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Managing peer relationships online – Investigating the use of Facebook by juvenile delinquents and youths-at-risk

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Abstract

While extensive research has been conducted on young people’s peer interaction via online communication, the focus has been on mainstream youths, with marginalized youth communities being understudied. To help address this inadequacy, the current study conducted interviews with Singaporean male juvenile delinquents (n = 36) to understand the role of online communication in their peer interactions and the salient characteristics of such interactions. Our findings show that Facebook was the principal tool of online peer interaction. However, given the particular circumstances of juvenile delinquents, online social networking presents issues that may compromise efforts to rehabilitate them. These include extending the time and opportunities for unstructured and unsupervised peer socialization, peer endorsement of delinquent acts and the pressure of having to display group loyalty in the online space. Even after rehabilitation, youths who attempt to distance themselves from their delinquent peers are challenged by the persistence of their online social networks.
... There is no denying that phone use does pose a risk to girls. Girls in digital forums face an increase in harrassment (Hutchings and Chua 2016), and increased access to negative peer influence online has also been identified as a threat to young people's rehabilitation (Lim et al. 2013a(Lim et al. , 2013b. However, phones also provide an opportunity for personal empowerment. ...
... Studies of adolescents have demonstrated that the constant connection that phones offer is crucial to social bonding, building intimacy, emotional expression, building self-esteem, and self-care (Boase and Kobayashi 2008;Wilson 2016). Studies with JJS-involved youth have provided comparable findings, with digital access forming an important part of young people's identities, friendships (Lim et al. 2013b), and social support networks (Barn and Tan 2012). Less is known about the effects of removing digital access from young people. ...
... Phones store girls' histories and tether them to their friends, families, and broader communities. Like young people in and outside the JJS, being disconnected from their digital ecology risks weakening the important support system that phones facilitate (Barn and Tan 2012;Boase and Kobayashi 2008;Lim et al. 2013aLim et al. , 2013b. This study demonstrates that text-based communication is incredibly meaningful between supportive friends and helps build self-esteem through enhanced self-expression and positive relationships (Boase and Kobayashi 2008;Gonzales 2014;Wilson 2016;Zilka 2020). ...
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Girls in the juvenile justice system routinely have their cell phones and internet access removed as a part of court orders. Building on feminist criminology and ecological systems theory, this paper will demonstrate that phone removal causes a rupture of girls’ digital ecology. This rupture exacerbates strains conducive to crime and victimization. Findings are generated from an ethnographic study that took place in a Northeastern United States city. Forty-two girls took part in focus groups and a series of interviews, and 22 practitioners took part in semi-structured interviews. This research shows that phones act as a positive and protective force supporting girls through feelings of safety, helping them cope with challenging events at home and on the street. Understanding the phone as a part of a broader ecology contextualizes why girls would subsequently commit crimes to restore their digital ecology.
... Select stage in reviewing the literature (informed by Wolfswinkel et al.Lefler and Barak. (2012) Effects of anonymity, invisibility, and lack of eye-contact on toxic online disinhibitionPaul et al. (2012) Effect of online social networking on student academic performanceLim et al. (2013) Managing peer relationships online -investigating the use of Facebook by juvenile delinquents and youths-at-riskOldmeadow et al. (2013) Attachment style, social skills, and Facebook use amongst adultsStaksrud et al. (2013) Does the use of social networking sites increase children's risk of harm?Dredge et al. (2014a) Cyberbullying in social networking sites: an adolescent victim's perspectiveDredge et al. (2014b) Presentation on Facebook and risk of cyberbullying victimization Sagioglou and Greitemeyer (2014) Facebook's emotional consequences: why Facebook causes a decrease in mood and why people still use it Chan and Saqib (2015) Online social networking increases financial risk-taking Fox and Moreland (2015) The dark side of social networking sites: an exploration of the relational and psychological stressors associated with Facebook use and affordances Sánchez et al. (2015) ''Cyberdating Q_A'': an instrument to assess the quality of adolescent dating relationships in social networks Wendorf and Yang (2015) Benefits of a negative post: effects of computer-mediated venting on relationship maintenance Meier et al. (2016) "Facebocrastination"? Predictors of using Facebook for procrastination and its effects on students' well-being Silic and Back (2016) The dark side of social networking sites: understanding phishing risks Van Schaik et al. (2018) Security and privacy in online social networking: risk perceptions and precautionary behaviour Zheng and Lee (2016) Excessive use of mobile social networking sites: negative consequences on individuals Rawassizadeh (2012) Towards sharing life-log information with society B&IT Müller et al. (2014) Prevalence of internet addiction in the general population: results from a German populationbased survey Ioannou et al. (2018) From risk factors to detection and intervention: a practical proposal for future work on cyberbullying Han and Myers (2018) Perceptions of overuse, underuse, and change of use of a social media site: definition, measurement instrument, and their managerial impacts Turel and Serenko (2012) The benefits and dangers of enjoyment with social networking websites EJIS Turel (2016) Untangling the complex role of guilt in rational decisions to discontinue the use of a hedonic information system Algarni et al. (2017) An empirical study on the susceptibility to social engineering in social networking sites: the case of Facebook Moody et al. (2017) Which phish get caught? An exploratory study of individuals susceptibility to phishing Lu et al. (2015) Corporate blogging and job performance: effects of work-related and nonwork-related participation JMIS Matook et al. (2015) Are you feeling lonely? ...
... Arcy et al., 2014;Chaudhary et al., 2016;Z. Liu et al., 2016;Zhang & Gupta, 2018) Security threats(D'Arcy et al., 2014; Z. Liu et al.et al., 2014a;Ioannou et al., 2018;Lim et al., 2013) Cyberbullying(Dredge et al., 2014a;Ioannou et al., 2018;Lim et al. ...
... Arcy et al., 2014;Chaudhary et al., 2016;Z. Liu et al., 2016;Zhang & Gupta, 2018) Security threats(D'Arcy et al., 2014; Z. Liu et al.et al., 2014a;Ioannou et al., 2018;Lim et al., 2013) Cyberbullying(Dredge et al., 2014a;Ioannou et al., 2018;Lim et al. ...
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Research on online social networks (OSNs) has focused overwhelmingly on their benefits and potential, with their negative effects overlooked. This study builds on the limited existing work on the so-called 'dark side' of using OSNs. The authors conducted a systematic review of selected databases and identified 46 negative effects of using OSNs from the users' perspective, which is a rich spectrum of users' negative experiences. This article then proposed nomenclature and taxonomy for the dark side of using OSNs by grouping these negative effects into six themes: cost of social exchange, cyberbullying, low performance, annoying content, privacy concerns, and security threats. This study then conducted structured interviews with experts to confirm the sense-making and validity of the proposed taxonomy. This study discusses the confirmed taxonomy and outlines directions for future research.
... Popularity is important for young people as it is believed that their peers have more social influence on them than their parents (Zywica & Danowski, 2008;Utz, 2010). Thus, managing online impressions for eliciting affirmative peer appraisal is directly linked with the reputation in the digital environment (Lim et al., 2013). Young people can also benefit from social media in the form of self-esteem and happiness (Valkenburg et al., 2006) by receiving positive comments by their peers (Lim et al., 2013). ...
... Thus, managing online impressions for eliciting affirmative peer appraisal is directly linked with the reputation in the digital environment (Lim et al., 2013). Young people can also benefit from social media in the form of self-esteem and happiness (Valkenburg et al., 2006) by receiving positive comments by their peers (Lim et al., 2013). Thus, positive behaviour adjustment and youth well-being is directly linked to online reputation. ...
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The research on social media has mostly focused on its utilitarian aspects for both businesses and individuals. With growing embedment of social media in our individual affairs, it is important to study its negative impact on its users. This study provides an important perspective by studying social media user’s concern for online reputation and its relationship with stress which is moderated by social media dependency. This study was conducted on university students in India on a sample size of 350. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the relationship between ‘concern for online reputation’ and ‘social media stress’ was tested which revealed there is a positive relationship between the two variables. The results also suggest positive moderating role played by social media dependency in the relationship between ‘concern for online reputation’ and ‘social media stress’. This study has important implication for sociologist, psychiatrists and psychologists who will be keen to study this domain. Since this study was conducted on university students, it also has implications for parents and guardians who want to keep a check on their wards to prevent them from stress caused by social media usage.
... Staying out of this opportunity implies the strengthening of a continuous divide between those who have opportunities to surf online and those who live on the fringes of various exclusions, including the media and digital environments (Carvalho & Serrão, 2014;Livingstone & Helsper, 2007). Research on young people institutionalized and the use of media and how digital life can promote their well-being is scarce (Carvalho & Serrão, 2014;Lim et al., 2013). ...
... Literature focused on residential addiction programs for both youth and adults, suggests there are some benefits to restricting online access, but longterm restriction comes with negative consequences (Anderson, 2017;Collier & Gavriel, 2015;Sanders et al., 2017). Some studies suggest the ubiquity and potential resourcefulness associated with digital media use makes restricting it an ineffective long-term solution for youth in RT (Anderson, 2017;Good & Mishna, 2021;Lim et al., 2013). One recent study focused on RT service providers' perspective suggests applying positive youth development to promoting online safety among youth in RT is important regardless of levels of access or restriction during treatment (Good & Mishna, 2021). ...
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Digital media use is central for youth as a means to facilitate identity development, social connection, and vocational competence. Emerging literature suggests that the influence of digital media use is more nuanced than the contemporary risk/benefit discourse, particularly for youth who experience social and emotional vulnerability. This youth-centered, developmentally informed study attends to the gap in literature addressing the digital media use experiences among youth in residential treatment (RT). McCracken’s Long Interview Method was utilized to conduct and analyze in-depth interviews with youth ( n = 15) aged 13 to 18 in RT. The analysis involved movement from particular to general coding, applying categorical observations, and thematic comparison of transcripts. Consistent with existing literature on other youth populations, participants reported that digital media use had both beneficial and problematic implications for their well-being. Internet access decreased experiences of isolation and stigma and increased capacity to contend with marginalized identities (e.g., disability, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered, Queer, Two Spirited Plus [LGBTQ2S+], child welfare guardianship). They reported that following an initial digital disconnect and stabilization, digital media use facilitated pathways toward agency, leadership, and community engagement (e.g., LGBTQ2S+ community, recovery blogs, animal advocacy). The findings suggest that supporting youth in RT to identify their online opportunities and needs can encourage individual growth, wellness, and participation in social change.
... Given the importance of peers to young people's personal development, and the dominance of media and technology in their peer interactions (Lim, 2013a;2013b), it behoves us to delve deeper into how youths on the margins engage with and through media. within many households today, providing families with a variety of ways to re-tion (Lim & Wang, 2017). ...
Chapter
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The term ‘growing pains’ perhaps best captures the difficulties and trials young people go through when they transition from toddlers to tweens and develop from teens into emerging adults. Every lifestage presents exciting possibilities but is also beset with uncertainty. Young people must learn to develop their own identities while making sense of the world and their place within it. As they go to school and become increasingly independent, they socialise with peers and are exposed to myriad ideas and perspectives, some of which may run counter to their own. They need help negotiating these novel situations and family support is necessarily vital. Many will also turn to the internet to seek answers to the questions that may be confounding and troubling. In this regard, youths on the margins of society may find the anonymity of the online world to be a safe space in which to find like-minded peers, seek affirmation and explore solutions to seemingly awkward problems that no one else seems to understand. In this chapter, we review the wealth of academic scholarship to highlight various ways in which digital media can provide solace to youths on the margins of society, but present them with distinct issues to navigate, even as they struggle with developmental challenges.
... Staying out of this opportunity implies the strengthening of a continuous divide between those who have opportunities to surf online and those who live on the fringes of various exclusions, including the media and digital environments (Carvalho & Serrão, 2014;Livingstone & Helsper, 2007). Research on young people institutionalized and the use of media and how digital life can promote their well-being is scarce (Carvalho & Serrão, 2014;Lim et al., 2013). ...
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