Article

Rheological characterisation of aqueous extracts of triticale grains and its relation to dietary fibre characteristics

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Abstract

Rheological properties of triticale extract are important determinants of the grain utility. Extracts of eight triticale cultivars and a wheat reference grown at two different locations i.e. Svalöv and Kölbäck were analysed for their viscoelastic properties. Extracts of triticale cultivars grown at Svalöv were significantly higher in elastic modulus (average 9.0 Pa), viscous modulus (average 12.7 Pa) and complex modulus (average 15.6 Pa) at 2.1 Hz than those grown at Kölbäck (average 3.1, 5.6 and 6.4 Pa, respectively). However phase angle was not affected by location, and all triticale extracts had phase angle >45°. Large inter-cultivar variation was also observed in viscoelastic properties of triticale extracts. Some of the triticale cultivars grown at Kölbäck (Dinaro, Cando, Talentro, and DED 145/02) and Svalöv (DED 145/02) were similar to wheat in their complex modulus values. When evaluating the contribution of arabinoxylan (AX) and β-glucan to rheological properties of triticale extracts by partial least square (PLS) regression, it was evident that β-glucan had little role and most of the contribution to viscoelastic properties came from AX. AX fine structure was more important in explaining variation in complex modulus of triticale extract than content and extractability, or molecular size.

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... and 1.11-1.76%) found by Brand et al., (2003),, Rakha et al., (2013), and Mut & Kose, (2018) in the same order. ...
... Feeds with high ADF have low digestibility and energy value (Kutlu, 2008). The reults of the current study are in agreement with the observations and findings of Brand et al., 2003 (3.6% to 4.1%), Rakha et al., 2013 (2.5% to 3.1%), Alijosius et al., 2016 (2.5% to 2.9%) and Mut & Kose, 2018 (2.43% to 3.59%). ...
... Currently, in the Russian Federation, triticale grain is used mainly as a grain component of compound feed and a small part to produce alcohol. It is promising to use triticale flour as a raw material, instead of wheat bakery flour, in the production of flour confectionery products: cookies, biscuits, biscuits, waffles, muffins, crackers, etc. Triticale flour can be used in the production of noodles that do not require boiling, quick breakfasts, or for the manufacture of dietary and therapeutic and prophylactic types of bread, including whole grain and multi-grain [8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. In addition, the triticale grits can be used to produce mass-market pasta. ...
... In addition, Triticale grain can be used to manufacture mass-market pasta products. Other promising research areas are the technology of processing Triticale grain and bran for starch [15], dietary fibre [14,16], and biologically modified products [17,18]. However, there is currently no industrial production of high-quality Triticale flour in Russia. ...
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... AX is the major fiber component in white flour, accounting for 1.35%-2.7% of white flour (Gebruers et al., 2008). It was therefore expected to have the greatest impact on WA (Biliaderis, Izydorczyk, & Rattan, 1995;Rakha, Amana, & Andersson, 2013;Roels, Cleemput, Vandewalle, & Delcour, 1993). However, we found that β-glucan and AGP made greater single contributions to improving the prediction of WA in both soft and hard wheats than most traits related to AX amount and composition. ...
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Background and objectives The water absorption (WA) of white wheat flour is a major factor affecting processing quality and millers therefore process their wheat to achieve the required level. Although it is likely that WA is determined by the amounts and compositions of three major grain components, starch, protein and arabinoxylan, the contribution of the latter is not agreed and not recognised in the widely used Farrand equation. Findings We have measured a rang of parameters related to fibre amount and composition and tested the ability of these to improve the prediction of WA using a modified Farrand equation. The addition of a range of single fibre traits improved the prediction of WA from a baseline of 82.98% to a maximum of 86.78%, but inclusion of all fibre traits as PCs resulted in a further improvement to 90%. Inclusion of the PCs also accounted for variation in WA between harvest years. The greatest improvement from inclusion of a single trait was observed with β‐glucan, the inclusion of arabinogalactan peptide (AGP) also resulted in improved prediction of WA. Conclusions The study shows that fibre components contribute to variation in WA, including differences between harvest years, but that β‐glucan and AGP have similar or greater impacts than AX. Significance and novelty The study dissects the contributions of AX amount and composition to WA and demonstrates a contribution of b‐glucan for the first time.
... In addition, Triticale grain can be used to manufacture mass-market pasta products. Other promising research areas are the technology of processing Triticale grain and bran for starch [15], dietary fibre [14,16], and bio-logically modified products [17,18]. However, there is currently no industrial production of high-quality Triticale flour in Russia. ...
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The present paper features Triticale grain processing. The research involved two Russian cultivars of Tri- ticale grain, i.e. Ramzes and Saur. We investigated two schemes of processing these grain varieties into high-qua- lity baker’s grade flour. The first scheme was reduced and included only the processes of breaking and reduction, whereas the second scheme was more advanced and included breaking, sieving, sizing, and reduction processes. The paper gives a thorough description of the processing schemes, their parameters, and milling modes. A detailed ana- lysis proved the high efficiency of the advanced scheme which presupposed the use of sieve purifiers. Their expe- diency was determined by the specifics of break dunst products at breaks I, II, and III. The Triticale flour varie- ties were produced by mixing various flows of the central, intermediate, and peripheral parts of the Triticale grain endosperm. The reduced scheme produced a 40% yield for the Ramzes variety (ash content = 0.70%, according to the State Standard 34142-2017*), while the advanced technological scheme resulted in a 63% yield. As for the Saur variety, the advanced scheme produced a total yield of 78%, which was 0.6% higher than in the reduced scheme. The advanced scheme resulted in a 46% yield of the T-60 flour variety, which had the lowest ash content among all the va- rieties of Triticale flour, whereas the reduced scheme failed to produce the flour of this variety. The experiment also involved the first-ever study of the rheological properties of Triticale flour varieties with Mixolab (Chopin Technolo- gies, France). The study revealed significant differences in baking absorption, doughing time, batch, gluten, viscosi- ty, amylase, and retrogradation. The best baking properties were displayed by T-70 and T-80 Triticale flours that were obtained from the central part of the endosperm, both in reduced and advanced processing schemes. However, the advanced scheme proved to be the most effective way of processing Triticale grain into baker’s grade flour.
... The limited information that we have on the relationships between the pentosan composition and water absorption of flours indicated that arabinoxylans (AX) components have the major effect on the WA, especially the soluble small and medium sized AXs (Primo-Martin and Martinez-Anaya, 2003). The active research interest on AX in recent years focused on its effects having on the nutritional and some functional properties of wheat flours (Biliaderis et al, 1995, Duyvejonck et al, 2008, Skendi, et al, 2010, Saeed et al, 2011, Rakha et al, 2013. Based on the variation of AX content caused by genetic and environmental factors it is supposed that quality improvement could be achieved by considering this minor component during wheat breeding (Sulnier et al, 2007, Dornez et al, 2008. ...
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This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of a pure xylanase, a-pure beta-glucanase, a mix of the two pure enzymes, and a commercial enzyme preparation (Quatrazyme HP, Nutri-Tomen Les Ulis, France) on the viscosity exhibited by water-soluble nonstarch polysaccharides of several feedstuffs (Rialto wheat, Sideral wheat, Isengrain wheat, triticale, rye, barley, oats, corn, wheat bran, rice bran,wheat screenings, soybean meal, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, and peas). The viscosity depended on the feedstuffs and varieties of the same feedstuff. There was a correlation (R-2 = 0.86) between viscosity of cereals and their arabinoxylan and beta-glucan contents. The correlation was greater (R-2 = 0.99) when the type of cereal was taken into account. The addition of pure xylanase significantly decreased the viscosity of all feedstuffs except sunflower meal (P less than or equal to 0:05). However, pure beta-glucanase was unable significantly to decrease the viscosity of Isengrain wheat, corn, rice bran, wheat screenings, soybean meal, and sunflower meal. There was a greater decrease in viscosity with the combination of xylanase and beta-glucanase than with addition of xylanase or beta-glucanase alone. This,synergistic action of xylanase ana beta-glucanase was observed only in Rialto wheat, Sideral wheat, triticale, rye, barley, oats, and peas. Finally, the commercial enzyme preparation produced a greater reduction (P less than or equal to 0.05) in viscosity for all feedstuffs compared to xylanase or beta-glucanase used alone or in combination. The greater effectiveness of the commercial enzyme preparation was due to the presence of side enzymatic activities (arabinofuranosidase, xylosidase, glucosidase, galactosidase, cellulase, and polygalacturonase).
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Total and soluble beta-glucan content and effects of various treatments of barley grain on extractability and molecular characteristics of soluble beta-glucan were studied. Four types of hulless barley (normal, high amylose, waxy, and zero amylose waxy) from 29 registered and experimental genotypes were analyzed. For each, moisture, protein, amylose, 100 kernel weight, starch, beta-glucan (total and soluble), beta-glucanase activity, and slurry viscosity were determined. Significant differences in total beta-glucan were observed among the groups, with average values of 7.49%, 6.86%, 6.30%, and 4.38% for high amylose, waxy, zero amylose waxy, and normal barley, respectively. The extractability of beta-glucan. in high amylose barley was relatively low (20.6-29.7%) compared to that in normal (29.8-44.3%), zero amylose waxy (34.0-52.5%), and waxy (36.7-52.7%) barley genotypes, Viscosity of barley flour slurries was affected by the content of soluble beta-glucans, beta-glucanase activity, and molecular weight of beta-glucans. Hydrothermal treatments (autoclaving and steaming) of barley had no effect on extractability of beta-glucans, but prevented enzymic hydrolysis of beta-glucans, and thereby substantially improved their molecular weight. The addition of enzymes (protease and esterase) during extraction and/or physical treatments (sonication) increased extractability of beta-glucans from barley.
Article
Twenty-two varieties of wheat grown in France were analysed for their content of water-soluble arabinoxylans and the viscosity of their aqueous extracts. A high natural variation was observed in these two parameters [range 0.36-0.83% (w/w) dry matter and 1.24-2.28, for arabinoxylan content and relative viscosity, respectively]. The water-soluble arabinoxylans also exhibited a large variation in weight-average molecular weight as shown by size-exclusion chromatography and their intrinsic viscosities. The content of water-soluble arabinoxylans was only poorly correlated with the viscosity of the aqueous extracts. (C) 1995 Academic Press Limited
Article
Poultry diets are primarily based on plant proteins, with carbohydrates serving as the principal source of energy. There is usually no problem digesting most of the sugars as well as starch in the poultry gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, some carbohydrate fractions, such as dietary fibre (DF), are not hydrolyzed by avian gastrointestinal enzymes but are fermented by the resident anaerobic microflora. Unfortunately, problems can occur with the feeding of dietary fibre due to the physicochemical properties (i.e. viscosity) of the non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs). It has been shown that components of NSPs, including pentosans (arabinoxylans), pectins, and beta-glucans have negative effects in the poultry gastrointestinal tract. The anti-nutritive nature of NSPs in poultry diets has been well documented, but data regarding the fermentation of these and other carbohydrates by cecal microorganisms are limited. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are highest in the cecum compared with other areas of the avian gastrointestinal tract. It has been suggested that the short-chain fatty acids may inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria whilst in addition providing some energy-yielding substrates to the host animal after absorption. The objective of the current paper is to provide an overview of carbohydrate fermentation in the avian ceca as well as to focus on some potential advantages to the bird of this fermentation. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
An experiment was performed over a period of 5 weeks with 576 one-day-old cockerels (Cobb 500), which were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups (12 replicate cages with 8 birds/cage). The objective of the experiment was to estimate whether different grain types (wheat, rye or triticale) and exogenous xylanase inclusion influence the performance and the gastrointestinal ecosystems of broiler chickens as regards intestinal viscosity, pH as well as the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid (LA). The rye-based diets resulted in the poorest production results followed by wheat and triticale-based diets. Ileal viscosity decreased in the range: rye (140cps), triticale (6.1cps) and wheat (2.5cps). Xylanase supplementation reduced ileal viscosity significantly only in birds fed with rye. The cereal type influenced the fermentation process in the broiler gastrointestinal tract more than the xylanase supplementation. The total concentration of organic acids was highest in the caeca, followed by the crop, ileum and gizzard. Lactic acid concentrations were highest in the content of the crop followed by ileum, gizzard and caeca. Propionate was only detected in caecal contents, whereas butyrate was also found in small amounts in the contents of the crop of birds from all treatments. The concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total organic acid concentration in caecal contents of chickens receiving the rye-based diets were lower than in birds fed the other cereals (P
Article
The gross composition of 80 samples of winter-triticale, 5 of winter-rye and 10 of winter-wheat, grown in the south of Sweden was investigated. On average, the triticale samples contained 66.5% starch, 13.3% total fibre, 11.7% crude protein, 4.6% free sugars, 2.2% crude fat and 1.8% ash. The highest coefficient of variation was obtained for the free sugars and the lowest for starch. Compared to the reference rye and wheat samples, the triticale samples contained higher amounts of crude protien. The contents of soluble, insoluble and total fibres were highest in the rye, lowest in the wheat and generally intermediate in the triticale samples. However, the highest amounts of insoluble pentosans were observed in the triticale samples. The amounts of water soluble pentosans were lowest in wheat, highest in rye and intermediate in triticale, and were directly proportional to extract viscosity.
Article
In Camp Remy Bühler MLU-202 roller mill flour fractions, the levels of water-extractable arabinoxylan (WE-AX) (0.30−0.41%, dry basis) were comparable to those of water-extractable arabinogalactan (WE-AG) (0.29−0.38%, dry basis). Minaret had more WE-AX (0.49−0.68%, dry basis) than WE-AG (0.27−0.36%, dry basis). The ratio of WE-AG to WE-AX for the different flour fractions varied between 0.83 and 1.03 for Camp Remy and between 0.46 and 0.57 for Minaret. For both wheat varieties, the percentage of WE-AX and WE-AG was higher for the second and third reduction roll fractions than for the three break and the first reduction roll fractions. There was little structural variation in WE-AG of different flour fractions. The arabinose to galactose (A/G) ratio (w/w) varied between 0.63 and 0.69 for Camp Remy WE-AG and between 0.66 and 0.72 for Minaret WE-AG. The molecular weight range of the water-extractable arabinogalactan-peptide (WE-AGP) isolated from the different flour fractions of Camp Remy and Minaret was 5 × 104−10 × 104. The 1H NMR spectra of the WE-AGP isolated from the different flour fractions were comparable and display the following diagnostic peaks (300 MHz, D2O, 85 °C):  δ 5.26, anomeric protons of α-linked arabinofuranosyl residues; and δ 4.47−4.54, anomeric protons of β-linked galactose residues. Keywords: Arabinogalactan; arabinoxylan; wheat flour; milling
Article
Enzymatic fingerprinting of arabinoxylan (AX) and β-glucan using endo-xylanase and lichenase, respectively, helps determine the structural heterogeneity between different cereals and within genotypes of the same cereal. This study characterised the structural features of AX and β-glucan in whole grains of eight triticale cultivars grown at two locations, 20 barley cultivars/lines with wide variation in composition and morphology and five tritordeum breeding lines. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in clear clustering of these cereals. In general, barley and tritordeum had a higher relative proportion of highly branched arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) than triticale. Subsequent analysis of triticale revealed two clusters based on growing region along principal component (PC) 1, while PC2 explained the genetic variability and was based on mono-substitution and di-substitution in AX fragments. PCA of β-glucan features separated the three cereals based on β-glucan content. The molar ratio of trisaccharide to tetrasaccharide was 2.5-3.4 in triticale, 2.3-3.3 in barley and 2.8-3.4 in tritordeum. Barley showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.86) between β-glucan content and relative proportion of trisaccharide. The results show that structural features of AX and β-glucan vary between and within triticale, barley and tritordeum grains which might be important determinants of end-use quality of grains.
Article
Barbarea vulgaris, Barbarea verna and Lepidium campestre were selected as potential new oilseed crops. To evaluate the nutritional and technological quality of the seeds, the chemical composition was studied. The major constituents found were dietary fibre, crude fat and crude protein. Barbarea contained about 350 g kg−1 dietary fibre, 295 g kg −1 crude fat and 170 g kg−1 crude protein, while Lepidium contained about 400 g kg−1 dietary fibre, 200 g kg−1 crude fat and 190 g kg−1 protein. The amino acid composition was found to be suitable for human consumption when comparison with the amino acid pattern for high quality protein was made. Fatty acid composition was dominated by erucic acid in B vulgaris (28%) and B verna (50%) and by linolenic acid in L campestre (34%). Insoluble dietary fibres were dominated by Klason lignin in both Barbarea and Lepidium. Uronic acid and glucose residues were also found in large amounts. Soluble dietary fibres were dominated by uronic acid, arabinose and galactose residues. The major glucosinolates found were glucobarbarin in B vulgaris (108 μmol g−1), gluconasturtiin in B verna (106 μmol g−1) and sinalbin in L campestre (110 μmol g−1). No cyanogens were found in any of the seeds.© 1999 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
A commercially available enzymic method for the quantitative measurement of (1 → 3),(1 → 4)-β-glucan has been simplified to allow analysis of up to 10 grain samples in 70 min or of 100–200 samples by a single operator in a day. These improvements have been achieved with no loss in accuracy or precision and with an increase in reliability. The glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent has been significantly improved to ensure colour stability for periods of up to 1 h after development. Some problems experienced with the original method have been addressed and resolved, and further experiments to demonstrate the quantitative nature of the assay have been designed and performed.
Article
The effects of genotype, harvest year and their interaction on the levels of arabinoxylans (AX), endoxylanases and endoxylanase inhibitors in wheat were studied using 14 varieties grown in three successive growing periods with diverse climatological conditions. Relations with more commonly evaluated wheat characteristics such as yield, thousand kernel weight, specific weight, protein level, Hagberg falling number (HFN) and α-amylase activity level were examined. Water extractable arabinoxylan (WE-AX) levels in wheat varied much more than total arabinoxylan (TOT-AX) levels. This variability was mainly genetically determined, but harvest year also had an important effect. Total endoxylanase activity levels varied more than a factor of 20 between the different wheat samples. Endogenous endoxylanases typically accounted for only 10–15% of this activity, while wheat-associated microbial endoxylanases accounted for the remaining 85–90%. However, when preharvest sprouting occurred, the contribution of endogenous endoxylanases could sometimes amount to over 40% of this total activity. Endogenous endoxylanase activity levels were mainly determined by the interaction of genotype and harvest year, while wheat-associated microbial endoxylanase activity levels were predominantly determined by genotype alone. Endogenous and microbial endoxylanase activity levels were strongly correlated, suggesting that wheat varieties which are susceptible to preharvest sprouting are often also susceptible to microbial contamination. The TAXI and XIP-type endoxylanase inhibitor levels varied by a factor of 8 and 1.8, respectively. They were mainly determined by genotype and were rather similar in the different growing periods.
Article
Arabinoxylans (AX) are the major polymers of wheat grain cell walls. The content and the structure of AX polymers show large differences between tissues and between wheat cultivars that affect the end-use properties and nutritional quality of the grain. The development of new wheat cultivars with enhanced quality, therefore, requires methods to exploit this variation and it is essential to understand and modulate the mechanisms controlling the key events of cell-wall polymer synthesis.This paper summarises recent knowledge on the structure and physicochemical properties of AX including variation between cultivars and tissues, methods for analysis and screening, biosynthetic mechanisms and approaches to identifying key genes. This knowledge is essential to understand AX properties and defined possible targets for plant breeding.
Article
Surface properties of gluten proteins were measured in a dilation test and in compression and expansion tests. The results showed that monomeric gliadin was highly surface active, but polymer glutenin had almost no surface activity. The locations of those proteins in bread dough were investigated using confocal scanning laser microscopy and compared with polar and nonpolar lipids. Added gluten proteins participated in the formation of the film or the matrix, surrounding and separating individual gas cells in bread dough. Gliadin was found in the bulk of dough and gas ‘cell walls’. Glutenin was found only in the bulk dough. Polar lipids were present in the protein matrix and in gas ‘cell walls’, as well as at the surface of some particles, which appeared to be starch granules. However, nonpolar lipid mainly occurred on the surface of particles, which may be starch granules and small lipid droplets. It is suggested that the locations of gluten proteins in bread dough depends on their surface properties. Polar lipid participates the formation of gluten protein matrix and gas ‘cell walls’. Nonpolar lipids may have an effect on the rheological properties by associating with starch granule surfaces and may form lipid droplets.
Article
Triticale (× Triticosecale sp. Wittmack ex A. Camus 1927) is an anthropogenic cereal designed to incorporate the functionality and high yield of wheat (Triticum spp. Linnaeus 1753) and durability of rye (Secale cereale Linnaeus 1753). The potential of triticale has remained largely unrealised, and in the 135 years since A. Stephen Wilson first crossed wheat and rye, triticale has mostly been used as animal feed. Growing demand for food resources has led to an increased interest in triticale development. Efforts to breed cultivars appropriate for baking have met with difficulty, although relatively new approaches to triticale end-use propose greater applicability for human consumption. Further, environmental awareness has generated interest in the use of triticale within biofuel production. We review environmental and genetic effects on triticale yield with a view towards increased demand on a hardy and useful cereal crop. We find triticale could satisfy many of the hopes originally placed upon it, and may be useful in foodstuffs and fuel, but only when growth environment is carefully considered.
Article
Content of dietary fiber and dietary fiber components in whole-grain rye (n = 18) were analyzed. The average total content, when fructan was included, was for dietary fiber 19.9% (range of 18.7-22.2%) and for extractable dietary fiber 7.4% (range of 6.9-7.9%). Arabinoxylan was the main dietary fiber component, with an average total content of 8.6%, followed by fructan (4.1%). During baking of whole-grain rye bread, only small changes in total content of arabinoxylan, arabinogalactan, and beta-glucan occurred, while the content of resistant starch increased and the content of fructan decreased in a baking-method-dependent manner. The molecular-weight distribution of extractable arabinoxylan in the flour was analyzed with a new method and ranged from 4 x 10(4) to 9 x 10(6) g/mol, with a weight average molecular weight of about 2 x 10(6) g/mol. During crisp bread making, only a limited degradation of arabinoxylan molecular weight was detected, while a notable degradation was observed in sour-dough bread. The molecular weight of extractable beta-glucan in the whole-grain rye flour ranged from 10(4) to 5 x 10(6) g/mol, with a weight average molecular weight of 0.97 x 10(6) g/mol. During bread making, the molecular weight of the beta-glucan was substantially degraded.
Article
The role of the ceca in the anti-nutritive effect of wheat pentosans was studied in intact and cectomized broiler chickens. Addition of wheat pentosans (equivalent to 30 g pure arabinoxylans/kg diet) depressed the digestibilities of starch, protein and fatty acids in both types of birds. Cecectomized birds were less efficient (P < 0.01) in dry matter and energy utilization, but starch digestion was not influenced by cecectomy. Inclusion of isolated wheat pentosans decreased the fecal protein digestibility by 18% in intact birds and by 7% in cecectomized chickens, with the bird type x pentosan interaction being significant (P < 0.05). The ileal pentosan digestibility was not affected either by addition of isolated pentosans or by cecectomy; however, the fecal pentosan digestibility was significantly (P < 0.001) influenced. Thus, in intact birds the fecal pentosan digestibility coefficient was 0.216 in birds fed the control diet and 0.646 in those fed the diet with wheat pentosans; in cecectomized chickens the corresponding values were 0.193 and 0.399, indicating a significant influence of the hindgut microflora on pentosan digestion. The ileal and fecal digestibilities of fatty acids were also determined. There was no interaction between bird type and pentosan addition in the ileal digestibilities of fatty acids. Depressions in the fecal digestibilities of fatty acids 14:0 and 18:0 were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in intact birds. Our results indicate that anti-nutritive effects of wheat pentosans in poultry are partially due to an increased activity of hindgut microflora.
Article
Five rye lines exhibiting a wide range of extract viscosities, along with commercial cultivars of rye and wheat, were compared with respect to their physical and chemical properties. Rye wholemeals contained significantly higher concentrations of total and soluble dietary fiber (TDF and SDF, respectively), total and water-extractable arabinoxylan (TAX and WEAX, respectively), and beta-glucan than did wheat. Significant positive correlations were obtained between rye wholemeal extract viscosity and SDF content (r = 0.90, p < 0.05) and WEAX content (r = 0.89, p < 0.05). Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) of water extracts of rye wholemeals revealed the presence of a high molecular weight fraction (HMWF), which was found in higher concentration in the ryes than in wheat. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.84, p < 0.05) was observed between HMWF content (expressed as a proportion of the total carbohydrate in water extracts) and extract viscosity of rye wholemeals. Treatment of a rye wholemeal extract with xylanase, followed by GPC, indicated that the HMWF consisted primarily of WEAX. Successive treatment of a rye wholemeal extract with alpha-amylase, lichenase, protease, and xylanase confirmed that the viscosity of the extract was primarily related to its content of WEAX. WEAX was isolated from high, intermediate, and low extract viscosity ryes. Structural differences were observed among the three arabinoxylans using H NMR and high-pressure size exclusion chromatography with triple detection. The WEAX from high extract viscosity rye was a higher molecular weight macromolecule exhibiting a higher intrinsic viscosity, a larger radius of gyration, a larger hydrodynamic radius, and a lower degree of branching compared to WEAX from low and intermediate extract viscosity ryes.
A review of triticale uses and the effect of growth environment on grain quality Structural variability of arabinoxylans from wheat flour. Comparison of water-extractable and xylanase-extractable arabi-noxylans
  • C M Mcgoverin
  • F Snyders
  • N Muller
  • W Botes
  • G Fox
  • M Manley
McGoverin, C.M., Snyders, F., Muller, N., Botes, W., Fox, G., Manley, M., 2011. A review of triticale uses and the effect of growth environment on grain quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 91, 1155e1165. Ordaz-Ortiz, J.J., Saulnier, L., 2005. Structural variability of arabinoxylans from wheat flour. Comparison of water-extractable and xylanase-extractable arabi-noxylans. Journal of Cereal Science 42, 119e125.