-analysis summarized the effects of universal and targeted social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions in 48 studies on the development of social and emotional skills and the reduction of problem behaviors in 15,498 preschool students. For universal SEL interventions delivered to all students, a random-effects model with 33 primary studies showed small to medium effects for the overall development of social and emotional skills (Hedges’s g = .34) and for the reduction of problem behaviors (g = .32), with an overall grand mean of g = .35. For targeted interventions, delivered to at-risk students identified as being in need of additional supports, a random-effects model with 15 primary studies showed medium effects for the overall development of social and emotional skills (Hedges’s g = .44) and for the reduction of problem behaviors (g = .50), with an overall grand mean of g = .48. A meta-regression model showed that intervention program accounted for 83% of heterogeneity in the overall effect size for universal interventions. Overall, this meta-analysis demonstrated that preschool children benefit from SEL interventions in different contexts, particularly those who were identified as being in need of early intervention. Moreover, best practices for preschool SEL interventions may differ from best practices for K–12 students, given the developmental uniqueness of the preschool years.
Article
This study examined the impact of an in-school dance curriculum on the social-emotional development of at-risk preschoolers in a southern California public preschool program. The preschoolers (N = 69) participated in dance for thirty minutes, once a week, over an entire academic year. We compared the Desired Results Developmental Profile (DRDP) scores in the Social-Emotional domain from Fall 2018 to Spring 2019 and controlled for dance by analyzing scores from four sites who received dance and two sites who did not receive any dance. Our findings included an increase in preschoolers’ DRDP scores in the category of Integrating Social-Emotional Skills among those sites who received dance versus sites who did not receive dance. There were no significant changes among scores in the category of Building-Later. Through this study, dance was shown to support preschoolers’ ability to integrate and build social-emotional skills, strengthen their self-identity, and establish meaningful relationships with peers and adults.
Article
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Music early learning programs (MELPs) that provide music services to parents and carers of children aged birth through 8 years are proliferating. Parents make significant financial and social investments in MELPs, yet little is known of their motivations and aspirations nor of the enduring outcomes of participation. This article reports the findings of an interview study with 10 parents, 1 grandparent, and 8 child former participants in a MELP program in regional Australia that investigated perceptions of MELP participation. Findings indicate that parents come from a range of musical backgrounds. Reasons and aspirations for MELP enrolment encompass developing both parents’ and children’s musical skills, providing social benefits for parent and child, exposure to musical experience, value-adding to their child’s education and expanding the family social circle. Enduring outcomes include developed music knowledge and skills, future investments, physical and emotional development, and new patterns of learning that are potentially transferable. Findings suggest that children arrive at formal schooling with a rich repertoire of music, a capacity to engage in embodied musical experience, and a set of expectations concerning their participation in music. Such knowledge holds implications for the ways in which music learning might be structured within the early childhood classroom.
Article
Purpose This study compared the predictive power of specific categories of the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) and Bender-Gestalt test in identifying the problems of students with SLDs. Method Forty elementary-school students with SLDs were selected from the SLD center of Babol, Iran, and 40 non-SLDs students were chosen from public schools, matched in terms of age, sex, and grade with the group with SLDs. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), the Draw a Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) test, four scales of FEATS for drawing scores, and the Bender-Gestalt test were administered. The data were analyzed by independent samples t-test, Pearson's correlation test, and MANOVA. Results The groups significantly differed on the PPAT test, and the students with SLDs had a lower mean score than the non-SLD students on three components of integration, realism, and perseveration, but not on rotation. On the Bender-Gestalt test, the two groups significantly differed on all four components of distortion, disintegration, perseveration, and rotation. The construct validity was confirmed between SLDs and the components of "integration and disintegration" and "realism and distortion" in the two groups. Moreover, the Bender-Gestalt test had a greater effect than the four components of the FEATS, but the difference was small. Discussion The use of PPAT with FEATS and Bender-Gestalt test can help diagnose children with SLDs.
Article
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Research has shown that young children’s socio-emotional development may benefit from participating in a music programme. In this study, we explored the association between participation in a general music programme and the development of socio-emotional skills in relation to the duration of the programme. Children aged 4 and 5 (N=50), from a low socio-economic neighbourhood, participated in an 8- or 15-week music programme. Children’s social skills development and emotion comprehension were measured. Teachers reported an increase in the social interaction and independence skills scores of the younger children and a decrease in the cooperation skills scores of the older children. Additionally, the older children showed an increase in their comprehension of emotions. The duration of the programme, however, did not yield any significant effect. Results suggest that the association between participation in a music programme and the development of social-emotional skills may be influenced by the age of the children.
Article
The purpose of this chapter is to examine early childhood arts education as a mechanism for achieving Dewey's goals of active, integrated learning. The approach is to examine Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts Enrichment Program as a model, reviewing the pedagogical approach and research on program outcomes. Findings are that music, dance, and visual arts can be used to teach skills in language, literacy, science, mathematics, and social/cultural learning. Program outcomes indicate particular benefits for children from racial/ethnic minority groups as well as those with developmental delays. Comparison research documents an overall advantage of Kaleidoscope's arts-integrated pedagogy for vocabulary growth and emotional functioning. The research is limited in that between-child comparisons have lacked random assignment. Yet within-child experiments and between-child quasi-experiments suggest that arts-integrated education offers advantages for the "whole child." Practical implications include that early childhood professionals may use the arts to facilitate multimodal learning and emotion regulation, as well as bridge the gap that often separates home from school for children from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds. A social implication is that, although the arts are often viewed as supplemental, they can provide mechanisms for the development of skills in core early learning domains. Additionally, arts integration may offer solutions to the challenges faced by learners from diverse backgrounds and with diverse needs. This chapter makes an original and valuable contribution by reviewing both pedagogy and research from Kaleidoscope, providing a compelling model of how Dewey's goals of active, integrated learning may be realized.
Article
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This investigation is an examination of musical practices, musical preparation of teachers, and music education needs as reported by early childhood professionals in the United States. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered via a survey mailed to a random sample drawn from the database of preschool centers accredited by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). The survey was based on criteria in the MENC national standards for pre-K music (1994b) and Opportunity-to-Learn Standards-PreK Music (1994a). Returned surveys (n = 293) reflect diversity of teacher preparation in music, how and why music is used in the early childhood curriculum, and what the music education needs are in these centers. Recommendations are offered to those concerned with the music education needs of young children and their teachers.
Article
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Empirical research shows that poor emotional competence is an early risk factor for the development of psychopathology. Numerous school-based prevention programs have been developed with the goal of decreasing behavior problems. Several of these programs include a discrete emotions component, but none of them are solely or primarily guided by emotion theory for their design and implementation. The prevention program described in this paper, the emotions course (EC), is a theoretically-coherent program based on differential emotions theory and is designed to be implemented by teachers in Head Start classrooms. Children participating in a pilot implementation of EC showed larger increases in emotion knowledge and less growth in negative emotion expression than their peers in control classrooms. These findings provide initial support for EC. Future implementations of the program need increased monitoring of implementation fidelity as well as additional methods to assess the success of the program.
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Research Findings: Although the role of language and private speech in the development of behavioral self-regulation has been studied, relations between behavioral self-regulation and children's experiences with other symbolic systems, such as music, have not yet been explored. Eighty-nine 3- and 4-year-old children (42 of whom had been enrolled in Kindermusik music and movement classes, and 47 demographically similar children who had not experienced structured early childhood music classes) completed a battery of laboratory self-regulation tasks and a selective attention task during which their private speech was reliably transcribed and categorized. Children currently enrolled in Kindermusik classes showed better self-regulation than those who were not currently enrolled (d = .41), and they also used more relevant private speech during the selective attention task (d = .57), a verbal strategy that was positively related to performance. Children exposed to the music program were also more likely to engage in the facilitative strategy of singing/humming to themselves during a waiting period in which they had to inhibit their desire to examine a gift, and they were less likely to call out socially to the experimenter, a strategy negatively associated with performance and self-regulation. Practice or Policy: Implications for early childhood education are discussed.
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Research Findings: Fostering the social competence of at-risk preschoolers would be facilitated by knowing which of children's emotion skills are most salient to social outcomes. We examined the emotion skills and social competence of 44 children enrolled in a Head Start program. Emotion skills were examined in terms of children's emotional lability and emotion regulation, whereas social competence was measured in terms of three aspects of preschoolers' social relationships: social skills, student–teacher relationships, and peer likeability. Although emotion regulation emerged as an important predictor for social skills and positive relationships with teachers, emotional lability was a significant predictor of student–teacher conflict and peer likeability. In fact, emotional lability mediated the relation between student–teacher conflict and peer likeability. Practice or Policy: The findings are discussed in terms of the complex associations between children's emotion skills and early social relationships.
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The effects of an eight-week instructional program in creative dance/movement on the social competence of low-income preschool children were assessed in this study utilizing a scientifically rigorous design. Forty preschool children from a large Head Start program were randomly assigned to participate in either an experimental dance program or an attention control group. Teachers and parents, blind to the children's group membership, rated children's social competence both before and after the program, using English and Spanish versions of the Social Competence Behavior Evaluation: Preschool Edition. The results revealed significantly greater positive gains over time in the children's social competence and both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems for the experimental group compared with the control group. Small-group creative dance instruction for at-risk preschoolers appears to be an excellent mechanism for enhancing social competence and improving behavior. The implications for early childhood education and intervention are discussed.
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Our review of research suggests that family poverty has selective effects on child development. Most important for policy are indications that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood affects adversely the ability and achievement of children. Although the 1996 welfare reforms have spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and, especially, sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some families. We suggest ways policies might be aimed at preventing either economic deprivation itself or its effects.
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We examined two mechanisms by which creating visual art may serve as a form of short-term mood repair. After viewing a film that induced a negatively valenced mood, participants were given a self-report affect grid that assessed mood valence and arousal. Participants then engaged in one of three tasks: creating a drawing expressing their current mood (venting), creating a drawing depicting something happy (positive emotion), or scanning a sheet for specific symbols (distraction control). Mood valence and arousal were then reassessed. Arousal remained unchanged after the interventions in all conditions. Valence became more positive in all three conditions, but the greatest improvement occurred after the positive emotion intervention. Valence improved no more after venting than after the control task. Results show that in the short-term, attending to and venting one’s negative feelings through art-making is a less effective means of improving mood than is turning away from a negative mood to something more positive. These findings are consistent with research on the beneficial effects of positive emotions and cast doubt on the often assumed view that artists improve their well being by expressing suffering.
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Emotions and behaviors observed during challenging tasks are hypothesized to be valuable indicators of young children's motivation, the assessment of which may be particularly important for children at risk for school failure. The current study demonstrated reliability and concurrent validity of a new observational assessment of motivation in young children. Head Start graduates completed challenging puzzle and trivia tasks during their kindergarten year. Children's emotion expression and task engagement were assessed based on their observed facial and verbal expressions and behavioral cues. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that observed persistence and shame predicted teacher ratings of children's academic achievement, whereas interest, anxiety, pride, shame, and persistence predicted children's social skills and learning-related behaviors. Children's emotional and behavioral responses to challenge thus appeared to be important indicators of school success. Observation of such responses may be a useful and valid alternative to self-report measures of motivation at this age.
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This study investigated the role of children's emotion regulation skills and academic success in kindergarten, using a sample of 325 five-year-old children. A mediational analysis addressed the potential mechanisms through which emotion regulation relates to children's early academic success. Results indicated that emotion regulation was positively associated with teacher reports of children's academic success and productivity in the classroom and standardized early literacy and math achievement scores. Contrary to predictions, child behavior problems and the quality of the student teacher relationship did not mediate these relations. However, emotion regulation and the quality of the student-teacher relationship uniquely predicted academic outcomes even after accounting for IQ. Findings are discussed in terms of how emotion regulation skills facilitate children's development of a positive student-teacher relationship and cognitive processing and independent learning behavior, both of which are important for academic motivation and success.
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The present study evaluated the efficacy of a multicomponent, classroom-based intervention in reducing preschoolers' behavior problems. The Chicago School Readiness Project model was implemented in 35 Head Start classrooms using a clustered-randomized controlled trial design. Results indicate significant treatment effects (ds = 0.53-0.89) for teacher-reported and independent observations of children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Moreover, there was some evidence for the moderating role of child gender, race/ethnic group membership, and exposure to poverty-related risk, with stronger effects of intervention for some groups of children than for others. Findings contribute to a growing area of research on poverty and preventive intervention in early childhood.
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Although hundreds of studies have documented the association between family poverty and children's health, achievement, and behavior, few measure the effects of the timing, depth, and duration of poverty on children, and many fail to adjust for other family characteristics (for example, female headship, mother's age, and schooling) that may account for much of the observed correlation between poverty and child outcomes. This article focuses on a recent set of studies that explore the relationship between poverty and child outcomes in depth. By and large, this research supports the conclusion that family income has selective but, in some instances, quite substantial effects on child and adolescent well-being. Family income appears to be more strongly related to children's ability and achievement than to their emotional outcomes. Children who live in extreme poverty or who live below the poverty line for multiple years appear, all other things being equal, to suffer the worst outcomes. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for certain child outcomes. Children who experience poverty during their preschool and early school years have lower rates of school completion than children and adolescents who experience poverty only in later years. Although more research is needed on the significance of the timing of poverty on child outcomes, findings to date suggest that interventions during early childhood may be most important in reducing poverty's impact on children.
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Our review of research suggests that family poverty has selective effects on child development. Most important for policy are indications that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood affects adversely the ability and achievement of children. Although the 1996 welfare reforms have spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and, especially, sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some families. We suggest ways policies might be aimed at preventing either economic deprivation itself or its effects.
Chapter
Differential emotions theory (DET) packs the infant. Infants gain possession of a limited set of discrete emotions in the first months of life, and these emotions are organized as a modular system with a high degree of independent functioning. The number of emotions, their expressive signatures, and their links to one another undergo remarkable change over time, to be sure, as do system organization and articulation. The core processes in emotional development, however, consist of the construction and consolidation of affective—cognitive structures, which mediate intersystem coordination of the emotions, cognitive, and motor systems.
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In this article, the authors bring together the central ideas of the prominent thinkers in arts education and arts in learning to construct a comprehensive case for the importance of the arts in every child's education. The roles of the arts in cognition, equitable access to meaning, student motivation, and cultural representation and understanding are explored. Illustrations are drawn from visible national projects translating the ideas into practice. Teacher voices on the power of the arts in the. learning of their children are introduced.
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From the cognitive theory perspective that emotions are cognition dependent and contain cognitive components, Ortony and Turner (1990) questioned the validity of the concept of basic emotions. They argued that the so-called basic emotions were neither psychologically or biologically "primitive" nor "irreducible building blocks" for generating the "great variety of emotional experiences." In the biosocial theory tradition, researchers have identified multiple noncognitive activators of emotion and demonstrated the usefulness of defining the essential components of emotion as phenomena that do not require cognitive mediators or constituents. In this framework, emotions are seen as basic because their biological and social functions are essential in evolution and adaptation. Particular emotions are called basic because they are assumed to have innate neural substrates, innate and universal expressions, and unique feeling-motivational states. The great variety of emotional experiences is explained as a function of emotion-cognition interactions that result in affective-cognitive structures.
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Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct pathway linking family adversity to child negative emotion dysregulation and indirect pathways for both family and neighborhood adversity through maternal negative emotionality. Practice or Policy: The results suggest the importance of conceptualizing distal and contextual aspects of the ecology of disadvantage as well as more proximal caregiving variables in interventions targeted for young children showing negative emotion dysregulation.
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We investigated whether artmaking improves mood, and if so, whether this effect is best explained by "catharsis" or "redirection." In Experiment 1, participants viewed tragic images and then either drew a picture based on their feelings or copied shapes. Those who drew exhibited more positive mood after drawing; those who copied shapes did not. Mood improved equally for those who drew negative and nonnegative images, suggesting that for some, catharsis led to improved mood and that for others, redirection led to improved mood. In Experiment 2, to test whether artmaking improved mood simply because people were distracted by making a drawing, we gave participants a word puzzle to complete, a task that does not allow expression of feeling through symbolic content. Completion of a word puzzle did not improve mood. These results suggest that artmaking increases the pleasure dimension of mood and does so via either catharsis or redirection.
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The after-school City School Outreach youth program captured the attention of high school male students by offering them a physically and psychologically safe environment to talk about issues they faced. The students of color who attended the program used various forms of creative written expression (i.e., poetry, spoken word, and hip hop) to document and share their lived realities as African American and Latino youth. An analysis of their writings and subsequent interviews revealed a variety of coping strategies and resources that these resilient adolescent males of color used to transcend adversity in their environment. When adolescent males of color have a strong sense of cultural pride and awareness, they are able to construct a healthy self-concept that assists them in acts of agency and resistance against negative psychological forces in their environment. These students used familial and nonfamilial support mechanisms, such as peers, church, and mentors, to assist them in reducing the stressful impact of racist stereotypes and community fragmentation. In light of these findings, teachers who wish to serve as a source of resilience in the lives of youth of color must make a concerted effort to acknowledge and appreciate differences and commonalities that exist among African American, Latino, and European-based mainstream culture. By building a healthy attitude toward their own culture, young people achieve the greater sense of direction and personal coherence needed for positive identity formation. When educators provide time and space for youth to examine and articulate their lives, social and intellectual climates form that can enrich and enliven their educational process.
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This short-term longitudinal study examined whether emotion regulation and emotion understanding made unique contributions towards at-risk preschoolers' classroom adaptation. To address this question, we assessed children's emotion regulation and their understanding of emotions in both self (self-awareness, emotion coping) and in others (emotion recognition, affective perspective taking, situation knowledge). Participants were 49 children (22 boys and 27 girls) who attended a Head Start program for low-income children. Seventy percent of this sample was Caucasian, with the remainder being of Latino, African American or biracial ethnicity. Emotion regulation at the start of the school year was associated with school adjustment at year's end, whereas early emotional lability/negativity predicted poorer outcomes. Children who made a smooth adjustment to preschool also were better able to take another person's affective perspective and to identify situations that would provoke different emotional responses. Emotion regulation and understanding made unique contributions towards school adjustment, even when controlling for potential confounds, including behavior problems and verbal abilities. Teachers appeared to influence children's emotional competence by serving an important regulatory function, especially for older preschoolers at-risk.
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This article is a response to a number of articles that use a culturally relevant prevention (CRP) approach for ethnic and racial minorities. The reaction is from a research practitioner's viewpoint. The authors argue in favor of determining an operational definition of cultural relevance by implementing prevention services with fidelity in the field and understanding what structural components of CRPs are minimally necessary for the effective operation of the prevention programs. Field personnel also need to identify reliable ways to involve in planning those individuals who represent service recipient characteristics. The article closes with a recommendation that research practitioners pursue an active evaluation agenda aimed at further standardizing and quantifying the effectiveness of CRP strategies for underserved racial and ethnic groups.
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A core principle of differential emotions theory (DET) is that emotions operate as systems (Izard, 1971; Izard et al., 1965). An emotion is a complex system in the sense that it emerges from interactions of constituent neurohormonal, motoric, and experiential processes. Although person- environment transactions play a role in the development of healthy emo- tions, the potential for each component of each discrete emotion system self-organized in phylogeny and emerged as an evolutionary adaptation. Individual emotions also coassemble with other emotions to form contin- gent emotion patterns that stabilize over repetitions and time. Thus, discrete emotions are both the product and stuff of system organization. The sys- tems are self-organizing in the sense that recursive interactions among component processes generate emergent properties. This system perspective of DET fits well with the general emphasis of dynamic systems (DS) theories of development on the self-organization of the structure of behavior. Both DS theories of development and DET have the central theoretical goal of understanding organization and pattern in complex systems, without recourse to some deus ex machina (Izard, 1977; Smith and Thelen, 1993; Thelen, 1989). For both theories, structure and complexity emerge from constituent processes to yield behavioral perform- ances that vary among individuals and within individuals over time. Un- derstanding the individual variation is a main theoretical concern of both DET and DS theories of development. Given these commonalities, is there anything to be gained by translating DET into the language of dynamic systems? Does the DS framework add body to DET, or is it simply a new bottle for old wine? We explore this issue in this chapter in several ways. First, we apply core dynamic concepts in describing the generation and operation of discrete emotions and emo- tion patterns from the perspective of DET. That is, we explore the ''fit'' of
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In this study of low income preschoolers (N = 60), we examined relations between three facets of emotional competence: emotion knowledge, level of negative emotion expression, and emotion regulation; and their associations with indicators of classroom adjustment. Emotion knowledge was positively related to positive emotion regulation but was not related to negative emotion expression or negative dysregulation. Negative emotion expression related to emotion regulation variables in expected directions. Negative emotion expression was associated with aggression and social skills after covarying verbal ability, age, and emotion knowledge. Negative dysregulation was related in expected directions to aggression, anxiety, and social skills after covarying verbal ability, age, emotion knowledge, and negative emotion expression. Positive emotion regulation was related negatively to anxiety and positively to social skills after covarying all other variables in the model. Results are discussed with regard to using the emotional competence domain to understand how emotion processing relates to early childhood adjustment.
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Effective regulatory skills are essential in busy preschool classroom environments where children must maintain some control over their emotions and behavior to interact effectively with peers and teachers. Regulatory abilities can play a crucial role in a child's successful adjustment to preschool. We investigated whether individual differences in dysregulation (emotional and behavioral) as observed in the naturalistic classroom context were associated with peer social competence and teacher ratings of classroom adjustment in a sample of low-income preschoolers. Naturalistic observational methods were used to assess dysregulated emotions and behaviors in Head Start classrooms. Findings demonstrate that although displays of observed dysregulation were relatively brief, about one-quarter of children showed high levels of dysregulation, and individual differences in dysregulated behavior predicted teacher-rated classroom adjustment and peer conflict. Research results are discussed with regard to implications for classroom practice and prevention.
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Successful preschool transition is important for future educational success. We used brief functional screenings to identify low‐income children at risk for difficulty transitioning into preschool. Functional screenings were conducted for 163 children prior to enrollment, in a naturalistic peer setting, and focused on multiple domains important for successful classroom transition, including social and emotional skills as well as cognitive and language abilities. Children were assigned a transition risk rating based on strengths and/or concerns in language, cognition, externalizing/internalizing, social skills, and affective tone. Social and emotional classroom behaviors were primary outcomes of interest due to the importance of early socioemotional competence for later adjustment. Outcomes were assessed using multiple methods and multiple informants, including live classroom observations. The brief functional screening predicted outcomes almost one year later. Findings are discussed regarding implications for incorporating a whole‐child, functional approach to existing screening practices, and applying developmental research methods to prevention science.
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The 20 articles in this volume provide varying perspectives on the concepts of multiculturalism, multiethnicity, and global literacy and how to correct art curricula to include the diversity. The development and application of viable multiethnic curricula is a function of the interrelationship of pedagogy and social-cultural realities. The articles focus on various cultural, ethnic, pedagogical, and historical issues in art. Some of the articles include: (1) "Teaching Art to Disadvantaged Black Students: Strategies for a Learning Style" (Leo F. Twiggs); (2) "The Minority Family as a Mediator for Their Children's Art and Academic Education" (Bernard Young); (3) "Afro-American Culture and the White Ghetto" (Eugene Grigsby, Jr.); (4) "Art and Culture in a Technological Society" (Vesta A. H. Daniel); (5) "Teaching Art in a Multicultural/Multiethnic Society" (Carmen Armstrong); (6) "Multiculturalism in Visual Arts Education: Are America's Educational Institutions Ready for Multiculturalism?" (Murry Norman DePillars); (7) "Children's Drawings: A Comparison of Two Cultures" (W. Lambert Brittain); (8) "Multiculturalism and Art Education" (Judith Mariahazy); (9) "A Portrait of a Black Art Teacher of Preadolescents in the Inner City: A Qualitative Description" (Mary Stokrocki); (10) "Shattered Fantasy: Minority Access to Careers in Art Education" (Esther Page Hill); and (11) "Concepts and Values of Black and White Art Instructors Affecting the Transmission of the Black Visual Aesthetic in Historically Black Colleges and Universities" (Oscar L. Logan) and "A Chronological Minority Bibliography" (Elizabeth Ann Shumaker). A list of the 21 contributors follows the articles. (CK)
Article
Designed to provide practical and comprehensive assistance to family child care providers in a range of settings, this curriculum consists of two parts. Part 1, Setting the Stage, helps caregivers formulate a philosophy of child care, understand child development, prepare their homes, and plan their programs. It includes many ideas for making the home environment safe and inviting, selecting the right kinds of materials, managing the day, guiding children's learning and behavior, and building a partnership with parents. Part 2, Activities, offers ideas on ways to select materials and plan experiences that help infants, toddlers, preschoolers, and school-age children grow and develop. The nine types of activities described in Part 2 are: dramatic play, blocks, toys, art, books, sand and water, cooking, music and movement, and outdoor play. (RH)
Article
The arts are the great equalizer in education. Regardless of native language, ability, or disability, music, art, and drama are accessible to all. Because the arts are largely nonverbal and focus on creativity, students in any classroom can participate in various satisfying ways. Further, this participation can lead to better understanding and ultimately higher levels of performance in other academic subjects that may demand well-developed abilities with language. Consequently, success in school for many students can be supported and facilitated through an arts program that is infused throughout the curriculum by elementary, secondary, English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL), and special-education teachers. This paper describes a project at Biloxi High School (Mississippi) in which art and English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers cooperated to use the making of handmade paper as a sheltered English project. The key idea behind the Biloxi project was to demonstrate, through the making of handmade paper, how art is created from found materials or from materials available to any culture at a given time or place. The art teachers developed the content objectives that included, for example, exploring nature to learn how found objects and recycled materials could be turned into works of art. Objectives included extending those observations to learn how various cultures, particularly those represented by the students in the class, viewed such objects of art. The job of the ESL teacher was to take the art objectives and craft language objectives that matched and supported them. The authors have found this project to be a springboard for other projects that combine the teaching of the arts and English as a second language. From this experience, students may create culturally specific art forms that enhance their understanding and appreciation of the diversity in American school settings. This article includes a page of detailed instructions for making handmade paper.
Article
Middle school teachers, like all educators around the nation, are encountering classrooms comprised of an unprecedented number of students from various cultural, ethnic, and racial backgrounds. Due to the influx of immigrants entering the U.S. educational system, the number of students who speak a native language other than English has grown dramatically and will account for about 40% of the school-age population by 2040. The reality of a multicultural, multilingual student population dictates that educators, 87% of whom are Caucasian, must be prepared to interact and work with students who do not share the same language, culture, or national origin. Some researchers believe that meeting the needs of diverse students is, and will be, even more challenging for middle school teachers than other teachers, because they must also help students deal with the unique developmental changes that occur during this time. As young adolescents confront a host of transitions associated with the emergence of puberty, including dramatic physical, social-emotional, and cognitive changes, they also undergo transformations in relationships with parents, encounter more emotionally intense interactions with peers, and struggle with personal identity issues. Middle school teachers, therefore, must become educated about and skilled in using pedagogy that is sensitive and responsive to the developmental and educational needs of young adolescents from diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. This article explores instructional strategies employed by teachers in middle school classrooms in Florida, a state in which 50% of the students in public schools are members of ethnic minority groups. (Contains 1 note.)
Article
A substantial body of theoretical literature testifies to the evolutionary functions of emotions. Relatively little has been written about their developmental functions. This article discusses the developmental functions of emotions from the perspective of differential emotions theory (DET; Izard, 1977, 1991). According to DET, although all the emotions retain their adaptive and motivational functions across the lifespan, different sets of emotions may become relatively more prominent in the different stages of life as they serve stage-related developmental processes. In the first section, we present a brief overview of relevant aspects of the theory. In the second section, we discuss how emotions play a central role in helping the individual achieve developmental milestones and tasks during four major periods of life: Infancy, toddler through preschool years, middle to late childhood, and adolescence. The underlying thesis of this article is that emotions play a central role in stimulating social cognitive attainments at each stage of development.
Article
This chapter discusses emotional competence in two domains (emotion regulation and emotion knowledge) and then considers research findings on whether skills such as children's ability to handle and interpret emotions are causally related to children's academic achievement. Do more emotionally well-regulated preschool and elementary age children have greater opportunities for learning? Conversely, do children who have a more difficult time regulating their anxiety or frustration and who misidentify others' emotions have fewer opportunities to learn? If so, is it due to regulatory and cognitive processes that take place within the child, or to social processes that take place around the child in his or her classroom, or to some combination of both psychobiological and interpersonal processes that make learning more difficult? This chapter explores these questions, examining a number of innovative areas of research in developmental and social psychology and developmental neuroscience that may offer some promising answers. This chapter will also outline ways that prevention and intervention programs targeting children at risk for poor academic, behavioral, and emotional outcomes may provide more conclusive answers to causal questions regarding the links between children's emotional competence and their opportunities to learn. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Proposes a model designed to explain the fundamental link between culture and cognition, using African-Americans as the case in point. It is argued that much of the school failure exhibited by African-American children can be explained in terms of the cultural discontinuity resulting from a mismatch between salient features cultivated in the African-American home and proximal environments and those typically afforded within the US educational system. The empirical investigations emanating from this stance reveal that the task performance of Black children can be greatly enhanced by the incorporation of certain cultural factors into the learning contexts. Increased performance is interpreted as the result of familiarity with the learning context which activates the use of cognitive skills and enhances motivation to perform the given task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
[propose] the assumption that the emotions system constitutes the primary motivational system for human behavior, and that each discrete emotion serves unique functions in coping and adaptation / the chief premise [is] that each of the emotions organizes and motivates perception, cognition, and actions (behavior) in particular ways / therefore, individual differences in emotion thresholds lead to individual differences in patterns of behavior that become organized as traits of personality presents evidence and argument for the unique organizating and motivational functions of discrete emotions [in evolution and development] / discusses a sample of the growing body of research that shows relations between indices of emotion experiences and indices of traits and dimensions of personality / discussion is limited to the emotions of joy, sadness, anger, disgust, shame, and fear / each of these emotions serve at least one distinct function / some emotions serve a common function in different ways (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Early emergent patterns of behavioral problems, social skill deficits, and language delays were examined in 259 3 yr old children enrolled in Head Start classrooms. The Child Behavior Checklist for Children Ages 2–3 (CBCL/2–3) and the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS, Pre-School Version) were completed by the children's primary caregivers. Language skills were assessed using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS)-3 and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)-III. Findings indicated that this population is at elevated risk for behavioral and language problems. Approximately 25% of both boys and girls showed clinical/subclinical levels of internalizing problem behavior on the CBCL. Children with behavioral problems were more likely to have low language scores than were their peers without behavioral problems. Nearly half of the children scored in the category "lower than average" for social skills on the SSRS. Children with low social skills were more likely to have low language scores than were their peers with average social skills. The need to screen for early emergent behavioral problems, the potential contribution of poor language skills to children's problem behavior, and implications for early intervention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study was concerned with identifying the causes of low-income preschoolers’ negative emotions and their most common regulation responses. The relations of family socialization practices and temperament to the children’s emotion regulation skills were also examined. Ninety predominantly minority low-income preschoolers (46 boys) and their mothers participated. During visits to the children’s preschools, observers watched for expressions of anger and sadness, and recorded the causes of the displays and the children’s reactions. Mothers reported on their emotion socialization and discipline practices and their children’s temperament. Although the children expressed more anger than sadness, they used more constructive reactions in response to sadness and more non-constructive reactions in response to anger. Maternal reports of appropriate family emotion were associated with low levels of non-constructive regulation responses to anger and sadness whereas reports of inconsistent parental discipline were generally associated with non-constructive regulation responses. All in all, the findings of this study are in accord with findings on middle-income children and indicate that low- and middle-income children are more alike than different with regard to the regulation of negative emotion in the peer environment.
Article
Melanie Peter is a lecturer in early childhood studies and special needs at Suffolk College, Ipswich, and a freelance consultant in arts education and inclusive/special education. Her recent research has focused on the value of pretence, particularly for children with autistic spectrum disorders. In this article, based on a paper given to the conference ‘Innovation, Research and Good Practice in the Education of Pupils with Severe, Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities’ at the University of London in April 2002, she presents an approach to developing drama with severely socially challenged children, underpinned by a rationale founded in the importance of early experiences of make–believe and narrative. In drama, children at early stages of learning can begin to explore and understand social narratives from the inside – a vital route to developing social competence. Melanie Peter concludes that while play–drama intervention is aimed especially at children with autistic spectrum disorders, it can also benefit a wider range of children with severe and complex learning needs and help them to participate more effectively in a social world.
Article
Arts enrichment provides varied channels for acquiring school readiness skills and may offer important educational opportunities for students from diverse backgrounds and with diverse needs. Study 1 examined achievement within an arts enrichment preschool that served low-income children. Results indicated that students practiced school readiness skills through early learning, music, creative movement, and visual arts classes. Students who attended the preschool for 2 years demonstrated higher achievement than those who attended for 1 year, suggesting that maturation alone did not account for achievement gains. Across 2 years of program attendance and four time points of assessment, students improved in school readiness skills, and there were no significant effects of race/ethnicity or developmental level on achievement growth. Study 2 compared students attending the arts enrichment preschool to those attending a nearby alternative on a measure of receptive vocabulary that has been found to predict school success. At the end of 1 year of attendance, students in the arts program showed greater receptive vocabulary than those at the comparison preschool. Results suggest that arts enrichment may advance educational outcomes for children at risk.
Article
Based on theoretically driven models, the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP) targeted low-income children's school readiness through the mediating mechanism of self-regulation. The CSRP is a multicomponent, cluster-randomized efficacy trial implemented in 35 Head Start-funded classrooms (N = 602 children). The analyses confirm that the CSRP improved low-income children's self-regulation skills (as indexed by attention/impulse control and executive function) from fall to spring of the Head Start year. Analyses also suggest significant benefits of CSRP for children's preaca