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Enhancing parent-child shared book reading interactions: Promoting references to the book's plot and socio-cognitive themes

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... Levin et al. (2008) also reported that throughout their intervention study, children confused visually similar letters and adjacent letters. Aram et al. (2013) reported that both SES and home literacy environment (HLE) were associated with the alphabetic knowledge of children (mean age = 5.8), and that HLE predicted alphabetic knowledge above and beyond SES. Aram et al. (2013) found that the maximum number of letters recognized by their participants was 2 out of 14 letters tested (mean = 0.73). ...
... Aram et al. (2013) reported that both SES and home literacy environment (HLE) were associated with the alphabetic knowledge of children (mean age = 5.8), and that HLE predicted alphabetic knowledge above and beyond SES. Aram et al. (2013) found that the maximum number of letters recognized by their participants was 2 out of 14 letters tested (mean = 0.73). Similarly, Hassunah-Arafat et al. (2017) found their kindergarten participants recognized only 39.9% of the 14 letters tested. ...
... On average, the participants were able to name 75% of the letters, 70% of the allographs, and 60% of the syllables. Although there are few previous studies of letter knowledge in Arabic, it is interesting to note that the children in the current study recognized more letters than participants in either previous study (Aram et al., 2013;Hassunah-Arafat et al., 2017). This may be because of instructional Table 4 Letter recognition multidimensional IRT results A1 is the discrimination parameter for factor 1 and A2 is the discrimination parameter for factor 2 Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
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Little research has been conducted on Arabic letter knowledge. This study investigates the nature of Arabic letter knowledge, its dimensionality, and the relative difficulty of letter knowledge items, all within an item response theory (IRT) framework. Three letter knowledge tests were administered to 142 native Arabic-speaking kindergarteners (mean age = 67 months). The letter recognition task was found to be multidimensional, containing two factors, whereas the allograph and syllable tasks were found to be unidimensional. Results showed that a two parameter model fit best for all three tasks, demonstrating that items varied in degree of difficulty and in discrimination. Findings provide a subset of letters that are most useful for quickly and precisely assessing children's letter knowledge. Results are discussed in the context of orthographic and linguistic features of Arabic. Implications for assessment and instruction are discussed.
... Studies of this kind are relatively rare, however, and have mainly been conducted with children of three years and older, rather than with toddlers. For instance, Aram, Fine, and Ziv (2013) demonstrated the potential of shared reading to elicit richer conversations between parents and children and enhance the latter's social cognition abilities, including emotion understanding. Cigala, Mori and Fangareggi (2015) found that training based on narrative and dramatization had a significant effect on preschoolers' perspectivetaking abilities. ...
... The aim of our study was to test the effects of an intervention program (based on story reading and conversation), conducted at a day-care center, on children's use of mental state language and their emotion understanding, viewed as key components of their social cognition. The intervention research presented in this chapter was informed by a well-established paradigm (Adriàn et al., 2007;Aram et al., 2013;Ensor & Hughes, 2008;Grazzani, Ornaghi, Agliati, & Brazzelli, 2016;Hughes, 2011;Ornaghi et al., 2011;Ornaghi, Brockmeier, & Grazzani, 2014;Ornaghi, Grazzani, Cherubin, Conte, & Piralli, 2015). For this study, we designed and implemented adult-toddler storybook readings with subsequent conversational exchanges. ...
... It also provides practical direction for innovative modes of intervention in socio-educational contexts. Up to now, interventions of this kind have often been aimed at enhancing the quality of shared bookreading and conversation within a parent -child dyad (Aram et al., 2013), while none have been tested with groups of children in early childhood settings. Educational programs based on the research reported here will feature types of stories that differ from those traditionally adopted in early childhood education settings, particularly in the context in which our study was conducted. ...
Chapter
This study investigated whether conversing about emotions in day-care center enhanced toddlers' spontaneous use of mental state language and emotion understanding, both of which are key components of social cognition. In the course of a three-month intervention, the children assigned to the experimental condition (N = 29) participated daily in bookreading sessions of stories with high emotional content. Bookreadings were followed by a conversation, held in small groups, about the emotional states featured in the stories. The children assigned to the control condition (N = 28), after listening to the same stories, engaged in free play. At post-test, children in the experimental condition significantly outperformed the control group on measures of mental state language and emotion understanding, even after controlling for verbal abilities and age. These findings suggest the value of having children as young as 2-3 years participate in conversational activities about emotional experiences and inner states.
... Studies of this kind are relatively rare, however, and have mainly been conducted with children of three years and older, rather than with toddlers. For instance, Aram, Fine, and Ziv (2013) demonstrated the potential of shared reading to elicit richer conversations between parents and children and enhance the latter's social cognition abilities, including emotion understanding. Cigala, Mori and Fangareggi (2015) found that training based on narrative and dramatization had a significant effect on preschoolers' perspectivetaking abilities. ...
... The aim of our study was to test the effects of an intervention program (based on story reading and conversation), conducted at a day-care center, on children's use of mental state language and their emotion understanding, viewed as key components of their social cognition. The intervention research presented in this chapter was informed by a well-established paradigm (Adriàn et al., 2007;Aram et al., 2013;Ensor & Hughes, 2008;Grazzani, Ornaghi, Agliati, & Brazzelli, 2016;Hughes, 2011;Ornaghi et al., 2011;Ornaghi, Brockmeier, & Grazzani, 2014;Ornaghi, Grazzani, Cherubin, Conte, & Piralli, 2015). For this study, we designed and implemented adult-toddler storybook readings with subsequent conversational exchanges. ...
... It also provides practical direction for innovative modes of intervention in socio-educational contexts. Up to now, interventions of this kind have often been aimed at enhancing the quality of shared bookreading and conversation within a parent -child dyad (Aram et al., 2013), while none have been tested with groups of children in early childhood settings. Educational programs based on the research reported here will feature types of stories that differ from those traditionally adopted in early childhood education settings, particularly in the context in which our study was conducted. ...
Chapter
This chapter concerns a training study conducted at the nursey schools to improve menta-state language and social cognition in toddlers.
... suboptimal caregiving environments can place children on a trajectory for later sociocognitive problems (Riva Crugnola, Ierardi, Gazzotti, & Albizzati, 2014), interventions that foster a mother's mind-related discourse with her child may be one avenue by which her child's outcomes are improved (Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013). However, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated the impact of interventions available to adolescent mothers on their production of internal state language during mother-child interactions. ...
... Programmes that place emphasis on improving parenting skills can be effective in improving children's cognitive outcomes, as the relationship between intervention effects and positive child outcomes can be mediated by improvements in the quality of mother-child interactions (Baudry, Tarabulsy, Atkinson, Pearson, & St-Pierre, 2017). Evidence suggests that mothers' references to internal states can be promoted via targeted intervention (Aram et al., 2013), and recently, short-term attachment-based interventions have been shown to facilitate mind-mindedness in adolescent and young mothers (Riva Crugnola, Ierardi, Peruta, Moiloli, & Albizzati, 2019). However, few studies have investigated the impact of attachment-based home visiting programmes on mothers' capacity to reflect on inner states. ...
... It is possible then that young mothers' discussions about inner states with their children may be better fostered by more targeted intervention strategies. For example, in a low-socioeconomic status sample, Aram et al. (2013) found that a 4-week book reading workshop had a positive impact on the number of sociocognitive themes discussed by parents during shared reading. Brief and medium-term interventions that focus on increasing appropriate mind-related comments through video-feedback have led to improvements in the quality of maternal mind-related comments in adolescent mothers (Riva Crugnola et al., 2019) in addition to clinically referred mothers and mothers with severe mental illness (Schacht et al., 2017;Zeegers et al., 2019). ...
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A mother's propensity to refer to internal states during mother–child interactions is important for her child's developing social understanding. However, adolescent mothers are less likely to reference internal states when interacting with their children. We investigated whether young mothers’ references to internal states are promoted by the Family Nurse Partnership (FNP) intervention, an intensive home‐visiting programme designed to support adolescent mothers in England. We also investigated family, maternal, and child factors associated with young mothers’ references to inner states during interactions with their children. Adolescent mothers (n = 483, aged ≤ 19 years when recruited in pregnancy) and their children participated in an observational substudy of a randomized controlled trial investigating the impact of FNP compared to usual care. Mother–child dyads were video‐recorded during free play, and mothers’ speech was coded for use of internal state language (references to cognitions, desires, emotions, intentions, preferences, physiology, and perception). We found no differences in mothers’ use of internal state language between the FNP and usual care groups. A sample‐wide investigation identified that other features of mothers’ language and relationship status with the child's father were associated with internal state language use. Findings are discussed with reference to targeted interventions and implications for future research.
... Even fewer experimental book-reading studies with parents have included narrative outcomes. For instance, Aram and colleagues (Aram et al., 2013;Fine et al., 2019) taught one group of low-SES Israeli parents to talk more during shared book-reading about the plot of the story, mental states, related personal experiences, and to encourage children's retelling of the story. Parents and children in a control group received the same books and number of home visits, but were not taught any specific strategies. ...
... Because our program utilized a combined reading-and-reminiscing program, we were also unable to discern the unique value of either book-reading or reminiscing alone for children's narrative skills. We argue that previous research has already demonstrated these unique benefits (e.g., Lever & Sénéchal, 2011;Reese et al., 2010a) so the next step was to weave these two techniques into a single program, similar to Aram et al. (2013). Nevertheless, it will be valuable in future research to ascertain the added value of the combined program over either book-reading or reminiscing alone. ...
Article
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Tender Shoots is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) for parents aimed at improving preschool children's oral language skills relevant for later reading. Parents of 72 preschool children (M = 50 months) were randomly assigned to either a Rich Reading and Reminiscing (RRR) condition, a Strengthening Sound Sensitivity (SSS) condition, or an Activity-Based Control (ABC) condition. RRR and SSS conditions involved dyads conversing about the same 12 books over 6 weeks, with RRR focused on the meaning of the story in relation to children's own experiences, and SSS focused on soundplay. Children's oral narrative skills were assessed with a story listening comprehension and retelling task before and one-year post-intervention. At the 1-year follow-up, children in RRR retold stories with greater accuracy (g = 0.61) and quality (g = 0.68) than did children in the control condition. Tender Shoots RRR is a promising tool for parents to help their children's narrative production (retelling) skills.
... Interventions in which story-books are used to promote mental state language are of interest because story-book reading enhances language development in general in children with HL (DesJardin et al., 2014;Fung, Chow, & McBride-Chang, 2005). Research on reading story-books to promote mental state language is mostly focused on hearing children (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, & Rieffe, 2005;Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Taumoepeau & Reese, 2013). Aram et al. (2013) examined the effect of an intervention to promote parents' use of mental state language during story-book reading with hearing children. ...
... Research on reading story-books to promote mental state language is mostly focused on hearing children (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, & Rieffe, 2005;Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Taumoepeau & Reese, 2013). Aram et al. (2013) examined the effect of an intervention to promote parents' use of mental state language during story-book reading with hearing children. After the intervention, parents and children referred more often to mental state terms than parents and children who did not follow the intervention. ...
Article
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This study examined the quantity and quality of parental linguistic input to toddlers with moderate hearing loss (MHL) compared with toddlers with normal hearing (NH). The linguistic input to eighteen toddlers with MHL and twenty-four toddlers with NH was examined during a 10-minute free-play activity in their home environment. Results showed that toddlers with MHL were exposed to an equivalent amount of parental linguistic input compared to toddlers with NH. However, parents of toddlers with MHL used less high-level facilitative language techniques, used less mental state language, and used shorter utterances than parents of toddlers with NH. Quantity and quality measures of parental linguistic input were positively related to the expressive language abilities of toddlers with MHL.
... The quality of program implementation by parents may vary for different reasons. Many shared reading programs, for instance, target parental strategies such as scaffolding, which require parents to be sensitive and responsive to their children's input [11]. Previous research has shown that low-SES parents demonstrate less of this behavior compared to high-SES parents [12,13]. ...
... This approach has been found to be more 215 effective than a center-based approach [6] and has the advantage that delivery can be tai-216 lored to the individual needs of parents. A number of FLPs that made use of home visits 217 with disadvantaged families showed significant effects on child outcomes [11,47,51,52]. 218 Moreover, provided that bilingual deliverers are available for intervention implementa-219 tion, parents can be instructed in their home language. ...
Article
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It is hypothesized that variability found in the effects of family literacy programs results from differences in implementation by parents. In this study, the implementation and effects of a Dutch program were examined in a sample of 207 kindergarteners (mean age at pre-test: 64 months). No main intervention effects on children’s literacy development were found. The quality of implementation proved to be higher for high-SES and native Dutch (speaking) parents than for low-SES, ethnic-minority parents with other home languages. Parent SES, ethnic-minority status, and home language did not moderate the program effects on child language scores and the program failed to impact targeted parental attributes, namely, the home literacy environment and parent self-efficacy. Finally, children’s development proved unrelated to implementation variables. Our results stress the importance of delivery for adequate implementation.
... Finally, we did not take account for the role of the parental support in children's verbal participation. This is important since vocabulary is key in verbal participation and inferential talk within dialogic reading by parents, especially when they are taught to refer both the plot of the story and its socio-cognitive themes, contribute to children's vocabulary and deeper story comprehension (Aram et al., 2013;Hindman et al., 2008;Collins, 2016). ...
Article
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The role of teacher-child interaction and opportunities provided by the teacher to encourage all children's active participation in conversation about story ideas are important. In the present study, we report results from the last two years of a three-year long coaching project on teachers' dialogic reading. The model of 7-minutes-to-stories (Orvasto & Levola, 2010) was used as the pedagogical context. Video-based coaching along with scripted stories were used to increase conversation in story groups. First, we analyzed the developmental changes in story groups such as teachers' and children's responsiveness to dialogic reading. Second, we examined the development of verbal participation in children with low, average and high story comprehension. Third, we used State Space Grids (SSGs) (Hollenstein, 2013) to model the formation of children's participation patterns within four story groups. Eight story groups participated during coaching year 2 and six story groups during year 3. Altogether 47 children from two consecutive cohorts participated. Results highlighted teachers' and children's responsiveness to dialogic reading. Children with high story comprehension outperformed children with average and low story comprehension in the total durations of verbal participation. SSGs showed that children with high story comprehension did not take up all the answering opportunities, and also children with lower story comprehension participated actively in some groups. We discuss the benefits of long-term coaching for supporting changes in story group interaction and children's participation.
... Interventions addressing vocabulary deficits either aim to improve parents' natural shared-reading behavior (e.g., Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Niklas & Schneider, 2015) or are implemented in the form of shared-reading sessions in preschool and school environments (e.g., Beck & McKeown, 2007;Biemiller & Boote, 2006). ...
Article
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Shared-reading is an effective means of fostering preschool children's vocabulary development, with questions widely used to increase learning. Theoretical explanations on effects of specific question features are, however, often contradictory. To examine different predictions relating to question demand level and placement, two stories were read in a pre-post-design to a sample of ninety-one 4-to 6-year-old German preschool children in small groups (five to seven children), whereby target-word learning (nouns and verbs) was measured via receptive word-recognition and expressive word-definition tasks. Demand level (low-demand vs. high-demand vs. scaffolding-like) was operationalized as a between-subjects factor and placement (within vs. after the story) as a within-subjects factor. In addition, as controls, one group received a reading-only condition and control words (not accompanied by questions) were interspersed in the stories. Results indicate that children's target-word learning profited from questions, with the reading-only condition being less effective than the question conditions regarding receptive word recognition and significantly inferior to low-demand questions on expressive word definitions. Contrary to predictions made by different theories, question placement, demand level, and their interaction with children's vocabulary size or phonological working memory had no differential effects on expressive and receptive target-word learning gains. free download till 21 August: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1bKq2_K88pdmJq
... In addition, although previous studies have revealed that less educated parents may engage less and possess a lack of knowledge regarding their children's development (e.g. Curenton and Justice, 2008;Evans et al., 2004;Rowe and Goldin-Meadow, 2009), recent studies have shown that enhancing parent-child literacy activities is effective in facilitating children's language, reading, and socio-cognitive development, regardless of family SES (Aram et al., 2013;Mcgillion et al., 2017). This means that boosting parent-child literacy activities may be a useful strategy for reducing social inequality in children's language and reading development. ...
Article
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Previous studies have revealed that the perceived quality of the parent–child relationship is essential for both physical health and psychological well-being. However, most studies have treated the perceived quality of this relationship as an independent variable. In this study, we considered it a dependent variable and examined the role of parents’ education and parent–child literacy activities on children’s perceived quality of the parent–child relationship. One hundred and eighty-six Chinese primary school students and their parents from low socioeconomic backgrounds participated in this study. Parents’ educational level and the parent–child literacy activity status were assessed based on parents’ reports, whereas parent–child relationships were assessed based on children’s reports. Results showed that parents’ educational level positively correlated with the frequency of parent–child literacy activities and children’s perceptions of the quality of the parent–child relationship. There was also a significant positive correlation between the frequency of parent–child literacy activities and children’s perceptions of the quality of the parent–child relationship. Further analyses showed that the frequency of parent–child literacy activities mediated the connection between parents’ educational level and children’s perceived quality of the parent–child relationship. These results suggest that boosting the frequency of parent–child literacy activities may be a useful strategy for facilitating the parent–child relationship.
... Shared reading may challenge the development of perspective taking through multiple opportunities to discuss characters' emotions and internal states (e.g., Beazidou, Botsoglou, & Vlachou, 2013;LaForge, Perron, Roy-Charland, Roy, & Carignan, 2018;Martucci, 2016). Internal state discourse in parent-child book reading supports young children's perspective taking and attention to sociocognitive themes (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, & Rieffe, 2005;Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Howe & Rinaldi, 2004;Ruffman, Slade, & Crowe, 2002), and children who received a shared reading intervention in preschool were more likely to pay attention to characters' internal states (Zevenbergen, Whitehurst, & Zevenbergen, 2003). We have not been able to identify shared reading interventions that included attention to young DLLs' perspective-taking skills outcomes. ...
Article
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This cluster‐randomized controlled study examined dual language learners (DLLs) in Norway who received a book‐based language intervention program. About 464 DLLs aged 3–5 years in 123 early childhood classrooms participated in the study. The children were acquiring Norwegian as their second language in preschool and spoke a variety of first languages at home. They received a researcher‐developed intervention that was organized around loosely scripted, content‐rich shared reading in school and at home. Receiving the intervention had significant impacts on the children’s second‐language skills (effect sizes of d = .25–.66). In addition to supporting second‐language vocabulary and grammar, the program with its focus on perspective taking during shared reading resulted in impacts on children’s ability to shift perspectives and understand others’ emotional states.
... A intervenção com o uso de jogos e aplicativos foi desenvolvida pelos autores do estudo. Algumas atividades com o uso de material concreto foram adaptadas de diferentes autores (Adams, Foorman, Lundberg, & Beeler, 2006;Almeida, 2011;Aram et al., 2013;Araújo, Lima, Pereira, Dias, & Diniz, 2009;Mello, 2011;Nascimento, 2001;Navarro, 2008;Perez, 2011). ...
Article
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This project had the aim of detecting and intervening in difficulties of language and behavior in children at the age of three and four. A hundred seventy-eight children were assessed in behavior, expressive and receptive vocabulary and in central auditory processing. 84 children constituted the experimental group and were engaged in an intervention for the development and refinement of language and management of behavior problems through activities developed in software used in tablets, concrete games and orientation provided to their parents and teachers by a professional team composed by speech therapists, psychologists and psycho pedagogues. Posttest analysis indicated significant difference between the vocabulary and language scores, suggesting that this model of early assessment and intervention can be a successful strategy in school environments.
... The results of this study extend the scope of our knowledge regarding the importance of the natural process of SBR at home. Like previous studies, when sharing a book with their children, parents contribute more to the discourse than the children (e.g., Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Justice, Weber, Ezell, & Bakeman, 2002). Yet, both parents and children's input has a unique contribution to a variety of children's socio-emotional competences. ...
Article
The study aimed to explore the relations between the nature of parent-child conversation during and following shared book reading (SBR) interactions and children's socio-emotional competence. Participants were 50 children (4-5 years old) and their parents. In line with Bruner's (1986) complete storybook reading experience structure, we videotaped three SBR interactions in the participants' homes. We counted parents' and children's socio-emotional (e.g. reference to the characters' feelings) and general (e.g. description of the characters' appearance) extra-textual utterances. We assessed children's understanding of emotions, empathy, prosocial attitude and social coherence directly within the preschool. Regression analyses revealed that the parents' socio-emotional utterances and all of the child's utterances (socio-emotional and general) explained children's socio-emotional competence, controlling for family SES, children's age, and children's language level. Daily SBR interactions serve as a repeated opportunity for parents to discuss socio-emotional issues with their children. Children's active participation in the conversation supports their understanding of others. The results can contribute to the development of educational programs (for parents and educators) aiming to promote socio-emotional competence via SBR.
... In correlational studies with older preschoolers, inferential comments at both levels positively predict children's language development (Hindman, Skibbe, & Foster, 2014;Tompkins et al., 2017). Similar findings have also been demonstrated experimentally in diverse settings, both at home and at preschool, such that when parents and teachers are taught to engage in higher-quality book reading interactions with children, children's oral language skills grow at a faster rate (Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Pesco & Gagné, 2015;Whitehurst et al., 1988). ...
Article
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The home-learning environment (HLE) is critical for young children's early learning skills, yet little research has focused on HLEs in indigenous communities. This study examined the role of the HLE of 41 whānau (New Zealand Māori families and community) in relation to their young children's (M = 4 years, 4 months) early learning skills. Parents were observed reading a picture book and reminiscing about past events with their children and reported on their cultural affiliation, literacy, and numeracy practices. Children completed vocabulary, narrative, early literacy, early numeracy, and self-regulation tasks. Principal components analyses revealed an early academic skills factor (story comprehension, story memory, phonological awareness, letter recognition, number recognition, counting, and self-regulation) and an oral language skills factor (receptive and expressive vocabulary and story comprehension). Parents' observed book reading and reminiscing correlated with children's early academic skills, and their observed book reading correlated with children's oral language skills. Parent-child reminiscing was a unique, positive predictor of children's early academic skills. Oral narratives such as reminiscing may be a less visible cultural practice that supports children's early learning. Yet reminiscing is a recognized skill within indigenous communities that have a strong emphasis of intergenerational oral transmission of culturally relevant information. Reminiscing is a source of resilience for whānau, and perhaps for other communities around the world, that needs to be highlighted and taken into account for theory and policy about children's early learning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Social-emotional books have an important role in supporting the emotional development of children (Miller, 2001). However, although books include such a content, in order to make sense of such abstract phenomena, children need adult support or guidance, as Vygotsky (1978) mentions in the Proximal Zone Theory (Aram, Fine & Ziv, 2013;Vajcner, 2015). ...
... The conceptual affordances of book-reading are emphasized by findings that parentchild book reading contributes to children's understanding of psychological causality and others' emotions and intentions (see Dowdall et al., 2019, for a review). For example, shared reading contributes to the development of perspective-taking (understanding that another's view of a situation may be different from one's own) (e.g., Beazidou, Botsoglou, & Vlachou, 2013;LaForge, Perron, Roy-Charland, Roy, & Carignan, 2018;Martucci, 2016), presumably because it is an occasion for discourse about characters' internal states and emotional reactions to events (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, & Rieffe, 2005;Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Howe & Rinaldi, 2004;Ruffman, Slade, & Crowe, 2002;Zevenbergen, Whitehurst, & Zevenbergen, 2003). Perspective-taking is itself key to the effective use of linguistic (e.g., deixis) as well as pragmatic (e.g., rhetorical) features of language. ...
Article
This paper provides an overview of the features of caregiver input that facilitate language learning across early childhood. We discuss three dimensions of input quality: interactive, linguistic, and conceptual. All three types of input features have been shown to predict children's language learning, though perhaps through somewhat different mechanisms. We argue that input best designed to promote language learning is interactionally supportive, linguistically adapted, and conceptually challenging for the child's age/level. Furthermore, input features interact across dimensions to promote learning. Some but not all qualities of input vary based on parent socioeconomic status, language, or culture, and contexts such as book-reading or pretend play generate uniquely facilitative input features. The review confirms that we know a great deal about the role of input quality in promoting children's development, but that there is much more to learn. Future research should examine input features across the boundaries of the dimensions distinguished here.
... It is not just limited to phonological awareness or vocabulary development; several researchers have shown that children from less affluent families without access to high-quality, age-appropriate books had worse academic performances and achievements compared to their peers (Baker, 2013;Burgess, 2002;Neuman & Celano, 2001;Neuman & Celano, 2006;Sim, 2012). A warm relationship between child and carer will help to meet the social and emotional needs of the child, and interactions though literacy activities are ways to attain such relationships, which also aid the child's literacy skills (Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Bennett, Weigel, & Martin, 2002;Ostrosky, Gaffney, & Thomas, 2006). These relationships are influenced by several sociodemographic factors that indicate the household's purchasing capacity (family income) of suitable books or mothers' awareness (maternal educational qualifications) regarding developmental vulnerabilities of their children (Chahe & Mwaikokesya, 2018;Hoff, 2003;Hartas, 2011;Leffel & Suskind, 2013). ...
Article
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Health policies and public health studies in Bangladesh primarily focus on physical aspects of health, thus creating a gap in the literature regarding the assessment of the emotional-social environment for children and their developmental vulnerabilities. Interactions though literacy activities, such as shared reading times between child and parents, are possible ways to address the developmental and cognitive needs of children. This study explores the district-wise presence of books for children (aged 0–4 years) in households and identifies vulnerable households by exploring the association between sociodemographic status and household book ownership. The Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2012–13 was used to map the spatial heterogeneity of average availability of children’s books, which revealed that ownership of age-appropriate books was clustered around divisional cities, with one exception. Around 65% of the households did not have any suitable books for children. The presence of children’s books was significantly (p < .005) associated with children’s age, mother’s age and education, financial status of the household, education of the head of the house, mother’s mobile phone ownership, and mother’s access to media (newspaper and television). Parents in high-income households and with highly educated mothers were nearly three times more likely to own children’s books. Similarly, parents in a household with the mother having a mobile phone were 42% more likely to own children’s books. The findings suggest that a household’s lack of financial capacity to purchase books, the role of public health media in promoting the mother’s awareness of the need for children’s books, and a lack of understanding of children’s cognitive developmental needs could be more effectively addressed in Bangladesh.
... The content of books might also relate to the characteristics of parent-child book-sharing interactions, which are in turn associated with child outcomes. Mothers' elaborations on storylines have been found to support children's comprehension and memory of the story in interventions (Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Green & Klecan-Aker, 2012) and correlational work (Harris & Schroeder, 2012). Further, mothers' use of questions encourages child participation in book sharing and relates to children's narrative and language skills (Bus et al., 1995;Luo, Tamis-LeMonda, Kuchirko, Ng, & Liang, 2014;Melzi, Schick, & Kennedy, 2011). ...
... 57-58). As Aram, Fine and Ziv (2013) stated, Many storybooks discuss friendships, disputes, loneliness, envy, collaborations, and so forth. Yet, only recently have studies begun to look into the development of children's social cognition within the context of storybook reading . . . ...
... One study suggests that parents who were guided by the teacher in how to read a book to their children made a better connection with their child and he in return understood better the socio-cognitive themes presented in the book (Aram et al., 2013). The children were more engaging with the story and participated more in the discourse with their parents. ...
Conference Paper
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Social and emotional development of children starts in the family and continues throughout the school years and beyond. The influence of parents' emotional development has a direct effect on the children's well-being. Literacy skills are one of the most important set of skills the child needs to function well in society. Acquiring literacy skills has gone through a set of processes of comprehension and now literacy is viewed also as basis for personal change. There is a constant need to redefine the way in which teachers and parents develop literacy skills and the focus is on the readiness of the child and it's social and emotional development.
... Decontextualized conversation is considered high-level scaffolding (Aram, 2017;Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Tzuriel, 2013) and may not be easy or natural for all teachers. Also, book sharing with preschoolers is usually a repeated activity. ...
Article
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The authors compared the discourse of 100 Israeli preschool teachers with a group of children during three book-sharing contexts: reading, reconstruction, and telling. During telling and reconstruction, the teachers used more utterances and questions and referred more to concept of book and to the illustrations. During reading, they referred more to vocabulary than during the other two contexts. Beyond these differences, the teachers showed a book-sharing style. The results highlight the unique contribution of different book contexts to the nature of teachers’ discourse and the importance of training teachers to present books to children in a variety of ways.
... Myös perheitä on sitoutettu lukuhetkiin. Eräässä tutkimuksessa (Aram, Fine & Ziv 2013) vanhempien ja lasten välistä vuorovaikutusta aktivoitiin ja vanhemmille annettiin ohjeita vuorovaikutuksen parantamiseksi ja sen asteittaiseksi lisäämiseksi. Lukukerrat jaettiin sosiaalis-kognitiivisiin teemoihin. ...
... For young children, interventions embedded within shared-reading situations are frequently used to address vocabulary and other language deficits. These either aim to improve parents' natural shared-reading behavior (e.g., Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Niklas & Schneider, 2015) or to implement shared-reading sessions in kindergarten, preschool, and school environments (e.g., . ...
Thesis
Sharing stories has become increasingly popular as a means to foster young children’s vocabulary development and to target early vocabulary gaps between disadvantaged children and their better-equipped peers. Although, in general, the beneficial effects of story interventions have been demonstrated (Marulis & Neuman, 2010, 2013), many factors possibly moderating those effects – including method of story delivery as well as questioning style – merit further examination (R. L. Walsh & Hodge, 2018). The aim of the present doctoral thesis was to test predictions from different theories on methods of story delivery and questioning styles regarding their influence on children’s vocabulary learning from listening to stories. Method of story delivery refers to the general way of how stories can be conveyed, with reading aloud and free-telling of stories (i.e., the narrator telling stories without reading from text) representing different approaches that are assumed to differ regarding narrator behavior and linguistic complexity. Questioning styles refer to different combinations of questions’ cognitive demand level (low vs. high vs. scaffolding-like increasing from low to high) and/or placement (within the story vs. after the story) during story sessions. In the present doctoral thesis, the first two studies (Studies 1 and 2) compared reading aloud and free-telling of stories as different methods of story delivery. Study 1 consisted of two experiments utilizing a within-subjects design with 3- to 6-year-old preschool children (Nexperiment1 = 83; Nexperiment2 = 48) listening to stories once either presented read aloud or freely told. Study 2 extended the first study by examining effects on story comprehension and additionally including audiotape versions of both story-delivery methods as experimental conditions, which allowed separating narrator behavior and linguistic complexity. With the second study being conducted as a between-subjects design, 4- to 6-year-old preschool children (N = 60) heard each of the stories twice, but listened only to one type of story delivery. The results of Study 1 indicated that no differences between methods of story delivery regarding word learning and child engagement were observable when narrator behavior in terms of eye contact and gesticulation was similar. However in Study 2, when free-telling was operationalized in a more naturalistic way, marked by higher rates of eye contact and gesticulation, it resulted in better child engagement, greater vocabulary learning, and better story comprehension than reading aloud. In contrast, as indicated by both studies, differences in linguistic complexity had no short-term impact on learning and comprehension. The studies, however, could not isolate the influence of eye contact versus gesture usage and could not distinguish between different types of gestures. The second set of studies (Studies 3 and 4) contrasted the effects of different types of question demand level (low vs. high vs. scaffolding-like increasing from low to high) and placement (within the story vs. after the story) and examined potential interactions with children’s cognitive skills. In one-to-one reading sessions (Study 3; N = 86) or small-group reading sessions (Study 4; N = 91) 4- to 6-year-old preschool children heard stories three times marked by different types of question demand level and placement or simply read-aloud without questions. The adult narrators encouraged the children to reflect on and answer questions (Study 1) and to give feedback on other children’s comments (Study 2), but in both studies, to ensure fidelity of the experimental conditions, the adult narrators did not provide corrective feedback or elaborate on the children’s answers. Results on measures of different facets of word learning indicated that asking questions resulted in better vocabulary learning than simply reading the stories aloud. However, in contrast to proposed hypotheses and across both studies, different types of question demand level and placement did not exert differential effects and they did not interact with children’s general vocabulary knowledge or memory skills. Thus, both studies suggest that those two types of questions features have no impact on children’s vocabulary learning, if questions are not followed up by narrator feedback and elaborations. However, whether different types of question placement and demand level produce differential learning gains through adult-child discussion following different questioning styles has still to be determined. Taken together, the four studies of the present doctoral thesis underline the central role that adults play for successful story sessions with young children not only for engaging children in the story but also for extending and for correcting their utterances. Although the presented studies extend existing knowledge about methods of story delivery and questioning styles during story sessions, further research needs to examine the impact of questioning styles on word learning through subsequent adult-child discussion and to gain a better understanding of the role of nonverbal narrator behavior during story delivery.
... Dialogic reading intervention contributed to children's both receptive and expressive language scores. In line with previous research, our results indicated that the dialogic reading considerably improved the children's language development (Aram et al. 2013;Işıkoğlu Erdoğan, Simsek, & Canbeldek, 2017;Maul & Ambler, 2014;Mol, Bus, De Jong, & Smeets, 2008;Tetik & Isıkoglu Erdogan, 2017;Towson, Gallagher, & Bingham, 2016). This finding can be explained by the high level of language interaction in dialogic reading. ...
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The purpose of this research study is to compare the effects of digital, dialogic and traditional reading on children’s language development aged 48–66 months. Fifty-six randomly selected children enrolled in three different classrooms in a public preschool in Turkey participated in the study. The three classrooms were again randomly assigned as digital, dialogic and traditional reading groups. During the reading activities, a total of 24 storybooks were read by each group every three times in 8 weeks. While the children’s language scores (the receptive and expressive language scores) resulted in a significant increase in dialogic reading, the children’s language scores in a digital and traditional reading group slightly changed during the intervention. Alternatively, qualitative data suggested that the interaction between teacher and children and between children and children were very limited in a digital and traditional reading group and that limited interaction during reading was the underlying cause of the insignificant increase in children’s language scores.
... In a similar fashion Olson (1994) shows that preliterate children have limited lexical awareness and the acquisition of the term "word" takes place together with developing writing and reading skills. Although pre-schoolers are aware of the contextual meanings of words/vocalizations and they easily distinguish various types of speech acts (e.g. a saying, asking, storytelling, singing etc.), they start to acquire the concept of a word in the context of parental practices of shared and interactive book reading (Aram et al., 2013). The idea of a word emerges out of an association with a graphic record during the process of learning to read and write. ...
Article
This paper draws together metacognitive theory of writing (MTW) and integrational linguistics/the distributed language perspective (DLP). These perspectives seem to disagree about the status and sources of meta-linguistic awareness. While integrationists/DLP maintain that metalinguistic awareness represents an intrinsic property of first-order languaging, the MTW argues that a metalinguistic awareness appears only after gaining skills in dealing with aggregates of symbolizations created and processed in the relevant literate contexts. The paper illustrates the point that divergent cognitive dynamics of speech and writing have a significant impact on the level of metalinguistic awareness. In order to reconcile seemingly contradictory statements about metalinguistic awareness appearing in each perspective, the meaning of the terms “reflective” and “reflexive” needs to be scrutinized.
... Just as adults, the enhancements focus children's visual attention on significant incidents that directly impact the protagonist and the plot's trajectory (e.g., Dore et al., 2018;Eng et al., 2020;Evans & Saint-Aubin, 2005;Kim & Anderson, 2008;Krcmar & Cingel, 2014). The enhancements may turn out to be a substitute for an adult pointing at details in pictures in sync with the narrative text or commenting but, of course, not for initiating discussions or the social benefits of joint attention (e.g., Aram et al., 2013;Blewitt et al., 2009;Morwane et al., 2019). ...
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The study tests the efficacy of a new sort of digital picture book. It includes camera movements to guide children’s visual attention through the pictures and the possibility to control page-turning and the pace at which the camera moves through pictures. There were 56 participants (M age = 60.34 months, SD = 6.24) randomly assigned to three conditions: still images, camera movements (no control over pace), and camera movements (control over pace). For the 50% of children least proficient in language skills, sparingly adding well-chosen camera movements to the illustrations helps children understand the story. In addition, the camera movements’ effect can be enhanced by enabling control over the pace at which new information appears. Particularly the 50% low-language proficiency children benefited from camera movements and spending more time processing information.
... Experimental studies comparing outcomes for children whose parents and teachers use dialogic reading strategies compared to sticking to the text suggest that more interactive reading styles facilitate enhanced language growth, narrative production skills (Grolig et al., 2020), vocabulary acquisition (Blewitt & Langan, 2016;Hargrave & Sénéchal, 2000) and understanding of socio-cognitive themes (Aram, Fine & Ziv, 2013). Dialogic interaction is a method by which parents can establish and maintain joint attention. ...
Article
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This study examines the content and function of parent-child talk while engaging in shared storybook reading with two narrative books: a wordless book versus a book with text. Thirty-six parents audio-recorded themselves reading one of the books at home with their 3.5-5.5-year-old children. Pragmatic and linguistic measures of parental and child talk during both narrative storytelling and dialogic interactions were compared between the wordless and book-with-text conditions. The results show that the wordless book engendered more interaction than the book-with-text, with a higher rate of parental prompts and responsive feedback, and significantly more child contributions, although lexical diversity and grammatical complexity of parental language were higher during narration using a book-with-text. The findings contribute to research on shared storybook reading suggesting that different book formats can promote qualitatively different language learning environments.
... Lever and Sénéchal, 2011;Zevenbergen et al., 2003), vocabulary size (e.g. Sim et al., 2014), and comprehension (Aram et al., 2013), but also have prolonged effects on children's later literacy development (Su et al., 2017;Tamis-LeMonda et al., 2019). Shared book reading offers a great opportunity for parents to provide 'interactionally supportive, linguistically adapted, and conceptually challenging' (Rowe and Snow, 2020: 5) input for their children. ...
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Shared book reading is often used as an educational tool to promote the development of children's early language and literacy skills. This study aimed to describe and compare the linguistic features of parent-child interactions during two shared book-reading sessions among 45 children (aged 4-6 years old) and their mothers. The dyads were divided into 2 groups: the intervention group (n = 25), and the control group (n = 20). In the first reading session, mothers read with their children the way they were most comfortable with and as they would usually do at home. Before the second reading session, we provided a 30-minute intervention on strategies of dialogic reading to the intervention group. Both readings were video-recorded. Mothers completed home literacy environment questionnaires. The results showed that even for mothers who were initially very skillful at reading with their children, this immediate intervention promoted a number of aspects of interactivity between mothers and their children, namely, the number of utterances, completion, open-ended, closed and labeling questions, and type token ratio by mothers, the number of utterances and initiated talk by children, and extra-textual talk and total number of turns by both mother and child. Mothers who received the intervention demonstrated more flexibility and more discursive styles, even though the intervention was short, and the time for them to practice was minimal.
... The parental behavior in the treatment group and, in turn, the child behavior had significantly better results, in comparison to the control group. These results confirmed the observations of numerous researchers (i.e., Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Blom-Hoffman, O'Neil-Pirozzi, Volpe, Cutting, & Bissinger, 2007;Brannon & Dauksas, 2012;Briesch, Chafouleas, Lebel, & Blom-Hoffman, 2008;Huebner, 2000;Huebner & Meltzoff, 2005;Levin & Aram, 2012), but they are innovative in our working context where IR is little known. In fact, in Belgium, no studies were carried out in this field, despite the development of a specific reading plan. ...
Article
Introduction Many authors agree on the importance of training parents in early literacy strategies. Objective This study analyses the effects of an intervention to improve parent–child interactions during reading sessions, using interactive reading techniques. Method The design is exploratory and includes a treatment group (n = 22), which benefited from four interactive reading workshops, and a control group (n = 18), which did not benefit from specific training. Both groups read the same books, three times a week, for 10 weeks. The children come from middle socioeconomic backgrounds and attend preschool or kindergarten (grades 1–3). Results The analyses were conducted on the basis of pre- and post-intervention video observations, coded using the Adult–Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI). Results from an ANCOVA show that parental behavior, and in turn child behavior, improves in post-intervention: parents improve their children's attention to the text and implement literacy strategies, while the children become more involved in the interactions. Conclusion Interactive reading workshops for parents improve the quantity and quality of parent–child interactions when reading books in a natural and playful context.
... In the current VC intervention program, two activities emphasizing conversational turns were presented to the children following the joint-interactive book reading in each reading session. Based on the four-reading model (Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013), the reading sessions dealt with four subjects: (1) the book's title, the author's name, and the book's plot; (2) socio-emotional themes that were raised by the stories; (3) correspondence of situations in the stories to the children's life experiences, and (4) retelling of the stories by the children. The first reading session for each book included talking with the children about conversational rules and a discussion about the book's cover and plot. ...
Article
This study examined the relative effectiveness of two intervention programs based on joint-interactive storybook reading: one program focused on cultivating awareness and use of visual-graphic representation (VGR), and the second focused on verbal conversations (VC). Both programs were delivered over 12 sessions, to Hebrew-speaking kindergarteners, by their teachers. Language abilities (vocabulary, narrative skills, listening comprehension, phonological and morphological awareness) and emergent literacy knowledge (print concept and letter naming) were examined both before and after the interventions. Additionally, reading motivation was examined, to find out whether children are more motivated to take part in reading activities after participating in one of the programs. Overall, results showed significant improvement in most examined variables in both intervention groups. The VGR group earned better scores in phonemic and morphemic awareness, print concepts and letter-naming than the VC group. However, scores in vocabulary, narrative ability and listening comprehension improved to a similar degree in both intervention groups. Motivation to read increased only among children who participated in the VC intervention program, while in the VGR group it remained unchanged. Possible implications of the findings to educational settings are discussed.
... DR and HIPPY (Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters) were both evaluated in four studies (DR: Chow & McBride-Chang, 2003;Lonigan & Whitehurst, 1998;Reese et al., 2010;HIPPY: Brown & Lee, 2017;Kağıtçıbașı et al., 2001;Necoechea, 2007;Van Tuijl et al., 2001). In four other studies, effects of an adapted version of DR were examined (Aram et al., 2013;Cooper et al., 2014;Ergül et al., 2016;Murray et al., 2016). Three programs were evaluated twice: PCHP (Parent-Child Home Program; Allen et al., 2007;Manz et al., 2016), PRIMER (PRoducing Infant/Mother Ethnic Readers; Cronan et al., 1996;Cronan et al., 1999), and MEES (Migrant Education Even Start; St. Clair & Jackson, 2006;St. ...
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The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate effects of family literacy programs on the emergent literacy skills of children from low socioeconomic status families (0–6) and to establish which program, sample, study, and measurement characteristics moderate program effects. Outcomes of 48 (quasi-)experimental studies covering 42 different programs revealed a medium average effect of Cohen’s d = 0.50 on immediate posttests and a marginal average effect of Cohen’s d = 0.16 on follow-up measures. Together, effects of different moderator variables indicate that children benefit from targeted programs that focus on a limited set of activities and skills and that are restricted to one (training) context. Additionally, we found larger effects in experimental studies and when researcher-developed tests were used. Our outcomes not only provide guidelines for program developers but also call for more longitudinal research that examines how positive short-term changes as a consequence of program participation can be sustained over time.
... Similar stages are seen for language acquisition as the other development stages and have parallels with these stages (cognitive, motor, etc.). While the children acquire language, they experience similar stages and show the same characteristics (Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Arslan, 2012). ...
... The four studies using three forms of Sharing Information combined workshops and meetings with print materials (Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Ingersoll & Wainer, 2013; Pile, Girolametto, Johnson, Chen, & Cleave, 2010) or a course with meetings and print materials (Fava, Strauss, Valeri, D'Elia, Arima, & Vicari, 2011). ...
Article
The Bridging the Word Gap Research Network conducted a review of literature to identify effective interventions to facilitate the communication development of young children in hopes of identifying ways to reduce the well-documented word gap among children associated with socio-economic class. As part of this effort, we focused on the ways in which caregivers (teachers, parents, and others) were taught to implement evidence-based practices for facilitating language learning and use. Our goal was to characterize (a) the implementation fidelity, to describe the teaching functions and implementation procedures for teaching those language intervention strategies and (b) the intervention fidelity with which caregivers used strategies for facilitating their children's language development. Because training procedures are not well described in the implementation and professional development literature, a new framework was developed and its feasibility was assessed in an attempt to characterize the teaching functions and specific implementation procedures used across studies. Among the 270 intervention studies reviewed, there were 124 in which caregivers were taught to implement language intervention strategies. Teaching functions included a variety of implementation procedures, with 95% of studies sharing information, 80% incorporating modeling, 65% providing feedback, and only 18% using prompting/guiding/scaffolding. Seventy-two of these studies (58%) reported intervention fidelity, with an increasing proportion reporting fidelity in recent years. Of these 72 studies, 81% were rated as having a ‘moderate to strong’ description of fidelity measures, and 50% reported high levels of intervention fidelity (i.e., >70% fidelity). These analyses demonstrate the need for reporting more detailed and precise information on intervention fidelity and the teaching functions and procedures used to teach caregivers to implement language interventions.
... Leggere insieme ad alta voce, infatti, facilita l'instaurarsi di conversazioni intense tra genitori e figli (Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013), è una strategia efficace per promuovere la qualità delle interazioni (Han & Neuharth-Pritchett, 2014) e favorisce una partecipazione attiva dei bambini, anche in situazioni di difficoltà (Westerveld, Paynter, Wicks, 2020). ...
Article
La lettura ad alta voce comporta un doppio atto di relazione: quello della scrittura, che è sempre per qualcuno, e quello della lettura, rivolta a chi ci sta di fronte. Lontano dall'essere un atto unidirezionale dell'adulto nei confronti del bambino, la lettura precoce ad alta voce si configura come un atto bidirezionale, in cui le parole, che si fanno corpo e suono, nascono e si sviluppano in un'interazione reciproca fra chi legge e chi ascolta. L'obiettivo principale del presente studio è di porre in rilievo le peculiarità della lettura ad alta voce, in quanto atto espressivo, comunicativo e relazionale. Tale atto, creativo e in primis sonoro, viene nel testo descritto e inserito in una generale cornice di revisione degli effetti benefici di una pratica di lettura condivisa e precoce. Gli effetti positivi di tali pratiche saranno esposti nel testo non solo da un punto di vista cognitivo, ma anche affettivo e sociale. ENGLISH ABSTRACT Reading aloud involves a double relational act. An act of writing, which is always for someone, and that of reading. Far from being a one-way act of the adult towards the child, early reading aloud is intended as a two-way act, in which words, in their auditor y and embodied dimensions, develop in a reciprocal interaction between readers and listeners. The main objective of this study is to highlight the peculiarities of reading aloud, as an expressive, communicative and relational act, between caregivers and young children. This act, creative and primarily based on sound, is described and inserted in a general theoretical framework. Furthermore, we revise the beneficial effects of a shared and early reading practice. The positive effects of such practices are exposed in the text from a cognitive, emotional and social perspective.
... In addition, our work may serve to practically inform innovative educational intervention based on the format successfully implemented with toddlers in this study. In fact, as some scholars have pointed out (see, e.g., Aram, Fine, & Ziv, 2013;Misailidi, Papoudi, & Brouzos, 2013), the conversational practices surrounding shared story reading at day-care centers still focus predominantly on the external, physical, and material aspects of story characters. The outcomes of this research should further encourage policymakers and practitioners to design educational activities for young children that focus on the relationship between inner worlds and prosocial actions. ...
Article
The awareness that prosocial skills begin to develop during the early years, with lasting implications for social lives, underpins increasing efforts to find ways of promoting prosocial behavior in children. Nevertheless, few such intervention studies have been conducted with toddlers in educational settings. Following the line of inquiry that examines the role of conversation about inner states in the early development of socioemotional competence, the current study makes an original contribution by evaluating the efficacy of a conversational intervention (TEPP, Toddler Empathy Prosociality Program) in fostering prosocial conduct in young children. A total of 142 toddlers (Mage = 29.78 months, range = 22–36) participated in a 2-month program during which specially trained teachers read prosocial stories to small groups of children and then involved the children in conversations about inner states and prosocial behavior (Condition 1), in conversations about concrete actions and physical states (Condition 2), or in free play activities (Condition 3). Children in Condition 1 were found to outperform their peers in Conditions 2 and 3 on both direct and indirect measures of prosocial behavior. Gender had a further slight influence on the study outcomes. Overall, the results confirmed that intervention based on conversation about inner states and prosocial actions can enhance the development of prosocial skills in toddlers encouraging the implementation of early education programs targeting prosociality among peers.
Article
Natural disasters are disruptive to families and communities, particularly when cascading effects continue over time. Such events, and ensuing disruptions to family life, present risks to young children's development, including oral language. Recognition of this potential vulnerability has led to calls for early childhood programming to support parenting and foster children's early learning. Therefore, we developed and trialed a research-informed home literacy preventive intervention for preschool-aged children living in communities adversely affected by devastating earthquakes. In this feasibility case study, 2 community workshops were offered. Both encouraged repeated, interactive shared reading and verbal interactions between parents and their 4- to 5-year-old children. Workshop 1 focused on scaffolding children's comprehension-related language skills through extratextual dialogue and reminiscing about shared experiences related to stories; Workshop 2 focused on promoting children's phonological awareness through playful interactions during reading and wordplay activities outside of reading. Before participation, parent-reported shared reading frequency for this sample (n = 44) was low (mode for shared reading was 1 or 2 days per week). Parent-report data collected after each workshop supported social validity and suggested workshop-specific benefits with medium to large effect sizes. Findings from this process evaluation support proof of concept for efforts to engage families in communities affected by ongoing stressors to support resilience in everyday interactions and promote children's early learning.
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Okulöncesi dönemde kazanılan erken okuryazarlık becerileri çocukların gelecek başarıları ve gelişimlerinde kritik bir rol oynamaktadır. Bu becerilerin desteklenmesi için ailelerin de çocuklara zengin uyaranlar sunmaları ve eğitsel çalışmalara katılmaları gerekmektedir. Ailelerin erken okuryazarlık becerileri konusundaki çalışmalara katılımını artırmak içinse planlama sürecinde ailelerin görüşlerine başvurmak önemlidir. Bu araştırmanın amacı da ailelerin okulöncesi dönemde erken okuryazarlık becerileri odaklı dil destek çalışmaları konusundaki tercihlerini betimlemektir. Tarama deseninde yürütülen araştırmanın örneklemini resmi ve özel okullarda öğrenim gören 5-6 yaşlarındaki 640 çocuğun ebeveyni oluşturmuştur. Veri analizinde betimleyici istatistiklere ve nonparametrik testlere başvurulmuştur. Bulgular; ailelerin çocukları ile etkileşimlerinde en çok eğitici ve ilgi çekici olma konusunda bilgi istediğini ve bilgilendirme aracı olarak yazılı materyalleri tercih ettiğini göstermektedir. Çalışmalara katılımda aileleri en fazla sınırlayan faktör ise zaman/enerji yokluğudur. Ailelerin tercihlerinde sosyoekonomik katman ve diğer demografik değişkenlere göre de anlamlı farklara ulaşılmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Okulöncesi eğitim, erken okuryazarlık gelişimi, aile okuryazarlığı, ebeveyn katılımı. Early literacy skills acquired in preschool period have a critical role in children's future success and development. To support these skills, families should also offer rich stimuli at home and participate in language support programs. For increasing families' participation and learning in these programs, consulting with families during the planning process is crucial. This study aims to describe families' preferences for language support activities focused on developing early literacy skills. The sampling in this survey research included the 640 parents of 5-6 years old children attending public and private schools in Turkey. Data analysis employed descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests, and cluster analysis. The results show that families mostly want information about being educational and engaging in their interactions and prefer written materials to receive information. The most common barrier for families is lack of time/energy. There were significant differences in the preferences of families based on socioeconomic status and other demographic variables.
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Parent-child shared reading of storybooks is an important activity for language development, especially if it is carried out dialogically. Dialogic Reading (DR) is a shared reading activity in which the adult intersperses reading out loud with questions about the story, praising and expanding the child´s verbalizations. It is important to ask open questions (not answerable with yes or no, nor simply by pointing), thus giving the child opportunities to engage verbally and produce increasingly complex responses. DR should begin early and be performed regularly in order to impact language, hence the importance of investigating effective instruction strategies. Parental DR training using video modeling has shown promising effects, but few studies have directly assessed the effects on parents´ behavior during shared reading, which was the aim of the present study. Pedro, Clara and Aline participated with their children in a four-stage training program using an across-subject multiple baseline design: Baseline (BL), in which they read with their children as usual; Intervention 1 - Learning to Ask Open Questions, focused on asking simple open questions about narrative and illustrations (e.g., who, when, how, where, etc.); Intervention 2 - Learning to Praise and Expand, focused on teaching parents to recognize and praise their children’s participation and to expand their responses; Intervention 3 - Learning to Vary Questions, focused on the inclusion of questions requiring the child to recall previous parts of the story, make inferences and relate the story to their personal experiences. Training and shared reading took place in participants´ homes. Each intervention included (1) feedback on repertoires acquired in the previous phase, (2) Instructions (3) Video Modeling. After each intervention, parents were instructed to apply what they learned during the following weeks and record reading sessions using a digital camera. Parents’ behavior was scored with an adapted version of the ACIRI (Adult / Child Interactive Reading Inventory) in which the three-point qualitative scale was replaced by response rate for countable behaviors. Results showed no interaction beyond straight reading of storybooks during BL, confirming previous studies. Parents´ questions and praise emerged immediately after Intervention 1 for Pedro and Clara. Aline was given a boost training session focused on selecting books for DR, to overcome a pattern of questions and answers centered on vocabulary. Parents´ open questions established a dialogue that was maintained throughout subsequent sessions and with different books. There were no results clearly attributable to Intervention 2 and only Pedro formulated some of the new types of questions taught in Intervention 3. We discuss the complexity of components taught in each intervention in terms of stimulus control, e.g., recall questions require the adult´s behavior to be sensitive to previous parts of the story, which is not necessarily true in the case of simple wh- questions about illustrations. More explicit instruction methodologies may be needed for these more complex DR strategies. We suggest that future studies plan interventions based on the stimulus control relations involved in each DR strategy. Keywords: dialogic reading; parental training; video modeling; shared reading; verbal behavior.
Article
Research Findings The current study explored the impact of a brief, small-group, shared book-reading (SBR) intervention on preschoolers’ expression of thoughts and emotions and their social understanding. To structure discourse around the book, we adapted Ellis’s ABC model, which focuses on understanding activating events (A), related beliefs (B), and emotional consequences (C). Participants included 116 Arab-Israeli children (M = 75 months, SD = 0.28), who were randomly divided into intervention and comparison groups. Over five SBR meetings, small groups of children in the intervention group were exposed to a book’s text rich in mental and emotion terms and discussion of the characters’ thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and situations and consequences. The comparison group text and discussions focused on the book’s plot, characters, and actions. We found that the intervention group significantly improved in their expression of emotion terms, and their ability to connect thoughts to emotions, define social problems, and generate solutions. Practice & Policy: The ABC model provides a readily available language with which to connect book characters’ thoughts and emotions, focus on social situations and consequences, and connect these elements to children’s lives. This intervention can promote preschoolers’ socio-emotional understanding within the typical group context of SBR in preschools.
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This chapter reports a study providing evidence that narrative experience, in the form of interactive bookreading, promoted theory of mind abilities of preschoolers. Sixty-seven low-income 4- and 5-year-olds participated in either one of two types of bookreading training or in a control group. The two bookreading conditions involved the reading of books: (1) that included mental state themes such as characters having beliefs counter to reality (false beliefs), or characters deceiving another character to gain something from them (active deception), or characters encountering objects that falsely appear to be one thing but are entirely something else (appearance-reality distinction); or (2) that did not include such mental state themes. The control condition was a no-treatment group in which children continued their daily classroom activities. All children were pre- and post-tested on a battery of theory of mind tasks. Results indicated that children participating in bookreading with or without mental state themes improved in theory of mind abilities from pre- to post-test as compared to the no-treatment control group. However, children who were read storybooks with mental state themes demonstrated greater improvements in active deception than those in the non-mental state themes condition. These results indicate the need for further research to disentangle the impact of mental state themes, mental state concepts, and mental state language in storybooks for promoting theory of mind abilities in children.
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Importance Training parents to implement strategies to support child language development is crucial to support long-term outcomes, given that as many as 2 of 5 children younger than 5 years have difficulty learning language. Objective To examine the association between parent training and language and communication outcomes in young children. Data Sources Searches of ERIC, Academic Search Complete, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES were conducted on August 11, 2014; August 18, 2016; January 23, 2018; and October 30, 2018. Study Selection Studies included in this review and meta-analysis were randomized or nonrandomized clinical trials that evaluated a language intervention that included parent training with children with a mean age of less than 6 years. Studies were excluded if the parent was not the primary implementer of the intervention, the study included fewer than 10 participants, or the study did not report outcomes related to language or communication. Data Extraction and Synthesis Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were applied to a total of 31 778 articles identified for screening, with the full text of 723 articles reviewed and 76 total studies ultimately included. Main Outcomes and Measures Main outcomes included language and communication skills in children with primary or secondary language impairment and children at risk for language impairment. Results This meta-analysis included 59 randomized clinical trials and 17 nonrandomized clinical trials including 5848 total participants (36.4 female [20.8%]; mean [SD] age, 3.5 [3.9] years). The intervention approach in 63 studies was a naturalistic teaching approach, and 16 studies used a primarily dialogic reading approach. There was a significant moderate association between parent training and child communication, engagement, and language outcomes (mean [SE] Hedges g, −0.33 [0.06]; P < .001). The association between parent training and parent use of language support strategies was large (mean [SE] Hedges g, 0.55 [0.11], P < .001). Children with developmental language disorder had the largest social communication outcomes (mean [SE] Hedges g, 0.37 [0.17]); large and significant associations were observed for receptive (mean [SE] Hedges g, 0.92 [0.30]) and expressive language (mean [SE] Hedges g, 0.83 [0.20]). Children at risk for language impairments had moderate effect sizes across receptive language (mean [SE] Hedges g, 0.28 [0.15]) and engagement outcomes (mean [SE] Hedges g, 0.36 [0.17]). Conclusions and Relevance The findings suggest that training parents to implement language and communication intervention techniques is associated with improved outcomes for children and increased parent use of support strategies. These findings may have direct implications on intervention and prevention.
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Mother-child storytelling is a universal activity that predicts literacy development and can play a promising role in developing strong parent-school connections among first-generation Latino families. By examining the discourse patterns of 34, 5–7 year old dyads on a fictional storytelling task, our results revealed that maternal elaborative and repetitive utterances positively predicted narrative quality, while the proportion of maternal contributions negatively predicted quality, after controlling for child’s age and gender. All other maternal discourse features, including language used by the mother, were non-significant. Findings are discussed within the context of improving literacy related, home engagement practices and school-home communications.
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Research on parents’ mental state talk (MST) and children's social understanding is typically situated within a social constructivist approach, which asserts that parent‐child conversations around mental states promotes children's social understanding. However, prior research has provided a limited view of children's participation in these exchanges or the interaction among qualities of MST. This study examined 67 mothers’ MST while narrating a wordless book with their preschoolers (Mage = 4.51 years) and children's subsequent responses; children were 80% White and 49% female. We coded mothers’ MST for three qualities: (1) category (e.g., cognition), (2) referent (e.g., child), and (3) utterance function (e.g., open‐ended question). Using sequential analysis, we hypothesized that children would respond to mothers’ mental state input with MST or connected talk. We also examined relations among mothers’ mental state category and referent/function. Examining over 1700 utterance pairs, there was considerable matching between mother's and children's MST within categories, children responded in a connected way when MST focused on the child or cognition, and children tended to respond to open‐ended questions and closed questions, but not comments, about mental states. This study provides a novel method for analyzing parent‐child MST, suggests that particular qualities of mothers’ MST tend to co‐occur, and suggests that particular qualities of mental states are especially likely to engage children in MST.
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Background The current study provides information about differences in parent–child discourse during shared book reading (SBR) surrounding narrative and didactic book genres about ‘positive’ (e.g. love, happiness) and ‘negative’ (e.g. anger and sadness) emotions. Research shows that characteristics of different children's book genres impact discourse during SBR, but narrative and didactic books have not been examined. Children's books often relate to the characters' inner mental and emotional states. Research has not explored parent–child conversations during SBR regarding different types of emotions, yet studies on other discourse contexts reveal that parents discuss ‘positive’ emotions differently than ‘negative’ emotions. Methods Participants were 26 mothers of 5- to 6-year-olds (M = 64.30 SD = 6.27). There were 18 boys and 8 girls. Eleven dyads received a narrative and didactic book on ‘positive’ emotions, and 15 dyads received a narrative and didactic book on ‘negative’ emotions. Interactions were video-recorded and analysed. We examined the number of turns, initiations, general utterances and mental–emotional utterances. Results Primary results revealed that mothers used more general utterances when reading both narrative and didactic books surrounding ‘negative’ emotions compared with books surrounding ‘positive’ emotions. Mothers used more mental–emotional utterances with a didactic book on ‘negative’ emotions compared with a narrative on ‘negative’ emotions and with a didactic book on ‘positive’ emotions compared to a narrative on ‘positive’ emotions. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of text selection for SBR and how it may impact the discourse. Mothers used didactic books for detailed conversations with their children. The simpler structure of the book may have facilitated the discourse about emotions. Mothers related more to anger and sadness compared with love and happiness. This may indicate that they feel they have to explain and teach their children about ‘negative’ emotions and how to cope with them, whereas positive emotions may be more implicitly understood.
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The current study investigated the impact of cognitive flexibility on the development of emotion understanding using a longitudinal tracking study. A total of 98 children aged 4 and 5 years were tested for cognitive flexibility, emotion understanding, and verbal ability across three time points within a year. The cross-lagged analyses indicated that early cognitive flexibility played a predictive role in the development of emotion understanding. More precisely, cognitive flexibility at Time 1 predicted emotion understanding at Time 2 and Time 3, and cognitive flexibility at Time 2 predicted emotion understanding at Time 3. Furthermore, mediation analysis showed that verbal ability mediated the impact of cognitive flexibility on emotion understanding. Early cognitive flexibility contributed to later emotion understanding by improving children’s verbal ability. These findings suggest that there is a verbal ability-mediated pathway from cognitive flexibility to emotion understanding that provides a new perspective for the development mechanism of children’s emotion understanding.
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Araştırmanın amacı; 2008-2018 yılları arasında etkileşimli okuma ile ilgili ulusal ve uluslararası alanda yapılan çalışmaları içerik analizi yöntemiyle incelemektir. Araştırmada 2008-2018 yılları arasında etkileşimli okuma ile ilgili 64 makale, 49 tez çalışmasına ulaşılmış ve çalışmalar; “amaç, örneklem grubu, örneklem grubunun sayısı, etkinliğin kimlerle gerçekleştiği, etkinlik süresi, sonuç, uygulamaya yönelik öneriler ve gelecek çalışmalara yönelik öneriler” parametrelerine göre incelenmiştir. İncelemeler sonucunda; etkileşimli okuma etkinliğinin, öğrencilerin bilişsel alanlarına özellikle de dil gelişimlerine etkisini incelemek amacıyla yapıldığı görülmüştür. En çok okul öncesi dönem öğrencileri ile gerçekleştirilen etkinliğin örneklem büyüklüğü 0-19 öğrenci arasında değiştiği ve etkileşimli okuma etkinliklerin öğretmen ve öğrenci arasında, çoğunlukla 5-8 haftalık sürede sonuçlandığına ulaşılmıştır. Çoğunlukla nicel araştırma yaklaşımının deneysel desenleri kullanılan çalışmalarda, en çok öğrencilerin söz varlığının geliştiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır ve etkileşimli okuma etkinliğine öneri olarak daha büyük örneklem grupları üzerinde yapılması gerektiği, gelecek çalışmalara yönelik öneri olarak ise; öğrencilerin bilişsel alanlarına, en çok da dil gelişimi üzerinde çalışmalar yapılması gerektiği belirtilmiştir.
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For the present review, we analyzed 28 studies researching the effects of interventions for parents with less education on the oral language development of their young children (ages 3-8). Two groups of interventions were distinguished: shared reading and other home activities. Within each group, we distinguished three categories of strategies: (1) oral language, (2) responsive communication, and (3) print and code awareness. In addition, we analyzed which modes of delivery for these activities and strategies were effective. Talk and play activities that use oral language activities and responsive communication strategies seem to be the most effective for parents with less education, especially when they are adapted to activities that occur in the families' daily lives and do not require the use of print. Activities that include the use of books and emphasize print and code awareness strategies seem less effective for parents with less education. Training parents during activities that include child involvement appears to be an effective mode of delivery. Recommendations for future research are presented to increase our knowledge of effective interventions to support the engagement of parents with less education in their young children's language development.
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Okulöncesi dönem tüm gelişim alanları için olduğu gibi dil gelişimi için de kritik dönemdir. Çocuğun okulöncesi dönemdeki en büyük destekçisinin aile olduğu göz önüne alındığında ailelerin bu becerilere ilişkin görüşlerinin incelenmesi gerekmektedir. Bu araştırmanın temel amacı, okulöncesi dönemde çocuğu olan ailelerin erken okuryazarlığa ilişkin farkındalıklarının ve dil becerilerini destekleyici eğitsel çalışmalara yönelik tercihlerinin çocuğa, ebeveynlere ve aileye ilişkin demografik özellikler açısından betimlenmesidir. Tarama deseninde yürütülen bu araştırmanın evrenini, 2018-2019 eğitim-öğretim yılında Eskişehir, Tepebaşı'ndaki MEB'e bağlı resmi ve özel anaokulu ve anasınıflarındaki çocukların ebeveynleri oluşturmuştur. Bu evrenden küme örneklemeyle seçilen 640 ebeveynle çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın verileri "Okulöncesi Dönemde Dil Becerilerine Yönelik Ebeveyn Görüşleri" isimli soru formu ile toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde IBM SPSS 22.0 paket programı kullanılarak t-testi, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, korelasyon ve ki kare testlerine başvurulmuştur. Genel olarak, aileler çocuklarına orta düzeyde erken okuryazarlık deneyimleri sunmaktadırlar. Çocuğun cinsiyeti, okul türü, ebeveynlerin eğitim durumu gibi demografik özelliklere göre bu deneyimlerde istatistiksel açıdan anlamlı farklar bulunmuştur. Çocuklarının dil becerilerinin desteklenmesinde ailelerin okuldan beklentilerinin yüksek olduğu görülmüştür. Dil destek çalışmalarına yönelik tercihlerde sosyoekonomik katman, kardeş sayısı gibi değişkenlere göre fark olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
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Book reading has been demonstrated to promote vocabulary. The current study was conducted to examine the added value of an interactive shared book reading format that emphasizes active as opposed to noninteractive participation by the child. Studies that included a dialogic reading intervention group and a reading-as-usual control group, and that reported vocabulary as an outcome measure were located. After extracting relevant data from 16 eligible studies, a meta-analysis was conducted to attain an overall mean effect size reflecting the success of dialogic reading in increasing children's vocabulary compared to typical shared reading. When focusing on measures of expressive vocabulary in particular (k = 9, n = 322), Cohen's d was .59 (SE = .08; 95% CI = 0.44, 0.75; p < .001), which is a moderate effect size. However, the effect size reduced substantially when children were older (4 to 5 years old) or when they were at risk for language and literacy impairments. Dialogic reading can change the home literacy activities of families with 2- to 3-year-old children but not those of families with children at greatest risk for school failure. Preparation of this manuscript was supported by a grant (#411-02-506) from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) to Adriana G. Bus.
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Caregiver use of dialogic reading (DR) strategies in home, preschool, and daycare settings has been shown to facilitate development of oral language and emergent literacy skills in toddlers and preschool age children. Training in the use of DR strategies may be provided ‘live’ or via videotape. Using a randomized, control group, repeated measures design with 18 caregiver-child dyads, we investigated (a) caregivers' ability to learn to use DR strategies with their young children through videotape training in community health centers, and (b) children's verbalizations during shared book reading. Caregivers learned to use DR strategies through the videotape training and maintained their use of DR strategies 12 weeks later. In addition, an intervention effect was observed related to levels of child on-task verbalizations such that children of parents who learned DR strategies talked more about books during shared book reading relative to their baseline and to the control group children, whose parents did not view the DR training video.
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Considerable attention has been devoted to the study of theory of mind over the past twenty years. It is now recognized that making inferences, predictions and explanations about the representational states of others and, accordingly, to predict their behavior is a fundamental human ability. A critical step in this social-cognitive construction occurs when the child can attribute false belief (Bretherton,. However, theory of mind is usually studied through experimental designs (such as false belief test) and, until recently, there has been relatively little study of how it is activated during real-life communication (Jenkins & Astington, 2000). The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between mothers’ discourse and theory of mind in a longitudinal approach involving three time points between 36 and 58 months. Two kinds of mental states were of interest: cognitive and feeling. We expected that exposure to cognitive talk was important for the development of belief understanding and that exposure to emotion talk was important for the development of feeling understanding. An experiment was designed to determine first, whether exposure to a specific type of mothers’ mental state talk facilitated the development of that type of mental state attribution and second, whether language ability mediated the relation between mothers’ talk and theory of mind. 35 second-born children were observed in conversation with their mothers. In addition , children were given false belief and emotion tasks (Bartsch and Wellman, 1989; Harris & al, 1989). Children’s performance on these tasks were significantly related to the quality of maternal discourse. Results were discussed in reference to enculturation process.
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This meta-analysis examines to what extent interactive storybook reading stimulates two pillars of learning to read: vocabulary and print knowledge. The authors quantitatively reviewed 31 (quasi) experiments (n = 2,049 children) in which educators were trained to encourage children to be actively involved before, during, and after joint book reading. A moderate effect size was found for oral language skills, implying that both quality of book reading in classrooms and frequency are important. Although teaching print-related skills is not part of interactive reading programs, 7% of the variance in kindergarten children’s alphabetic knowledge could be attributed to the intervention. The study also shows that findings with experimenters were simply not replicable in a natural classroom setting. Further research is needed to disentangle the processes that explain the effects of interactive reading on children’s print knowledge and the strategies that may help transfer intervention effects from researchers to children’s own teachers.
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This study examined the participation of preschool children (mean age 5;1) in two literacy-related activities — talking about a book with their mothers and subsequent independent retelling of the story. Sixty-two mother—child dyads from low-income families participated. Analysis of bookreading and story retelling transcripts revealed wide variability in extratextual talk during bookreading by both children and mothers. Children's responsive, but not spontaneous, extratextual book talk was closely associated with maternal types of talk. Children's story retelling skills were not related to the types of talk they produced during bookreading, but were predicted by the extent to which mothers encouraged their active participation during joint bookreading. Implications for bookreading intervention programs are discussed.
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This study investigated the relationship between narrative skills and theory of mind for low-income children. Two groups of low-income preschoolers, one African American (n = 33) and one European American (n = 36), created a narrative and participated in a false belief task. The European Americans outperformed African Americans on the false belief task, but there were no differences in the narrative skills across the groups. After controlling for children's age, false belief performance had no effect on European Americans' narrative abilities. However, African Americans who passed the false belief task told stories that were more grammatically coherent and social cognitively sophisticated than those African American children who did not pass the task.
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This study examined 33 mothers' and preschoolers' oral language skills (decontextualized discourse) across an emergent reading, shared reading, and oral storytelling interaction. The sample comprised primarily African American families from various socioeconomic backgrounds, ranging from Head Start families to middle-income families. Two measures of decontextualized language were assessed—literate language features and type of talk (i.e., a coding scheme categorizing comments/questions on a continuum from contextualized to decontextualized talk). Mothers used more decontextualized language during the oral storytelling interaction versus the other interactions, but children used more during the emergent reading interaction. Mothers with advanced literacy skills were more likely to make decontextualized comments/questions and use mental/linguistic verbs during the interactions. Results are discussed in terms of implications for parent–child home literacy interventions.
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The current review is a quantitative meta-analysis of the available empirical evidence related to parent-preschooler reading and several outcome measures. In selecting the studies to be included in this meta-analysis, we focused on studies examining the frequency of book reading to preschoolers. The results support the hypothesis that parent-preschooler reading is related to outcome measures such as language growth, emergent literacy, and reading achievement. The overall effect size of d = .59 indicates that book reading explains about 8% of the variance in the outcome measures. The results support the hypothesis that book reading, in particular, affects acquisition of the written language register. The effect of parent-preschooler reading is not dependent on the socioeconomic status of the families or on several methodological differences between the studies. However, the effect seems to become smaller as soon as children become conventional readers and are able to read on their own.
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The authors investigated the social practice of book reading in 10 mainstream New Zealand families where parents read regularly to their 3- and 4-year-old children in their homes. In Study 1, the researchers collected data for one month on the frequency of book reading, the time of day, the participants, and the types of books selected. They found that reading stories was a frequent child-centered event in the homes studied. In Study 2, unfamiliar but similar storybooks were given to the families to read, and the parent-child interactions were recorded and analyzed. Both adult- and child-initiated insertions most often focused on the meaning of the immediate text, particularly on the events and goals of the narrative. Few interactions focused on concepts about print or illustrations. Some changes occurred across successive readings: At first, parents concentrated on making the meaning of the story clear to the children, but later they frequently fostered anticipation and prompted the children to make inferences. The results suggest that children from such mainstream families in New Zealand will already have some knowledge of constructing meaning from stories when they begin to attend school. /// [French] Les auteurs ont observé, dans leur maison, des parents de 10 familles de la culture principale de Nouvelle-Zélande au cours de séances de lecture de livres d'histoires à des enfants âgés entre 3 et 4 ans. Durant la première phase de la recherche qui dura un mois, des données ont été recueillies sur les fréquences de lecture, les périodes de la journée où se déroulaient les séances de lecture, les caractéristiques des participants aux séances, et les types de livres choisis. Les résultats montrèrent que ce type d'activité était fréquente dans les familles observées. Durant la deuxième phase de la recherche, les parents ont reçudes livres nouveaux similaires à ceux qu'ils lisaient antérieurement et les séances de lecture ont été enregistrées et analysées. Il ressortit des analyses qu'en cours de lecture, aussi bien l'enfant que le parent interrompait le récit en réaction à ce qui venait juste d'être dit et que ces interruptions portaient surtout sur les évènements qui se déroulaient dans l'histoire et sur les buts des protagonistes. Peu d'interactions mettaient l'accent sur des concepts de l'écrit ou sur les illustrations. Les séances évoluaient d'une fois à l'autre; au début, les parents s'efforçaient de faire comprendre l'histoire aux enfants mais par la suite, ils incitaient fréquemment les enfants à faire des inférences. Ces résultats indiquent que ces enfants auront déjà développé des connaissances relatives à la construction de la signification dans un récit, lorsqu'ils commenceront à fréquenter l'école. /// [Spanish] Los autores investigaron la actividad de lectura entre los padres de 10 familias de la cultura mayor en Nueva Zelandia, mientras estos les leían a sus hijos de 3 y 4 años, en la casa. En la primera fase de estudio, los investigadores recolectaron datos durante un mes en cuanto a la frecuencia de la lectura, la hora del día en el que leían los participantes en el evento, y el tipo de libro seleccionado. Encontraron que leer cuentos era un evento frecuente, en las casas seleccionadas, que giraba alrededor del niño. En la segunda fase, se les dieron libros de cuentos similares a los que habían leído, pero que eran nuevos para los niños -- y se codificó y analizó la interacción padre-hijo. Se encontró que tanto los niños como los adultos iniciaban interrupciones generalmente enfocadas en el texto y en el significado del texto inmediato (que se estaba leyendo en ese momento); particularmente en los eventos y metas de la narrativa. Se encontró que pocas interacciones estaban enfocadas en conceptos sobre la letra impresa o las ilustraciones. Algunos cambios ocurrieron después de varias lecturas sucesivas: Al principio, los padres se concentraban en aclarar el significado de la historia, pero más tarde incitaban frecuentemente a los niños para que hicieran inferencias. Los resultados sugieren que los niños de esas familias típicas neocelandesas tendrán ya algun conocimiento de construcción de signifacdo de historias cuando empiecen a asistir a la escuela. /// [German] In diesem Beitrag untersuchten die Verfasser zehn Familien des neuseeländischen Mittelstands, in denen die Eltern den 3- bis 4-jährigen Kindern Geschichten vorlasen. Im ersten Teil der Studie sammelten die Forscher einen Monat lang Daten über die Häufigkeit des Vorlesens aus Büchern, die Tageszeit, die Teilnehmer und die Arten der ausgewählten Bücher. Sie stellten dabei fest, daß das Lesen von Geschichten in den untersuchten Haushalten eine häufig vorkommende kinderbezogene Beschäftigung ist. Im zweiten Teil der Studie wurden den Familien unbekannte, wenn auch ähnliche, Geschichtenbücher zum Lesen gegeben und die Interaktionen von Eltern und Kindern aufgezeichnet und analysiert. Sowohl die von Kindern als auch von Erwachsenen eingeleiteten Unterbrechungen bezogen sich in den meisten Fällen auf die Bedeutung des derzeitig gelesenen Textteils -- und hierbei besonders auf die Ereignisse und Ziele der Erzählung. Nur sehr wenige Interaktionen bezogen sich auf Konzepte, die mit dem Gedruckten oder den Illustrationen zu tun hatten. Über mehrere aufeinanderfolgende Lesebeschäftigungen hinweg konnten einige Änderungen beobachtet werden: Anfangs konzentrierten sich die Eltern darauf, den Kindern die Bedeutung der Geschichte verständlich zu machen, doch später forderten sie die Kinder des öfteren dazu auf, selber Schlüsse zu ziehen. Die Ergebnisse deuten an, daß Kinder aus Familien des neuseeländischen Mittelstands bereits einige Kenntnisse darüber besitzen, wie man aus Geschichten Verständnis aufbaut, bevor diese Kinder das erste Mal die Schule besuchen.
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This study investigated the family reading behavior of 233 preschool children from low-income backgrounds who were attending Head Start. Parents completed a survey of their family reading behavior, including Child Reading, Parent Reading Interest, and Parent–Child Reading Interaction, and provided demographic data on their educational level, parent and child age, and family size. Children's receptive vocabulary, story and print concepts, letter knowledge, and general emergent literacy skills were assessed in the fall of their preschool year. Analyses focused on the variation in family reading behavior, the relationship between different dimensions of family reading behavior, and the contribution of family reading behavior to early literacy skills. Results indicated that Parent–Child Reading Interaction and Child Reading Interest were significantly related to children's early literacy skills. In addition, multiple regression analyses indicated that Parent–Child Reading Interaction was a small yet significant predictor of children's receptive vocabulary, story and print concepts, and general emergent literacy skills, above and beyond the influence of demographic variables. Child Reading Interest was a significant, albeit small, predictor of letter knowledge above and beyond these demographic controls. Implications of these results for the early literacy education of children of low-income families are discussed.
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Eighty-six Hong Kong Chinese kindergarten children were pretested on the Preschool and Primary Chinese Literacy Scale (PPCLS) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test—Third Edition (PPVT-III), and assigned randomly within schools to 1 of 3 conditions, dialogic reading, typical reading and control. After an 8- week intervention, the children were posttested. Results indicated a significant main group effect for performance on both the PPCLS and the PPVT-III, with children in the dialogic reading group benefiting significantly from the intervention. These results indicate that early literacy-related activities in the home have strong and direct effects on both children's literacy growth and language development in Chinese. The success of the dialogic reading technique in this study contributes to the goal of raising global literacy standards and educational achievement.
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A significant gap in emerging literacy intervention with preschoolers relates to a skill that is crucial to later reading comprehension–the ability to engage in inferencing. This article presents a theoretical rationale for fostering inferential language during book sharing with preschool children, and provides research-based ideas for how this can be best accomplished. It is suggested that, at the preschool level, children can be supported in their ability to make inferences about stories read aloud to them by having adults ask both literal and inferential questions that, first and foremost, relate to the causal structure of stories. Additionally, questions focused on informational and evaluative inferences serve to further enhance story comprehension. A rubric for connecting such questions to the elements of story grammar is offered, and a specific example from a published preschool level storybook is provided. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The goal of the present study was to increase understanding of the connection between maternal beliefs and behavior during shared reading and to examine the relation of these maternal beliefs to children's reading engagement. The study included survey and observational data from an ethnically diverse sample of 50 mothers and their 5- to 6-year-old children. As predicted, mothers who believed that shared reading should involve learning showed more learning-focused behaviors. Similarly, the belief that reading should be fun predicted more positive interactions. Some relationships between beliefs and behavior were moderated by gender. For girls, higher maternal expectations for children's future reading grades were associated with better scaffolding, but this pattern was not found for boys. There was a positive relationship between mothers' belief that reading should be fun and their sons' engagement. No gender differences were found in maternal expectations and beliefs or in observed maternal learning-focused behaviors or positive support. However, girls were observed to be significantly more engaged during the reading interaction. These results point to the connections between maternal beliefs and behaviors during shared reading, as well as the need to consider child gender in understanding these connections.
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