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Internet pornography exposure and risky sexual behavior among adult males in the United States

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Abstract

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to pose a threat to the public health in the United States. Many sexual behaviors increase an individual’s risk of STI contraction. Chief among these are having unprotected sex, having sex with multiple partners, and either paying for sex or having sex for pay. The present study used General Social Survey (GSS) data from 2000, 2002, and 2004 to explore the association between exposure to internet pornography and these STI risk behaviors among adult US males. After controlling for demographic and individual difference covariates, internet pornography consumption was positively associated with having sex with multiple partners, engaging in paid sex, and having had extramarital sex. Internet pornography consumption was unrelated to having unprotected sex. Subsequent GSSs have not asked participants about exposure to internet pornography. As the GSS is the only ongoing, full-probability, national survey assessing social beliefs and behaviors, the present report provides unique insight into the risky sexual behavior patterns of adult male internet pornography consumers in the United States.

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... In the discipline of psychology, agreed definitions are taken to be cornerstones for the development of formal theories (Sell, 2018) and psychology researchers have begun to approach a consensus about how to define pornography (sometimes the term sexually explicit material is used as a synonym [Downing, Schrimshaw, Antebi, & Siegel, 2014]), employing definitions 1 3 that focus on two elements. The first is that pornography is "explicit" (Wright & Randall, 2012) and includes "images of exposed genitals and/or depictions of sexual behaviors" (Morgan, 2011) that are "unconcealed" (Peter & Valkenburg, 2011). The second is that pornography is "intended to increase sexual arousal" (Morgan, 2011). ...
... Even within the discipline of psychology, however, there is little agreement about elements of this definition. Some researchers will include in their definition of pornography texts that show only "nudity" with no sexual contact (Wright & Randall, 2012) (in this technical report, we use the word "texts" in the sense in which it is used by cultural studies researchersthat is, any element of culture that carries meaning for a consumer. This can include books, films, and photographs as well as T-shirts, coffee mugs, or even hairstyles, to name only a few possibilities) (McKee, 2003). ...
... By contrast, other researchers in psychology insist that in order to be explicit pornographic texts must show sexual acts or "(aroused) genitals" (Peter & Valkenburg, 2011)-researchers in the latter group exclude Playboy from their definition of pornography, for example (Traeen & Daneback, 2013). In relation to the second part of the definition, some psychology researchers exclude the intention to arouse and include all sexually explicit materials in their definition of pornography (Traeen & Daneback, 2013;Wright & Randall, 2012). And it is notable that even in recent work many researchers do not provide a definition of pornography at all (Doonwaard, van den Eijnden, Overbeek, & ter Bogt, 2015;Downing et al., 2014;Hald, Kuyper, Adam, & de Wit, 2013). ...
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In interdisciplinary investigations into the relationships between pornography and its audiences, the issue of how to define the object of study is more complex than in studies situated within a single discipline. A Delphi panel of 38 leading pornography researchers from a wide range of disciplines was asked about various topics, including the definition of pornography. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of two rounds of survey responses suggested two different and—at first sight—incompatible definitions operating. The first was “Sexually explicit materials intended to arouse.” The second was a culturally relative definition suggesting pornography has no innate characteristics. This technical report suggests that we should encourage researchers to choose which definition they want to use in a self-reflective way depending on the needs of the project, so long as they make it explicit and justify their decision.
... Pornography consumption has been shown to hinder relationship quality (Lambert et al. 2012;Rasmussen 2016;Stewart and Szymanski 2012;Szymanski et al. 2015) and promote participation in sexual behaviors, such as engaging in risky sexual behaviors (Harkness et al. 2015;Wright and Randall 2012). Yet some studies have found mixed results regarding the impact of 1 3 pornography consumption on relationship quality (Brown et al. 2017;Minarcik et al. 2016) and sexual behaviors (Martyniuk et al. 2016;Poulsen et al. 2013), showing both positive and negative effects. ...
... Virginity status refers to whether someone is a virgin, which we define as having not participated in vaginal intercourse, or not a virgin, which we define as having participated in vaginal intercourse, which is consistent with other studies examining sexual intercourse (e.g., Sprecher 2014). We focus on virginity status not only because it may explain the mixed effects of pornography for sexual and romantic development based on Erikson's (1985a, b) psychosocial theory of development, but also because it is understudied in the literature, despite calls for examination (Kohut et al. 2017;Wright and Randall 2012). In addition, the current study uses a mixed methods approach in order to achieve the goals of the study. ...
... Several studies have illustrated that pornography may have a negative effect on sexual development and sexual behaviors. Research has shown that pornography consumption is correlated with multiple sexual partners (Wright and Arroyo 2013;, extra-dyadic relationships (Gwinn et al. 2013;Peter and Valkenburg 2016), and unprotected sexual intercourse (Harkness et al. 2015;Wright and Randall 2012). For example, Wright (2015) found that pornography consumption was associated with higher acceptance of premarital sexual intercourse for young adults. ...
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Few studies have examined the influence of pornography consumption based on virginity status. Therefore, this study examines the associations between pornography consumption and emerging adult sexual and relationship development based on virginity status. Quantitative data comes from 133 emerging adults (85.7% female; Mean age: 21.24; 24.1% virgins). Qualitative data comes from 21 participants. Results illustrated that pornography consumption was not associated with virgins’ affectionate and sexual behaviors. Additionally, pornography consumption was marginally associated with increased commitment for non-virgins’ romantic quality. Qualitative analyses revealed that consuming pornography provided unrealistic sex expectations or material to improve sexual experiences. Pornography may have mixed effects on emerging adult development.
... Research on the correlates and consequences of exposure to pornography has been conducted for over 30 years. Among them, the most recent studies carried out into how frequent viewing of pornography videos affects sexual behavior suggests that it influences viewers' attitudes, behavior and sexual practices (e.g., Kraus et al. 2015;Twohig and Crosby 2010;Wright and Randall 2012), both in positive and in negative way (e.g., Kraus et al. 2015;Twohig and Crosby 2010;Wright and Randall 2012). Nonetheless, controversy among social scientist concerning the effects of exposure to pornography persists, largely because the results of the studies carried out on this matter are often conflicting. ...
... Research on the correlates and consequences of exposure to pornography has been conducted for over 30 years. Among them, the most recent studies carried out into how frequent viewing of pornography videos affects sexual behavior suggests that it influences viewers' attitudes, behavior and sexual practices (e.g., Kraus et al. 2015;Twohig and Crosby 2010;Wright and Randall 2012), both in positive and in negative way (e.g., Kraus et al. 2015;Twohig and Crosby 2010;Wright and Randall 2012). Nonetheless, controversy among social scientist concerning the effects of exposure to pornography persists, largely because the results of the studies carried out on this matter are often conflicting. ...
... In other words, male individuals who engage frequently in pornography viewing are relatively likely also to engage in sadistic sexual behavior towards their female partners. These results are consistent with studies conducted in the West showing a relationship between men frequent exposure to pornography and men sexual aggressive behavior towards women (e.g., Allen et al. 1995;Kraus et al. 2015;Wright and Randall 2012), and are contradictory with those who showed the opposite (e.g., Diamond and Uchiyama's's 1999;McKee 2007a, b). ...
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The aim of this study is, first, to determine whether in Mozambique men who watch pornographic videos frequently behave more sadistically towards their female partners during sexual intercourse than those who watch pornographic videos relatively infrequently; and secondly, to know if pornography has an influence on men’s sexual behavior towards women. A total of 512 men and women participated in the study, responding to an original questionnaire, and were interviewed as well. Statistical processing of the data consisted of descriptive analysis (means and standard deviations), comparison of means (t-test) and correlation analyses. First, the results show that men’s frequent exposure to pornography is correlated to male sadistic behavior towards women. Second, the results show that, amongst male participants, being in love with one’s partners and being older correlate negatively with men’s sexual sadism toward women. Finally, there is an indication that in Mozambique pornography influences some men’s sexual behavior towards women in sadistic way, although more studies are needed to gauge to what extent.
... Research found that monogamous individuals who used pornography together with their partner were as satisfied as those with no pornography use, but more so than those who used pornography by themselves (Maddox et al., 2011). To the extent that solitary pornography use has been associated with sexual disinterest toward the primary partner (Park et al., 2016) and sexual interest toward extradyadic partners (Wright & Randall, 2012), we examined the role of internet pornography on sexual relationship outcomes among monogamous individuals, depending on whether or not they had non-consensual extradyadic sex (i.e., monogamous vs. nonconsensual non-monogamous; NCNM). Moreover, individuals in a consensual non-monogamous (CNM) relationship have an agreement allowing for sexual exploration outside the dyad (for distinctions between types of non-monogamy, see Conley, Matsick, Moors, & Ziegler, 2017;Cohen, 2016) without detriment to their relationship quality (Mogilski, Memering, Welling, & Shackelford, 2017;Rubel & Bogaert, 2015). ...
... In a longitudinal study, Leonhardt and Willoughby (2017) found that pornography use predicted less importance attributed to one's marriage and more permissive attitudes toward casual sex one year later. Relatedly, individuals who used pornography more often were more likely to engage in extradyadic sex in the recent past (Wright & Randall, 2012). Frequency of pornography use also predicts intimate extradyadic behavior three months later, because of an increased attention to potential alternative partners (Gwinn, Lambert, Fincham, & Maner, 2013). ...
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More frequent internet pornography use is often associated with decreased sexual satisfaction. However, individuals who use internet pornography more often can experience better relationship outcomes, depending on how they use it in the context of their relationship. Indeed, internet pornography use with the partner seems to be positively associated with sexual satisfaction. We explored whether the type of agreement partners have about monogamy is related to this association. We conducted a cross-sectional study (N = 866; 66.3% women, Mage = 27.40, SD = 8.58) with individuals in monogamous (n = 552), non-consensual non-monogamous (NCNM; n = 210) and consensually non-monogamous (CNM; n = 104) relationships. Results showed that CNM individuals used internet pornography substantially more than the other two groups, but they were as sexually satisfied with themselves and with their primary partner as monogamous individuals. NCNM individuals were the least sexually satisfied and reported more sexual arousal difficulties than the other groups. Results further showed that CNM individuals included their primary partner in their internet pornography use more frequently than the other groups, and this inclusion was positively associated with sexual satisfaction with the primary partner. The frequency of internet pornography use with the partner was negatively associated with sexual arousal difficulties for monogamous individuals and positively associated with personal and relational sexual satisfaction in both monogamous and NCNM individuals. These results complement past findings by shedding light on the role of internet pornography use for different relationship agreements, and its association with personal and relational experiences.
... than sexual assault has also been examined in the literature. Greater pornography consumption has been positively correlated with certain risky sexual behaviors such as the use of substances during sexual activity (Braun-Courville & Rojas, 2009;D'Abreu & Krahe, 2013), acceptance of extramarital sexual intercourse ( Carroll et al., 2008;Wright, 2013a;Wright, 2013b;Wright & Randall, 2012;Wright, Tokunaga, & Bae, 2013), sexting (Crimmins & Seigfried-Spellar, 2014;Ouystel, Ponnet, & Walrave, 2014), unprotected or condom-less sex (Braithwaite, Givens, Bown, & Fincham, 2015) and soliciting prostitution (Wright & Randall, 2012;Wright, Tokunaga, & Bae, 2013). ...
... than sexual assault has also been examined in the literature. Greater pornography consumption has been positively correlated with certain risky sexual behaviors such as the use of substances during sexual activity (Braun-Courville & Rojas, 2009;D'Abreu & Krahe, 2013), acceptance of extramarital sexual intercourse ( Carroll et al., 2008;Wright, 2013a;Wright, 2013b;Wright & Randall, 2012;Wright, Tokunaga, & Bae, 2013), sexting (Crimmins & Seigfried-Spellar, 2014;Ouystel, Ponnet, & Walrave, 2014), unprotected or condom-less sex (Braithwaite, Givens, Bown, & Fincham, 2015) and soliciting prostitution (Wright & Randall, 2012;Wright, Tokunaga, & Bae, 2013). ...
Article
Research on Internet pornography has consistently found that men are more likely to view mainstream porn than women and that most men view pornography. Additionally, mainstream porn content has been found to portray highly stereotyped views of gender with men in positions of dominance over women and men engaging in aggression toward women. Despite the consistent finding that pornography is a gendered phenomenon, there is little research exploring the connection between masculinity and pornography use. Furthermore, research on the effects of pornography use on sexual aggression has been mixed, with some findings indicating that men who view porn are more likely to endorse attitudes supportive of and actually engage in aggression toward women. However, other studies report no such connection. Sexual Script Theory and the 3A Model (Acquisition, Activation, and Application) posit that men learn sexual scripts and behavior from sexual media and are more likely to internalize and enact the sexual behaviors depicted in pornography if certain individual and content variables are present, such as high levels of arousal and the degree of correspondence between porn and men’s existing beliefs. The current dissertation aimed to examine this theory through a mixed-methods investigation of men’s arousal to different types of porn content and experience of masculinity as important predictors of sexual aggression perpetration. Specifically, this dissertation hypothesized that adherence to masculine norms and gender role conflict/stress would moderate the relation between arousal to porn content and perpetration of sexual aggression, such that stronger adherence to masculine norms and more gender role conflict/stress would strengthen the relationship and predict more sexual aggression. A total 338 college-aged, heterosexual, cisgender men completed quantitative measures of the aforementioned constructs, and 149 participants with comparable demographic characteristics completed open-ended survey items about their subjective experiences with those same constructs. Arousal to Specialized porn content was found to be a significant predictor of sexual aggression perpetration, but adherence to masculine norms and gender role conflict/stress did not act as moderators as hypothesized. Qualitative results provide information about male pornography users’ arousal to pornography, experience of masculinity within pornography, and perceived impact of pornography on their lives. The current study’s limitation and implications for future research and psychological practice are discussed. Advisor: M. Meghan Davidson
... (Wright & Arroyo, 2013) Women from the U.S. nationally representative GSS (years 2000-2004) Sexual partners Women who acknowledged pornography use were more likely to report having multiple sexual partners. (Wright & Randall, 2012) Men from the nationally representative GSS (N = 1079; M age = 14.2; SD = 14.1) ...
... Studies guided by the 3 AM in the context of IPU (Braithwaite, Coulson, Keddington, & Fincham, 2015;Braithwaite, Givens, Brown, & Fincham, 2015;Donevan & Mattebo, 2017;Lim, Carrotte, & Hellard, 2016;Tomaszewska & Krahé, 2016;Wright & Randall, 2012) have found evidence supporting its conclusions, with many such findings consistent with the position that IPU is associated with pleasure-focused aspects of sexuality. Our findings are consistent with the notion that there is an influence of IP on the acquisition or development of specific sexual scripts, the activation of already existing scripts, and the application of those scripts. ...
Article
Pornography use is a common activity in the developed world. This work consolidates research about pornography use into an organizational structure that is relevant to sexual motivation more broadly. To accomplish this, a comprehensive review of research is conducted, examining personality, emotional, and attitudinal associates and predictors of pornography use, as well as behaviours, attitudes, and motivations that are associated with or predicted by pornography use. Reviewing over 130 studies, the present work demonstrates that pornography is most often consumed for pleasure-seeking purposes, that it associated with increases in casual or impersonal approaches to sexuality, and that it predicts more pleasure-oriented approaches to sexual behaviour. The implications of these findings are discussed.
... Our findings further merge with literature emphasizing that the recurrent portrayal of casual sex as a preferred way to obtain sexual gratification relates to viewers' own sexual trajectory (Wright & Randall, 2012). However, the suggested role of SEIM in the increased incidence of casual sex adventures can only be understood when we also consider other non-media influences that are likely to play an important role as well (Shafer, Bobkowski, & Brown, 2013;Valkenburg & Peter, 2013a, b). ...
... The development of such stable perceptions may also relate to our results that show a relationship between SEIM use and perceived utility from Wave 2 to Wave 3, but not from Wave 1 to Wave 2. Fourth, the implications of the study findings need to be interpreted taking into account the effect size of the reported relationships. The effect sizes of the influence of SEIM were rather low, but in line with prior research on SEIM (e.g., Peter & Valkenburg, 2010;Wright & Randall, 2012). Media research, however, has pointed out that the importance of these associations should be compared with other socialization factors, such as parenting, that show similar effect sizes (Valkenburg & Peter, 2013a, b). ...
Article
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Despite increasing interest in the implications of adolescents’ use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM), we still know little about the relationship between SEIM use and adolescents’ casual sexual activities. Based on a three-wave online panel survey study among Dutch adolescents (N = 1079; 53.1% boys; 93.5% with an exclusively heterosexual orientation; Mage = 15.11; SD = 1.39), we found that watching SEIM predicted engagement in casual sex over time. In turn, casual sexual activities partially predicted adolescents’ use of SEIM. A two-step mediation model was tested to explain the relationship between watching SEIM and casual sex. It was partially confirmed. First, watching SEIM predicted adolescents’ perceptions of SEIM as a relevant information source from Wave 2 to Wave 3, but not from Wave 1 to Wave 2. Next, such perceived utility of SEIM was positively related to stronger instrumental attitudes toward sex and thus their views about sex as a core instrument for sexual gratification. Lastly, adolescents’ instrumental attitudes toward sex predicted adolescents’ engagement in casual sex activities consistently across waves. Partial support emerged for a reciprocal relationship between watching SEIM and perceived utility. We did not find a reverse relationship between casual sex activities and instrumental attitudes toward sex. No significant gender differences emerged.
... Wright's model proposed that exposure to sexually explicit contents invariably impacts on the sexuality of individual which can lead to sexual satisfaction (Wright, 2013). Although the model may be affiliated to some social learning theories, it expands knowledge that human beings learn certain acts through consumption of media content (Wright & Randall, 2012). The model further explains that mediated models may influence human actions, satisfaction, and gratification. ...
... Through the media, however, individuals may become exposed to sexually explicit content, thereby encouraging sexually compulsive behavior, in addition to building their sexual confidence (Wright & Randall, 2012). As such, this may contribute to an increase in the sexual drive and desire of the individual. ...
Article
The advent of social media platforms has revolutionized the process of information creation, dissemination and consumption. Although highly debated, pornography consumption on social media is a reality. Building on an acquisition, activation, and application model, this study investigates student’s (n = 379) gratification in romantic relationships as an outcome of their pornography consumption on social media, through the mediating effect of sexual confidence and sexual compulsivity. PROCESS macro was used to analyze the data. Results indicate that the effect of pornography consumption on a viewer’s gratification in a romantic relationship is partially mediated by sexual confidence (β = .0461, p < .001) and sexual compulsivity (β = .420, p < .001). These findings hold important contributions to current literature. Findings also indicate that pornography consumption positively and significantly aids a viewer’s sexual gratification in romantic relationships.
... Pornography consumption has increased in recent years, in part because of the convenience and privacy of sexually explicit material (SEM) made available through the Internet (Cooper, 2004;Daneback, Månsson, & Ross, 2012;Wright, 2013). Although benefits resulting from pornography consumption have been demonstrated (Morgan, 2011;Štulhofer, Buško, & Landripet, 2010;Traeen , Nilson, & Stigum, 2006), most previous research has focused on the link between SEM exposure and a variety of negative outcomes, such as risky sexual behaviours and sexual dissatisfaction (e.g., Wright, 2012;Wright, 2013;Wright & Randall, 2012;Wright, Tokunaga, & Bae, 2014). However, the impact of pornography use on other aspects of sexuality, such as body-and performance-related concerns, genital self-image, and expectations of one's sexual partner has remained largely unexplored. ...
... In addition, consistent with previous research on gender-based differences in pornography viewership, women reported greater literary SEM consumption and enjoyment than did men (Hald, 2006), and men reported greater visual SEM consumption and enjoyment than women (Shaughnessy, Byers, & Walsh, 2011). Our findings also extend the literature in this area, which has focused largely on identifying risky sexual behaviours associated with pornography consumption and sexual satisfaction outcomes (e.g., Wright, 2012;Wright, 2013;Wright & Randall, 2012;Wright et al., 2014). Specifically, our findings shed light on cognitive aspects of sexuality (i.e., perceptions of the self and others) associated with both literary and visual pornography consumption. ...
Article
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The often narrow representations of sexual performance and physical attractiveness in pornography may be linked to sexual concerns and sexual expectations among young men and women (e.g., body- and performance-related sexual distractions, negative genital self-image, expectations of one's partner). Investigation of the relations between these constructs is needed to assess the potential impact of pornography on young adult's sexual lives. Undergraduate men (n=333) and women (n=668) completed an online survey assessing pornography viewership, body- and performance-related cognitive distractions during sexual activity, genital self-image, and pornography-based partner expectations. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that visual pornography viewership was uniquely associated with higher partner performance expectations among women. Among men, visual pornography viewership was uniquely associated with body- and performance-related cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Literary pornography use was not uniquely associated with these variables among men or women. The results of this investigation suggest that individuals who consume visual pornography may experience some forms of sexual insecurity and sexual expectations related to their pornography use. Importantly, many sexual concerns were unrelated to pornography consumption, which is consistent with research in favour of pornography consumption as a healthy sexual outlet for young adults.
... Overall, studies that have sought to characterize MPWS suggest that they are a diverse group of all ages, ethnicities, social classes, marital statuses, education levels and professions, making them difficult to differentiate from men who do not pay for sex, though some differences were found between the two groups in terms of sexual behaviors and sexual aggression (Belza et al., 2008;Schei & Stigum, 2010;Ward et al., 2005). A significant correlation was found in several studies between paying for sex and the consumption of pornography: MPWS tend to consume pornographic materials more than men who have never paid for sex (Tewksbury & Golder, 2005;Wright & Randall, 2012), and a positive correlation has been found between frequency of paying for sex and frequency of pornography consumption (Farley et al., 2011). Another growing area of research on MPWS centers on their motivations to pay for sex, which were found to be multiple, diverse and associated with a number of contextual variables: interpersonal ones (e.g., Anderson & O'Conell Davidson, 2003;Farley et al., 2009);global ones (e.g., O'Connell-Davidson, 1998); and experiences sought when paying for sex (e.g., Birch, 2015;Milrod & Weitzer, 2012). ...
Article
In an attempt to characterize men who pay women for sex (MPWS), theory and research generally divides men into two groups: men who pay for sex and those who never paid for sex. However, this dichotomy may lack sufficient detail to understand sex payment accurately, and with regard to attitudes toward paying for sex and frequency of sex payment. The present study set out to explore the associations between views toward MPWS; socio-demographic characteristics and frequency of paying for sex. A sample of 632 Israeli men, ages 18–75, were recruited via Facebook ads. Participants completed an anonymous, online questionnaire on their attitudes toward MPWS. Men who paid for sex once were more similar in their attitudes to men who did not pay for sex than to those who paid more than once. In addition, favorable views on MPWS predicted paying for sex only among men who paid for sex more than once, but not among men who paid for sex once. These findings may require new programmatic attention in public policy considerations and therapeutic strategies, taking into consideration both attitudes of men who pay for sex toward, and frequency of, this behavior.
... Other research has found that pornography use by men is, in part, motivated by the exclusive focus on sexual rewards (i.e., pleasure) without any of the costs (i.e., commitment or disease), 48 thus diminishing the level of forethought used while viewing. 49 However, to conceptualize pornography as a heuristic script implies its use in navigating ongoing or immediate situations; in other words, it informs what goes on during sexual encounters with a partner. ...
Article
Background: Pornographic media characterized by discordant images of sexual pleasure and aggression are increasingly formulating young heterosexual women's sexual scripts. Yet there has been little work done on the downstream role of pornography consumption; how does pornography use relate to heterosexual women's thoughts and feelings during sexual experiences with a partner? Methods: We surveyed 706 heterosexual women (18-29 years of age) in the United States, associating consumption of pornography with sexual preferences, experiences, and concerns. Results: Although most heterosexual women have seen pornography (83%), a little less than half (43.5%) use it for masturbation, half of whom use it one time per month or less. Among female consumers who were sexually active, higher rates of consumption for masturbation were associated with increased mental activation of the pornographic script during sex-heightened recall of pornographic images during sex with a partner, heightened reliance on pornography for achieving and maintaining arousal, and a preference for pornography consumption over sex with a partner. Furthermore, higher activation of the pornographic script during sex, rather than simply viewing pornographic material, was also associated with higher rates of insecurities about their appearance and diminished enjoyment of intimate acts such as kissing or caressing during sex with a partner. Conclusion: These findings suggest that pornography consumption may relate to female consumers' sexual experiences indirectly and indicate that pornographic thoughts during dyadic sexual encounters may not improve heterosexual women's sexual experiences with a partner.
... Consistent exposure to SEM may possibly lead to increased risky sexual behaviors (Wright and Randall 2012). Watching SEM on social media may contribute to increased risky health behaviors, such as unsafe sex and substance abuse (Carroll et al. 2008;Rodenhizer and Edwards 2017). ...
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With the ever-increasing popularity in social media use among college students, research is needed to more fully understand the specific content and messaging utilized in specific social media platforms. The purpose of this study was to examine the depiction of sexuality on a Snapchat account aimed at university students. Over a three-month period, a total of 394 screenshots (“snaps”) involving sexuality were collected and analyzed. Of these snaps, 86.6% displayed a female(s) only, 13.4% displayed a male(s) and female(s), 34.1% showed the individual’s face, 78.0% were considered to be a selfie (‘consensual’), and 22.0% were considered to be photographed by another person and deemed nonconsensual. Results also indicated that 40.1% contained individuals who were nude. The top two most frequently displayed body parts were breasts (36.4%) and buttocks (25.5%). Concerns exist regarding the potential erroneous messaging that is not congruent with social norms surrounding sexuality among the majority of university students. Such information could potentially assist health educators and campus health professionals in ensuring that accurate messages regarding social norms are being received by university students.
... Furthermore, exposure to pornography accounts for more of the variability in an adolescent's decision to have sex than parents, religion, or school (Kingston, Malamuth, Fedoroff, & Marshall, 2009). Among male adults, Internet pornography use is positively associated with having multiple sex partners, engaging in paid sex, and engaging in extramarital sex (Wright & Randall, 2012;Wright, Tokunaga, Kraus, & Klann, 2017). However, less is known about the association between Internet pornography and sexual behavior among adult women. ...
Article
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Pornography use has become more commonplace since the advent of high-speed Internet, yet there is little investigation that is exclusively targeted to women’s use of pornography. Given the paradox of viewing mainstream Internet pornography, which often portrays the objectification of and violence toward women, we compared heterosexual collegiate women (n = 168) who use Internet pornography with women who do not on several different attitudes and behaviors that are central to women’s sexual development and wellbeing. Women who use Internet pornography had a higher endorsement of rape myths, a higher number of sexual partners, and engaged in more body monitoring. However, there were no differences in attitudes toward women between pornography users and nonusers. Results are interpreted through sexual scripting and objectification theories.
... Focusing on marital faithfulness in particular, Wright et al. (2014) found with representative longitudinal data that earlier pornography viewing was associated with more positive attitudes toward extramarital sex over time. Similarly, other studies using cross-sectional data (Doran and Price 2014;Stack et al. 2004;Wright and Randall 2012) have found that viewing X-rated movies or Internet pornography is positively associated with actually having an extramarital affair (though they could not establish temporal precedence). ...
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A number of recent studies have examined the connection between pornography use and relationship outcomes for Americans already in marriages. The current study takes this research in a different direction by examining (1) whether pornography use may be associated with entrance into marriage during early adulthood and (2) whether this association is moderated by both gender and religion, two key factors strongly related to both pornography use and earlier marriage. Longitudinal data were taken from waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Study of Youth and Religion, a nationally-representative panel study of Americans from their teenage years into early adulthood (N = 1,691). It was theorized that frequent pornography use at earlier survey waves may foster more sexually progressive attitudes that may lead to devaluing marriage as an institution, and, for religious men in particular, may disincentivize marriage as a "socially legitimate" means of sexual fulfillment. The association between pornography use and marriage entry was non-linear for men and non-existent among women. Among men, higher frequency pornography viewers were not significantly different from non-viewers in their likelihood of marriage entry. Compared to more moderate levels of pornography use, however, higher levels of pornography use in emerging adulthood were associated with a lower likelihood of marriage by the final survey wave for men. Associations were not moderated by religiosity for either gender. Data limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
... Research evidence has revealed that many young people engage in watching pornography or sexual explicit material and it affects their sexual attitudes and the origin of their sexual behaviour (Brown & L'Engle, 2009). Pornography consumption has been viewed as a risk factor for HIV and STDs (Wright & Randall, 2012). The social cognitive theory (Bandura,1986) has been used to explain how consumption of explicit sexual material may affect young people's sexual risky behaviour. ...
... These studies have mostly focused on sexual risk behavior and lead to inconsistent results. There were positive correlations between the frequency of pornography use and the number of previous sexual partners (Bulot, Leurent, & Collier, 2015;Wright & Arroyo, 2013;Wright & Randall, 2012;Morgan, 2011;Braun-Courville & Rojas, 2009), experiences with oral sex (Donevan & Mattebo, capable of recognizing pornographic material as fictive and exaggerated representations of sex and sexuality (Gagnon, 1977). Moreover, it considers the consumer capable of extracting from the pornographic materials that may enhance, teach, or inspire sexual pleasure and development" (Hald et al., 2014, p. 6). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to explore liked pornographic content and real-life experience with the depicted sexual activities in a nationwide sample of 1,197 German university students. The results indicate that there is a positive, content-specific association. Generally, the link was stronger for less conventional (less widespread) practices. However, a considerable proportion of participants had no interest to experience activities they liked in pornography and this was especially the case for the unconventional activities. This indicates that pornography use may constitute a distinct form of sexuality and may create an “intimate space” for sexual fantasies.
... Predicting a straightforward and powerful relationship between increases in sexual experience on the one hand and decreases in perceptions of SEM realism on the other hand, however, would be problematic. Studies of younger and older adults, both of whom are typically more sexually experienced than adolescents, have found that SEM use is associated with sexual attitudes and behaviors consistent with depictions of sex in SEM (Carroll et al., 2008;Gwinn, Lambert, Fincham, & Maner, 2013;Morgan, 2011;Omori, Zhang, Allen, Ota, & Imamura, 2011;Rissell et al., 2017;Traeen, Nilsen, & Stigum, 2006;Wright, Bae, & Funk, 2013;Wright & Randall, 2012). Similarly, a few longitudinal studies have reported that SEM use predicted adults', but not adolescents', sexual beliefs and behaviors (Peter & Valkenburg, 2011a;2011b). ...
Article
Viewing sexually explicit materials (SEM) has become a normal sexual experience for many adolescents, and there are those who perceive that SEM has impacted them in a positive manner. There are growing concerns among parents, educators, and medical professionals over adolescents’ use of SEM, however, which include fears that SEM distorts young people's views and understanding of human sexuality. Given the gap in the assessment of associations between SEM use and perceived SEM reality across time, this study used a panel sample of 875 Croatian 16-year-olds (67.3% of female gender) to estimate parallel latent growth in SEM use and SEM realism over a 23-month period. We observed a significant increase in SEM use and a significant (non-linear) decrease in SEM realism in both genders, but no statistically significant correspondence between the two constructs. It has been assumed that adolescents will dismiss SEM as unrealistic once they become sexually experienced. This hypothesis received only limited support, suggesting the role of other, unmeasured, moderators, but also the importance of expanding the currently limited conceptualization and measurement of SEM realism.
... Previous research on the consequences of IP viewing draws inconsistent conclusions, with studies finding both negative and positive outcomes (see Weitzer, 2011;. Detrimental outcomes include being more critical of one's own or a partner's body (Albright, 2008;Tylka, 2015), participating in more unsafe sexual and non-sexual behaviours (Carroll et al., 2008;Harkness et al., 2015;Svedin et al., 2011;Wright & Arroyo, 2013;Wright & Randall, 2012), and lower relationship or sexual satisfaction (Maddox et al., 2011;Manning, 2006;Stewart & Szymanski, 2012). However, some studies suggest IP viewing can enhance self-perceived sexual competence and education (Hald & Malamuth, 2008) and encourage more open-mindedness and comfort with one's sexuality (Innala, 2007;Watson & Smith, 2012;Weinberg et al., 2010). ...
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Introduction Characterised by both exploration and engagement in risky behaviours, late adolescence and emerging adulthood are periods of particular vulnerability to dysregulated behaviours. One such behaviour less well explored is that of problematic Internet pornography (IP) viewing, despite viewing explicit online material becoming increasingly pervasive and normative. Method In 2020, 385 (270 females, 110 males) Australian undergraduate students (aged 17–25 years) completed an online survey assessing exposure to IP, affective and cognitive responses to IP, IP-related sexual beliefs, self-assessed problematic IP viewing and key psychological vulnerability factors. Correlational and regression analyses were utilised to assess the relationships between variables. Results Most male (57.3%) and female (33.7%) respondents recalled their first exposure to IP as occurring between 12 and 14 years; however, 28.2% of males and 23.7% females recalled their exposure as occurring between 9 and 11 years, and a small proportion were exposed even earlier. Higher IP viewing frequency, positive affective responses to IP at current exposure, elevated sexual impulsivity and the endorsement of IP-related sexual beliefs were all found to be associated with self-assessed problematic IP viewing. Conclusions Findings suggest that both person and situational factors may contribute to problematic IP viewing patterns. IP viewing may also be shaping the sexual beliefs and behaviours of some viewers. Policy Implications There is little consensus on the factors that may lead IP viewing to become problematic, which limits the ability of clinicians to identify more susceptible individuals. These findings suggest that in addition to dysregulation factors such as sexual impulsivity, dissociation and depression, affective responses to IP and IP-related beliefs may also be important to consider when assessing for whom IP viewing may become problematic.
... Among college students from the USA, pornography consumption was associated with higher levels of condomless sex (Wright et al., 2016), and Taiwanese adolescents' early exposure to sexually explicit media predicted more unsafe sex as young adults (Lin et al., 2020). However, among sexually active German adults, there was only a modest association between pornography consumption and less condom use at the bivariate, overall-sample level (Wright et al., 2018a(Wright et al., , 2018b, whereas Wright and Randall (2012) found that Internet pornography consumption was unrelated to unprotected sex among adult males from the USA. Conversely, Wright (2013) found that unmarried American adult males' pornography consumption was slightly associated with more condom use than that of unmarried non-consumers. ...
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Chinese people’s pornography use is increasing and condomless sex is prevalent in pornography. However, both the relationship between pornography and condom use among Chinese adults and the mechanisms underlying this relationship are underexplored. This study examined how perceptions of pornography were associated with attitudes toward condom use through the mediating effect of gratification of sexual pleasure and safer sex communication apprehension, and how shared pornography use with a partner during sex moderated these relationships. A total of 658 participants (391 women and 267 men) aged 18–65 years and involved in a romantic relationship completed an online survey assessing pornography consumption, condom use, gratification of sexual pleasure, and safer sex communication apprehension. Results showed that expressive/erotic perceptions of pornography were associated with higher levels of gratification of sexual pleasure, which were, in turn, associated with more negative attitudes toward condom use. Expressive/erotic perceptions of pornography were also associated with lower levels of safer sex communication apprehension and lower levels of negative attitudes toward condom use. Higher levels of shared pornography use with a partner during sex strengthened the direct positive relationship between expressive/erotic perceptions of pornography and negative attitudes toward condom use. Higher levels of shared pornography use during sex also strengthened the positive relationship between expressive/erotic perceptions of pornography and gratification of sexual pleasure, and the negative relationship between expressive/erotic perceptions of pornography and safer sex communication apprehension, which in turn, were significantly associated with attitudes toward condom use. Implications for sexual health education and limitations are discussed.
... These findings coincide with Hald, Kuyper, Adam, & de Wit (2013) who demonstrated that young adults who consult online sexual material that represent forcing their part- ners to get involved in sexual relationships and performing violent sex practices is associated with sexual behaviors such as performing sex with people of their same sex, having a threesome sexual experience, having sex with someone you meet online and paying or being paid money to be involved in sexual encounters. The previous research is similar to the results of this study, which has demonstrated that consulting and/or inter- acting with online sexual material is related positively with sexual risk behavior in university students, mainly sexually transmitted diseases and sexual coercion (Wright & Randall, 2012;Wright, 2011). Likewise, Gonsalves, Hodges & Scalora (2015) mentioned that individuals who con- sult coercive content online achieve arousal with the material visualized, leading the individual to a compulsive or problematic online consultation, which can interfere with real-life sexual relationships. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the coercive and problematic use of sexual online material related to the sexual behavior of university students in two cities in Northern Mexico. The design that was applied to this study was a descriptive correlational method on 435 students with an age range of 18–29 years. They were selected by systematic sampling from two universities, one public and one private. We applied four instruments with acceptable psychometric characteristics. Spearman correlations and regression models were used. As a result, online streaming of videos related to fetishes, such as the incorporation of clothing, tools, or objects, used to cause arousal (β = .25, p < .001) and the ideation of what is explored online (β = .38, p < .001) demonstraded a significant relation on the sexual behavior of students (R² = .54; F [5, 434] = 35,519, p < .001). We suggest online interventions for children, adolescents, youth and parents to prevent sexual risks.
... Here, it has been shown that the consumption of SEIM predicts more liberal attitudes toward sex. People who use SEIM are more accepting of premarital or casual sex, they are more likely to approve of adolescents having sex, and they hold more positive views on homosexuality (Morgan 2011;Peter and Valkenburg 2008;Wright 2012aWright , b, 2013Wright and Randall 2012;Wright and Randall 2014;Wright and Bae 2015). Correlations between SEIM use and sexist attitudes, decreasing sensitivity for the harmfulness of sexual aggression, committing acts of sexual aggression, and dissatisfaction with one's own sexual relations have also been found (e.g., Brown and L'Engle 2009;Peter and Valkenburg 2009;Morgan 2011;Wright and Funk 2014;Wright et al. , 2017Ybarra et al. 2011). ...
Article
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The intensity of using sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) is contingent on users’ gender. However, gender differences in the motivations for watching SEIM have not yet been comprehensively explored. Drawing on a representative survey of German internet users, we therefore analyze how women and men use SEIM to satisfy escapist needs. Lower life satisfaction, the lack of a committed relationship, and feelings of loneliness contribute to predicting the frequency of using SEIM among men. Loneliness likewise fosters the consumption of SEIM among women, yet the effect is less pronounced. For female internet users, consumption of SEIM even increases in committed relationships and rather indicates a comparably high level of life satisfaction than dissatisfaction with life circumstances. Gender hence substantially moderates the connection between need structures and the consumption of SEIM.
... Pornography refers to two components which are sexually explicit materials and sexual intention. Sexually explicit materials include nudity and sexual behaviour [10,11], while sexual intention refers to the intention to increase sexual arousal among users [10]. Thus, pornography use can be defined as the frequency of media consumption depicting nudity and sexual acts for sexual arousal and excitement. ...
Article
Past studies have demonstrated a link between pornography use and addiction to pornography, the underlying mechanism of the association is still unclear. This study intended to examine the mediating role of perceived realism of pornography in the association between pornography use and addiction among emerging adults in Malaysia. This study recruited 222 self-identified pornography users (M age = 21.05; SD Age = 1.68; 75.1% male respondents) via the purposive sampling method. The correlation results indicated positive associations among pornography use, addiction to pornography, and perceived realism of pornography. Further, the perceived realism of pornography significantly mediated the association between pornography use and addiction to pornography after controlling for gender. Thus, this study has provided a fundamental understanding on the perceived realism role of pornography in explaining the association between its use and addiction. Although it is unlikely to stop illegal pornography use, the results pointed out a need to guide emerging adults in pornography use via media literacy programmes.
... Internet pornography use had a positive association with having extramarital affairs, engaging in sexual intercourse with multiple partners, and participating in paid sex (Wright, 2013;Wright & Randall, 2012). Individuals who self-reported as having greater exposure to pornography reported a higher number of sexual partners and lower sexual anxiety and are more likely to be sexually experienced (Morrison, Harriman, Morrison, Bearden, & Ellis, 2004). ...
... A study conducted in the United States of America in 2012 among the men showed that exposure to unethical sites has led to a high-risk sexual behavior among them [12]. ...
... SEOM use also likely shapes the sexual scripts of ASMM (Ross, 2005;Wright & Randall, 2012). Sexual scripts are cognitive schematic or personalized systems for defining sexual reality that guide and enable sexual decision making (Frith & Kitzinger, 2001;Simon & Gagnon, 1984, 1986. ...
Article
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Adolescent sexual minority males (ASMM; < 18 years old) do not typically receive sexual education that addresses male–male relationships from traditional sources (i.e., school, parents). Therefore, many rely on sexually explicit online media (SEOM; i.e., pornography) to find sexual health information. The current study describes SEOM use by ASMM in the U.S. and examined the association between exposure to condomless anal sex (CAS) in SEOM and engagement in CAS. In 2017, ASMM (N = 206; M age = 16, range: 14–17; 51% racial/ethnic minorities) from across the U.S. completed an online sexual health survey, including questions about SEOM use and sexual behaviors. Most (86%) reported that they had viewed SEOM. Engagement with SEOM was frequent (86% reported viewing ≥ one time per week) and lengthy (70% reported viewing for ≥ 15 min per session). Youth perceived that SEOM influenced how they, and other ASMM, think and behave sexually. Further, exposure to risky sexual behavior in SEOM appeared to be associated with youths’ dyadic sexual behavior. To support the healthy sexual development of ASMM, it is important to acknowledge the near-universal use of SEOM by ASMM, to identify ways to maximize its potential value, and to minimize potential harms.
... The sexual script acquisition, activation, application model ( 3 AM) of sexual media socialization (Wright, 2011;Wright & Bae, 2016) has been used to postulate that the more individuals see attractive models in pornography having pleasurable sex without condoms, the more likely they will be to perceive condomless sex as more normative and rewarding than sex with condoms . The results of studies that have correlated pornography use with condomless sex have been mixed, however, with only some studies finding the anticipated association (Braun-Courville & Rojas, 2009;Mahapatra & Saggurti, 2014;Peter & Valkenburg, 2011;Wright & Randall, 2012). ...
Article
Using survey data from heterosexual adult men in the U.S., the present study has two objectives. The first objective is to provide an additional data point on the overall, bivariate association between frequency of pornography consumption and condom use. The second objective is to test the theoretical proposition that the association between using pornography more frequently and using condoms less frequently will be stronger when pornography is seen as functionally important and weaker when pornography is not seen as functionally important. At the bivariate level, more frequent pornography consumption was associated with using condoms less consistently. At the level of contingency, pornography use predicted condom nonuse only when men perceived that pornography was a primary source of information about sex. When men did not perceive that pornography was a primary source of sexual information, their rate of condom use was unrelated to how much or how little they consumed pornography. Collectively, these results are consistent with the public health position that pornography can be a risk-factor for condomless sex and the theoretical position that the socializing impact of sexual media depends on the pedagogical value attributed to that media.
... Furthermore, individuals who consume pornography tend to have lower levels of life satis faction (Peter & Valkenburg, 2011) and greater instances of depressive symp toms (Owens et ah, 2012). Issues related to pornography use have also been identified with children and adolescents (Flood, 2009;Weber, Quiring, & Daschmann, 2012;Ybarra & Mitchell, 2005), adults (Wright & Randall, 2012), couples (Poulsen, Busby, & Galovan, 2013;Stewart & Szymanski, 2012), and family systems (Manning, 2006). ...
Article
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Clients present to counseling with clinical issues related to their pornography use. However, counselors report being undertrained and unprepared to work with clients regarding issues relat­ ing to pornography. Some researchers believe counselors' personal beliefs and attitudes about sex inhibit their ability to work with clients with issues related to sexuality. Therefore, we inves­ tigated counselors' comfort with discussing issues of sexuality, counselors' attitudes towards por­ nography, and their propensity to assess and treat client issues related to pornography use. We identified counselors' comfort with sexuality and attitudes towards pornography as mitigating factors in the assessment and treatment of client issues related to pornography use with a sample of mental health counselors and marriage and family therapists. We offer recommendations for counselors, counselor educators, and future research.
... Response options ranged from 1 (never) to 4 (more than five times), M D 1.23, SD D 0.63. Evidence for the validity of this measure is demonstrated in Wright and Randall (2012) and Wright and Arroyo (2013). ...
Article
This paper reports the results of three meta-samples investigating U.S. adults’ pornography consumption, attitudes toward teen sex, and support for teen access to birth control. Findings were based on multiple independent samples totaling more than 11,000 people. Pragmatic motivations included examining what public health advocacy groups would consider a positive public opinion effect of pornography at a potentially pivotal time for U.S. policy makers. Theoretical motivations included probing key tenets from the sexual script acquisition, activation, application model (3AM) of sexual media socialization and the reinforcing spirals model (RSM) of media uses and effects. Consistent with the 3AM, path and mediation analyses of both cross-sectional and longitudinal data suggested that pornography consumption may increase support for teens’ birth control access through a shift in perspective on teen sex. In alignment with the RSM, participants’ prior beliefs and attitudes were prospectively predictive of their likelihood of future pornography consumption.
... Over a hundred observational and experimental manuscripts have linked pornography consumption to violent behavior, including sexual violence (Foubert, 2017). Additionally, consumption of pornography has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors such as transactional sex (Wright & Randall, 2012), an increased number of sexual partners (Sinković et al., 2013), and sex while using substances (Peter & Valkenburg, 2016). The negative effects of consuming pornography are also seen in relationships. ...
Preprint
Most individuals can view pornography without their use becoming problematic, others engage in viewing patterns that are distressing and cause functional impairment. Research has indicated that the frequency of pornography viewing is not a robust predictor of who will engage in problematic viewing. Consequently, researchers have investigated other variables, such as motivation for viewing and social factors, to predict those whose pornography use will be problematic. The aims of the present study were to (1) identify profiles of pornography viewers based on motivations and problematic outcomes of use and (2) assess differences between the identified profiles on measures of loneliness, fear of intimacy, and social support. A latent profile analysis was conducted using data from a cross-sectional survey administered to college students (N = 428). Follow-up analyses assessed differences on social variables between profiles and non-pornography users via BCH method and ANOVA and t-tests. Results indicated three profiles: low motivation/average guilt, porn for enjoyment, high motivation/average guilt. Those in the high motivation/average guilt profile reported more social difficulties across variables relative to non-users and more loneliness relative to participants within the low motivation/average guilt profile. These results are discussed in the context of understanding and intervening upon problematic pornography use.
... Cuando hacemos referencia a conductas sexuales de riesgo es común que imaginemos aspectos relacionados con las relaciones sexuales sin protección. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, se destaca el uso de las redes sociales con el objetivo de recibir mensajes de tipo sexual, publicar fotografías de desnudos (propios y de otros) así como contactar extraños (Baumgartner, Valkenburg & Peter, 2010;Crimmins & Siegfried-Spellar, 2014;Lau & Yuen, 2013;Wright & Randall, 2012). Al considerar las conductas sexuales de riesgo en línea o en ambientes virtuales se abre todo un campo de investigación poco abordado en México y que coloca a la población usuaria de redes sociales virtuales en una alta situación de vulnerabilidad. ...
Article
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En la actualidad no se cuenta con un instrumento validado capaz de medir las conductas sexuales de riesgo y la motivación hacia el sexo en línea en español y para población mexicana, de tal modo que se desarrollaron dos escalas a través de un estudio de campo de tipo transversal. Las escalas se administraron a 263 participantes (edad: 16 a 26 años, media: 23.20; hombres: 146; mujeres: 117). Se realizaron análisis factoriales y de fiabilidad. A partir de las conductas sexuales de riesgo se encontraron dos dimensiones (87 % de la varianza explicada y alfa 0.962). Finalmente, la escala de motivación quedó conformada por una dimensión (68.93% de la varianza explicada y alfa 0.909). Los resultados se discuten en función de la cultura, la sexualidad de hombres y mujeres y las normas asociadas al género.
... 2020). Watching pornography (Franc et al., 2018) influences the attitudes, behavior, sexual practices of the viewer, including, but not limited to, their relationship satisfaction (Bergner & Bridges, 2002;Twohig & Crosby, 2010;Wright & Randall, 2012). As such, to better understand and understand the phenomenon of watching pornography, it is important to study the reasons why more than 90% of questioned adults engage in this activity (Hald, 2006). ...
Article
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We investigated the reasons for pornography consumption using a bottom-up approach (i.e., open-ended questionnaire) and proposed that those reasons would reflect a short-term mating orientation of individuals that watch pornography and a strategy that should help them to attract or maintain potential mates easier (i.e., a fitness increasing strategies) by enhancing their sexual knowledge through pornography watching. In Study 1 ( N = 276), relying on an open-ended questionnaire and a content analysis, we identified 78 reasons for why people claim to consume pornography. In Study 2 ( N = 322), we grouped those reasons into categories using a series of factor analyses, resulting in four dimensions of reasons for watching pornography: (1) increased sex drive, (2) enhancing sexual performance, (3) social and instrumental reasons, and (4) lack of relational and emotional skills. The content of these factors supported the idea that the reasons for consuming pornography are reflections of a short-term mating orientation and a way to enhance their sexual knowledge and performance. Individuals with higher scores on the dimensions of reasons for pornography consumptions had higher scores on the Dark Triad traits and sociosexuality, mate-value and slow life history strategies (in the case of enhancing sexual performance dimension). In Study 3 ( N = 327), we tested to what extent the factorial structure of the reasons for pornography consumption can be confirmed via Confirmatory factor analysis and tested the convergent validity of the reasons to consume pornography.
... For instance, the percentage of men who were sexually aggressive among those high in extreme pornography exposure and impersonal sex was approximately twenty-eight times larger than the percentage of men who were sexually aggressive among those low in extreme pornography exposure and impersonal sex. Fourth, these patterns persisted even after considering the contributions of items indicative of sex drive and demographic differences frequently included in other national studies of men's pornography exposure and sexual behavior(Wright & Randall, 2012;Wright, 2013). ...
Article
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This paper reports findings on men's exposure to extreme pornography, impersonal sexuality, and sexual aggression from the National Survey of Porn Use, Relationships, and Sexual Socialization, a U.S. population-based probability study. Despite Malamuth's confluence model (CM) of sexual aggression positing that an impersonal approach to sex interacts with exposure to pornography to predict the likelihood of committing sexual assault, only a few studies have actually tested this prediction. Additionally, the data from the only previous nationally representative study were gathered more than 30 years ago. Results of the present study generally supported the CM. Extreme pornography exposure and impersonal sexuality were both associated with a higher probability of sexual aggression. Although impersonal sex was a robust predictor in and of itself, men who were more exposed to pornography and impersonal in their approach to sex were more likely to be sexually aggressive than men who were impersonal in their approach to sex but less exposed to pornography. Results maintained when indicators of sex drive were included in analyses. The only finding inconsistent with the CM was that the association between pornography exposure and sexual aggression was stronger among men lower rather than higher in impersonal sex.
... People are using technology to meet others for sex, and some researchers are particularly interested in understanding what influence, if any, that pornography viewing has on young adults' sexual behaviors. Specifically, researchers are studying the associations between frequency of pornography use and engaging in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., condomless anal or vaginal sex, frequent multiple sexual partners) among adolescents, MSM, and young adults (Braithwaite, Coulson, Keddington, & Fin cham, 2015;Braun-Courville & Rojas, 2009;Willoughby et al., 2014;Wright & Randall, 2012). Some researchers have proposed that pornography teaches its viewers "sexual scripts" about how to interact with other partners. ...
Chapter
The Internet has revolutionized the way in which we consume and participate in sexual activities. Digital technologies are shaping the ways in which people interact with one an other romantically and sexually. This chapter reviews some of the ways in which digital technologies are potentially shaping sexual behaviors, especially those of adolescents and young adults. Evidence suggests that technologies are facilitating increasingly more sexu al activities among young people and adults, yet our understanding of these remains in complete. The Internet has made pornography highly accessible to most individuals around the world, but the effects of frequent pornography use on individuals' sexual be liefs and practices remain largely unknown. Sexting is also common among adolescents and adults, with some initial evidence finding that sexting was a partial mediator between problematic alcohol use and sexual hookups. More work on sexting behaviors is needed, particularly among vulnerable populations or groups at risk for exploitation. The wide use of smartphone applications designed to help users find casual sex partners are becoming more common, mirroring the increasing acceptability of having relationally uncommitted sex among young adults. More research is needed to investigate the influences of digital technologies on shaping the sexual practices of adolescents and emerging adults who may be spending increasingly more time online. Furthermore, more research is needed to examine both the potential benefits and risks associated with digital technologies that may facilitate sexual behaviors.
... 27 The link between pornography consumption and condom use is equivocal. Most studies show that exposure to sexually explicit media is correlated with less condom use, 13,28,29 some studies find no association, 16,30,31 and one study finds a positive association. 21 To date, no research has examined the link between pornography consumption and condom use in the context of friends with benefits relationships. ...
Article
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Background: Friends with benefits encounters are a relatively new pattern of relating among emerging adults where risky sexual behavior may occur. Aim: To understand whether pornography consumption is associated with riskier behaviors during friends with benefits encounters. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 2 samples of emerging adults who have engaged in friends with benefits relationships (study 1, N = 411; study 2, N = 394). For binary outcomes, we used logistic regression and report odds ratios. For ordinal outcomes, we used ordered logistic regression and reported odds ratios. We tested for moderation by biological sex. Results: Men who consumed pornography more frequently were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors during their friends with benefits encounters. More frequent pornography consumption was associated with increased likelihood and amount of intoxication for both the respondent and his partner, less frequent condom use, and a higher probability of having penetrative friends with benefits encounters while intoxicated and not using a condom. For each of these outcomes, our parameter estimates from study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from study 1. These associations persisted when controlling for the effects of binge drinking frequency, broader patterns of problematic alcohol use, trait self-control, openness to experience, and permissive attitudes toward casual sex. The findings of this study may inform interventions to reduce risky behaviors among emerging adults. Limitations: Our cross-sectional studies examined only emerging adults in college with measurement that was exclusively self-reported. Conclusions: These results are discussed in terms of sexual script theory, and several implications for intervention are outlined. Henderson E, Aaron S, Blackhurst Z, et al. Is Pornography Consumption Related to Risky Behaviors During Friends with Benefits Relationships?. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX-XXX.
... We observe that 51% of WP users access Gambling websites, while this happens in only 27% of non-WP. This result is particularly interesting in the perspective of other studies that establish a connection between WP and other kinds of addiction, e.g., to gambling or drugs, or association to violent thinking or conducts, e.g., search for weapons [40]. We also investigated other kinds of biases, like the connection to discriminating ideas, such as racism, but the data points were too few to draw any statistically significant conclusion. ...
Article
Pornography is massively available on the Internet, often free of charge. It represents a significant fraction of the overall Internet traffic, with thousands of websites and millions of users. Studying web pornography consumption is useful to understand human behavior, and it is crucial for different disciplines, helping in sociological, statistical and behavioral research. However, given the lack of public datasets, most of the works build on surveys, limited by multiple factors, e.g., unreliable answers that volunteers may (even unconsciously) give. In this work, we analyze anonymized accesses to pornography websites using HTTP-level traces collected from an operational network. Our dataset includes anonymized traffic from about 15000 broadband subscribers over three years. We use it to provide quantitative figures on pornographic website consumption, focusing on time and frequency of use, habits, and trends. We also compare web pornography users’ interests with those who do not consume web pornography, showing notable differences.
... It seems that the ease of availability of sexually explicit materials and the ever-growing opportunities for cybersex is making the topic of young people's use of pornography and their sexual behavior online, an important area for research because pornography relates to risky sexual behavior and psychopathology. For example, Wright and Randall (2012) have shown that after controlling for demographic and individual difference covariates, Internet pornography consumption was positively associated with having sex with multiple partners, engaging in paid sex, and having had extramarital sex. Mitchell and Sabine (2009) have also linked PU with various psychopathologies such as depression, anger/irritability, and dysfunctional sexual behavior. ...
Article
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The Internet provides people with the ability to act anonymously, which may lead them to feel secure and to release them from many of their inhibitions. In many cases, this leads them to participate in cybersex activities and online pornography. This study examined the psychological factors behind young people’s sexual behavior online. Participants comprised 713 Israeli adolescents (383 boys and 330 girls) aged 14 to 18 years. Our results indicated that the impact of loneliness on online sexual activity and frequency of pornography use was dependent on participants’ attachment orientations. Engagement in online sexual activities and use of pornography were high among anxiously attached individuals regardless of the extent of their loneliness. Loneliness was found to increase the use of online sexual activities and pornography, only among secure and anxiously avoidant individuals. Online sexual activity and pornography were also found to be related to offline sexual activity. The results are described and discussed.
Article
Pornography use is becoming more commonplace and may be a modality by which individuals receive sex education. This survey study assessed pornography consumption, perceptions of pornography as a source of sexual information, and condom use in a heterosexual sample of 200 sexually active German adults who were not in monogamous relationships. At the bivariate, overall-sample level, there was only a modest association between consuming pornography and a decreased frequency of condom use. However, consistent with the sexual script acquisition, activation, application model (3AM) of sexual media socialization, this association was moderated by differential perceptions of pornography as a source of sexual information. Interaction decomposition revealed that there was no association between pornography consumption and condom use among participants who disagreed that pornography is a source of sexual information. Conversely, pornography consumption was associated with a lower frequency of condom use among participants who agreed that pornography is a source of sexual information. As the perception that pornography is a source of sexual information strengthened, the relationship between pornography consumption and less frequent condom use increased. Gender did not moderate these associations. These findings point toward the importance of fostering a critical reading of pornography through media literacy education.
Article
A central question in the study of pornography consumption is whether consumption influences risky sexual behavior. In this research, we focus on one key aspect of risky sexual behavior, the accumulation of sexual partners. Using longitudinal latent class analysis of a nationally representative sample, we determine distinct trajectories of pornography consumption. We then use hurdle models to relate membership in these trajectories to the initiation of sexual activity and accumulation of sexual partners. Even with controls for likely confounds (such as risk-taking propensity and relationship formation), we find that adolescents with a trajectory of early and regular pornography use are more likely to report the initiation of sexual activity and nearly double the number of sexual partners as those with a low-use trajectory. This research is of sociological interest because pornography consumption is becoming increasingly common well before adulthood, suggesting that recent cohorts of emerging adults may be more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior through the accumulation of multiple sexual partners.
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Current research has suggested that sex, sexual practices and sexual identities are increasingly being folded into people’s leisure and recreational activities. One area that has witnessed growing popularity has been sex clubs that market themselves as places that enable heterosexual casual, anonymous sexual encounters. Traditionally called swingers’ clubs, these are not strip clubs, lap dancing clubs or brothels, we have very little information about sex clubs or the people who visit them. In response, this article defines what sex clubs are, their geographical locations, and their facilities. Alongside this, through the data scraping of 6837 profiles of people who have visited clubs and left online reviews of the clubs that they have visited, this research provides the most extensive dataset available on the gender, age, relationship status and sexual preferences of sex club patrons. The findings from the study suggest that sex clubs are an emerging space for leisure sex that prioritises erotic practices that stand outside heteronormative norms and values. Whilst clubs have been traditionally associated with swinger communities, the findings in this article also suggest that sex clubs appeal to people with diverse sexual preferences. Alongside this, it highlights the potential ways in which sex clubs may be part of a broader spatialization of leisure sex. The article concludes by suggesting that in a post-Covid context, sex clubs will have increasing importance as places of leisure sex.
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identified religiosity and experiential avoidance as correlates. Scrupulosity has been theorized as a factor within religiosity that may be associated with PPV. The present study tested a moderated-mediation model using structural equation modeling in a sample (n=727) of pornography viewers. Experiential avoidance and scrupulosity were found to be positive correlates of PPV. Indirect effects suggested experiential avoidance was a positive mediator between scrupulosity and PPV. Moderation analyses indicated these relationships only held for men. The present findings support the use of acceptancebased interventions for individuals struggling with PPV.
Article
Background This study assessed perceptions of pornography as a source of sexual information and condomless sex among a heterosexual sample of sexually active adult pornography consumers in England. Methods: Participants were drawn from an anonymous online survey of culture and sexuality. Results: There was no association between perceiving pornography as a source of sexual information and condomless sex among participants who were in monogamous relationships. Conversely, perceiving pornography as a source of sexual information was associated with condomless sex among participants who were not in monogamous relationships. Conclusion: The results of this study further the research literature on pornography and condomless sex in two ways. First, they suggest that studies that do not take relational monogamy into account may falsely conclude that pornography and condomless sex are unrelated. Second, they suggest that in addition to assessing the use of pornography, studies should measure the degree to which pornography is seen as a means of sexual pedagogy.
Article
This report presents data on pornography consumption, perceptions of pornography, and condom use among a sample of 140 women in South Korea. Three key findings emerged. First, perceiving pornography as a source of sexual information was a more reliable correlate of less consistent condom use than the frequency with which pornography was viewed. Second, consuming pornography more frequently only predicted using condoms less frequently when pornography was perceived as a source of sexual information. Third, the interaction between the rate of pornography consumption and perceiving pornography as a source of sexual information maintained even after adjusting for pertinent demographic characteristics. Taken together, these findings suggest that while perceiving pornography as a source of sexual information in and of itself is a risk-factor for engaging in unprotected sex, the combination of regular pornography consumption and perceiving pornography as a source of sexual information is more problematic in terms of sexual risk than either variable in isolation. Sampling specifics and methodological singularity, however, point to a need for replication studies from other locales and using additional designs.
Article
Pornography use is a prevalent behavior that involves individual differences in types and patterns of consumption and potential positive and negative impacts. From an individual and public health perspective, identifying possible harms associated with specific types and patterns of pornography use in specific individuals (and groups and subgroups of individuals) is of particular relevance. Given changes linked to technological advancements, pornographic material is readily accessible via the internet. As such, it is important to understand how pornography use in the current environment may be impacting individuals. This article describes the contents of a special issue focusing on pornography and places the findings within the context of the larger literature and a personal and public health framework.
Article
Background With the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reaffirming its 2007 opposition to labiaplasty in 2019, the procedure continues to be controversial. Particular emphasis on pornography as a major influencer on women seeking labiaplasty contributes to its controversy and distracts from other motivations. Few articles have established pornography’s influence relative to functional and appearance related symptoms. Objective The objective of this study was to look at the relative influence of pornography on women’s decision to seek labiaplasty relative to other factors, with comparison with a control cohort. Methods In this prospective study, 124 consecutive patients consulting about labiaplasty and a control cohort of 50 women were questioned 11 labia-related symptoms and the influence of pornography as possible. Results The mean age was 34.2 and 38.9 in the labiaplasty and control cohorts, respectively. Women within the labiaplasty cohort had on average 2.8 out of the 6 queried physical symptoms and 3.2 out of the 5 queried appearance-related symptoms. In comparison, control patients reported an average of 0.3 of the 6 queried physical symptoms and 0.2 out of the 5 queried appearance-related symptoms. (p<0.001) Less than half (47 percent of the labiaplasty and 42 percent of the control cohort) never viewed pornography. Pornography was not an influential factor to seek labiaplasty in 42 percent of the labiaplasty cohort and 54 percent of the control cohort. A minority (11 percent in the labiaplasty cohort and 4 percent in the control cohort) said that pornography influenced them to seek labiaplasty. There were no statistically significant differences between these two groups. Conclusion Pornography influences some women to seek labiaplasty, but relative to other motivating factors, its role is minor.
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Background Paying for sex is regarded as a risky sexual behavior (RSB) among heterosexual men. Men paying for sex are considered to be a bridging population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Despite the link between paid sex and sexual and reproductive health outcomes such as STIs, little is known about the prevalence and factors associated with paid sex among men in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the prevalence of paid sex and the socio-demographic factors associated with it among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods The study made use of pooled data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted from January 1, 2010 to December 3, 2016 in 27 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Binary and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between the explanatory and the outcome variables. Results The results of the study showed that of the 139,427 men who participated in the study, 4.3% reported they had paid for sex in the 12 months preceding the survey. Men in Mozambique had the highest proportion (13.6%) of paying for sex in the 12 months preceding the survey. The results of the multivariable analysis indicated that men from DR Congo [AOR = 9.74; 95% CI = 7.45–12.73], men who had completed only primary level of education [AOR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.18–1.45], men aged 25–34 years [AOR = 2.84; 95% CI = 2.26–3.56], men belonging to “other” religious groups [AOR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.09–1.32] and men who were employed [AOR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.58–1.90] had higher odds of paying for sex. Men who were divorced [AOR = 4.52; 95% = 3.89–5.25], men who read newspaper/magazine almost every day [AOR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.12–1.63], men who listened to radio almost every day [AOR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.05–1.36] and men who watched television at least once a week [AOR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01–1.19] also had higher odds of paying for sex. On the other hand, men in rural areas [AOR = 0.88; 95%CI = 0.82–0.95], men in the richest wealth quintile [AOR = 0.83; 95%CI = 0.74–0.93] and those with tertiary level of education [AOR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.65–0.90] had lower odds of paying for sex. Conclusion The odds of paid sex were high among men with only primary level of education, men aged 25–34, men who professed ‘other’ religious affiliation, men who are employed and men who are divorced. However, paid sex was low among men in the richest wealth quintile, men with tertiary level of education and men living in rural areas. This means that the decision to pay for sex is influenced by several social and demographic factors. Hence, these factors should be taken into consideration for sexual and reproductive health interventions and services. Policy and interventional measures should aim at reducing high-risk behavior of men who pay for sex.
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Introducción: El consumo de pornografía entre los adolescentes está en aumento propiciado por la proliferación de la tecnología y el acceso a Internet, y ha cambiado la manera en que los adolescentes consumen este material, que puede generar un impacto sobre la conducta sexual, fomentando prácticas adictivas o de riesgo, entre otras. Objetivo: Determinar las variables asociadas a los diferentes modos de consumo de la pornografía en población adolescente. Método: Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica narrativa en EBSCO (enero 2009-mayo 2019) con los siguientes términos: (Pornography use) OR (pornography consumption) AND (adolescents OR Young People OR adolescence OR Teen) AND (predictors). Resultados: De los 268 artículos obtenidos, se seleccionaron 32, cuyos resultados muestran que los adolescentes que usan pornografía con mayor frecuencia son hombres, en una etapa puberal más avanzada y con relaciones familiares débiles o problemáticas. El uso problemático de la pornografía en los adolescentes también se asoció con factores como el uso de internet y con rasgos de la personalidad como un bajo nivel de autocontrol, menor autonomía, tendencia a buscar sensaciones y con una mayor experiencia con el comportamiento sexual. Conclusiones: Los estudios realizados hasta la fecha indican que los jóvenes que reúnen una serie de características sociodemográficas (varón con madurez puberal avanzada y atracción homosexual/bisexual), familiares (comunicación deficiente, divorcios y menor vínculo con el cuidador principal), de personalidad (menor autoestima, menor autocontrol y mayor búsqueda de sensaciones), uso de tecnología.
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Objective: Problematic pornography use (PPU) has been extensively studied in terms of its negative implications for various life domains. The empirical literature reveals measured outcomes of interpersonal and intrapersonal dysfunction in participants' everyday living, supporting its classification as a disorder. The increasing number of complaints around PPU opens the door to the creation of online self-help rebooting communities. Method: This qualitative study aims to provide a better understanding of this behavior by investigating potential etiological pathways contributing to the onset of PPU, as they were expressed by members of the online NoFap/PornFree self-help communities with self-perceived PPU. Results: The critical narrative analysis reveals a complex web of mutually informing causal connections. The dialectical relationship between situational resources, material conditions and an embodied spectator gives rise to an online persona with motivations of self-exploration, experimentation and socializing. A sense of vulnerability, also, renders the use of pornography as a means of escape and validation. Furthermore, commitment to abstinence, framed by the notions of recovery and relapse, is found to be a major factor for maintaining distress. Conclusions: The study highlighted the need for a thorough understanding of the etiological pathways of PPU for a more effective and targeted intervention. Moving beyond biomedical conceptualizations suggests an intervention whereby PPU is placed in a context of a crisis of meaning.
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Recent research related to childhood exposure to pornography suggests that some children may be harmed by the exposure, which raises legal issues in light of the international legal framework that obligates most nations to implement a domestic legal framework of protection and care for children. When a country fails to adequately protect a child from harm in violation of the child’s rights and the child has exhausted domestic remedies, a new complaint procedure is now available through the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child. That communications procedure has not yet been utilized by any child (or advocate) arguing harmful exposure to pornography. This article briefly summarizes representative research suggesting a relationship between childhood exposure to pornography and subsequent harm, outlines international children’s rights that may be implicated by exposure that proves harmful, and highlights some of the legal protections and remedies that are currently being explored before arguing that the new complaint procedure should be considered as a new forum for redress that could bring international attention to this growing issue.
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Neil Malamuth is a professor and chair of the Communication Studies Program and Speech Department ar the University of California at Los Angeles.
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Background: The estimated number of new HIV infections in the United States reflects the leading edge of the epidemic. Previously, CDC estimated HIV incidence in the United States in 2006 as 56,300 (95% CI: 48,200-64,500). We updated the 2006 estimate and calculated incidence for 2007-2009 using improved methodology. Methodology: We estimated incidence using incidence surveillance data from 16 states and 2 cities and a modification of our previously described stratified extrapolation method based on a sample survey approach with multiple imputation, stratification, and extrapolation to account for missing data and heterogeneity of HIV testing behavior among population groups. Principal findings: Estimated HIV incidence among persons aged 13 years and older was 48,600 (95% CI: 42,400-54,700) in 2006, 56,000 (95% CI: 49,100-62,900) in 2007, 47,800 (95% CI: 41,800-53,800) in 2008 and 48,100 (95% CI: 42,200-54,000) in 2009. From 2006 to 2009 incidence did not change significantly overall or among specific race/ethnicity or risk groups. However, there was a 21% (95% CI:1.9%-39.8%; p = 0.017) increase in incidence for people aged 13-29 years, driven by a 34% (95% CI: 8.4%-60.4%) increase in young men who have sex with men (MSM). There was a 48% increase among young black/African American MSM (12.3%-83.0%; p<0.001). Among people aged 13-29, only MSM experienced significant increases in incidence, and among 13-29 year-old MSM, incidence increased significantly among young, black/African American MSM. In 2009, MSM accounted for 61% of new infections, heterosexual contact 27%, injection drug use (IDU) 9%, and MSM/IDU 3%. Conclusions/significance: Overall, HIV incidence in the United States was relatively stable 2006-2009; however, among young MSM, particularly black/African American MSM, incidence increased. HIV continues to be a major public health burden, disproportionately affecting several populations in the United States, especially MSM and racial and ethnic minorities. Expanded, improved, and targeted prevention is necessary to reduce HIV incidence.
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Using a longitudinal web-based survey of adolescents 14-16 years of age, we estimate regression models where self-reported sexual behavior and content analytic-based exposure to sex in the media are related cross-sectionally and longitudinally. We find evidence for both cross-sectional non-recursive and prospective longitudinal relationships even after adjusting for both established predictors of sexual behavior (e.g., physical development, having a romantic partner, parental monitoring, peer and parental norms, respondent's age) and of exposure to sexual media content (e.g., time the respondent goes to bed, extracurricular activities, television in the bedroom, total time spent with television, music, videogames, and magazines). Sexually active adolescents are more likely to expose themselves to sex in the media and those exposed to sex in the media are more likely to progress in their sexual activity. These findings are consistent with others in the literature that demonstrate a causal effect of exposure to sexual content on sexual behavior but extend established results by also looking at the causal effect of sexual behavior on exposure both cross-sectionally and over time.
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Correlates of use and subsequent sexual attitudes and behaviors predicted by exposure to sexually explicit content (i.e., pornography and erotica) in adult magazines, X-rated movies, and the Internet were examined in a prospective survey of a diverse sample of early adolescents (average age at baseline = 13.6 years; N = 967). Two-thirds (66%) of males and more than one-third (39%) of females had seen at least one form of sexually explicit media in the past year. At baseline, being black, being older, and having less-educated parents, lower socioeconomic status, and high need for sensation were related to greater exposure for both males and females. Longitudinal analyses showed that early exposure for males predicted less progressive gender role attitudes, more permissive sexual norms, sexual harassment perpetration, and having oral sex and sexual intercourse two years later. Early exposure for females predicted subsequently less progressive gender role attitudes, and having oral sex and sexual intercourse. Implications for healthy sexual socialization are discussed.
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There is increasing evidence that youth exposure to sexual content on television shapes sexual attitudes and behavior in a manner that may influence reproductive health outcomes. To our knowledge, no previous work has empirically examined associations between exposure to television sexual content and adolescent pregnancy. Data from a national longitudinal survey of teens (12-17 years of age, monitored to 15-20 years of age) were used to assess whether exposure to televised sexual content predicted subsequent pregnancy for girls or responsibility for pregnancy for boys. Multivariate logistic regression models controlled for other known correlates of exposure to sexual content and pregnancy. We measured experience of a teen pregnancy during a 3-year period. Exposure to sexual content on television predicted teen pregnancy, with adjustment for all covariates. Teens who were exposed to high levels of television sexual content (90th percentile) were twice as likely to experience a pregnancy in the subsequent 3 years, compared with those with lower levels of exposure (10th percentile). This is the first study to demonstrate a prospective link between exposure to sexual content on television and the experience of a pregnancy before the age of 20. Limiting adolescent exposure to the sexual content on television and balancing portrayals of sex in the media with information about possible negative consequences might reduce the risk of teen pregnancy. Parents may be able to mitigate the influence of this sexual content by viewing with their children and discussing these depictions of sex.
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Incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States has not been directly measured. New assays that differentiate recent vs long-standing HIV infections allow improved estimation of HIV incidence. To estimate HIV incidence in the United States. Remnant diagnostic serum specimens from patients 13 years or older and newly diagnosed with HIV during 2006 in 22 states were tested with the BED HIV-1 capture enzyme immunoassay to classify infections as recent or long-standing. Information on HIV cases was reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through June 2007. Incidence of HIV in the 22 states during 2006 was estimated using a statistical approach with adjustment for testing frequency and extrapolated to the United States. Results were corroborated with back-calculation of HIV incidence for 1977-2006 based on HIV diagnoses from 40 states and AIDS incidence from 50 states and the District of Columbia. Estimated HIV incidence. An estimated 39,400 persons were diagnosed with HIV in 2006 in the 22 states. Of 6864 diagnostic specimens tested using the BED assay, 2133 (31%) were classified as recent infections. Based on extrapolations from these data, the estimated number of new infections for the United States in 2006 was 56,300 (95% confidence interval [CI], 48,200-64,500); the estimated incidence rate was 22.8 per 100,000 population (95% CI, 19.5-26.1). Forty-five percent of infections were among black individuals and 53% among men who have sex with men. The back-calculation (n = 1.230 million HIV/AIDS cases reported by the end of 2006) yielded an estimate of 55,400 (95% CI, 50,000-60,800) new infections per year for 2003-2006 and indicated that HIV incidence increased in the mid-1990s, then slightly declined after 1999 and has been stable thereafter. This study provides the first direct estimates of HIV incidence in the United States using laboratory technologies previously implemented only in clinic-based settings. New HIV infections in the United States remain concentrated among men who have sex with men and among black individuals.
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These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30 May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR-12]). These updated guidelines discuss I) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis Gin persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs.
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Early sexual initiation is an important social and health issue. A recent survey suggested that most sexually experienced teens wish they had waited longer to have intercourse; other data indicate that unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases are more common among those who begin sexual activity earlier. The American Academy of Pediatrics has suggested that portrayals of sex on entertainment television (TV) may contribute to precocious adolescent sex. Approximately two-thirds of TV programs contain sexual content. However, empirical data examining the relationships between exposure to sex on TV and adolescent sexual behaviors are rare and inadequate for addressing the issue of causal effects. We conducted a national longitudinal survey of 1792 adolescents, 12 to 17 years of age. In baseline and 1-year follow-up interviews, participants reported their TV viewing habits and sexual experience and responded to measures of more than a dozen factors known to be associated with adolescent sexual initiation. TV viewing data were combined with the results of a scientific analysis of TV sexual content to derive measures of exposure to sexual content, depictions of sexual risks or safety, and depictions of sexual behavior (versus talk about sex but no behavior). Initiation of intercourse and advancement in noncoital sexual activity level, during a 1-year period. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that adolescents who viewed more sexual content at baseline were more likely to initiate intercourse and progress to more advanced noncoital sexual activities during the subsequent year, controlling for respondent characteristics that might otherwise explain these relationships. The size of the adjusted intercourse effect was such that youths in the 90th percentile of TV sex viewing had a predicted probability of intercourse initiation that was approximately double that of youths in the 10th percentile, for all ages studied. Exposure to TV that included only talk about sex was associated with the same risks as exposure to TV that depicted sexual behavior. African American youths who watched more depictions of sexual risks or safety were less likely to initiate intercourse in the subsequent year. Watching sex on TV predicts and may hasten adolescent sexual initiation. Reducing the amount of sexual content in entertainment programming, reducing adolescent exposure to this content, or increasing references to and depictions of possible negative consequences of sexual activity could appreciably delay the initiation of coital and noncoital activities. Alternatively, parents may be able to reduce the effects of sexual content by watching TV with their teenaged children and discussing their own beliefs about sex and the behaviors portrayed. Pediatricians should encourage these family discussions.
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Studies of the impact of the mainstream mass media on young people’s sexual behavior have been slow to accumulate despite longstanding evidence of substantial sexual content in the mass media. The sexual media effects landscape has changed substantially in recent years, however, as researchers from numerous disciplines have answered the call to address this important area of sexual socialization scholarship. The purpose of this chapter is to review the subset of accumulated studies on sexual behavior effects to determine whether this body of work justifies a causal conclusion. The standards for causal inference articulated by Cook and Campbell (1979) are employed to accomplish this objective. It is concluded that the research to date passes the threshold of substantiation for each criterion and that the mass media almost certainly exert a causal influence on United States’ youth sexual behavior.
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Accurate and timely data on the number of persons in the United States living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (HIV prevalence) are needed to guide planning for disease prevention, program evaluation, and resource allocation. However, overall HIV prevalence cannot be measured directly because a proportion of persons infected with HIV have neither been diagnosed nor reported to local surveillance programs. In addition, national HIV prevalence data are incomplete because local reporting systems for confidential, name-based HIV reporting have been fully implemented only since April 2008. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies that delay the progression of HIV to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and of AIDS to death, and changes in the AIDS case definition to include an immunologic diagnosis, earlier back-calculation methods from the 1990s for estimating HIV prevalence based on the number of reported AIDS cases are no longer reliable. With 80% of states reporting name-based HIV diagnoses as of January 2006, an extended back-calculation method now can be used to estimate HIV prevalence more accurately. Based on this method, CDC now estimates that 1.1 million adults and adolescents (prevalence rate: 447.8 per 100,000 population) were living with diagnosed or undiagnosed HIV infection in the United States at the end of 2006. The majority of those living with HIV were nonwhite (65.4%), and nearly half (48.1%) were men who have sex with men (MSM). The HIV prevalence rates for blacks (1,715.1 per 100,000) and Hispanics (585.3 per 100,000) were, respectively, 7.6 and 2.6 times the rate for whites (224.3 per 100,000).
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Although there have been content analyses of sexually oriented paperback fiction for the general public and of soft-core general magazines, no comparable analysis of the 'stronger' hardcore magazines sold in adult bookstores has been reported. These materials are more explicit and represent a different kind of publication, addressed to a different audience. A content analysis of these magazines could identify the outer dimensions or 'limits of candor' of permissible sex content in magazines today. Content was distinguished primarily by either kinds of people presented, type of sexual activity shown, emphasis on specific parts of the body, ethnicity of persons shown, or some combination of these dimensions.
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The major purpose of this research is to document, through content analysis, the nature of pornographic themes found in a collection of pornographic comics usually called “eight‐pagers.” Pornographic categories developed by Kronhausen and Kronhausen (1961) were used in the analysis. Females are depicted as similar to males in carnal appetite and sexual aggression. Male chauvinism is apparent in many of the comics, and male fantasies are equally displayed and fulfilled. The comics visually portray numerous behaviors considered legally or morally deviant, but project “normative” sexuality by concentrating upon adult monogamous heterosexual behavior. Finally, a discussion of taxonomical, linguistic, and methodological problems in studying pornographic comics is offered.
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A theory is presented to account for the development of habitual aggressive behavior during early childhood. It is argued that the aggressive child is one who has acquired aggressive scripts to guide behavior early in life. Once established these scripts become resistant to change and may even persist into adulthood. Aggressive scripts are acquired and maintained through both observational and enactive learning processes. These processes interact with each other as actual aggressive behavior engenders conditions under which the observation of aggressive behavior is more likely and creates conditions that provoke rather than inhibit aggression. The cumulative result is a network of cognitive scripts for social behavior emphasizing aggressive responding. A number of intervening variables may play a role in this cycle, and among the more important would seem to be popularity and academic achievement. Once encoded, the scripts for aggressive behavior may be elicited through a general activation of memory or by specific cues to which the person is exposed. Some of the most potent cues should be those present when the script was encoded, though any aggressive cue may trigger the retrieval of an aggressive script. Thus, observed violence not only provides scripts for future behavior but also triggers the recall of existing aggressive scripts. If these scripts are rehearsed, their recall in the future will be more likely. If undampened, this cumulative learning process can build enduring schemas for aggressive behavior that persist into adulthood.
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Male and female students and nonstudents were exposed to videotapes featuring common, nonviolent pornography or innocuous content. Exposure was in hourly sessions in six consecutive weeks. In the seventh week, subjects participated in an ostensibly unrelated study on societal institutions and personal gratifications. Marriage, cohabitational relationships, and related issues were judged on an especially created Value-of-Marriage questionnaire. The findings showed a consistent impact of pornography consumption. Exposure prompted, among other things, greater acceptance of pre- and extramarital sex and greater tolerance of nonexclusive sexual access to intimate partners. It enhanced the belief that male and female promiscuity are natural and that the repression of sexual inclinations poses a health risk. Exposure lowered the evaluation of marriage, making this institution appear less significant and less viable in the future. Exposure also reduced the desire to have children and promoted the acceptance of male dominance and female servitude. With few exceptions, these effects were uniform for male and female respondents as well as for students and nonstudents.
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This study examines use of Internet pornography by adolescents in Taiwan and the relationships between exposure to Internet pornography and the sexual attitudes and behavior of surveyed teens. Results show that about 38% of the sample had some exposure to Internet pornography. Further, this exposure was associated with greater acceptance of sexual permissiveness and the greater likelihood of engaging in sexually permissive behavior. Most important, this exposure showed sustained relationships with sexually permissive attitudes and behavior when it was examined simultaneously with exposure to traditional pornography, general media use, and demographics.
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The major aim of this chapter is to show how the development and occurrence of human aggressive behavior are explained by the social-cognitive information processing theory, and to review the empirical evidence supporting the theory. Artificially intelligent programs like “Deep Blue” do not succeed in solving complex problems simply because they can compute very rapidly. They succeed because they also incorporate models of the way in which human experts process information to solve problems. Different theories of social behavior may use different levels of explanation within this hierarchy, but generally, most theories adopt a level analogous to programming in a high-level computer language. Information processing models of social cognition have drawn on empirical knowledge about human cognition and human social behavior to define a set of basic processes and data structures that seem to characterize human cognitions about social behavior. The chapter discusses three important facts about anger and aggressive behavior in humans before proceeding with an elaboration of the role of social cognition. It further discusses that two general cognitive/information processing models have emerged to explain how humans acquire and maintain aggressive habits.
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Analyzed 150 sexually oriented home videos with respect to their sexual, aggressive, and sexually aggressive content. While the primary focus was on sexually explicit, "triple-X" videos, a number of more mainstream "adult" videos were also analyzed for comparison. As anticipated, triple-X videos depicted sexual content significantly more explicitly than did adult videos. Contrary to expectations, however, it was the adult videos that contained significantly more aggressive and sexually aggressive content and that depicted this violence with significantly greater severity. (French abstract) (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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What are the social roles assumed by men and women in contemporary sexually explicit movies, and in what contexts are their actions portrayed? Perhaps more important, have the predominant themes of pornography shifted in response to the public scrutiny and criticism popular in the mid-1980s? In this investigation we addressed these questions using a random sample of 50 pornographic videotapes drawn from an archive of essentially all such materials targeted for heterosexual consumers available in the international marketplace from 1979 to 1988. The findings revealed that some thematic aspects of modern pornographic movies have shifted over time. Significant increases were evident in the frequency of portrayals of sex between casual acquaintances, males engaging in sex with female superordinates, female characters persuading males into sexual activities, and the performance of fellatio as the initial sexual behavior among heterosexual partners. Over time, a significant decrease in the number of depictions involving sex between colleagues in a workplace or a prostitute-client relationship was also apparent. Taken together, however, the data show that contemporary pornographic movies continue to spotlight the sexual desires and prowess of men while consistently and persistently portraying women as sexually willing and available.
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The aim of this study was to investigate, within a social comparison framework, the causal relationship between adolescents’ use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and their sexual satisfaction. In addition, we tested which adolescents were most susceptible to a potential influence of SEIM on sexual satisfaction. Between May 2006 and May 2007, we conducted a three-wave panel survey among 1,052 Dutch adolescents aged 13–20. Structural equation modeling revealed that exposure to SEIM consistently reduced adolescents’ sexual satisfaction. Lower sexual satisfaction (in Wave 2) also increased the use of SEIM (in Wave 3). Moderator analyses showed that the negative effect of SEIM on sexual satisfaction was stronger for adolescents who had no or limited sexual experience as well as for adolescents who perceived the majority of their peers to be sexually inexperienced. The effect of exposure to SEIM on sexual satisfaction did not differ among male and female adolescents.
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Previous research has largely ignored the implications of adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit online material for their sexual attitude formation. To study whether adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit material on the Internet is related to recreational attitudes toward sex, we conducted an online survey among 471 Dutch adolescents aged 13–18. In line with an orientation 1 – stimulus – orientation 2 – response (O1-S-O2-R) model, we found a pattern of multiple mediated relationships. Male adolescents (O1) used sexually explicit online material (S) more than female adolescents, which led to a greater perceived realism of such material (O2). Perceived realism (O2), in turn, mediated the relationship between exposure to sexually explicit online material (S) and recreational attitudes toward sex (R). Exposure to sexually explicit online material, then, is related to more recreational attitudes toward sex, but this relationship is influenced by adolescents’ gender and mediated by the extent to which they perceive online sexual material as realistic.
Article
A developmental theory is presented to account for the relation between increased exposure to media violence and increased aggressive behavior. It is argued that the effect of media violence on individual differences in aggression is primarily the result of a cumulative learning process during childhood. Aggressive scripts for behavior are acquired from observation of media violence and aggressive behavior itself stimulates the observation of media violence. In both childhood and adulthood, certain cues in the media may trigger the activation of aggressive scripts acquired in any manner and thus stimulate aggressive behavior. A number of intervening variables may either mitigate or exacerbate these reciprocal effects. If undampened, this cumulative learning process can build enduring schemas for aggressive behavior that persist into adulthood. Thus, early childhood television habits are correlated with adult criminality independently of other likely causal factors. It is concluded that interventions directed at mitigating the effects of media violence on delinquency and criminality should focus on the preadolescent years.
Article
Although concern is often raised about television's role as a teacher about sexuality, little is known about the specific content of sexual messages on the programs children and adolescents view most. To explore this issue, a content analysis was conducted of the twelve prime-time television programs most preferred by children and adolescents. For three episodes of each program, all interactions between the characters were examined for the presence of verbal statements about sexual issues. Relevant statements extracted were coded using a list of 17 categories reflecting scripts about sexuality common in our culture. Findings indicated that discussions about sexuality were quite common on these programs. On average, 29% of the interactions on an individual episode contained verbal references to sexual issues, with the level surpassing 50% for some episodes. There were more messages about the male sexual role than about the female sexual role, and more that emphasized a recreational orientation toward sex than a procreational orientation. The most frequently occurring types of messages were those in which sexual relations were depicted as a competition, in which men commented on women's bodies and physical appearance, and in which masculinity was equated with being sexual. The importance of physical attractiveness as a key asset was emphasized for and by both sexes. Results are discussed concerning adolescents' potential uses of this input, and concerning directions for further study.
Article
Approximately 1.1 million adults and adolescents are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States, with 48,200--64,500 persons newly infected each year. At the beginning of the HIV epidemic in the United States in the early 1980s, the majority of persons with an HIV diagnosis were white men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM continue to comprise a substantial proportion of persons newly infected with HIV, and the proportion of HIV infections among racial/ethnic minorities and women has increased. (These categories are not mutually exclusive.) Monitoring the burden of the epidemic among specific population groups provides guidance for targeting prevention and treatment efforts and allows assessment of intervention success.
Article
These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 18-30, 2009. The information in this report updates the 2006 Guidelines for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-11]). Included in these updated guidelines is new information regarding 1) the expanded diagnostic evaluation for cervicitis and trichomoniasis; 2) new treatment recommendations for bacterial vaginosis and genital warts; 3) the clinical efficacy of azithromycin for chlamydial infections in pregnancy; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and trichomoniasis in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) lymphogranuloma venereum proctocolitis among men who have sex with men; 6) the criteria for spinal fluid examination to evaluate for neurosyphilis; 7) the emergence of azithromycin-resistant Treponema pallidum; 8) the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 9) the sexual transmission of hepatitis C; 10) diagnostic evaluation after sexual assault; and 11) STD prevention approaches.
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This paper studies the adult online entertainment (Internet pornography) industry, focusing mainly on the consumption side. In particular, it focuses on the demographics and consumption patterns of those who subscribe to adult entertainment websites. On the surface, this business would seem to face a number of obstacles. Regulatory and legal barriers have already been mentioned. In addition, those charging for access to adult entertainment face competition from similar content available without a fee. In the context of adult entertainment, free access offers consumers an extra benefit: online payments tend to create records documenting the fact of a customer's purchase; consumers of free content may feel more confident that their purchases will remain confidential. More broadly, measured levels of religiosity in American are high. On the other hand, social critics often argue that the rise of Internet pornography is contributing to a coarsening of American culture. Do consumption patterns of online adult entertainment reveal two separate Americas? Or is the consumption of online adult entertainment widespread, regardless of legal barriers, potential for embarrassment, and even religious conviction?
Article
Mass media play an important role in the socialization of youth. Given its expanding nature and accessibility, the Internet may be at the forefront of this education. However, the extent of the Internet's impact on adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors is not yet known. A total of 433 adolescents completed an anonymous survey at a health center in New York City. The cross-sectional survey assessed Internet accessibility, exposure to sexually explicit Web sites (SEWs), sexual behaviors, and sexually permissive attitudes. Of the participants, 96% had Internet access, and 55.4% reported ever visiting a SEW. Logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents exposed to SEWs were more likely to have multiple lifetime sexual partners (OR=1.8, CI=1.2, 2.9), to have had more than one sexual partner in the last 3 months (OR=1.8, CI=1.1, 3.1), to have used alcohol or other substances at last sexual encounter (OR=2.8, CI=1.5, 5.2), and to have engaged in anal sex (OR=2.0, CI=1.2, 3.4). Adolescents who visit SEWs display higher sexual permissiveness scores compared with those who have never been exposed (2.3 vs. 1.9, p <or= .001), indicating a more permissive attitude. Exposure to Internet pornography has potential implications for adolescent sexual relationships, such as number of partners and substance use. SEWs can serve an educational purpose and create an opportunity for adults to engage adolescents in discussions about sexual health and consumption of Internet material. Longitudinal research is needed to evaluate how exposure to SEWs influences youth attitudes and sexual behaviors.
Article
Two studies are presented that evaluate newly developed scales of sensation seeking and sexual compulsivity. Results showed that the scales were reliable and correlated with convergent and divergent measures in expected directions in samples of both gay men (N = 296) and inner city low-income men and women (N = 158). Consistent with theories of sensation seeking, the scales corresponded to an attraction toward a range of sexual practices, including increased frequencies of unprotected intercourse and a greater number of sexual partners. As expected, sexual compulsivity was not related to variety and novelty in sexual practices, but was associated with lower levels of self-esteem and resistance to adopting sexual risk-reducing strategies. However important differences were observed between the gay men and heterosexual samples; scales correlated with substance use only among gay men, and sexual compulsivity was related to a range of sexual practices only among heterosexuals. The sensation seeking and Sexual Compulsivity Scales were therefore reliable, appeared valid, and useful in predicting sexual risk behaviors.
Article
Responding to controversies about the balance between nature and culture in determining human sexuality, the author proposes that the female sex drive is more malleable than the male in response to sociocultural and situational factors. A large assortment of evidence supports 3 predictions based on the hypothesis of female erotic plasticity: (a) Individual women will exhibit more variation across time than men in sexual behavior, (b) female sexuality will exhibit larger effects than male in response to most specific sociocultural variables, and (c) sexual attitude-behavior consistency will be lower for women than men. Several possible explanations for female erotic plasticity are reviewed, including adaptation to superior male political and physical power, the centrality of female change (from no to yes) as a prerequisite for intercourse, and the idea that women have a milder sex drive than men.
Article
To examine the association between exposure to X-rated movies and teens' contraceptive attitudes and behaviors. Black females, 14 to 18 years old (n = 522) were recruited from adolescent medicine clinics, health departments, and school health clinics. Exposure to X-rated movies was reported by 29.7% of adolescents. Exposure to X-rated movies was associated with being more likely to have negative attitudes toward using condoms (odds ratio [OR]: 1.4), to have multiple sex partners (OR: 2.0), to have sex more frequently (OR: 1.8), to not have not used contraception during the last intercourse (OR: 1.5), to have not used contraception in the past 6 months (OR: 2.2), to have a strong desire to conceive (OR: 2.3), and to test positive for chlamydia (OR: 1.7). Additional research is needed to understand the impact of X-rated movies on adolescents' sexual and contraceptive health.
Article
Pornography consumption and sexual behaviour were studied, with an aim to investigate any associations. Participants were 718 students from 47 high school classes, mean age 18 years, in a medium-sized Swedish city. More men (98%) than women (72%) had ever consumed pornography. More male high consumers than low consumers or women got sexually aroused by, fantasized about, or tried to perform acts seen in a pornographic film (P<0.001). Three-quarters of the sample had had sexual intercourse, of which 71% reported contraceptive use at first intercourse. Anal intercourse was reported by 16%, with infrequent condom use (39%). Intercourse with a friend (adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR) 2.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-4.12) was significantly associated with high consumption of pornography among men, while anal intercourse (adj. OR 1.99; 95% CI 0.95-4.16) and group sex (adj. OR 1.95; 95% CI 0.70-5.47) tended to be associated. A significant confounder was early age of sexual debut (adj. OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.18-1.88).
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