Estenose tricúspide induzida por eletrocateter de pacemaker: relato de 2 casos clínicos
Serviço de Cardiologia, Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Unidade de Vila Real, Vila Real, PortugalRevista portuguesa de cardiologia: orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology: an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 0.45). 04/2012; 31(4):305–308. DOI: 10.1016/j.repc.2012.02.008
Tricuspid stenosis (TS) is an uncommon complication of transvenous ventricular pacemaker implantation, with few cases reported in the literature. The mechanisms described are obstruction of right ventricular inflow by tricuspid vegetations (endocarditis), multiple pacemaker leads and tricuspid valve (TV) fibrosis secondary to perforation or laceration of the TV leaflets, or adherence between redundant portions of the lead and valvular and subvalvular tissue. We report two cases of severe TS, with different etiologies and management: one caused by leaflet perforation, resolved surgically, and the other secondary to fusion between a loop of the pacemaker lead and the subvalvular apparatus, which was treated medically.
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ABSTRACT: Despite advances in electrotherapy, late complications constitute an increasing clinical and therapeutic problem. Transvenous lead extraction (TLE) is becoming a safe and effective approach to the treatment of such complications. To assess indications for TLE and to evaluate safety and efficacy of TLE procedures. Methods: A retrospective clinical analysis of 100 patients with complications of electrotherapy admitted to a tertiary care centre in 2008-2011. In 2008-2011, the number of electrotherapy complications increased markedly. The most frequent reason for TLE was lead dysfunction (62% of patients, including 31% with an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator [ICD] and 31% with a pacemaker [PM]). The most common type of lead dysfunction was conductor damage (38% of patients, including 23% with ICD, 15% with PM), followed by late myocardial perforation (14% of patients, including 7% with ICD, 7% with PM), abnormal course of the lead (7% of patients, including 1% with ICD, 6% with PM), and lead insulation failure (3% of patients). Other reasons for TLE were infectious complications (24% of patients, including 15% with PM pocket infection), venous insufficiency (17% of patients, including 10% in whom an indwelling lead was a direct obstacle to switching the pacing mode), and the need to switch the pacing mode (4% of patients). Procedural efficacy was 96% (lead fragments were left in place in 4% of patients). No significant clinical complications were observed in any of the patients in the periprocedural period. Clinical manifestations of electrotherapy complications in the study group varied and included a relatively small number of infectious complications (24%) and a relatively large number of late myocardial perforations (14%). Efficacy and safety of the procedures were very high.
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ABSTRACT: Central venous stenosis is a common complication of the transvenous leads associated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Although epicardial leads have been reported to bypass this complication, their placement is much more invasive than the subcutaneous ICDs (SICDs) and requires the services of a cardiothoracic surgeon. Recent data have demonstrated successful defibrillation using an SICD. In this report, we present 4 long-term hemodialysis patients treated successfully with an SICD. 3 patients received the device for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (cardiomyopathy with low ejection fraction). The patient in the fourth case had a prolonged QT interval and received the device for secondary prevention. 3 patients had an arteriovenous fistula, whereas 1 patient was dialyzing with a tunneled dialysis catheter. Insertion of an SICD is a minimally invasive procedure. By virtue of leaving the venous system untouched, this approach might offer the advantage of reduced risk of central venous stenosis and infection over an endocardial ICD with transvenous leads. SICD is not experimental; it has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and is currently being used in the United States and Europe. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.