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Lentil (Lens culinaris L.): A prebiotic-rich whole food legume

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Abstract

Prebiotic carbohydrates are important components of healthy diets, supporting healthful hindgut microflora. Lentils grown in North Dakota, USA were evaluated for their prebiotic carbohydrates. Raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFO), sugar alcohols, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and resistant starch (RS) carbohydrates were analyzed in 10 commercial lentil varieties grown in Ward and McLean Counties in 2010 and 2011. Mean concentrations of RFO, sugar alcohols, FOS and RS were 4071 mg, 1423 mg, 62 mg, and 7.5 g 100 g− 1 dry matter, respectively. Significant variations were observed in lentil prebiotic carbohydrate concentrations: RFO concentrations varied with variety, RS varied with location, and sorbitol and mannitol each varied with both variety and location. These results show that lentils contain nutritionally significant amounts of prebiotic carbohydrates and, that it may be possible to enhance those amounts through breeding and locational sourcing.

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... Legumes and legume-based beverages have proven to be a good source of food ingredients that may exhibit prebiotic properties [235][236][237]. These ingredients mainly include oligosaccharides, resistant starch, polyphenols, and isoflavones [237]. ...
... Legumes and legume-based beverages have proven to be a good source of food ingredients that may exhibit prebiotic properties [235][236][237]. These ingredients mainly include oligosaccharides, resistant starch, polyphenols, and isoflavones [237]. Legume oligosaccharides are often considered unbeneficial ingredients. ...
... Resistant starch has no calories and does not increase blood glucose levels, having physiological effects similar to those of dietary fiber [237,241]. Its prebiotic effect can be enhanced by combining it with other types of prebiotics with complementary kinetics, such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS). ...
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Fermentation is widely used in the processing of dairy, meat, and plant products. Due to the growing popularity of plant diets and the health benefits of consuming fermented products, there has been growing interest in the fermentation of plant products and the selection of microorganisms suitable for this process. The review provides a brief overview of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their use in fermentation of legumes and legume-based beverages. Its scope also extends to prebiotic ingredients present in legumes and legume-based beverages that can support the growth of LAB. Legumes are a suitable matrix for the production of plant-based beverages, which are the most popular products among dairy alternatives. Legumes and legume-based beverages have been successfully fermented with LAB. Legumes are a natural source of ingredients with prebiotic properties , including oligosaccharides, resistant starch, polyphenols, and isoflavones. These compounds provide a broad range of important physiological benefits, including anti-inflammatory and immune regulation, as well as anti-cancer properties and metabolic regulation. The properties of leg-umes make it possible to use them to create synbiotic food, which is a source of probiotics and prebiotics.
... -Plant the parasite in 10 vials containing NNN-medium and add 4ml of Deadlock solution. The numbers of the parasite were calculated using the hemocytometer on the inoculate after (2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20) days. To measure the viability of parasite cells cultivated in the three media after (2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20) days, using Trypane blue stain allowing to the Hudson then Hay method [8], and examined under the (40x) For optical microscopy. ...
... The numbers of the parasite were calculated using the hemocytometer on the inoculate after (2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20) days. To measure the viability of parasite cells cultivated in the three media after (2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20) days, using Trypane blue stain allowing to the Hudson then Hay method [8], and examined under the (40x) For optical microscopy. ...
... Instead of collecting salts and weighing them and then preparing the solution, this will save time, effort and money. For the purpose of knowing the efficacy of this medium, it has been compared with the medium used globally, which is considered a cheap and efficient medium is the NNN-media medium, numbers have been calculated Parasite after (2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20) days and the results were as shown in Table (1) an increase in the number of parasites in both mediums until reaching the highest increase on the eighth day and the increase was in The parasite numbers for the new lentil medium are more than the NNN-medium, as it reached (2425,2650) x 10 4 cell / ml, respectively. Then the parasite numbers started decreasing. ...
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Abstract: The Lentils (Lens exculenta) were used in research of a new culture medium aimed at the growth of leishmania parasite in vitro. The medium was composed of two phases. The Lens exculenta was used in preparation (with or without added misshapen blood). In the liquid phase, dextrolite solution was used as an oral perfusion solution, instead of lock solution. This study showed increased in numbers of promasitgote in new culture media and this The study showed an increase in the growth of the shape in the center of the plant, and that this increase and the number of parasites was a significant increase compared to the center of NNN-media. The average number of parasites on the eighth day of growth, which represents the peak growth in these groups (2425 and 2650) ×104 cell / ml, respectively. The growth of the parasite continued but at a lower rate and good viability until the twentieth day the number of parasites reached to (500 and 466.6) ×104 cell / ml, respectively. This study showed that the percentage of the parasite viability was good and increased from the second day to the highest on the eighth day (96 % and 95%) respectively. On the 20th day, it was only (30% and 15 %) respectively. Blood added to the new medium receives good growth but lasts only 14 days with no subculture.
... A lentil-based diet reduces total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease (Abeysekara, Chilibeck, Vatanparast, & Zello, 2012), increases satiety (McCrory, Hamaker, Lovejoy, & Eichelsdoerfer, 2010), and is considered a potential solution to help combat obesity (Siva, Johnson, et al., 2018). Many of lentil's health benefits are likely due to the type and concentration of prebiotic carbohydrates present in the seed and how these change during cooking, cooling, and reheating (Johnson, Thavarajah, Combs, & Thavarajah, 2013). ...
... Lentil contains a range of prebiotic carbohydrates including average concentrations of 4,071 mg of RFOs, 1,423 mg of SAs, 62 mg of FOSs, and 7,500 mg of RS per 100 g (Johnson et al., 2013). A recent study reported the prebiotic carbohydrate profile after removing protein and fat from lentil seeds ( (Johnson, Thavarajah, Thavarajah, Fenlason, et al., 2015). ...
... Similar patterns of SA accumulation have been shown in lilac and apricot (Loescher & Everard, 2000). Although sucrose is the primary photosynthetic product and carbon transport molecule in legumes, SAs may also function passively in this capacity, being found in both the leaf and seed (Amede, Schubert, & Stahr, 2011;Johnson et al., 2013). ...
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Lentils are not only rich in protein and micronutrients, but they also have significant amounts of prebiotic carbohydrates, which provide benefits to human health. Beneficial microorganisms ferment lentil prebiotic carbohydrates in the colon, which impart gut health benefits to the consumer. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrates provide benefits to lentil plant health through their roles in carbon transport, storage, and abiotic stress tolerance. Advantageous to both human and plant health, prebiotic carbohydrates should be a prominent target for breeding efforts to improve lentil as a crop, as well as its nutritional value to consumers. Summary Diet‐related ailments, such as obesity and micronutrient deficiencies, have global adverse impacts on society. Lentil is an important staple crop, especially in South Asia and Africa, and has been associated with the prevention of chronic illnesses, including type II diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Lentil, a cool‐season food legume, is rich in protein and micronutrients while also containing a range of prebiotic carbohydrates, such as raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), fructooligosaccharides, sugar alcohols (SAs), and resistant starch (RS), which contribute to lentil's health benefits. Prebiotic carbohydrates are fermented by beneficial microorganisms in the colon, which impart health benefits to the consumer. Prebiotic carbohydrates are also vital to lentil plant health, being associated with carbon transport/storage and abiotic stress tolerance. Important to both human and plant health, prebiotic carbohydrates in lentil are a prominent candidate for nutrigenomic breeding efforts. New lentil cultivars could help to combat global health problems, while also proving resilient to climate change. The objectives of this review are to: (a) discuss the benefits lentil prebiotic carbohydrates confer to human and plant health; (b) describe the biosynthesis pathways of two prominent prebiotic carbohydrate families in lentil, RFOs and SAs; and (c) consider the potential of prebiotic carbohydrates in terms of future nutritional breeding efforts. Lentils are not only rich in protein and micronutrients, but they also have significant amounts of prebiotic carbohydrates, which provide benefits to human health. Beneficial microorganisms ferment lentil prebiotic carbohydrates in the colon, which impart gut health benefits to the consumer. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrates provide benefits to lentil plant health through their roles in carbon transport, storage, and abiotic stress tolerance. Advantageous to both human and plant health, prebiotic carbohydrates should be a prominent target for breeding efforts to improve lentil as a crop, as well as its nutritional value to consumers.
... The α-galactooligosaccharides from legume including pea and lupin have been considered as a main source of RFOs [10]. Raffinose family oligosaccharides as high as 4071 mg/100 g dry matter was reported in lentils in literature [11]. In legume lupin seed again, RFOs between 3.49 and 9.25 g kg−1 is reported in literature [2]. ...
... The RFOs is a group of prebiotic carbohydrates considerably available in varieties of legumes and cereals [11]. As the name prebiotic imply, it has multiple health advantages related to the growth of normal micro flora and even antioxidant capacity. ...
... FODMAP contents in LF and LPIs are presented in Table 1. In accordance with other studies, LF contained a total GOS content of ~ 4 g/ 100 g DM, with the most abundant GOS being the tetrasaccharide stachyose (Dilis & Trichopoulou, 2009;Johnson, Thavarajah, Combs, & Thavarajah, 2013). In this study, the sum of raffinose and stachyose in LF resulted in 3.41 g/ 100 g DM. ...
... Thus, the amount of verbascose determined in the LF (0.75 g/ 100 g DM) is within the range reported in other studies. In contrast to Johnson et al. (2013), no sorbitol was determined in the LF. Spiking of the LF-extract (Figure 3) with the reference standard of sorbitol resulted in a separated elution of sorbitol from the unknown peak, originating from the sample extract. ...
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Lentil (Lens culinaris) is a high-protein crop with promising potential as a plant-based protein source for human nutrition. This study investigated nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of lentil flour (LF) compared to lentil protein isolates (LPIs) prepared in pilot-scale by isoelectric precipitation (LPI–IEP) and ultrafiltration (LPI–UF). Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) profiles showed significant reductions in total galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) contents by 58% and 91% in LPI–IEP and LPI–UF, respectively, compared to LF. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) levels based on dry protein mass were lowered by 81% in LPI–IEP and 87% in LPI–UF relative to LF. According to digestion stage, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of LPIs was improved by 35–53% compared to LF, with a long–term IVPD similar to bovine serum albumin (BSA). This work supports the use of purified LPIs as a novel source of high quality protein for food applications.
... Significant genotype, location, and year effects have been detected for seed concentrations of several prebiotic carbohydrates in lentil (Lens culinaris L.), including sorbitol, mannitol, and verbacose (Johnson et al., 2013). However, the effects of genetic and non-genetic sources of variance on seed prebiotic carbohydrate concentrations have not been estimated for chickpea. ...
... An aliquot (1 ml) of the supernatant was diluted with 9 ml ddH 2 O, and the diluted supernatant was filtered through a 13 mm × 0.45 μm nylon syringe filter (Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) prior to analysis. Prebiotic carbohydrate concentrations (SA, RFO, and FOS) were measured using high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAE) (Dionex, ICS-5000, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) as previously described (Feinberg et al., 2009;Johnson et al., 2013). SA (sorbitol and mannitol), RFO (raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose), and FOS (kestose) were identified and quantified using pure standards (> 99%), and concentrations were detected within a linear range of 3 to 1,000 mg g −1 with a minimum detection limit of 0.2 mg g −1 . ...
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Prebiotic carbohydrates are compounds that include simple sugars, sugar alcohols, and raffinose family oligosaccharides, which are fermented by gut bacteria and can influence the species profile of the gut microbiome to reduce obesity and weight gain. Prebiotic carbohydrates are also associated with several health benefits including reduced insulin dependence and incidence of colorectal cancer. Although pulse crops such as chickpea have been important sources of nutrition for human diets for thousands of years, relatively little is known about the profiles of prebiotic carbohydrates in pulse crops. The objectives of this study were to characterize the type and concentration of seed prebiotic carbohydrates in 18 kabuli chickpea genotypes grown in 2017 and 2018 in Idaho and Washington, and partition variance components conditioning these nutritional quality traits in chickpea. Genotype effects were significant for fructose, sucrose, raffinose, and kestose. Environment effects were also significant for several carbohydrates. However, year effects were the greatest sources of variance for all carbohydrates. Concentrations of most carbohydrates were significantly greater in 2017, when there was less precipitation during the growing season coupled with greater heat stress during grain filling than in 2018. This may reflect the role of many of these carbohydrates as osmoprotectants produced in response to heat and water stress. Overall, our results suggest that a survey of more genetically diverse plant materials, such as a chickpea ‘mini-core' collection, may reveal genotypes that produce significantly greater concentrations of selected prebiotic carbohydrates and could be used to introduce desirable nutritional traits into adapted chickpea cultivars.
... Mechanistically, the intestinalhealth promoting effects of lentils may be attributed to the products of microbial fermentation (e.g. SCFAs) from non-digestible lentil carbohydrate fractions (soluble fibre, resistant starch, oligosaccharides) (Chung, Liu, Hoover, Warkentin, & Vandenberg, 2008;de Almeida Costa, da Silva Queiroz-Monici, Pissini Machado Reis, & de Oliveria, 2006;Hernandez-Salazar et al., 2010;Johnson, Thavarajah, Combs, & Thavarajah, 2013;Stephen et al., 1995;Tosh & Yada, 2010). Lentils have also been shown to contain a diverse profile of phytochemicals categorized into phenolic acids, flavanols, flavonols, soyasaponins, phytic acid and condensed tannins (Duenas, Hernandez, & Estrella, 2002;Xu & Chang, 2012;Zou, Chang, Gu, & Qian, 2011), that exhibit enhanced anti-oxidant activity (Hernandez-Salazar et al., 2010;Xu & Chang, 2012;Zou et al., 2011). ...
... Pulses represent a novel dietary strategy to alter colonic physiological baseline function and mitigate colonic disease severity, given that lentils are rich sources of non-digestible and fermentable carbohydrates (Chung et al., 2008;de Almeida Costa et al., 2006;Hernandez-Salazar et al., 2010;Johnson et al., 2013;Stephen et al., 1995) and phenolic compounds (Duenas et al., 2002;Xu & Chang, 2012;Zou et al., 2011), which are metabolized into bioactive SCFA and secondary phenolic metabolites, respectively. Attenuation of the acute colitis phenotype has been reported previously with pulse pre-feeding prior to colitis onset with common bean varieties and chickpeas, which also demonstrated that the priming effects of dietary pulses on colonic function can persist at least for one week following their removal from the diet (Monk et al., , 2015. ...
Article
Lentils (Lens culinaris L.) are a protein-rich plant food, also enriched in fibre and phenolic compounds that may reduce intestinal-associated disease risk. Male C57Bl/6 mice were pre-fed a basal diet (BD) or isocaloric 20% red lentil-supplemented diet (LD) for 3 weeks and acute colitis was induced via dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 2% w/v in drinking water) for 5 days. LD-fed mice exhibited reduced (i) clinical symptoms, (ii) colon histological damage, and (iii) colonic pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Additionally, biomarkers of improved colon epithelial barrier integrity and mucosal repair mediators were increased in LD mice (e.g. colonic IL-22, Relmβ, and occludin expression, and serum lipopolysaccharide binding protein). Collectively, the severity of the DSS-induced acute colitis phenotype in mice was attenuated by red lentil dietary supplementation, indicating that lentils may serve as a potential adjuvant dietary therapy in patients with colitis-associated diseases to help limit colonic inflammation and restore barrier function.
... It has a large diploid (2n = 2x = 14) genome of approximately 4.0 Gb (Arumuganathan and Earle 1991). Along with its high protein content (Table 1), lentil is a good source of carbohydrates that offers high amounts of raffinose family oligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides (Johnson et al. 2013). The saccharides in lentil have been reported to have a prebiotic effect that can improve calcium absorption (Johnson et al. 2013). ...
... Along with its high protein content (Table 1), lentil is a good source of carbohydrates that offers high amounts of raffinose family oligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides (Johnson et al. 2013). The saccharides in lentil have been reported to have a prebiotic effect that can improve calcium absorption (Johnson et al. 2013). Similar to soybean, lentil contains higher phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins content than other legumes, with bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites (such as saponins) making it an excellent antioxidant source (Ruiz et al. 1996;Ganesan and Xu 2017). ...
Article
Protein is one of the essential nutrients required for almost every task of a human’s cellular life. Severe protein malnutrition, which can cause a fatal outcome, is the leading cause of death for infants and children in many African and Asian countries that have little to no access to complete proteins. Complete proteins, which contain all nine amino acids essential for human health, are usually found in animal-based foods such as meat and dairy products. The overconsumption of animal-based proteins, however, can potentially increase the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Recent years have witnessed enhanced awareness about the health benefits of substituting animal-based proteins with plant-based proteins, especially in developed countries. Nitrogen-fixing grain legumes are considered important sources of protein in many developing countries because they are generally cheaper than meat or cereals. Extensive research has been conducted on several well-known legumes, notably soybean, which is the most economically important legume worldwide. Nevertheless, many lesser-known legumes with similar nutritional properties to soybean are still underdeveloped, including winged bean, lentil, lima bean, lablab, and bambara groundnut, which are commonly grown in the tropics. Only now are these species receiving more scientific attention. This review highlights the potential of these tropical legumes as future major sources of plant-based proteins, along with the critical research areas for their improvement. We provide insights into how these underutilized legumes could help resolve the global protein crisis and address food insecurity issues. Free-link: https://rdcu.be/bTS7m
... Another potential 'prebiotic crop' abundantly grown in Asia, particularly India, is lentils. The nondigestible carbohydrate content of lentils is approximately 13% (Johnson et al. 2013). ...
... Selection of 'nutritious' cereal and other food crops through specific breeding and understanding of environmental and genetic factors affecting prebiotic carbohydrate content is of importance (Johnson et al. 2013). ...
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Aims: The concept of using specific dietary components to selectively modulate the gut microbiota to confer a health benefit, defined as prebiotics, originated in 1995. In 2018, a group of scientists met at the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics annual meeting in Singapore to discuss advances in the prebiotic field, focussing on issues affecting functionality, research methodology, and geographical differences. Methods and results: The discussion ranged from examining scientific literature supporting the efficacy of established prebiotics, to the prospects for establishing health benefits associated with novel compounds, isolated from different sources. Conclusions: While many promising candidate prebiotics from across the globe have been highlighted in preliminary research, there are a limited number with both demonstrated mechanism of action and defined health benefits as required to meet the prebiotic definition. Prebiotics are part of a food industry with increasing market sales, yet there are great disparities in regulations in different countries. Identification and commercialisation of new prebiotics with unique health benefits means that regulation must improve and remain up-to-date so as not to risk stifling research with potential health benefits for humans and other animals. Significance and impact of study: This summary of the workshop discussions indicates potential avenues for expanding the range of prebiotic substrates, delivery methods to enhance health benefits for the end consumer, and guidance to better elucidate their activities in human studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... A regulat diet including lentils helps in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases by reducing lipoprotein cholesterol (Abeysekara et al. 2012(Abeysekara et al. , 2010, and also facilitate in combating obesity (Siva et al. 2018). Lentil possesses prebiotic carbohydrates having several heath benefits (Johnson et al. 2013). Rizkalla et al. (2004), reported that lentils can be utilized for treating type II diabetes. ...
Chapter
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Cowpea (Vignaunguiculata L.Walp.) belongs to Papillinoideae tribe of the Fabaceae (Legume) family and is also commonly known as black eyed-pea, crowder pea and southern pea (Singh et al. 1997). Cowpea is an important annual legume crop grown in subtropical and tropical regions (recent reviews in Carvalho et al. 2017). Thus, the crop has worldwide importance. As a legume, cowpea has trifoliate leaves which serve as good fodder but is mostly grown for its edible seeds which are rich in protein, vitamins and minerals. Apart from the seed the green pods can also be used as a vegetable (Hadiet al. 2012). Cowpea seeds have a protein content of up to 25% and are high in micronutrients and essential amino acids like iron and lysine, respectively, which makes them a complementary pulse to the cereal based diets of many consumers in developing countries. Furthermore, cowpea grain is a heart healthyfood with a low fat content of 1.3%, fibre content of 1.8%, and carbohydrate content of 67% made up mostly of complex sugars that are digested slowly by the human gut. In this review we summarize the studies on the abiotic stress tolerances found in this important crop, including those to various environmental or drought limitations such as drought, temperature extremes, and salinity. Germplasm with traits for tolerance are described and approaches to classical and molecular breeding of cowpeas given.KeywordsCowpeaStressToleranceGenes and diversity
... Prebiotic GOS can also be produced using lactose isomer 'lactulose' [3]. Raffinose-oligosaccharides (RFO), are the other types of GOS, based on sucrose extension, however, their prebiotic properties (selective stimulation of gut microbes) need extensive investigations [46,47]. ...
Article
Interest in functional food, such as non-digestible prebiotic oligosaccharides is increasing day by day and their production is shifting toward sustainable manufacturing. Due to the presence of high carbohydrate content, lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is the most-potential, cost-effective and sustainable substrate for production of many useful products, including lignocellulose-derived prebiotic oligosaccharides (LDOs). These have the same worthwhile properties as other common oligosaccharides, such as short chain carbohydrates digestible to the gut flora but not to humans mainly due to their resistance to the low pH and high temperature and their demand is constantly increasing mainly due to increased awareness about their potential health benefits. Despite several advantages over the thermo-chemical route of synthesis, comprehensive and updated information on the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to prebiotic oligomers via controlled enzymatic saccharification is not available in the literature. Thus, the main objective of this review is to highlight recent advancements in enzymatic synthesis of LDOs, current challenges, and future prospects of sustainably producing prebiotic oligomers via enzymatic hydrolysis of LCB substrates. Enzyme reaction engineering practices, custom-made enzyme preparations, controlled enzymatic hydrolysis, and protein engineering approaches have been discussed with regard to their applications in sustainable synthesis of lignocellulose-derived oligosaccharide prebiotics. An overview of scale-up aspects and market potential of LDOs has also been provided.
... Prebiotic GOS can also be produced using lactose isomer 'lactulose' [3]. Raffinose-oligosaccharides (RFO), are the other types of GOS, based on sucrose extension, however, their prebiotic properties (selective stimulation of gut microbes) need extensive investigations [46,47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in functional food, such as non-digestible prebiotic oligosaccharides is increasing day by day and their production is shifting toward sustainable manufacturing. Due to the presence of high carbohydrate content, lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is the most-potential, cost-effective and sustainable substrate for production of many useful products, including lignocellulose-derived prebiotic oligosaccharides (LDOs). These have the same worthwhile properties as other common oligosaccharides, such as short chain carbohydrates digestible to the gut flora but not to humans mainly due to their resistance to the low pH and high temperature and their demand is constantly increasing mainly due to increased awareness about their potential health benefits. Despite several advantages over the thermo-chemical route of synthesis, comprehensive and updated information on the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to prebiotic oligomers via controlled enzymatic saccharification is not available in the literature. Thus, the main objective of this review is to highlight recent advancements in enzymatic synthesis of LDOs, current challenges, and future prospects of sustainably producing prebiotic oligomers via enzymatic hydrolysis of LCB substrates. Enzyme reaction engineering practices, custom-made enzyme preparations, controlled enzymatic hydrolysis, and protein engineering approaches have been discussed with regard to their applications in sustainable synthesis of lignocellulose-derived oligosaccharide prebiotics. An overview of scale-up aspects and market potential of LDOs has also been provided.
... Like most of the grains, lentil is also a source of prebiotic carbohydrates. Previous study reported that the prebiotic carbohydrates of lentil are raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFO), sugar alcohols (SAs), FOS, and resistant starch (RS) [54]. A study included here found that other than possessing prebiotics properties, the hydroalcoholic extract of lentils was able to reduce the cholesterol level of rats [55]. ...
Article
There are several studies that have been conducted to investigate the potential prebiotic effect from natural resources. Research on this topic is very interesting to be explored, especially for Indonesian researchers. However, Indonesian researchers may improve the research study by observing other studies worldwide. Thus, this review aims to summarize and compare studies on the prebiotic activity of polysaccharides or oligosaccharides from plants conducted in Indonesia and overseas. There are similarities between studies in Indonesia and those overseas including the in vitro studies trend, the use of hot water, and ethanol for extraction. In the meantime, the difference lies in the plants being examined for prebiotic effects. Most studies in Indonesia examined the prebiotic effect of tubers contain inulin and FOS as the main prebiotic oligosaccharide compounds detected. On the other hand, worldwide research has started exploring new sources of oligosaccharides apart from FOS and inulin. They have explored prebiotic potentials from waste materials and herbal plants. However, these studies need further research in animals and human trials. Moreover, referring to research conducted abroad, we also think that the search for prebiotic potentials from agriculture and traditional herbal medicine is also feasible in Indonesia. This review may help Indonesian researchers to improve the quality of research in prebiotic potential effect from natural resources.
... Prebiotic rich lentils ingredients consisting of raffinose family oligosaccharides, sugar alcohols, resistant starch, and fructo-oligosaccharides showed improved insulin sensitivity in men with metabolic syndrome, displaced pathogen from rumen and gastrointestinal tract, and enhanced viability of lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. 16 Similarly, prebiotic benefits of fermented cowpea and black bean was due to the production of short-chain fatty acids suggesting improved intestinal health. 17 There has been limited research on the modification of ANFs in pulse flours through physical processes like heat treatment or high-power sonication followed by fermentation. ...
... Prebiotic rich lentils ingredients consisting of raffinose family oligosaccharides, sugar alcohols, resistant starch, and fructo-oligosaccharides showed improved insulin sensitivity in men with metabolic syndrome, displaced pathogen from rumen and gastrointestinal tract, and enhanced viability of lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. 16 Similarly, prebiotic benefits of fermented cowpea and black bean was due to the production of short-chain fatty acids suggesting improved intestinal health. 17 There has been limited research on the modification of ANFs in pulse flours through physical processes like heat treatment or high-power sonication followed by fermentation. ...
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BACKGROUND A significant amount of nutrients, including dietary fibers, proteins, minerals, and vitamins are present in legumes, but the presence of anti‐nutritional factors (ANFs) like phytic acid, tannins, and enzyme inhibitors impact the consumption of legume and nutrient availability. In this research, the effect of a physical process (sonication or precooking) and fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici on ANFs of some legumes was evaluated. RESULTS Total phenolic contents were significantly (p<0.05) reduced for modified and fermented substrates compared to non‐fermented controls. Trypsin inhibitory activity (TIA) was reduced significantly for all substrates except for unsonicated soybean and lentil fermented with L. plantarum and P. acidilactici. When physical processing was done, there was a decrease in TIA for all the substrate. Phytic acid content decreased for physically modified soybean and lentil but not significantly for green pea. Even though there was a decrease in ANFs, there was no significant change in in vitro protein digestibility for all substrates except for unsonicated L. plantarum fermented soybean flour and precooked L. plantarum fermented lentil. Similarly, there was change in amino acid content when physically modified and fermented. CONCLUSION Both modified and unmodified soybean flour, green pea flour, and lentil flour supported the growth of L. plantarum and P. acidilactici. The fermentation of this physically processed legume and pulse flours influenced the non‐nutritive compounds, thereby potentially improving nutritional quality and usage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... According to recent studies, lentils may be a good source of prebiotic carbohydrates. Total prebiotic carbohydrate concentrations indicate that more than 13 g of prebiotic can be provided by 100 g culinary portions (Johnson, Thavarajah, Combs, & Thavarajah, 2013). Prebiotics in the diet are defined as selectively fermented substances that cause specific changes in the gastrointestinal microbiotinin composition and/or activity, thus benefiting the host's health (Valcheva & Dieleman, 2016). ...
Chapter
Humans meet their nutritional requirements by consuming food, and our body uses naturally sufficient amounts of all necessary nutrients to maintain its functioning. Proteins form the basis of the human diet because they are necessary for immune responses, cell signals, muscle masses, and the repair of damaged cells. Animal and plant food products are the main protein sources in the human diet. Based on scientific evidence, proteins derived from animals recently started to be replaced by plant-based options as prefered proteins for a range of reasons. Consumption of non-meat protein sources being shown to be healthy and environmentally friendly is a major consideration. Plant-based protein is helping minimize high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, certain types of cancer, including colorectal, ovarian, and breast cancers, and a diet based on non-animal proteins could increase life expectancy and decrease greenhouse gases emissions from livestock as less resources are used for plant production. The chapter describes the nutritional benefits and current uses of nine non-animal protein sources and the health benefits arising from replacing animal protein.
... The contents of these non-digestible oligosaccharides may be of concern for the human diet, since RFOs are known as compounds that can cause various degrees of flatulence and discomfort in healthy individuals, and can trigger symptoms of inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS) as a result of their fermentation by anaerobic microorganisms in the digestive tract (Shepherd, Parker, Muir, & Gibson, 2008). On the other hand, RFOs are prebiotics that can provide positive health effects for the consumer, such as increasing the bifidobacterial population in the gut, promoting mineral absorption, improving the immune system response, and decreasing risk factors associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and colon cancer (Johnson, Thavarajah, Combs, & Thavarajah, 2013;Mussatto & Mancilha, 2007;Rastall, 2013). Even a low level of RFOs can help to improve the acceptability of grain legumes as food products. ...
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A dietary shift from resource-demanding animal protein to sustainable food sources, such as protein-rich beans, lowers the climate footprint of food production. In this study, we examined the nutrients and antinutrients in 15 fava bean varieties cultivated in Sweden to select varieties with high nutritional value. On a dry weight basis, the fava beans were analyzed for their content of protein (range 26 - 33%), amino acids (leucine range: 50.8 – 72.1 mg/g protein, lysine range: 44.8 – 74.8 mg/g protein), dietary fiber (soluble fraction range: 0.55 – 1.06 %, insoluble fraction range: 10.7 – 16.0 %), and iron (1.8 - 21.3 mg/100g) and zinc contents (0.9 - 5.2 mg/100g), as well as for the following antinutrients: lectin (0.8 - 3.2 HU/mg); trypsin inhibitor (1.2 - 23.1 TIU/mg) and saponin (18 - 109 µg/g); phytate (112 – 1,281 mg/100g); total phenolic content (1.4 – 5 mg GAE/g); and vicine(403 µg/g - 7,014 µg/g), convicine (35.5 µg/g - 3,121 µg/g) and the oligosaccharides raffinose (1.1–3.9 g/kg), stachyose (4.4 – 13.7 g/kg) and verbascose (8 – 15 g/kg). The results indicate substantial differences between cultivars in relation to their contents of nutrients and antinutrients. Only one of the cultivars studied (Sunrise) have adequate estimated bioavailability of iron, which is of major concern for a diet in which legumes and grains serve as important sources of iron. The nutritional gain from consuming fava beans is significantly affected by the cultivar chosen as the food source.
... Схожою дією виділяються також багатоатомні спирти -сорбіт, манніт, ксиліт, якими також багате насіння сочевиці (Siva et al., 2019;Jovanovic-Malinovska et al., 2014). Так у 100 г її насіння в середньому міститься 4,1 мг олігосахаридів сімейства рафінози, 1,4 мг багатоатомних цукрів, 62 мг фрукто-олігосахаридів (кестоза, ністоза, розчинна та нерозчинна клітковина) і 7,5 мг стійкого крохмалю (Johnson et al., 2013). Таким чином, комплекс пребіотичних карбогідратів селективно стимулює ріст та активність бактерій, які здійснюють істотний вплив на підтримання високого рівня здоров'я та покращення адаптивності людей. ...
... It is one of the nutritious grain legumes being rich in dietary protein (20.6-31.4%), vitamins, minerals and many essential amino acids (lysine and tryptophan) Faris et al. 2013;Johnson et al. 2013;Ray et al. 2014;Jarpa-Parra 2018) and also having other benefits such as high fibre and low glycaemic index (Srivastava and Vasishtha 2012;Moravek et al. 2018). Among various food legume crops, the lentil has not seen tremendous adoption primarily in developing countries despite crop's ability to thrive under limited water conditions. ...
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Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is an important cool-season food crop grown in various parts of the world as it offers ecological, environmental value and nutritional security. To sustain food production for future generations, lentil cultivars should possess tolerance/resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Existing cultivars have a narrow genetic base and are primarily bred for traits which are yield centric. Therefore, to improve these cultivars, useful untapped genes of interest need to be incorporated from wild and distant cultivated backgrounds. This chapter highlights significant work done through lentil pre-breeding for important traits (agronomical, seed quality, tolerance to heat, drought, cold and frost and resistance to various fungal disease). These traits have either been incorporated or still need to be introduced into existing or new lentil cultivars.
... On another note, vegetable milks, especially those containing prebiotic components such as oligofructans and fructooligosaccharides, can encapsulate probiotics and ensure their safe delivery to their target site of action in the large intestine (Anal & Singh, 2007;Ranadheera et al., 2017). The carbohydrate prebiotics: sugar alcohols, raffinose oligosaccharides resistant starches and fructooligosaccharides have been isolated from different varieties of lentils ( Johnson, Thavarajah, Combs, & Thavarajah, 2013) and thus promotes their usage in vegetable milk fermentation. ...
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Vegetable milks are fast gaining attention on the global scale as the possible alternatives due to concerns associated with milk consumption. In particular, issues varying from allergenic constituents and lactose intolerance to social and religious beliefs among consumers have induced an increase in the market demand for vegetable milks. Their concomitant nutritional and bioactive components appraise them of the suitable profile for the food-based carriage and delivery of probiotics. More so, the presence of prebiotics in their natural configuration makes them serviceable for the assurance of the needed probiotic viability, subsequent to their exposure to digestive conditions. On another note, their availability, ease of processing, and cost-effectiveness have been established as other possible rationales behind their adoption. This chapter comprehensively delineates the probiotic and prebiotic food-usage of vegetable milks. Captions related with consumer concerns, processing operations, nutritional and prebiotic constitutions, metabolic interactions during probiotic fermentation, and associated health benefits of vegetable milks are discoursed.
... The specific richness in fibers of lentil pasta in comparison to faba bean pasta was underlined by Laleg et al. [21] in 100% lentil pasta and was due to residual cell wall structures rich in cellulose and hemicellulose. Of course, these fibers are important prebiotics that help balance gastro-intestinal microflora and have a vast array of health benefits [54]. ...
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The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of incorporating different legume flours (faba bean, lentil or split pea flours) on the pasta protein network and its repercussion on in vitro protein digestibility, in comparison with reference dairy proteins. Kinetics and yields of protein hydrolysis in legume enriched pasta and, for the first time, the peptidomes generated by the pasta at the end of the in vitro gastric and intestinal phases of digestion are presented. Three isoproteic (21%) legume enriched pasta with balanced essential amino acids, were made from wheat semolina and 62% to 79% of legume flours (faba bean or F-pasta; lentil or L-pasta and split pea or P-pasta). Pasta were prepared following the conventional pastification steps (hydration, mixing, extrusion, drying, cooking). Amino acid composition and protein network structure of the pasta were determined along with their culinary and rheological properties and residual trypsin inhibitor activity (3–5% of the activity initially present in raw legume flour). F- and L-pasta had contrasted firmness and proportion of covalently linked proteins. F-pasta had a generally weaker protein network and matrix structure, however far from the weakly linked soluble milk proteins (SMP) and casein proteins, which in addition contained no antitrypsin inhibitors and more theoretical cleavage sites for digestive enzymes. The differences in protein network reticulation between the different pasta and between pasta and dairy proteins were in agreement in each kinetic phase with the yield of the in vitro protein hydrolysis, which reached 84% for SMP, and 66% for casein at the end of intestinal phase, versus 50% for L- and P-pasta and 58% for F-pasta. The peptidome of legume enriched pasta is described for the first time and compared with the peptidome of dairy proteins for each phase of digestion. The gastric and intestinal phases were important stages of peptide differentiation between legumes and wheat. However, peptidome analysis revealed no difference in wheat-derived peptides in the three pasta diets regardless of the digestion phase, indicating that there was a low covalent interaction between wheat gluten and legume proteins.
... Furthermore, chickpea contains a number of secondary compounds that can impair nutrient absorption from the gastrointestinal tract such as variable amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors that may decrease the feeding value for poultry (Bampidis and Christodoulou, 2011). At the same time, Johnson et al., (2013) stated that lentils are known to be a good source of prebiotics and have nutritionally important quantities of prebiotic carbohydrates (12.3-14.1 g/100 g of dry lentils) that help to keep up the gut microbial environment and prevent gut-associated diseases. So, those prebiotic carbohydrates promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. ...
... Regular consumption of lentils has been shown to decrease the risk for various diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols known to have health-promoting effects) [3]. The carbohydrates in lentils act as prebiotic components and are beneficial for the growth of healthy microbiota [4]. A recent publication from Micioni Di Bonaventura et al. investigating the effect of lentil extract (LE) on the cholesterol levels in rats via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) [5] concluded that a LE (Lens culinaris Medik) treatment lowered the total plasma cholesterol and LDL levels due to an increase in the excretion of fecal bile acids [5,6]. ...
Article
This paper reports matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging to investigate systematic effects of a lentil extract treatment to lower cholesterol levels. For this purpose, mass spectrometry imaging was used to spatially investigate modifications in the lipid composition and cholesterol levels in the brain, liver, and intestines as well as bile acids in the liver and intestine of rats treated with lentil extract. Neither the lipid composition nor cholesterol levels in the brain samples were found to be significantly different between the treated and not-treated animal groups. The hypercholesterolemic livers showed signs of steatosis (lipid marker PG 36:4), but no modifications in bile acid, cholesterol, and lipid composition. We found significant differences (AUC > 0.75) in the intestines regarding bile acid and lipid composition after treatment with the lentil extract. The treated rats showed a decreased reabsorption (increased excretion) of ursodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid and an increased deconjugation of taurine-conjugated bile acids (taurochenodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, and 3-keto-taurocholic acid). This indicates that the lentil extract lowers the total cholesterol level in two synergic ways: (i) it increases the excretion of bile acids; hence, new bile acids are produced in the liver from serum cholesterol and (ii) the prebiotic effect leads to free taurine which upregulates the de novo synthesis of bile acid from cholesterol while activating LDL receptors. We demonstrate here that mass spectrometry imaging is a valuable tool for a better understanding of the effects of treatments such as for the synergistic cholesterol-lowering effect of the lentil extract.
... Regular consumption of lentils has been shown to decrease the risk for various diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols known to have health-promoting effects) [3]. The carbohydrates in lentils act as prebiotic components and are beneficial for the growth of healthy microbiota [4]. A recent publication from Micioni Di Bonaventura et al. investigating the effect of lentil extract (LE) on the cholesterol levels in rats via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) [5] concluded that a LE (Lens culinaris Medik) treatment lowered the total plasma cholesterol and LDL levels due to an increase in the excretion of fecal bile acids [5,6]. ...
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This paper reports matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging to investigate systematic effects of a lentil extract treatment to lower cholesterol levels. For this purpose, mass spectrometry imaging was used to spatially investigate modifications in the lipid composition and cholesterol levels in the brain, liver, and intestines as well as bile acids in the liver and intestine of rats treated with lentil extract. Neither the lipid composition nor cholesterol levels in the brain samples were found to be significantly different between the treated and not-treated animal groups. The hypercholesterolemic livers showed signs of steatosis (lipid marker PG 36:4), but no modifications in bile acid, cholesterol, and lipid composition. We found significant differences (AUC > 0.75) in the intestines regarding bile acid and lipid composition after treatment with the lentil extract. The treated rats showed a decreased reabsorption (increased excretion) of ursodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid and an increased deconjugation of taurine-conjugated bile acids (taurochenodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, and 3-keto-taurocholic acid). This indicates that the lentil extract lowers the total cholesterol level in two synergic ways: (i) it increases the excretion of bile acids; hence, new bile acids are produced in the liver from serum cholesterol and (ii) the prebiotic effect leads to free taurine which upregulates the de novo synthesis of bile acid from cholesterol while activating LDL receptors. We demonstrate here that mass spectrometry imaging is a valuable tool for a better understanding of the effects of treatments such as for the synergistic cholesterol-lowering effect of the lentil extract.
Chapter
There has been a lot of research on biotic stresses in lentils because they are visible and lead to decline in production and quality losses. Abiotic stresses, on the other hand, are rapidly being identified as key reasons for the low and unpredictable yield of lentils in many regions. Changes in climate, soils, and climate-soil interactions affect lentil productivity and quality directly or indirectly through their influence on foliar and soil-borne diseases, pests, and rhizobia in each growing zone. Furthermore, the relative tolerance of a cultivar and/or the effect of specific cultural control approaches can vary the effects of a specific stress. Salinity, waterlogging, cold, drought, and heat are the key abiotic factors that affect lentil output, and it is critical to produce climate-robust lentil cultivars to address these issues. The implications of several abiotic stresses on lentil production, genetics, and genomics, including mapping of quantitative traits and incorporating the identified genes with the help of marker-assisted selection breeding, and transcriptomics for the advancement of abiotic stress tolerance in lentil are all covered in this chapter. By identifying candidate genes, gene mapping, and marker-assisted selection, advanced genomic tools can supplement traditional breeding procedures to accelerate breeding projects by enhancing accuracy and saving time. There are few reports on lentil resilience to abiotic stress factors, and more work is needed to investigate the inherited biological process. Evaluating germplasm and breeding material for cultivars resistant to abiotic stressors necessitates the use of rigorous and reproducible phenotypic testing approaches. Systemic application of pan-omics with novel omics technologies will fast-track lentil breeding programmes. Additionally, artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms can help in simulating yield under climate change, leading to predicting the genetic gain. Use of machine learning (ML) in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mining will further enhance the understanding of genetic determinants of abiotic stress in lentils.
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Polyphenol-rich Laird lentil hulls are a byproduct of lentil processing. In the present study, free and bound polyphenols in lentil hulls were analyzed with UHPLC-LTQ-OrbiTrap-MS2, and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of their digestive products was explored based on the NF-κB and Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathways in the HT-29 cell model. In summary, a total of 27 polyphenols and 5 nonphenolic constituents were identified in free and bound fractions, and among them, catechin glucoside, kaempferol tetraglucoside, procyanidin dimer, and dihydroxybenzoic acid-O-dipentoside were the main polyphenols in the digestive products. These digestive products could reduce inflammatory mediators and exert anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF-κB and activating Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathways, and there was crosstalk between them, which was a mutual inhibition effect. The results show that polyphenols in lentil hulls are a good source of anti-inflammatory ingredients and have a promising development potential.
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Prebiotics are a group of biological nutrients that are capable of being degraded by microflora in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), primarily Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. When prebiotics are ingested, either as a food additive or as a supplement, the colonic microflora degrade them, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are simultaneously released in the colon and absorbed into the blood circulatory system. The two major groups of prebiotics that have been extensively studied in relation to human health are fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The candidature of a compound to be regarded as a prebiotic is a function of how much of dietary fiber it contains. The seeds of fruits such as date palms have been reported to contain dietary fiber. An increasing awareness of the consumption of fruits and seeds as part of the daily diet, as well as poor storage systems for seeds, have generated an enormous amount of seed waste, which is traditionally discarded in landfills or incinerated. This cultural practice is hazardous to the environment because seed waste is rich in organic compounds that can produce hazardous gases. Therefore, this review discusses the potential use of seed wastes in prebiotic production, consequently reducing the environmental hazards posed by these wastes.
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Non-dairy sources of prebiotics and probiotics impart various physiological functions in the prevention and management of chronic metabolic disorders, therefore nutraceuticals emerged as a potential industry. Extraction of prebiotics from non-dairy sources is economical and easily implemented. Waste products during food processing, including fruit peels and fruit skins, can be utilized as a promising source of prebiotics and considered “Generally Recognized As Safe” for human consumption. Prebiotics from non-dairy sources have a significant impact on gut microbiota and reduce the population of pathogenic bacteria. Similarly, next-generation probiotics could also be isolated from non-dairy sources. These sources have considerable potential and can give novel strains of probiotics, which can be the replacement for dairy sources. Such strains isolated from non-dairy sources have good probiotic properties and can be used as therapeutic. This review will elaborate on the potential non-dairy sources of prebiotics and probiotics, their characterization, and significant physiological potential.
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An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-field quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QE-MS) histological platform was used to analyze the effects of two thermal processing methods (cooking and steaming) on the nutritional metabolic components of black beans. Black beans had the most amino acids, followed by lipids and polyphenols, and more sugars. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that heat processing significantly affected the metabolic component content in black beans, with effects varying among different components. Polyphenols, especially flavonoids and isoflavones, were highly susceptible. A total of 197 and 210 differential metabolites were identified in both raw black beans and cooked and steamed black beans, respectively. Cooking reduced the cumulative content of amino acids, lipids, polyphenols, sugars, and nucleosides, whereas steaming reduced amino acid and lipid content, slightly increased polyphenol content, and significantly increased sugar and nucleoside content. Our results indicated that metabolic components were better retained during steaming than cooking. Heat treatment had the greatest impact on amino acids, followed by polyphenols, fatty acids, sugars, and vitamins, indicating that cooking promotes the transformation of most substances and the synthesis of a few. The results of this study provide a basis for further research and development of nutritional products using black beans.
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Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) is important rainfed winter season grain legume for diversification of cereal-based cropping system worldwide. The crop originated in Near East and spread to different region establishing in wide range of agro-ecology. Lentil is cultivated in more than 50 countries. Lentil grains are rich sources of protein, prebiotic carbohydrates, micronutrients, and vitamins. Lentil is important staple food in regions with low income. The productivity of lentil is low due to poor seedling vigour, high flower drop, low pod set, poor dry matter accumulation, and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. Biotic and abiotic stresses induced by climate change pose challenge to lentil cultivation. Discovery of new genes and quantitative trait loci offer opportunity to breeders for improving lentil varieties for higher grain yield, nutritive value, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this chapter, we discuss the present challenges and opportunities for lentil improvement.Keywords Lens culinaris OriginHybridizationBreedingBiotic and abiotic stressesNutritional quality
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Lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris) is a self-pollinated cool season food legume crop and it ranks fifth in global production of pulses. Lentils have an excellent nutritional profile and are easily digestible pulse crop. Global climate change lead to high incidence of abiotic and biotic stresses that impeded the production and productivity of lentil. The major abiotic stresses impacting lentil are salinity, waterlogging, cold, drought and heat that limits the crop yield and to resolve this it is important to develop climate resilient lentil varieties. In this chapter, we discussed the impact of several abiotic stresses on lentil production, genetics, genomics including mapping of quantitative traits and incorporating the identified genes with the assistance of marker assisted breeding and transcriptomics for development of abiotic stress tolerance in lentil. To achieve the goal of developing tolerant varieties utilization of the genetic resources through screening, selection and introgression is the key of any breeding program. The advance genomic technologies can complement conventional breeding approaches for acceleration of breeding programs by increasing the precision and reducing the time through identification of candidate genes, gene mapping, marker assisted selection. Precise and repeatable phenotypic screening techniques are essentially required to screen the germplasm and breeding material which help in developing cultivars tolerant to abiotic stresses. Limited reports are available on tolerance to abiotic stresses in lentil and further investigations is required to understand the underlying genetic mechanism.
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Recent data indicate that the world’s food systems are unable to end hunger and all forms of malnutrition. In 2019, 690 million people were undernourished, and with the added impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, an additional ~130 million people may also become malnourished in 2020. Stunting and wasting result from poor nutrition in early childhood; however, malnutrition is rapidly transitioning into childhood obesity and overweight, especially in environments with high demand for processed foods. Food systems are failing to address food security, malnutrition, and diet-related noncommunicable diseases. New challenges, including pandemics, demographic changes, climate change, and globalization, are further adding to the complexity of the food system. The movement in crop production toward cereal monocultures and away from traditional food crops (pulses, tubers, roots) is linked to the malnutrition challenges facing many populations around the world today. Pulse crops have been a staple food in communities around the world for centuries. Pulses have high concentrations of protein (~30%) and prebiotic carbohydrates (10–15%), are low in fat (1–2%) and phytic acid, provide moderate energy, and are rich in iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), folates, and carotenoids. Biofortification of pulse crops through conventional breeding and modern biotechnology to achieve target levels of nutrients is possible. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the promise of three major pulse crops (lentil, field pea, chickpea) in terms of nutritional breeding efforts and challenges of biofortification to improve human health and combat obesity and malnutrition.
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Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) affect over 2 billion worldwide. Preschool children and pregnant women in developing countries are most affected. Biofortification using conventional and transgenic approaches is a sustainable means to reduce MND. Evaluation of lentil genetic resources has revealed significant variation for micronutrients in both cultivated and wild species. Few biofortified varieties of lentil have been released for cultivation in different countries. The present work comprehensively reviews the efforts being made for lentil biofortification using conventional approaches and molecular tools in which future thrust areas have also been highlighted.Keywords Lens culinaris MicronutrientsBiofortificationMicronutrient deficiency
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This study shows how the microstructure of New Zealand pea varieties: White/yellow (WP), Marrowfat (MFP), Blue (BP), and Maple (MP) respond to pre-and-post starch gelatinization conditions. The microstructural characteristics of raw pea seeds were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy and image analysis before studying their hydration kinetics at 30, 40, 50, or 60 °C (pre-starch gelatinization conditions) while in-vitro oral-gastro small intestinal digestion was performed on the cooked pea seeds (post-starch gelatinization condition). For the raw sample, the thickness of the cell wall for the pea varieties differed significantly from each other and followed a decreasing order of MP > MFP > BP > WP. The highest average number of starch granules per cell was found in MFP (12.0/cell). The shortest time (139 mins) for the soaked pea to reach its saturation point was exhibited by BP at 60 °C while the lowest moisture content of soaked peas at saturation point was found in MP at 60 °C (89.92% d.b). The starch hydrolysis (%) of the cooked pea varieties during oral-gastro-intestinal digestion in vitro fall between the range of 18.2–27.6% and followed a decreasing order of WP > MP > MFP > BP. The estimated glycaemic index (eGI) was thus lowest for BP (47.5%). The number of starch granules per cell and fibre content was correlated positively (p ≤ 0.01) with the starch hydrolysis of the pea varieties. The discernible irregular particles (protein bodies, fibre fragments) attached to or between the starch granules observed in both hydrated and cooked pea seed microstructure seemed to modulate the inflow of water and starch degrading enzymes.
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Recent years have marked food allergy development as a common and major problem with detrimental immune reactions in response to various food proteins. In many cases of food allergy, probiotics and prebiotics have emerged as potential therapeutic agents. This type of treatment is aimed to minimize inflammation and correct diverse allergic symptoms, which in turn leads to better management of allergic diseases. Probiotics and prebiotics enhance the tolerogenic microenvironment inside the gut, which is essential for the treatment of food allergies. The nutraceuticals-based treatments provide highly efficient as well as cost-effective. However, there are certain cases where probiotics and prebiotics may fail to treat food allergies. This limitation occurs due to incorrect strain selection, effector metabolites, along the hosts' environmental diversities and genetic setup. In this chapter, we present an overview of probiotics and prebiotics, a brief discussion on food allergy and their types (IgE and non-IgE mediated), the effects of pre-/probiotics in treating food allergies, and associated symptoms. More focused research is recommended in a larger and diverse sample with different age groups, sex, race, ethnicity, and environment, to demonstrate the efficacy of pre-/probiotics with better clinical outcomes. There is a huge scope of research in the fields of nutraceutical to prove that prebiotics and probiotics are potential disease-modifying agents, which can cure, treat, or manage a wide range of chronic or acute physiological disorders.
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A primary criticism of organic agriculture is its lower yield and nutritional quality compared to conventional systems. Nutritionally, dry pea ( Pisum sativum L.) is a rich source of low digestible carbohydrates, protein, and micronutrients. This study aimed to evaluate dry pea cultivars and advanced breeding lines using on-farm field selections to inform the development of biofortified organic cultivars with increased yield and nutritional quality. A total of 44 dry pea entries were grown in two USDA-certified organic on-farm locations in South Carolina (SC), United States of America (USA) for two years. Seed yield and protein for dry pea ranged from 61 to 3833 kg ha ⁻¹ and 12.6 to 34.2 g/100 g, respectively, with low heritability estimates. Total prebiotic carbohydrate concentration ranged from 14.7 to 26.6 g/100 g. A 100-g serving of organic dry pea provides 73.5 to 133% of the recommended daily allowance (%RDA) of prebiotic carbohydrates. Heritability estimates for individual prebiotic carbohydrates ranged from 0.27 to 0.82. Organic dry peas are rich in minerals [iron (Fe): 1.9–26.2 mg/100 g; zinc (Zn): 1.1–7.5 mg/100 g] and have low to moderate concentrations of phytic acid (PA:18.8–516 mg/100 g). The significant cultivar, location, and year effects were evident for grain yield, thousand seed weight (1000-seed weight), and protein, but results for other nutritional traits varied with genotype, environment, and interactions. “AAC Carver,” “Jetset,” and “Mystique” were the best-adapted cultivars with high yield, and “CDC Striker,” “Fiddle,” and “Hampton” had the highest protein concentration. These cultivars are the best performing cultivars that should be incorporated into organic dry pea breeding programs to develop cultivars suitable for organic production. In conclusion, organic dry pea has potential as a winter cash crop in southern climates. Still, it will require selecting diverse genetic material and location sourcing to develop improved cultivars with a higher yield, disease resistance, and nutritional quality.
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Goal. Based on the results to substantiate the need for a significant increase in legume crops in Ukraine on the basis of analysis of food and feed indicators of their seeds, the impact on soil quality and the environment. Material and methods. Field – determination of features of growth and development of plants, elements of seed productivity; biometric and measuring-weight – accounting of yield and total biomass; biochemical – determination of protein, fat and other components of seeds; statistical – variation, regression and analysis of variance. Results and discussion. The significant nutritional value of legume seeds, which is rich in high-quality protein with a high content of essential amino acids, isoflavones, essential micronutrients, is substantiated. It is distinguished by high taste, quickly swells and boils, has a pleasant aroma. This group of crops is able to fix nitrogen from the air, provide for their own needs and leave a significant amount of it in the soil for subsequent crop rotations. Legumes should be considered in the crop rotation system together with winter wheat as fallow crops. Their synergistic effect on subsequent crop rotations is explained by the peculiarity of the microflora of the root zone, where symbiotic and free-living bacteria are concentrated. Observations indicate the need to increase crops of pea, chickpea and lentil in Ukraine, as there are all the necessary conditions - adapted to insufficient moisture varieties, developed technology for their cultivation, accumulated positive experience for obtaining high yields. Conclusions. Based on our own results and analysis of the experience of many countries around the world revealed the importance of legumes for our country. Their role in providing high-quality food, improving soil quality, increasing the country’s export potential is noted
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In this study; red, green and yellow lentil flours were replaced with wheat flour used in in traditional tarhana at the rate of 0%, 50% and 100% and yoghurt was replaced with boza at the rate of 100%. All types of flour were produced with both yoghurt and boza. Thus, 14 different tarhana formulations were created. One hand some ormulation don’t contain raw material of animal origin, the other hand some formulation don’t contain gluten. Thanks to this; tarhana was created for celiac patients, galactosemia patients, those with wheat allergies, lactose intolerance and vegan. The changes in the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory qualification of the tarhana during storage (0, 6 and 12 months) were examined. Increase in acidity, arginine, aspartic acid, histidine, isoleucine, ornithine, total phenolic matter, antioxidant activity, a* and b* values were found with the use of boza instead of yogurt. With the use of lentil flour, ignificant increases occurred in almost many analyzes; especially in protein, amino acids, B group vitamins, total phenolic matter content and antioxidant activity. Tarhana with green lentil flour showed the highest increase in dietary fiber, ash, total phenolic matter and antioxidant activity; red lentil showed it in amino acid and protein amount, while tarhana with yellow lentil flour had the highest values in sensory and B group vitamines. As a result, a new functional product was developed by combining lentil and tarhana, which is among the most consumed soup types. Lentil tarhana also could take place in the market and it was seen that they could be stored and offered for consumption for 12 months. Sensory analysis results showed that the tarhana, which did not change during storage, preserved the sensory properties of the first day. The most liked tarhanas were the ones that replaced with 50% yellow lentil flour.
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The low Brazilian productive index and the high demand have aroused interest in the cultivation of lentils, however the legume is little known and needs further studies. The objective of this study was to analyze and identify the effects of treatments with insecticides and fungicides on the physiological quality of lentil seeds, CA-1512 strain. The experiments were conducted in the seed laboratory in a completely randomized design with seven treatments and four replicates. Seed treatment with Thiophanate-methyl; Fluazinam® (180 ml) + Pyraclostrobin; Thiophanate-methyl; Fipronil® (150 ml) promoted higher levels of germination under accelerated aging, lower number of abnormal seedlings and longer lengths of shoot and radicle for the emergence in paper. Treatment with Carboxin; Thiram® (250 ml) + Imidacloprid® (150 ml) allowed a higher value in the first count of germination in sand, lower number of dead seeds under accelerated aging and longer root length, in the emergence in sand. Shoot length in the emergence in sand increased after seed treatment with Metalaxyl-M; Fludioxonil® (75 ml) + Pyraclostrobin; Thiophanate-methyl; Fipronil® (150 ml). Treatments with fungicides and insecticides considerably improved the physiological properties of the seeds, thus being able to guarantee greater phytosanitary qualities in the field, generating healthier seedlings and with protection against possible pests and diseases, and consequently guaranteeing greater productivity.
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Raffinose, stachyose and verbascose form the three major members of the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) accumulated during seed development. Raffinose synthase (RS; EC 2.4.1.82) and stachyose synthase (STS; EC 2.4.1.67) have been associated with raffinose and stachyose synthesis, but the precise mechanism for verbascose synthesis is not well understood. In this study, full-length RS (2.7 kb) and STS (2.6 kb) clones were isolated by screening a cDNA library prepared from developing lentil seeds (18, 20, 22 and 24 days after flowering [DAF]) to understand the roles of RS and STS in RFO accumulation in developing lentil seeds. The nucleotide sequences of RS and STS genes were similar to those reported for Pisum sativum. Patterns of transcript accumulation, enzyme activities and RFO concentrations were also comparable to P. sativum. However, during lentil seed development raffinose, stachyose and verbascose accumulation corresponded to transcript accumulation for RS and STS, with peak transcript abundance occurring at about 22 – 24 DAF, generally followed by a sequential increase in raffinose, stachyose and verbascose concentrations followed by a steady level thereafter. Enzyme activities for RS, STS and verbascose synthase (VS) also indicated a sudden increase at around 24 – 26 DAF, but with an abrupt decline again coinciding with the subsequent steady state increase in the RFO. Galactan:galactan galactosyl transferase (GGT), the galactinol-independent pathway enzyme, however, exhibited steady increase in activity from 24 DAF onwards before abruptly decreasing at 34 DAF. Although GGT activity was detected, isolation of a GGT sequence from the cDNA library was not successful.
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Lentils (Lens culinaris spp.) are an important food consumed worldwide given their high protein, fiber, mineral, and phytochemical contents, and can be used as a potential source of good nutrition for many people. With the purpose of valuing the Pardina variety, the quality brand from a protected geographical indication “Lenteja de Tierra de Campos”, a full assessment of the nutritional, chemical, and antioxidant properties of 34 samples from this variety was carried out. Besides its actual rich nutritional profile, three phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array detection-mass (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) were identified (kaempferol derivatives) with slight differences between them in all extracts. Sucrose by high-performance liquid chromatography with a refraction index detector (HPLC-RI) and citric acid by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector (UFLC-PDA) were the major identified sugar and organic acid components, respectively, as well as α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol isoforms (HPLC-fluorescence). Additionally, all the extracts presented excellent antioxidant activity by the oxidative hemolysis inhibition assay (OxHLIA/TBARS). Briefly, Pardina lentils from this quality brand are a good source of nutritional and chemical components and should therefore be included in a balanced diet.
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Lentil, a cool-season food legume, is rich in protein and micronutrients with a range of prebiotic carbohydrates, such as raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs), fructooligosaccharides (FOSs), sugar alcohols (SAs), and resistant starch (RS), which contribute to lentil's health benefits. Beneficial microorganisms ferment prebiotic carbohydrates in the colon, which impart health benefits to the consumer. In addition, these carbohydrates are vital to lentil plant health associated with carbon transport, storage, and abiotic stress tolerance. Thus, lentil prebiotic carbohydrates are a potential nutritional breeding target for increasing crop resilience to climate change with increased global nutritional security. This study phenotyped a total of 143 accessions for prebiotic carbohydrates. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was then performed to identify associated variants and neighboring candidate genes. All carbohydrates analyzed had broad-sense heritability estimates (H²) ranging from 0.22 to 0.44, comparable to those reported in the literature. Concentration ranges corresponded to percent recommended daily allowances of 2–9% SAs, 7–31% RFOs, 51–111% RS, and 57–116% total prebiotic carbohydrates. Significant SNPs and associated genes were identified for numerous traits, including a galactosyltransferase (Lcu.2RBY.1g019390) known to aid in RFO synthesis. Further studies in multiple field locations are necessary. Yet, these findings suggest the potential for molecular-assisted breeding for prebiotic carbohydrates in lentil to support human health and crop resilience to increase global food security.
Chapter
Micronutrient deficiency affects more than two billion population worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Their deficiency in human body is commonly known as “hidden hunger” and causes many health hazards, including low birth weight, anemia, learning disabilities, increased morbidity and mortality rates, low work productivity, and high healthcare costs. Biofortification of food crop varieties with essential micronutrients is one of the means to combat micronutrient deficiencies through classical plant genetic improvement. Lentil, which is rich source of protein and other minerals including iron, zinc, selenium, folates, carotenoids, and vitamins, has been shown to have genetic variability among the lentil germplasm for these traits. Therefore, lentil crop has been identified as an ideal crop for micronutrient biofortification and a possible whole food solution to the global micronutrient malnutrition. The present chapter discusses the current efforts made toward the genetic biofortification in lentil using different tools of classical plant breeding and modern genomics.
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Kale is a nutrient-rich leafy green that is mostly grown in conventional agricultural systems. The demand for organic kale has increased in the U.S.; however, cultivars bred for conventional production are not suited to organic production in terms of yield and nutritional quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variation in biomass, prebiotic carbohydrates, and minerals of 18 commercial cultivars and 35 PI accessions of kale adapted to the organic system. Significant genetic variation in both prebiotic carbohydrates and minerals was noted in both kale cultivars and PI accessions. In the kale cultivars, leaf biomass ranged from 41.4–271.2 g/plant, with kale cultivar “Frizzy Joe” being the highest and “Fizz” the lowest. A single 100-g serving from these kale cultivars provides mineral micronutrients (20–314 mg K; 95−539 mg Ca; 20−67 mg Mg; 13−87 mg P; 0.4−3.1 mg Fe; 0.3−0.9 mg Zn; 0.4−1.9 mg Mn; 20−1030 μg Cu; and 0–940 μg Se) and prebiotic carbohydrates, including sugar alcohols (1.7–26.9 mg), simple sugars (0.03–334 mg), and raffinose and fructooligosaccharides (0–11.2 mg). Compared to the commercial cultivars, the kale accessions had higher concentrations of minerals, except for magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn), and prebiotic carbohydrates, except for sucrose and verbascose + kestose. In the commercial cultivars, heritability estimates for prebiotic carbohydrates and minerals were relatively low except for sugar alcohols, Mg, and zinc (Zn). In the kale accessions, heritability estimates of glucose, fructose, potassium (K), and selenium (Se) were high. Overall, significant genetic variation exists among kale commercial cultivars and germplasm for prebiotic carbohydrates and minerals, indicating the nutritional quality of kale in organic production can be further improved by germplasm selection.
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Legumes are a rich source of a wide range of compounds that may represent an important tool to overcome gut dysbiosis. In this work, the prebiotic potential of two cooked legumes (cowpea and black bean) was investigated in comparison with potato:beef mixture, as substrates in batch faecal culture fermentation. Prior to the fermentation, all the samples were in vitro digested, passing through three phases, namely mouth, gastric and small intestine simulation, and then in vitro fermented for 6, 24 and 48 h. The shift of pH, production of gas and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and changes in gut microbiota were evaluated along the fermentation time. The pH decreased significantly over time in all media with fermentable sources when compared with the negative control. Gas production was higher in the media containing fermentable source than in the negative control and decreased with fermentation time. The concentration of SCFAs increased over time and it was significantly higher for both legumes than in inulin (positive control) and potato:beef meal. Acetate was the major SCFAs produced during fermentation, particularly in media containing legumes. Both legumes presented a strong prebiotic effect on gut microbiota, showing a significant increase in Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. These results suggest that consumption of cooked cowpea and black bean, used alone or as an ingredient of novel functional foods, may contribute to improving intestinal health and therefore human health promotion.
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Background and objectives Lentil (Lens culinaris M.) is a high value, highly nutritional grain which originated in Middle‐East. More recently lentil has gained favour in western countries due to the high value in production and the benefits they provide agronomically, however growing lentil in countries such as Australia, Canada, and the United States is not without its challenges. One is the high probability of damage due to radiant frost either before flowering or during pod‐filling. The effects of which is most noticeable in the appearance of the seed reducing the value and usability of crops. On the other hand, a generation of well informed, health‐conscious, and environmentally concerned consumers has driven the demand for affordable and healthy food alternatives. Such demand has resulted in a growing industry for protein extraction and novel food production. If used for protein extraction or novel food production the visual appearance of seeds is no longer an important quality trait. Lentil seeds damaged through frost that still retain a high nutritional composition may be the perfect candidate for a low‐cost substrate in novel food production whilst improving the outcomes for growers and industry alike. Findings This study used as a model extrusion technology to investigate the use of flour derived from Grade 1 (premium quality), and downgraded frost‐damaged lentil and to monitor compositional changes during extrusion. The study concentrated on how total protein, individual carbohydrates, and phenolic acids changed through high‐temperature, high‐pressure extrusion. Overall flours made from composite lentil‐wheat flour had significantly higher concentrations of protein and carbohydrates than the base wheat flour. No significant differences were observed for total protein or carbohydrates between Grade 1 and frost‐damaged flours however extrusion significantly reduced total protein concentration as well as maltose and glucose concentration but did not alter the concentration of fructose, sucrose or the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). As expected, phenolic acids, procyanidin, kaempferol glycoside, and kaempferol trihexose were detected in lentil‐wheat composites but not in wheat. All phenolic acids significantly increased with increasing concentrations of lentil flour in composite, however their concentration decreased as a result of the extrusion process. Differences in concentrations of procyanidin and kaempferol glycoside were detected between Grade 1 and frost‐affected lentil in both the composite flour and in the extrudate. Conclusion The extrusion process has the effect of altering the composition of the raw material. This was evident by a decrease in protein percentage phenolic compounds and to a lesser effect the water‐soluble carbohydrates. No changes in RFOs was observed. The complete loss of glucose and a significant reduction of maltose provides a healthier carbohydrate profile as the carbohydrates are low fermentable sugars. The reduction of phenolic acids a result of extrusion may help to reduce the antinutritional activity particularly in grains where the concentration of phenolic acids is high. This study found that functionality of down‐graded lentil is similar to the premium grade, and more expensive raw material. This knowledge may assist in reducing the increasing issue of food waste where often down‐graded products are not used in the production of food. Significants and novelty In order to meet world food security needs it is predicted that global food production will need to increase by at least 70% by 2050. Therefore, the utilization of all possible protein sources including down‐graded pulses, such as lentil, will become increasingly more important. Furthermore, due to climate change increasingly more variable weather conditions will result in the production of below optimum grains. Understanding how to best utilise both premium and downgraded grains is a desirable outcome to minimize food waste.
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The aim of this study was to determine appropriate conditions of temperature and moisture during a storage period of several months in the technological, chemical, nutritional parameters and phytochemical of green lentils. For this the experimental design adopted was completely randomized in a split-split plot scheme, with three replications. In the main plot, temperatures (15, 25 and 35 °C) were allocated; in the split plot the moisture (10, 12 and 14%); and, in the split-split plot, storage times (0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 days). At the end of 360 days of storage, it was observed that the grains maintained appropriate quality parameters at 15 °C/10% (temperature/moisture), followed by 25 °C/10% and 25 °C/12%. The storage time was proportional to the stress suffered by the grain, because in the three longest storage times (240, 300 and 360 days) in the three moistures, was observed a higher content of simple and total phenols, tannins and anion capture action evaluated by DPPH, as well as, greater darkening and brown tint. Significant reduction in nutritional compounds such as protein and lipid was also observed with the increase in storage time at all temperatures and moisture. In this way, this research also makes a significant contribution to producers and industries, so that in practice they can have appropriate storage conditions, reducing the technological, nutritional and economic depreciation of the grain, opening the horizon for a market that still needs to be better explored.
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Thermal processing of pulse crops influences the type and levels of prebiotic carbohydrates present. Pulses such as common bean and chickpea are rich sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, including sugar alcohols (SAs), raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), fructooligosaccharides (FOSs), resistant starch (RS), and amylose. This study determined the changes in prebiotic carbohydrate concentrations of seven common bean and two chickpea market classes after thermal processing (cooking, cooling, and reheating). A 100‐g serving of common bean provides 0.7 to 10.6 mg of SAs, 3.9 to 5.2 g of RFOs, 57 to 143 mg of FOSs, 2.6 to 3.9 g of RS, and 25 to 33 g of amylose; cooling and reheating reduced RFOs but increased SAs, FOSs, and RS in many cases. A 100‐g serving of chickpea (cooked at 90 °C for 4 hr) provides 1.2 to 1.7 g of SAs, 2.5 to 3.2 g of RFOs, 26 to 43 mg of FOSs, 3.6 to 5.3 g of RS, and 24 to 30 g of amylose; cooling and reheating reduced SAs and RFOs but increased FOSs, RS, and amylose concentrations. Processing methods change the nutritional quality of pulse crops by changing the type and quantity of prebiotic carbohydrates.
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A functional bread tailored for the needs of the aging population was baked by substituting 24% of wheat flour with red lentil flour and compared with wheat bread. Its nutritional profile was assessed by analysing proteins, amino acids, lipids, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre, resistant starch, total polyphenols, lignans and the antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay). The wheat–lentil bread had 30% more proteins than wheat bread (8.3%, as is), a more balanced amino acids composition, an almost double mineral (0.63%, as is) as well as total dietary fibre content (4.6%, as is), double the amount of polyphenols (939.1 mg GAE/100g on dry matter, d.m.), higher amounts and variety of lignans, and more than double the antioxidant capacity (71.6 µmoL/g d.m.). The in vivo effect of 60 days bread consumption on the immune response was studied by means of a murine model of elderly mice. Serum cytokines and intraepithelial lymphocyte immunophenotype from the mice intestine were analysed as markers of systemic and intestinal inflammatory status, respectively. Analysis of immune parameters in intraepithelial lymphocytes showed significant differences among the two types of bread indicating a positive effect of the wheat–lentil bread on the intestinal immune system, whereas both breads induced a reduction in serum IL-10.
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Recent studies showed that germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to obesity when consuming a high-fat, high-carbohydrate Western diet. However, it remains unclear what mechanisms are involved in the antiobesity phenotype and whether GF mice develop insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with high-fat (HF) feeding. In the present study, we compared the metabolic consequences of HF feeding on GF and conventional (conv) C57BL/6J mice. GF mice consumed fewer calories, excreted more fecal lipids, and weighed significantly less than conv mice. GF/HF animals also showed enhanced insulin sensitivity with improved glucose tolerance, reduced fasting and nonfasting insulinemia, and increased phospho-Akt((Ser-473)) in adipose tissue. In association with enhanced insulin sensitivity, GF/HF mice had reduced plasma TNF-α and total serum amyloid A concentrations. Reduced hypercholesterolemia, a moderate accretion of hepatic cholesterol, and an increase in fecal cholesterol excretion suggest an altered cholesterol metabolism in GF/HF mice. Pronounced nucleus SREBP2 proteins and up-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes indicate that enhanced cholesterol biosynthesis contributed to the cholesterol homeostasis in GF/HF mice. Our results demonstrate that fewer calorie consumption and increased lipid excretion contributed to the obesity-resistant phenotype of GF/HF mice and reveal that insulin sensitivity and cholesterol metabolism are metabolic targets influenced by the gut microbiota.
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Prebiotics are substances that can promote the growth of beneficial microorganisms, mainly in the intestinal tract, and will modify the colonic microbiota. The following health benefits are attributed to prebiotics: relief from poor digestion of lactose, increased resistance to bacterial infection, better immune response and possible protection against cancer, reduction of the risk of diseases such as intestinal disease, cardiovascular disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes, obesity and osteoporosis. This article presents a discussion of prebiotics, with descriptions of the concepts and its use in clinical practice, and a review of some recent research showing the benefits that these ingredients provide to human health and providing data on the recommended intakes for consumption.
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Fructans are prebiotics, with potentially beneficial effects on human health. This study aimed to examine genetic variation in wheat grain fructan content using a simplified analytical method. The method involves extracting fructans from wheat grain followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to break down fructans into monosaccharides that can then be quantitatively measured by anion-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection. The modified procedure is reliable and allows the handling of large numbers of flour samples at a low cost, and could therefore be useful for assessing large numbers of wheat breeding lines. Using this method, grain samples taken from 19 bread wheat cultivars and breeding lines grown in both glasshouse and the field were analysed for grain fructan content. In addition, grain samples of 29 international wheat landraces and 14 new wheat breeding lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) were surveyed for their fructan contents. There was significant genotypic variation among these materials, with grain fructan content ranging from 0.7 to 2.9% of grain dry weight. There was no evidence of strong genotype-by-environment interaction; the fructan contents of field-grown grain samples were positively correlated (r = 0.83) with those of glasshouse-grown samples of the same cultivars. It should therefore be possible to investigate the genetic control of variation for this trait using the simplified HPLC method and to select effectively for increased grain fructan content in wheat breeding.
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Resistant starch (RS), fed as high amylose maize starch (HAMS) or butyrylated HAMS (HAMSB), opposes dietary protein-induced colonocyte DNA damage in rats. In this study, rats were fed Western-type diets moderate in fat (19%) and protein (20%) containing digestible starches [low amylose maize starch (LAMS) or low amylose whole wheat (LAW)] or RS [HAMS, HAMSB, or a whole high amylose wheat (HAW) generated by RNA interference] for 11 wk (n = 10/group). A control diet included 7% fat, 13% protein, and LAMS. Colonocyte DNA single-strand breaks (SSB) were significantly higher (by 70%) in rats fed the Western diet containing LAMS relative to controls. Dietary HAW, HAMS, and HAMSB opposed this effect while raising digesta levels of SCFA and lowering ammonia and phenol levels. SSB correlated inversely with total large bowel SCFA, including colonic butyrate concentration (R(2) = 0.40; P = 0.009), and positively with colonic ammonia concentration (R(2) = 0.40; P = 0.014). Analysis of gut microbiota populations using a phylogenetic microarray revealed profiles that fell into 3 distinct groups: control and LAMS; HAMS and HAMSB; and LAW and HAW. The expression of colonic genes associated with the maintenance of genomic integrity (notably Mdm2, Top1, Msh3, Ung, Rere, Cebpa, Gmnn, and Parg) was altered and varied with RS source. HAW is as effective as HAMS and HAMSB in opposing diet-induced colonic DNA damage in rats, but their effects on the large bowel microbiota and colonocyte gene expression differ, possibly due to the presence of other fiber components in HAW.
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Between 1980 and 1999, the prevalence of adult obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) increased in the United States and the distribution of BMI changed. More recent data suggested a slowing or leveling off of these trends. To estimate the prevalence of adult obesity from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and compare adult obesity and the distribution of BMI with data from 1999-2008. NHANES includes measured heights and weights for 5926 adult men and women from a nationally representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized US population in 2009-2010 and for 22,847 men and women in 1999-2008. The prevalence of obesity and mean BMI. In 2009-2010 the age-adjusted mean BMI was 28.7 (95% CI, 28.3-29.1) for men and also 28.7 (95% CI, 28.4-29.0) for women. Median BMI was 27.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 24.7-31.7) for men and 27.3 (IQR, 23.3-32.7) for women. The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 35.5% (95% CI, 31.9%-39.2%) among adult men and 35.8% (95% CI, 34.0%-37.7%) among adult women. Over the 12-year period from 1999 through 2010, obesity showed no significant increase among women overall (age- and race-adjusted annual change in odds ratio [AOR], 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P = .07), but increases were statistically significant for non-Hispanic black women (P = .04) and Mexican American women (P = .046). For men, there was a significant linear trend (AOR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06; P < .001) over the 12-year period. For both men and women, the most recent 2 years (2009-2010) did not differ significantly (P = .08 for men and P = .24 for women) from the previous 6 years (2003-2008). Trends in BMI were similar to obesity trends. In 2009-2010, the prevalence of obesity was 35.5% among adult men and 35.8% among adult women, with no significant change compared with 2003-2008.
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Recent studies showed that germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to obesity when consuming a high-fat, high-carbohydrate Western diet. However, it remains unclear what mechanisms are involved in the antiobesity phenotype and whether GF mice develop insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with high-fat (HF) feeding. In the present study, we compared the metabolic consequences of HF feeding on GF and conventional (conv) C57BL/6J mice. GF mice consumed fewer calories, excreted more fecal lipids, and weighed significantly less than conv mice. GF/HF animals also showed enhanced insulin sensitivity with improved glucose tolerance, reduced fasting and nonfasting insulinemia, and increased phospho-Akt((Ser-473)) in adipose tissue. In association with enhanced insulin sensitivity, GF/HF mice had reduced plasma TNF-α and total serum amyloid A concentrations. Reduced hypercholesterolemia, a moderate accretion of hepatic cholesterol, and an increase in fecal cholesterol excretion suggest an altered cholesterol metabolism in GF/HF mice. Pronounced nucleus SREBP2 proteins and up-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis genes indicate that enhanced cholesterol biosynthesis contributed to the cholesterol homeostasis in GF/HF mice. Our results demonstrate that fewer calorie consumption and increased lipid excretion contributed to the obesity-resistant phenotype of GF/HF mice and reveal that insulin sensitivity and cholesterol metabolism are metabolic targets influenced by the gut microbiota.
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Diets rich in non-viscous fibre are linked to a reduced risk of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease; however, the mechanism of action remains unclear. This study was undertaken to assess whether chronic consumption of this type of fibre in individuals with the metabolic syndrome would improve insulin sensitivity via changes in ectopic fat storage. The study was a single-blind, randomized, parallel nutritional intervention where 20 insulin resistant subjects consumed either the fibre supplement (resistant starch) (40 g/day) or placebo supplement (0 g/day) for 12 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was measured by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp and ectopic fat storage measured by whole-body magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Resistant starch consumption did not significantly affect body weight, fat storage in muscle, liver or visceral depots. There was also no change with resistant starch feeding on vascular function or markers of inflammation. However, in subjects randomized to consume the resistant starch, insulin sensitivity improved compared with the placebo group (P = 0.023). Insulin sensitivity correlated significantly with changes in waist circumference and fat storage in tibialis muscle and to a lesser extent to visceral-to-subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue ratio. Consumption of resistant starch improves insulin sensitivity in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Unlike in animal models, diabetes prevention does not appear to be directly related to changes in body adiposity, blood lipids or inflammatory markers. Further research to elucidate the mechanisms behind this change in insulin sensitivity in human subjects is required.
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We have previously shown that gut microbial fermentation of prebiotics promotes satiety and lowers hunger and energy intake in humans. In rodents, these effects are associated with an increase in plasma gut peptide concentrations, which are involved in appetite regulation and glucose homeostasis. Our aim was to examine the effects of prebiotic supplementation on satiety and related hormones during a test meal for human volunteers by using a noninvasive micromethod for blood sampling to measure plasma gut peptide concentrations. This study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 10 healthy adults (5 men and 5 women) were randomly assigned to groups that received either 16 g prebiotics/d or 16 g dextrin maltose/d for 2 wk. Meal tolerance tests were performed in the morning to measure the following: hydrogen breath test, satiety, glucose homeostasis, and related hormone response. We show that the prebiotic treatment increased breath-hydrogen excretion (a marker of gut microbiota fermentation) by approximately 3-fold and lowered hunger rates. Prebiotics increased plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY concentrations, whereas postprandial plasma glucose responses decreased after the standardized meal. The areas under the curve for plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and breath-hydrogen excretion measured after the meal (0-60 min) were significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P = 0.007). The glucose response was inversely correlated with the breath-hydrogen excretion areas under the curve (0-180 min; r = -0.73, P = 0.02). Prebiotic supplementation was associated with an increase in plasma gut peptide concentrations (glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY), which may contribute in part to changes in appetite sensation and glucose excursion responses after a meal in healthy subjects.
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Seasonal change in cold hardiness has frequently been associated with metabolic induction of osmolytes that may play a role in acclimation to low temperatures in cool season crop plants. The present research was aimed to examine the association of common endogenous sugars with cold hardiness in acclimated and non-acclimated plants of winter-hardy and non-hardy lentil ( lens culinaris Medik. ) genotypes under controlled conditions. The genotypes were highly significantly (P< 0.01) different for cold tolerance at -5 ° C and the winter hardy genotypes had no foliar damage but 75% injury was observed in the non-hardy genotypes when freeze tested after compete acclimation under controlled conditions. Comparatively, sorbitol concentrations in the tips and basal leaves of young and old shoots of acclimated plants were consistently and highly significantly (P<0.01) higher in the non-hardy cultivars than in the winter-hardy lines. A highly significant (P<0.001) positive correlation (0.74 ± 0.09) was found between cold injury and sorbitol concentration in these tissues. Except for the presence of comparatively high sorbitol in non-hardy genotypes, there was no significant association of other endogenous sugars not with total soluble sugars and cold hardiness in lentil.
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Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (SC-FOS) are a mixture of oligosaccharides consisting of glucose linked to fructose units (Gfn; n = </= 4), which are not digested in the human small intestine but are fermented in the colon where they specifically promote the growth of bifidobacteria. In healthy volunteers, we assessed the tolerance and the threshold dose of SC-FOS that significantly increased fecal bifidobacteria counts and the possibility of a dose-response relationship. Randomly divided into five groups and eating their usual diets, healthy volunteers (40: 18 males, 22 females) ingested in two oral doses for 7 d a powder mixture containing (g SC-FOS/d): 0, G0; 2.5, G2.5; 5, G5; 10, G10; 20, G20. Stools were collected before (d1) and at the end (d8) of sugar consumption, and tolerance was evaluated using a daily chart. Total anaerobe counts were not affected by SC-FOS ingestion. Bifidobacteria counts at d8 were greater in groups G10 and G20 than in G0 and G2.5 (P < 0.05). Fecal pH did not differ among groups. A significant correlation between the dose of SC-FOS ingested and the fecal bifidobacteria counts was observed at d8 (r = 0.53; P < 0.01). Excess flatus was significantly more frequent in subjects consuming G20 than in those consuming G0, G2.5 or G5 (P < 0.05), and more intense in G20 than in G0 and G5 groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the optimal and well-tolerated dose of SC-FOS that significantly increased fecal bifidobacteria in healthy volunteers consuming their usual diet is 10 g/d.
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The U.S. Department of Agriculture 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals was used to estimate the intake of naturally occurring inulin and oligofructose by the U.S. population. Two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls from >15,000 Americans of all ages were conducted, and a special database of inulin and oligofructose was developed specifically for the analyses. American diets provided on average 2.6 g of inulin and 2.5 g of oligofructose. Intakes varied by gender and age, ranging from 1.3 g for young children to 3.5 g for teenage boys and adult males. When standardized for amount of food consumed, the intakes showed little difference across gender and age. Significant differences in intake of these components were seen between categories within region of the country, season, income, and race and origin; however, the actual differences were relatively small. Major food sources of naturally occurring inulin and oligofructose in American diets were wheat, which provided about 70% of these components, and onions, which provided about 25% of these components. The estimation of the presence of inulin and oligofructose in the diets of Americans has not been published to date.
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This paper results from the final phase of the ENDO project (DGXII AIRII-CT94-1095), a European Commission-funded project on non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO). All participants in the programme met to perform a consensus exercise on the possible functional food properties of NDO. Topics studied during the project (including a workshop on probiotics and prebiotics) and related aspects, for which considerable evidence has been generated recently, were evaluated on the basis of existing published scientific evidence. There was a general consensus that: (1) there is strong evidence for a prebiotic effect of NDO in human subjects. A prebiotic effect was defined as a food-induced increase in numbers and/or activity predominantly of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria in the human large intestine; (2) there is strong evidence for the impact that NDO have on bowel habit; (3) there is promising evidence that consumption of inulin-type fructans may result in increased Ca absorption in man; (4) there are preliminary indications that inulin-type fructans interact with the functioning of lipid metabolism; (5) there is preliminary evidence in experimental animals of a preventive effect against colon cancer. Human nutrition studies are needed to substantiate these findings. It was concluded that the nutritional properties of NDO may prove to be a key issue in nutritional research in the future.
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The chemical composition and the contents of resistant starch and soluble and insoluble dietary fibre of pea (Pisum sativum L.), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), chickpea (Cicer aretinum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Med.) legumes, were studied. Raw and freeze-dried cooked samples were used, both in the form of flour. Protein values of the legumes ranged from 18.5 to 21.9 g/100 g for the raw grains and from 21.3 to 23.7 g/100 g for freeze-dried cooked legumes. Chickpea stood out for the highest lipid content (p < 0.05), the lowest insoluble fibre values, and soluble dietary fibre not detected. The average content of resistant starch found in the legumes did not differ statistically (p > 0.05), being 2.23 ± 0.24 g/100 g for freeze-dried cooked legumes, and showing a slight reduction in comparison to the raw form.
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The effect of cooking and dehulling on nutrients and anti-nutritional factors of several varieties of lentils (Lens culinaris) was investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) variations existed among the lentil varieties with respect to their crude protein, starch, ash, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), total dietary fiber (TDF), resistant starch (RS), trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), minerals, phytic acid, tannins, sucrose and oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose and verbascose) content. Cooking lentils in boiling water significantly increased protein, starch, IDF, TDF, resistant starch, Ca, Cu and Mn content, whereas reduced ash, Fe, K, Mg, P, Zn, TIA, phytic acid, tannins, sucrose and oligosaccharides were observed. Dehulling (removal of seed coat) resulted in a significant increase in protein, starch, resistant starch, K, P, phytic acid, stachyose and verbascose content, however, a significant decrease in SDF, IDF, TDF, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and tannin content was observed.