Article

Estimation of CO2 emission of apartment buildings due to major construction materials in the Republic of Korea

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Buildings emit much greenhouse gases as large amounts of resources and energy are consumed during their life cycle. CO2 emissions from residential buildings in the Republic of Korea (“Korea” hereinafter) are expected to consistently increase. According to the statistical data, apartment buildings occupy a high portion (86.4%) of residential buildings, and it is expected to maintain a certain level every year due to residential building construction policy of the Korean government. So, apartment buildings are a very important subject of study. This study aims to quantify CO2 emissions emitted by six different size apartment units due to major construction materials consumed in construction. The result shows that CO2 emission of the various construction materials of an apartment unit was estimated to be 569.5 kg-CO2/m2 on average. The apartment with the area of 84.9 m2 for a common apartment type in Korea has about 11.8 TOE embodied energy and 45.1 ton-CO2 emission. The CO2 emissions from steel and concrete were 424.2–584.2 kg-CO2/m2 for apartment units, occupying more than 82% of the total CO2 emissions. The results are valuable for the sustainable design of apartment complexes and are used as technical measures for the CO2 reduction strategy of the building sector.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Building sector is responsible of 40%-50% of global greenhouse gases [19]. Building sector constitutes about 30% of global CO2 emissions [20]. By 2020, building sector will be responsible of 31% of total CO2 emissions in the world [21]. ...
... Building sector represents 23% of total CO2 emissions in Korea [20]. The residential sector is responsible for 25.3% of the amount of greenhouse gases produced in United Kingdom in 2012 [15]. ...
... Jeong et al. [20] calculated the amount of CO2 emissions for thirteen major construction materials. They classified the construction materials into three main categories which were; structural materials, finishing materials and equipment materials. ...
Full-text available
Thesis
Environmental pollution is regarded as one of the main concerns in construction industry. This concern has significantly increased in the recent few years. Environmental pollution became a major constraint of construction projects alongside with time and cost. The different stages of construction process produce significant amount of emissions. Moreover, they consume a considerable amount of primary energy. There are various types of environmental pollutants that are produced from construction process as; greenhouse gases footprint, acidification potential, human health (HH) particulate, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion and smog. Each type of environmental emissions has distinctive impact on both human health and ecosystem. Environmental pollution associated with construction projects is immensely linked with construction process from its upstream till building demolition and removal. The overall emissions of construction projects are divided into direct emissions, indirect emissions and operation emissions. This research takes into consideration the overall lifecycle of construction process which is manufacturing phase, transportation phase, construction phase, maintenance phase, operation phase, recycling/reuse phase and deconstruction/demolition phase. Each project component is divided into group of alternatives. Each alternative is assessed against the time needed to execute this alternative, alternative life cycle cost, emissions associated with this alternative and primary energy consumed by this alternative. The calculation procedures of the previous parameters are performed using building information modeling (BIM). The BIM-based methodology incorporates multi objective optimization. Multi-objective optimization is performed using non dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) in order to select the most feasible solutions considering project duration, project life cycle cost, project overall emissions and total project primary energy as objective functions. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for uncertainties and variations in calculation of equivalent carbon dioxide emissions and to define boundaries of environmental pollutants. Eight types of multi-criteria decision making techniques are performed in order to rank alternatives obtained from Pareto frontier points. Each decision making technique depends on certain concepts and numerical measures in ranking alternatives, therefore each decision making technique provides a different ranking from the other. Three group decision making techniques are performed in order to aggregate results obtained from the eight multi-criteria decision making techniques. Group decision making provides consensus and final ranking for alternatives. The research introduces a robustness measure that is implemented in order to test the stability of multi-criteria decision making techniques against perturbations in the data. Sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the most sensitive attribute, the most sensitive measure of performance and the most sensitive stage of construction process that affects environmental emissions. The introduced sensitivity analysis provides full ranking of attributes and alternatives based on sensitivity coefficients. A case study of academic building is presented in order to demonstrate the practical features of the proposed model.
... In addition, GHG emissions during the production, transportation, and construction of building materials and elements also forms a part of the non-negligible proportion of total GHG emissions [16,17]. Zhao et al. [18] estimated the lifecycle of GHG emissions from urban buildings and proposed potential effective measures for GHG emissions reduction. ...
... Zhao et al. [18] estimated the lifecycle of GHG emissions from urban buildings and proposed potential effective measures for GHG emissions reduction. Previous researchers [17,[19][20][21] have also focused on GHG emissions spanning the entire lifecycle of buildings. Moreover, many policies seek to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through energy savings at the operation phase [22]. ...
... Improved energy efficiency certainly helps to reduce GHGs. However, as GHG emissions during the building life cycle cannot be mitigated, it is necessary to consider their mitigation by adding a lifecycle assessment method to green buildings [17,[19][20][21]. ...
Full-text available
Article
This paper examines the effectiveness of South Korea’s policy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in office buildings and evaluates if national targets can be met. A sample of office buildings was categorized into two groups—conventional (Group A) and new (Group B)—based on when their construction was approved. Furthermore, data regarding the three design elements of the building envelope, that is building form, window systems, and U-values were collected. By statistically processing data of each element, reference building models were developed and a case study was conducted for each building. Design changes that were incorporated, keeping in mind the GHG reduction policy, showed 13.1% of saving energy in case 8 (reference building of Group B) than case 1 (reference building of Group A). The savings in case 8 were more than the average GHG reduction rate (12.8%) compared to business as usual (BAU). However, case 4 (a conventional (Group A) building form with new (Group B) window systems and U-values) achieved the greatest savings in building loads. The policy to enhance insulation in new buildings to reduce GHG emissions in the building sector has prompted changes in building forms and window systems and has reduced emissions by 10%, that is 3% more than the expected value. Thus, new innovations in building envelope design could achieve an average 12.8% reduction in emissions in buildings.
... Many construction activities, including the production and transportation of raw materials and the building operation itself, have a noticeably high carbon emission (Nadoushani and Akbarnezhad 2015). In addition, the building sector accounts for roughly 30% of the global CO 2 emission and should, therefore, be given a high priority in the efforts to devise and develop sustainable solutions to reach an acceptable level of carbon emission (Jeong et al. 2012). One of these efforts is to promote the use of building materials with low environmental impacts. ...
... Considering that the building sector is one of the major producers of greenhouse gas emission in Iran (accounting for 30% of total greenhouse gas production (Jeong et al. 2012; Statistical Center of Iran 2018)), this sector is expected to have an at least 30% share in the total greenhouse gas emission reduction of the country. Since the signing of the Paris Agreement (2012), Iran has largely remained under international sanctions and, according to many experts, can be expected to remain sanctioned for the foreseeable future, possibly well after 2030. ...
Full-text available
Article
In recent years, green roofs have become the subject of increasing interest because of their good aesthetic qualities, energy conservation, and ability to reduce thermal island effect and absorb greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). Given the typically significant carbon emission of construction activities, adding any extra component to a structure increases the amount of carbon to be released during the execution stage. This also applies to green roofs, which require more materials and more extensive construction activities than traditional roofs. However, plants of green roofs absorb substantial amounts of CO2 during their lifetime, thus leaving both short- and long-term positive impacts on the building’s carbon footprint. This study investigated the short- and long-term effects of green roofs on carbon footprint, as compared to conventional roofs. For this investigation, the CO2 uptake of eight plant species with suitable drought- and cold-resistant properties was measured by infrared gas analysis (IRGA), and the effect of green roof on the building’s carbon footprint was analyzed using the software Design Builder. The results showed that building a green roof instead of a traditional roof increases the carbon emission of the construction process by 4.6 kg/m² of roof area. Investigations showed that, under high light intensities (1500–2000 μmol/m² s), Sedum acre L. has the best performance in compensating the extra carbon emission imposed on the construction process (in 264 days only). Under low light intensities (1000–1500 μmol/m² s), Frankenia laevis showed the best increase in the amount of carbon uptake (2.27 kg/m² year).
... In addition, the building sector accounts for roughly 30% of the global CO 2 emission, and should, therefore, be given a high priority in the efforts to devise and develop sustainable solutions to reach an acceptable level of carbon emission (Jeong et al. 2012). One of these efforts is to promote the use of building materials with low environmental impacts. ...
... Iran is obligated to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by either 4% or 12% depending on whether international sanctions are lifted from this country (Umemiya et al. 2020). Therefore, in the next step, the potential impact of green roo ng on Iran's total CO 2 Considering that the building sector is one of the major producers of greenhouse gas emission in Iran (accounting for 30% of total greenhouse gas production (Jeong et al. 2012; Statistical Center of Iran 2018), this sector is expected to have an at least 30% share in the total greenhouse gas emission reduction of the country. Since the signing of the Paris Agreement (2012), Iran has largely remained under international sanctions, and according to many experts, can be expected to remain sanctioned for the foreseeable future, possibly well after 2030. ...
Full-text available
Preprint
In recent years, green roofs have become the subject of increasing interest because of their good aesthetic qualities, energy conservation, and ability to reduce thermal island effect and absorb greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Given the typically significant carbon emission of construction activities, adding any extra component to a structure increases the amount of carbon to be released during the execution stage. This also applies to green roofs, which require more materials and more extensive construction activities than traditional roofs. However, plants of green roofs absorb substantial amounts of CO 2 during their lifetime, thus leaving both short- and long-term positive impacts on the building’s carbon footprint. This study investigated the short- and long-term effects of green roofs on carbon footprint, as compared to conventional roofs. For this investigation, the CO 2 uptake of eight plant species with suitable drought- and cold-resistant properties was measured by Infrared Gas Analysis (IRGA) and the effect of green roof on the building’s carbon footprint was analyzed using the software Design Builder. The results showed that building a green roof instead of a traditional roof increases the carbon emission of the construction process by 4.6 kilograms per square meter of roof area. Investigations showed that, under high light intensities (1500–2000 µmol/m ² .s), Sedum acre L has the best performance in compensating the extra carbon emission imposed on the construction process (in 264 days only). Under low light intensities (1000–1500 µmol/m ² .s), Frankenia laevis showed the best increase in the amount of carbon uptake (2.27 kg/m ² .year).
... Air pollution is increasing due to rapid industrialization and economic growth [1]. The increase in air pollutant concentration is driven by many causes: the increasing usage of fossil fuel [2], the growth of motor vehicles [3], the growth of global aviation activities [4], shipping [5,6], and construction [7,8]. Recently, cryptocurrency mining has been criticized for its carbon dioxide emissions [9]. ...
... To prevent this, this study calculates the statistical significance. To calculate the p-value, it has the characteristic of process X like equation (7). However, one has to create a surrogate s that does not have a direct relationship to process Y [30]. ...
Full-text available
Article
The increasing concentration of air pollutants, caused by industrialization and economic growth, is adversely affecting public health. Therefore, accurately measuring and predicting air pollution has been an important societal issue. With the era of big data and the development of artificial intelligence technologies, air pollution concentration is now being measured and recorded in real-time using different sensors. Studies have attempted to predict air pollution concentration using deep learning-based spatiotemporal prediction. This, in turn, is based on distance networks. In these studies, the distance network used to predict air pollution simply reflects the distance. However, since air pollutants cannot move over high mountain ranges and move according to the wind, the station network should include the effect of terrain and the wind direction. Previous studies do not consider these effects. To overcome these limitations, this study proposes a novel station network that combines distance and causality networks based on transfer entropy. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, out-of-sample experiments with an hourly dataset are performed from January 2017 to October 2020 using information from 186 stations in the Republic of Korea. The results suggest that the proposed method showed state-of-the-art performance compared to existing distance-based algorithms.
... Therefore, finding a solution to this problem has always been an important task, not only for the Seoul Metropolitan Government but also at the national level [30]. Further, apartments have consistently been the dominant housing type in Seoul, Korea, and the government sector is expected to maintain and manage apartment complexes as a key focus of its residential policy [31,32]. ...
... Because of their predominance and importance, apartments have been used as a representative variable for Korean housing and residential research in many previous studies [31][32][33][34]. This study examines all apartment complexes traded in Seoul, 2017. ...
Full-text available
Article
This study aims to examine the relationship between the level of walkability and housing prices in Seoul, Korea. The average transaction price per square meter for each apartment complex was set as a dependent variable and the walkability score was used as an independent variable. This study divided a total of 5,986 apartment complexes into areas with high and low housing prices for analysis. Based on the strong spatial autocorrelations of housing prices, this study employed spatial regression models in addition to the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model. Results showed that housing prices positively correlated with the walkability score in areas with low housing prices, whereas no significant association was observed in areas with high housing prices. Additional findings showed that housing prices were associated with building age (–), number of households in the complex (+), slope (–), and greenness (+) in both subsamples. Results also showed that high school quality had a different association with housing prices depending on the subsample (e.g., the sign was positive in areas with high housing prices and no significance in areas with low housing prices). The results herein support public policy proposals relevant to urban planning, environmental design, and housing policies.
... Third, studies dealing with the LCA of residential buildings were reviewed. We identified various studies conducted with different purposes in the broad context of energy efficiency, efficient use of materials and the possibilities for their recovery (Reyna and Chester, 2015;Yang et al., 2018;Stephan, 2013;Carre and Crossin, 2015;Kumar et al., 2015;Johnstone, 2001;Evangelista et al., 2018;Oyarzo and Peuportier, 2014;Ortiz-Rodríguez et al., 2010;Henry et al., 2014;Ezema and Olotuah, 2015;Nemry and Uihlein, 2008;Asif et al., 2005;Cu ellar-Franca and Azapagic, 2012;Buyle et al., 2015;Pajchrowski et al., 2014;Atmaca and Atmaca, 2015;Stephan and Stephan, 2014;Asif et al., 2017;El Hanandeh, 2015;Pinky Devi and Palaniappan, 2014;Bansal et al., 2014;Sharma and Marwaha, 2015;Ramesh et al., 2012;Shukla et al., 2009;Lee et al., 2017;Jeong et al., 2012;Lee et al., 2015;Chen et al., 2001;Li et al., 2016;Su and Zhang, 2016;Jia Wen et al., 2015;Abd Rashid et al., 2017;Utama and Gheewala, 2009;Utama and Gheewala, 2008;Suzuki et al., 1995;Rauf and Crawford, 2015;Carre, 2011;Aye et al., 2011;Fay et al., 2000;Bhochhibhoya et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2014;Reza et al., 2014). Whenever they included data on the material composition of buildings, we used them in our database. ...
... Whenever they included data on the material composition of buildings, we used them in our database. We found that the most abundant sources are the LCA studies estimating the environmental impact of residential buildings (Kumar et al., 2015;Evangelista et al., 2018;Oyarzo and Peuportier, 2014;Ortiz-Rodríguez et al., 2010;Cu ellar-Franca and Azapagic, 2012;Jeong et al., 2012) and investigating the performance of the residential buildings in terms of energy as well the possibilities for energy optimisation using alternative materials (Kumar et al., 2015;Pajchrowski et al., 2014;Lee et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2014;Blanchard and Reppe, 1998;Mosteiro-Romero et al., 2014). ...
Article
Huge material stocks are embedded in the residential built environment. These materials have the potential to be a source of secondary materials, an important consideration for the transition towards a circular economy. Consistent information about such stocks, especially at the global level, is missing. This article attempts to fill part of that gap by compiling a material intensities database for different types of buildings and applying that data in the context of a scenario analysis, linked to the SSP scenarios as implemented in the global climate model IMAGE. The database is created on a global scale, dividing the world into 26 regions in compliance with IMAGE. The potential use of the database was tested and served as input for modelling the housing and material stock of residential buildings for the period 1970–2050, according to specifications made for the SSP2 scenario. Six construction materials in four different dwelling types in urban and rural areas are included. The material flows related to those stocks are estimated and analysed in a companion paper (also exploring commercial buildings) by Deetman et al. (2019). The results suggest a significant increase in the material stock in housing towards 2050, particularly in urban areas. The results reflect specific patterns in the material contents across the different building types. China presently dominates developments in the global level building stock. The SSP2 projections show a stock saturation towards 2050 for China. In other regions, such as India and South East Asia, stock growth is presently just taking off and can be expected to become dominant for global developments after 2050. The database is created to be used as input for resource and climate policymaking as well as assessment of environmental impact related to residential buildings and assessment of possibilities for urban mining. In the future, we hope to extend it as new data on materials in the built environment become available.
... First, reduction methods for cooling/heating energy are needed, and through such means, petroleum, city gas, electricity, and heat energy could be reduced [32,33]. South Korea is pursuing policies to introduce zero-energy buildings for reduction of cooling/heating energy with plans to introduce zero-energy use as a mandatory requirement for new public buildings starting in 2025. ...
... First, information about the energy consumption in the building and the area (size) of the building are needed to estimate potential energy reduction through cooling/heating. The cooling/heating energy efficiency of a building varies according to the insulation performance of the First, reduction methods for cooling/heating energy are needed, and through such means, petroleum, city gas, electricity, and heat energy could be reduced [32,33]. South Korea is pursuing policies to introduce zero-energy buildings for reduction of cooling/heating energy with plans to introduce zero-energy use as a mandatory requirement for new public buildings starting in 2025. ...
Full-text available
Article
South Korea must submit its targets for greenhouse gas reduction by 2030 to comply with the Paris Agreement. While South Korea’s government has announced a roadmap for achieving greenhouse gas reduction targets by 2030, issues are present regarding the methodology used to set reduction targets, select the reduction method, and estimate the potential emissions reduction in the building sector. Accordingly, the present study identified the limitations based on an analysis of the roadmap and suggested an improvement plan for each limitation. To improve the roadmap, the methodology used to set emissions targets was changed from business-as-usual (BAU) to the absolute emissions method, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines were applied to estimate greenhouse gas emissions, and methodology for determining emissions targets by year was proposed. The reduction method has been proposed abstractly, and five methods have been suggested: Energy consumption by building age and establishment of gross floor area for cooling/heating, supply status for each type of lighting, estimation of reduction amount through supply of LED lighting, reduction amount estimation by analyzing current supply status data for home appliances and office equipment, proposal of methodology for improvement of duplicate estimation for building energy maintenance systems (BEMS), and estimation of reduction potential by applying efficiency improvement in power generating equipment.
... Apartments that were 20 years or older were classified as residential buildings with the highest redevelopment value [32]. The demolition of existing apartment complexes was associated with an enormous production of demolition waste [33] and immense demand for new building materials and CO2 emissions for new building constructions [34]. Social displacement and gentrification processes occurred after redevelopments as a result of increased real estate values for the new so-called green and smart new housing estates [35,36]. ...
... Apartments that were 20 years or older were classified as residential buildings with the highest redevelopment value [32]. The demolition of existing apartment complexes was associated with an enormous production of demolition waste [33] and immense demand for new building materials and CO 2 emissions for new building constructions [34]. Social displacement and gentrification processes occurred after redevelopments as a result of increased real estate values for the new so-called green and smart new housing estates [35,36]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Apartments in South Korea have high maintenance costs and an average lifetime of 25 years due to poor construction qualities. The common apartment redevelopment strategy is completely demolishing the neighborhoods and then replacing them with new buildings. However, this research discusses the framework for the refurbishment of an existing building in Seoul using Building Information Modeling (BIM) and parametric tools. The virtual model of an exemplary existing building is constructed in a BIM environment. Parametric software is used to simulate the building’s environmental performance, in order to determine its energy demand for heating and cooling and the indoor comfort. In order to reduce the energy demand for heating and cooling, improve the indoor comfort, generate photovoltaic energy and extend the building’s lifetime, a modular building envelope renovation system is developed. Building simulation results of the improved building envelope are used to quantify the differences with the existing building. The research results illustrate significant improvements in energy performance, comfort and lifetime extension that can be achieved. Furthermore, a guideline for a streamlined building optimization process is provided, that can be transferred and used for the planning and optimization of other building renovation projects.
... The importance of investigating the embodied energy consumption of buildings has been gradually realized by the research community due to its significant role in the creation of sustainability in the building sector (Emmanuel, 2004;Huberman and Pearlmutter, 2008;Jeong et al., 2012;Tucker et al., 1993). Regardless of extensive studies on the wide-range impact of building operation on life-cycle energy use (Scheuer et al., 2003;Van Ooteghem and Xu, 2012), the attribution and mechanism of the embodied energy consumption still remain unclear. ...
... The project-level investigation mainly focused on the life cycle energy performance of a specific building. These findings provide implications either on identifying energy-intensive materials and components during the building construction process (Asif et al., 2007;Jeong et al., 2012;Ortiz et al., 2010;Van Ooteghem and Xu, 2012) or examining the effect of adopting innovative construction technologies on the total embodied energy use (Aye et al., 2012;Hong et al., 2016b;Monahan and Powell, 2011;Rincón et al., 2013). ...
Article
The construction industry has grown as the major energy consumer in China’s economy with the rapid development of urbanization, continually increasing the stress on the environment, healthcare, and economy. Therefore, this study developed an integrated framework for embodied energy quantification of China’s buildings from a multi-regional perspective. This article builds on previous work on embodied energy quantification and develops an optimized algorithm that illustrated how the technological difference and the regional features are calculated as indices of embodied energy quantification at the project level, using multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis, structural path analysis (SPA), and process-based LCA model as the underlying methods. The structure of the proposed framework using calculative modules as well as the data sources are specified. The application of the analytical framework in real building cases demonstrates that it can provide valuable information of detailed embodied energy distribution through the whole supply chain. The implementation of the proposed framework can facilitate decision-makers to examine the effects of changes in geographical location, building type, and building structure on the total embodied energy consumption.
... Basbagill et al. (2013) has stressed on decision-making on reduction of carbon footprint at early-design process of buildings. Jeong et al. (2012), Suzuki et al. (1995), Williams et al. (2011) derived embodied energy and CO 2 intensities of major construction materials used in their respective countries. Gonzalez and Navarro (2006) worked on multi-storied residential houses and have indicated possibility of reducing the CO 2 emissions up to 30% in the construction phase, through a careful selection of materials having low environmental impact. ...
... It can be converted to 0.41 kg of CO 2 per brick or 0.212 MT of CO 2 per cu.m. of fly ash brick. CO 2 emission for production of gypsum in a factory is 0.067 MT of CO 2 /MT of gypsum (Jeong et al. 2012). CO 2 emission for production of lime may be taken as 1.092 MT/ MT of lime (A Competitive and Efficient Lime Industry, Cornerstone for a Sustainable Europe, Summary of the Technical Report, European Lime Association, 2014). ...
Full-text available
Article
In persuasion of global commitment of the country on reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission, India’s ‘National Mission on Sustainable Habitat’ has included promotion of energy efficiency in residential and commercial sector and has envisaged that energy use in buildings varies significantly across income groups, building construction typology, climate and several other factors. Though substantial energy savings can be achieved in the housing sector through implementation of various carbon mitigation options, it was stated that the incremental cost of implementing energy efficient measures is estimated to vary between 3 and 5% for residential houses. The challenge before the engineers, architects and other professionals associated with building construction sector is to find out appropriate technologies that will ensure reduction of GHG emission without increasing cost of construction. As majority of construction in government sector will come from construction of small residential house belonging to Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) as part of government’s commitment to provide housing for all by 2020, assessment of GHG reduction potential of various cost-effective construction technologies is very essential to provide guidance to the stakeholders. This paper has surveyed various prevalent construction technologies in different parts of the country, analyzed the cost and embodied GHG emission for construction of the building envelope by collecting data through extensive search of literature and information obtained from construction sites. It has been found that there is ample scope of adoption of location-specific, cost-effective and eco-friendly construction technologies for construction of houses for EWS which are capable of reduction of GHG emission without any increase in cost of construction. The technologies can meet the commitment of the country at international level on reduction of GHG emission without any extra burden to state exchequer.
... Countries around the world are considering how to reduce carbon emissions and respond to new climate pressures (Olivier et al. 2005). Particular attention has been paid to reducing the amount of carbon emitted by buildings (Jeong et al. 2012), which account for approximately 25% of total worldwide carbon emissions (Cho et al. 2019). Wood, as a sustainable resource, has re-emerged as an attractive building material, and demand for wood construction material is steadily increasing (Falk 2009). ...
Full-text available
Article
The article deals with the effects of bulk density on thermal conductivity in specimens of 15Korean woods (Zelkova serrata, Pinus densiflora, Cornus controversa, Betula schmidtii, Betula platyphylla var. japonica, Ginkgo biloba L.,Cedrela sinensis A. Juss., Fraxinus mandshurica, Ulmus davidiana var. japonica, Prunus sargentii Rehder, Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud., Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carrière, Robinia pseudoacacia, Kalopanax septemlobus and Tilia amurensis).The results of this study were compared with previous studies performed on wood specimens fromChina, India, and Turkey. Consistent with these previous studies, bulk density and thermal conductivity were positively correlated in Korean woods, and a simple regression model with a very high correlation of R2(94%) was obtained. Interestingly, we observed some variation between our simple regression models and those generated by previous researchers who had examined non-Korean woods.
... The final demands of the construction and manufacturing sectors were equal to outputs from almost all energy sectors, taking into account both direct and indirect emissions. Jeong et al. (2012) aimed to measure CO2 emissions from the main construction materials used in construction sector in Korea in the buildings of different sizes. Calculation was made for the buildings consisting of 6 apartment types. ...
Full-text available
Article
Construction sector in Turkey has been accelerating over time, highly contributing to the release of emissions to the atmosphere that causes climate change and global warming. In line with the calculation of carbon footprint (CF), the direct and indirect sources of emissions arising from two different building typologies in Turkey, a hospital and a complex building covering shopping mall, offices and residences were determined representing the construction stage, and another hospital and a shopping mall were selected as examples of operation stage to cover the entire sector. The scope was determined according to classifications specified in ISO 14064 Greenhouse Gas Calculation and Verification Management System. The calculations were done by multiplying the emission factors obtained from international sources with the actual consumption values gathered from a Contractor Company established in Turkey. As studies on national emission factors have not yet been completed, internationally accepted and recognized values were used. In the light of determined emission sources and scopes, the CF of the hospitals and complex building projects for at least 2 years were calculated and the changes were evaluated. The findings obtained within the scope of the projects built and/or operated representing different building typologies in the construction sector indicated that electricity consumption had the largest share regarding the CF calculations. In addition, worldwide examples on mitigation applications were referred and underlined in the study.
... Table 4 shows the embodied energy and GHG emissions of the virgin and recycled materials. Comparing the embodied energy and GHG emissions of virgin materials summarized by the study of Chau and Leung [23], it can be confirmed that the embodied energy and GHG emissions of virgin materials calculated in this study are within the range of values investigated in previous studies [61][62][63][64]. On the other hand, the embodied energy and GHG emission of recycled materials Note. a Initial installation includes entire process from raw or recyclable materials supply to initial installation of PV system; and. ...
Article
This study was conducted to ascertain how the use of recycled materials instead of virgin materials affect the installation of renewable energy systems for the energy transition of buildings. LCA was used to estimate the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of building and renewable energy systems with and without using recycled materials. For the case study, a public building and four representative photovoltaic (PV) systems were selected. National recycling standards and processes were considered for suggested recycled materials. In general, replacing virgin material with recycled counterpart reduced embodied GHG emissions more than embodied energy. However, due to high carbon intensity of operation energy and building materials without available counterparts, using recycled materials reduced the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of the case building by 4.9% and 3.3%. Among four PV systems, using recycled materials was most significant in the single crystalline-silicon (sC-Si) PV system, 44.5% reduction of energy use and 41.3% reduction of GHG emissions. Therefore, when recycled materials are used for achieving the energy transition of the case building with the sC-Si PV system, the PV system requirements could be reduced by a maximum of 9.6% for energy payback and 4.9% for GHG payback. This study demonstrated that the use of recycled materials is effective at reducing the embodied energy and GHG emissions of PV systems as well as buildings. To achieve carbon-neutral buildings, particularly, the use of recycled materials based on a thorough LCA should be considered in addition to renewable energy system.
... Second, in line with the Korean standards for mid-rise apartment building models ( Shin et al., 2011 ). For simulation-based assessment, the selected medium-sized multifamily residential building was designed as a 3D model using Openstudio SketchUp Plugin software ( SketchUp software, 2020 ), according to the standard residential building floor plan ( Jeong et al., 2012 ), with a rectangular floor plan, which was simplified into 16 thermal zones for building energy analysis. Each floor has four zones i.e., thermal zones, with a total area of 238.4 m 2 and a total floor area of 953.6 m 2 . ...
Article
Given the growing environmental concerns due to climate change, the combination of renewable energy systems and feasible design optimization strategies of buildings, has been considered as a promising integrated solution to promote sustainable residential infrastructure and maintain carbon emission reductions. As part of promoting sustainable residential infrastructure development projects involving low-energy buildings, this study evaluates the feasibility of applying distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) systems and Bio-phase change materials (BioPCMs) with energy-efficient variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems in multifamily residential buildings. To this end, this study conducts lifecycle cost analysis (LCCA) of low-energy multifamily residential building (LEMRB) design with energy-efficient VRF type systems, distributed solar energy generation systems (PVs), and BioPCMs. To enable LEMRB design, Korean medium-sized multifamily residential buildings on the national level, are selected as a case study. The results demonstrate that the application of both solar PV systems and BioPCMs to medium-sized multifamily residential buildings significantly help to reduce 35.03-49.78% of the total annual energy needs of each medium-sized multifamily residential building in various Korean climatic locations. Accordingly, the lifecycle cost (LCC) of low-energy medium-sized multifamily residential buildings showed significantly feasible in all Korean climate locations, as the discounted payback (DPB) period of investment costs is ranged from 5 to 8 years. However, further systematic studies to optimize the efficiency of solar energy systems and phase change materials are required. These include investigating more residential design alternatives and considering the effects of uncertainty and degradation on LEMRB lifecycle performance for achieving more sustainably and cost-effectively low-energy multifamily residential buildings in the future.
... Concrete, along with steel and cement, is the most widely used material for building construction, accounting for 85% of total CO 2 emissions from the construction of residential apartments in Korea (Jeong et al. 2012). Therefore, several researchers have investigated the environmental benefits of replacing natural aggregate with recycled aggregate tailored to the circumstances in Korea. ...
Full-text available
Article
Construction and demolition waste generated in the Republic of Korea accounts for about half of the annual waste. The generation of construction waste is expected to increase gradually due to obsolete structures and reconstructions that have reached the end of their service life. Considering the geographical characteristics of Korea, where the land area is small and about 70% of which is mountainous, landfilling of waste is absolutely limited. Therefore, resource circulation such as recycling of construction waste is an urgent and important task. This paper overviews the current status of construction waste generation, treatment, and the flow of government policies in Korea. Furthermore, the current status, limitations, and stakeholder efforts regarding recycling of recycled aggregate from construction waste were reviewed. Data used in this paper were mostly collected from government reports, construction waste regulations, and research papers. The results show that construction waste management systems have been enacted and revised in line with social needs, and each stakeholder is making an effort to use the construction waste practically. The findings can provide valuable examples for countries that lack construction waste management systems. Graphic abstract
... For example, many countries, including Europe [40], China [41], and Japan [42], have different CO 2 emission units depending on the industrial structure of each country. In case of Korea, Hong et al. [43], Hong et al. [44], Jeong, Lee, Huh, and Lee [45], and Park et al. [46] referred to input and output tables of The Bank of Korea to define CO 2 emissions per construction material based on energy consumptions throughout all construction stages from materials gathering to processing to manufacturing. Such an estimated value of the basic CO 2 emissions per material quantity is the most logical method for estimating ECO 2 of materials. ...
Full-text available
Article
For heavily loaded long-span (HLS) logistics buildings, embodied CO2 (ECO2) of a structural frame accounts for more than 80% of the CO2 emissions of the entire building. To realize a sustainable structure from the CO2 perspective, an innovative construction method that reduces ECO2 of a structural frame is required. Through studies conducted over several years, we have developed a SMART (Sustainable, Measurable, Attainable, Reliable, and Timely) frame that is a steel connected composite precast concrete (CPC) frame that significantly reduces not only construction time and cost but also ECO2. If a SMART frame is applied to HLS logistics buildings, ECO2 reduction effects are expected to be substantial. To prove this, this study aims to analyze ECO2 reduction effects of the CPC frame for HLS logistics buildings. An HLS logistics building constructed with the existing precast concrete (PC) frame was selected as a case project. Thereafter, the typical PC girder was redesigned using the SMART frame; then, analysis was conducted on the quantity take-off of resources, such as form, rebar, steel, and concrete, as well as on ECO2 and production cost. As a result of the analysis, in the case of a single typical girder of the SMART frame, 730 kg-ECO2, which accounts for 9.52% of the CO2 emissions, was reduced compared to that of the existing PC frame. If only the typical girders of the case project are applied, a relatively larger quantity of 465 ton-ECO2 will be reduced. The results of this study will contribute in securing structural stability, as well as achieving a sustainable structure that leads to an unprecedented reduction of ECO2.
... While the energy consumption for cooling has been recently increased, a significant amount of energy still has used for heating in residential buildings [5,6]. Accordingly, there are several types of heating methods available including central gas heating, district heating, and individual gas heating. ...
Full-text available
Article
In South Korea, radiant floor heating has been used from old housing to the recently constructed residential buildings, which is called “Ondol”. The Ondol system is generally a water-based system and it uses hot water as a heat medium provided by boilers fueled by natural gas. With great effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, electric Ondol panels have been increasingly applied to the recent residential buildings for floor heating. While the prefab electric Ondol panels were developed with the demand for dry construction method, the information about the prefab electric Ondol system is not sufficient. For the present study, the thermal performance of the prefab electric Ondol panels was investigated through field measurement. In addition, the heating energy and economic performance of the electric panel were compared with the conventional Ondol system. As a result, a significant surface temperature difference was observed. Moreover, the heating cost for the prefab electric Ondol system was more expensive than the conventional system, even though a heat loss was observed by the operation of the conventional system.
... 1 ɷ> ɷ ɳ ʈ @ʺ ɳ ɳ ʆɳ ɷɳ ɳ ʆɳ ɷɳ ɳ ʆɳ ɷɳ ɳ ʆɳ ɷɳ 1 1 1 1 < < < < @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ 2 2 2 2 1 ----ʇ ɳ> < ʈ ʇ ɳ> <ʆɳ ɷ ʇ ɳ> < ʈ ʇ ɳ> <ʆɳ ɷ ʇ ɳ> < ʈ ʇ ɳ> <ʆɳ ɷ ʇ ɳ> < ʈ ʇ ɳ> <ʆɳ ɷ ʅ ɳ ɳ ʅ ɳ ɳ ʅ ɳ ɳ ʅ ɳ ɳ (ʇɷ) (ʇɷ) (ʇɷ) (ʇɷ) 2 2 2 2 ----> ɳ > ɳ > ɳ > ɳ ʇʈ ɷ ʇʈ ɷ ʇʈ ɷ ʇʈ ɷ <ʆɳ <ʆɳ <ʆɳ <ʆɳ ʇ ɳ> < ʈ ʇ ɳ> ʇ ɳ> < ʈ ʇ ɳ> ʇ ɳ> < ʈ ʇ ɳ> ʇ ɳ> < ʈ ʇ ɳ> ʅ ɳ ɳ ʅ ɳ ɳ ʅ ɳ ɳ ʅ ɳ ɳ (ʇɷ) (ʇɷ) (ʇɷ) (ʇɷ) Arn.akbarieh@ymail.com ɳ ɳ ɸ >ɳ ʇɷ ɷ> ɳ ʆ @ʺ ɳ < ɷ> ʈ ɷɳ >ɷ . ...
Full-text available
Conference Paper
با افزایش نگرانی ها درباره تاثیرات محیط زیستی صنعت ساختمان، انرژی نهفته و نشر کربن در مصالح مورد توجه قرار گرفتند. انرژی نهفته مجموع انرژی هایی است که در بازه عمر یک محصول از مرحله استخراج تا مرحله بازیافت مصرف می شود همچنین انرژی نهفته کمتر گویای این است که کربن دی اکسید کمتری در فرآیندهای تولید حمل و نقل و استفاده از آن مصالح تولید شده است و به اصطلاح ردپای کربن آن کوچک است در عصر حاضر که توسعه پایدار در دستور کار صنایع مختلف از جمله صنعت ساختمان است، انرژی نهفته به عنوان شاخص پایداری مصالح در نظر گرفته می شود با توجه به اینکه صنعت ساختمان بخش قابل توجه ای از انرژی را در جهان مصرف می کند انرژی نهفته در مصالح مختلفی مانند بتن، سیمان، فولاد، آجر، چوب، شیشه و آلومینیوم که در ساختمان سازی ایران متداول هستند در این مقاله بررسی می شود
... This study clearly shows how using different functional units can affect the outcome. Chau et al. (2015) quoted GHG emissions (in kg CO2 eq. per kg) and embodied energy intensities for a range of building materials, including plywood, obtaining these from the Bath ICE database, Basbagill et al. (2013) and Jeong et al. (2012) (Table 25). In a study of window frames made from different materials, the option with the lowest impact was an aluminium framed window according to Carlisle and Friedlander (2016) in a study funded by the International Aluminium Foundation. ...
Full-text available
Technical Report
The Norwegian Government has set ambitious goals for the fossil carbon intensiveness of the Norwegian economy. The built environment can make an important contribution towards achievingthose goals by:  Building energy efficient buildings;  Using low embodied energy materials;  Using construction materials as stores of atmospheric carbon dioxide. An analysis of life cycle assessment (LCA) studies published in the scientific literature has been undertaken. The use of timber in construction has an important role to play as part of an energy reduction and carbon storage strategy for the built environment. In the majority of studies analysed there is agreement that there are environmental advantages associated with the use of timber in construction from a climate change mitigation perspective. At the time of writing this report there is no LCA-based tool that is sophisticated enough to be used at the whole building level to assist in decision-making processes for materials to minimise environmental impacts. This can only be determined on a case-by-case basis. However, LCA can be used to inform policy decisions regarding the use of materials to minimise the climate change impacts of the built environment in Norway, if the GWP (global warming potential) impact category is used in combination with the embodied energy data. But the methodology does have inherent uncertainties. The original terms of reference for the report, were as follows:  General considerations on the different methods of environmental impact analysis and evaluations (LCA, EPD, HWP, BREEAM….) and what the differences are between these systems;  Conduct an analysis on wood LCAs that have been done in Norway and comparable countries, anda compilation of these data. Which factors influence the analysis and how much do single factors affect the result?  Conduct a similar analysis on competing materials like concrete and steel;  Conduct an analysis comparing the environmental impacts of wood and other materials. What is actually being compared and what does it imply for the real climate footprint?  Summarise the results, evaluation of their importance and the use such findings can have for political decisions in the future. The report begins with a description of the Norwegian built environment and forest products’ sectors and then gives an overview of the methodologies used in LCA and the strengths and weaknesses of the technique. LCA is a complex subject and there is still debate about the methodologies and impact categories. LCA does not have the level of accuracy needed in many impact categories in order to make comparative assessments and only the impact categories global warming potential and ozone layer depletion potential are considered to be sufficiently robust to give accurate and reliable data. A review of building assessment schemes has also been undertaken. LCA comprises only a minor part of building assessment schemes, such as the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and these have little to say about the choice of materials for construction. These schemes have some value in promoting more environmentally-conscious designs, but they are not sufficiently robust to be used as tools to inform policy-making, or building material choices. The report focuses on issues surrounding carbon sequestration in forests and how atmospheric carbon can be stored in long-life products in the built environment. One of the advantages of using timber in construction is the potential for the storage of biogenic carbon (derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide) in long-life structures. Although this does have a role to play in climate change mitigation, this literature review has revealed that most studies show that the effects of substitution for high embodied energy materials and for fossil fuels for energy production are much more significant. The overwhelming majority of LCAs of timber products have shown that the amount of atmospheric carbon stored in the wood (measured as CO2 equivalents) is always larger than the GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions associated with the processing of the material. Additional benefits arise when the wood is incinerated at the end of the life cycle, with substitution of fossil fuels. The highest fossil fuel substitution benefits arise when coal is replaced with timber wastes/by-products. In a Norwegian context, the highest benefits will arise if wood is used as a fuel for cement kilns, or as a carbon-source for aluminium anodes, followed by a replacement of oil for heating then natural gas for heating or electricity production. This report also reviews the scientific literature of published LCA studies of commonly-used building materials (timber, cement/concrete, aluminium, steel, poly(vinyl chloride)). It is shown that the outcomes of the LCAs are very heavily dependent upon the assumptions made and the system boundaries used. It is not possible to arrive at definitive a value of (for example, global warming potential, GWP) that is characteristic for a material, but there is a range of values. The methodology used to determine the environmental impacts is complex and many studies are not readily amenable to comparative studies. This is because of differences in functional unit, supporting databases, assumptions regarding material life, maintenance, end-of-life scenarios, etc. In addition, most studies lack sufficient transparency to allow for proper verification of the results obtained. LCAs also inevitably contain simplifications, which may affect the accuracy of the data. Most studies do not employ a sensitivity analysis to show how the assumptions and variabilities affect the results. It is necessary to consider the whole life cycle when making materials choices and the only way to do this is at the whole building level. However, this increases the degree of uncertainty in the calculations and involves assumptions and the introduction of scenarios which may not be realistic or reasonable. A variety of factors can affect the LCA of building materials over their lifetime, which can be divided into uncertainties and variabilities. Uncertainties arise from lack of precise knowledge regarding processes or the use of assumptions. Variabilities can arise due to different choices regarding the use of materials, such as frequency and type of maintenance, different disposal methods, transport distances, etc. Combinations of uncertainty and variability can be difficult to separate. There is considerable scope for uncertainty to affect the data, especially when the in-service and end-of-life stages of the life cycle are included. Consequently, there is considerable variability in the methodology applied for LCAs, which has a significant influence on the output and hence the task of making comparative assertions is extremely difficult. However, there has been some degree of consensus reached with the introduction of environmental product declarations (EPDs) and standardisation of procedures; known as product category rules (PCRs). Nonetheless, there is still concern that inter-product comparisons are not reliable, due to uncertainties and variations in the assumptions made, the use of different databases, etc. The main advantage with EPDs which are produced in conformity with the European standard EN 15804, is that the impacts have to be reported separately for different life cycle stages. Of these, the cradle to factory gate life cycle stage (modules A1-A3) is likely to be the most reliable, since this part of the life cycle involves the least assumptions and the most accurate data. This study has largely focussed on data concerned with the embodied energy associated with materials and the global warming potential (GWP) environmental impact category, because these have the lowest uncertainties. GWP data is strongly influenced by the time-frames of the study and by a range of different factors that have to be taken into account when making comparative studies:  Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the manufacture of construction materials, maintenance, replacement and disposal;  GHG emissions associated with operational energy requirements, if these are relevant and realistic and have not been introduced to favour one material over another;  Carbon emissions and storage from forestry operations and sequestration by growing biomass;  Substitution effects associated with the use of timber in comparison to other building materials;  End-of-life scenarios, such as recycling, or incineration with energy recovery. The embodied energy used to produce construction materials is an important consideration when analysing the environmental impacts. This initial embodied energy is to be distinguished from the recurring embodied energy which arises due to maintenance of the materials and the operating energy, which is energy consumed due to the operational requirements (e.g., heating) of the building. As the operating efficiency of buildings improves, the embodied energy will be a larger proportion of the overall energy requirements. The embodied energy also represents a greater proportion of the overall energy consumption of the sector in a growing market. Sawn timber products are lower embodied energy materials when compared, on a functional unit basis, with non-renewable construction products. The increased use of timber in construction will result in more carbon storage in the harvested wood products carbon pool at a critical time. This can form part of a wider strategy to move to a low fossil carbon economy. Although timber is the dominant material used in single-family dwellings, it is little used in multipleoccupancy buildings. The Norwegian forests are currently absorbing levels of carbon dioxide which are equivalent to about 40% of the annual emissions, but this will fall as the age structure of the forests matures. In order to maintain these high levels of sequestration it is necessary to increase the harvesting intensity of Norwegian forests. The carbon in the HWPs produced should be stored in long life products in the built environment for the maximum climate change mitigation effect. The use of timber in high-rise non-residential and multiple-occupancy residential construction would give benefits from a climate change mitigation perspective. The Norwegian forest products sector should use the opportunity provided by the increased use of timber in multi-occupancy and multi-storey buildings to develop an export industry in pre-fabricated structures. Adding value to the forest products sector is essential. By encouraging a cross laminated timber industry in Norway, there will be potential for export of multi-occupancy buildings using modular construction methods to exterior markets, such as the UK.
... Among abundant studies on carbon emission of the construction industry, most have concentrated as technical measures for CO 2 emission reduction in the construction industry (Jeong et al. 2012). Li et al. analyzed the influence of embodied carbon of residential buildings in China, evaluated the influence of concrete carbon by taking three types of residential buildings in China as an example, and introduced concrete carbon emission measures for the construction industry (Li et al. 2014). ...
Full-text available
Article
With the rapid development of urbanization, the Chinese construction industry has generated a large quantity of carbon emission and brought about challenges to sustainable development while making enormous contributions to national economic development. Thus, this industry is the key field of energy conservation and emission reduction. Facilitating sustainable development of the construction industry and scientifically and reasonably evaluating the carbon emission efficiency of the construction industry will be important for effectively controlling carbon emission and boosting the sustainable development of the construction industry. Carbon emission was added into the total-factor productivity model of the traditional construction industry as an environmental factor in this study, and a total-factor evaluation model for the carbon emission efficiency of the construction industry was constructed. Henan Province was taken as an example, and empirical analysis was conducted to determine the differences of Henan construction industry in the period of 2012-2018 in the aspect of carbon emission efficiency. Results showed that the total-factor carbon emission efficiency of Henan construction industry in the period of 2012–2018 was 1.084%, which indicated a certain increase in the total-factor emission efficiency of Henan construction industry over the 7 years. The overall resource utilization efficiency of Henan construction industry was improved by 0.84% due to the joint actions of elevated technological progress (by 0.35%) and improved technical efficiency (by 0.47%). Average pure technical efficiency was slightly reduced by 0.03%, which indicated that building scale was the driving force for improving the total-factor efficiency of the construction industry. The study results can provide systematic and comprehensive carbon emission information in the construction industry for policy making. Therefore, the carbon emission status of the construction industry in one province can be mastered from a provincial level to clarify responsibilities, facilitate coordinated development, and boost the efficiency and equity of emission reduction in the construction industry. This way will be important for finally realizing the goals of energy conservation, emission reduction, and low-carbon development.
... According to one assessment, the building sector generates almost 30% of global CO2 emissions (Jeong et al., 2012). Consequently, a reduction of material consumption by the construction industry can be an important factor in the reduction of CO2 emissions, and a reduction in material waste will indirectly lead to a reduction in a building's total embodied energy and an increase in its energy efficiency. ...
... Numerous studies of buildings to date mostly focused on reducing the energy consumption in the operation phase in order to decrease the amount of carbon emission [3,4]. However, the construction phase performance should be taken into consideration since the amount of material used for building construction will proportionally affect the level of the total building's embodied carbon, while different types of building material will additionally result in different amounts of energy demand in the operation phase [5,6]. ...
... These fractions can be used in road construction and backfilling to reduce the need for natural aggregates and land filling. Jeong et al. (2012) evaluated the amount of carbon dioxide of thirteen major construction materials for six cases of apartments. These materials were classified into three major divisions which are; structural materials, finishing materials, and equipment materials. ...
Article
The construction industry is considered as one of the most dynamic sectors that have upstream and downstream economic links and has been growing rapidly in the last few decades. On the other hand, it is considered as one of the main sources of greenhouse gases where construction projects represent a huge portion of sources producing carbon dioxide gases (CO2). Furthermore, greenhouse gases (GHG) are one of construction emissions that should be investigated to calculate the overall emissions. Therefore, estimating construction emissions is very important in order to keep emissions at an acceptable level. This paper presents a building information modeling (BIM)-based model that enables the estimation of six types of emissions including: greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide, particular matter, eutrophication particles, ozone depleting particles and smog. As such, the total direct and indirect emissions can be calculated where these emissions are produced from construction activities during the overall project life cycle phases which are: manufacturing phase, transportation phase, construction phase, operation phase, maintenance phase, and deconstruction/demolition phase. The methods of calculating direct and indirect emissions are extensively described in the paper. A case study is presented to illustrate the use of the proposed BIM-based model.
... In terms of building materials, it is found that this study basically covers the types of building materials in other literature, indicating that this paper is consistent with other studies in the scope of research. In terms of the types of building materials that account for more than 80 % of the environmental impact, Andersson et al. (Andersson, Barkander, & Kono, 2017;Kang, Kim, Kim, Cho, & Kang, 2015;Jeong, Lee, & Huh, 2012;Kumanayake & Luo, 2018;Monahan & Powell, 2011) identify that the proportion of environmental impact of steel, concrete, cement mortar and masonry materials reaches about 80 % in Fig. 24. It shows that the main four types of building materials quatified in this paper are representative. ...
... High-rise apartment buildings comprise one of the primary residential housing types in South Korea, and their number is increasing (i.e., 13.8% in 2007, 15.9% in 2010, 16.7% in 2013, and 19.0% in 2016) [1]. Many of the existing apartment buildings (i.e., approximately 2.24 million households) were new constructions built between 2011 and 2016 [1][2][3]. This phenomenon has resulted in a substantial rise in heating energy consumption in the residential building sector [4][5][6][7][8][9]. ...
Full-text available
Article
The number of domestic apartment houses in South Korea that use district heating is steadily increasing. In addition, most Korean residential buildings use radiant floor heating systems. For such systems, the heating water temperature supplied by a heat exchanger in a mechanical room serves as one of the critical control parameters for providing heat to individual residential apartments. Fixed temperature (FT) and outdoor temperature reset control (OTR) have conventionally been used to adjust the heating supply water temperature. However, both control methods have a major technical weakness; they do not reflect changes in residents’ heating use. To overcome this issue, this study proposes a new method for controlling the heating supply water temperature, called Residential Energy Demand (RED). To verify the proposed method, researchers conducted both simulation- and experiment-based tests. The RED control method achieved about 4% reduction in heating energy consumption compared to the conventional OTR control process. In addition, the RED control method increased the average indoor temperature by 0.17 °C during the heating period. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the proposed control method is capable of achieving energy savings and a warmer thermal indoor environment.
... Previous occupants receive monetary compensation from real estate speculators, and relocate in peripheral low-income districts [24]. JRP-based redevelopments of apartment neighborhoods are responsible for the production of demolition waste [25], emissions from new construction [26], and gentrification [27]. ...
Full-text available
Article
More than 60% of housing in South Korea consists of mass constructed apartment neighborhoods. Due to poor quality construction materials and components, the average operative life of apartment buildings is 20 years. The rapid degradation and low maintenance condition of transparent and semi-opaque components, as well as the limited daylight access in the standard apartment layout, are cause for the lower visual comfort of occupants. This research analyzes the improvement in visual comfort for the renovation of an exemplary apartment unit in Seoul, using Building Information Modeling (BIM) and parametric environmental analysis tools. The existing apartment is virtually reconstructed with BIM software. The building model is exported to Computer-Aided Design software to execute parametric daylight analyses through environmental simulation software. An enhanced modular building envelope and apartment layout are developed to reduce the energy demand for heating, cooling, artificial lighting, and to improve visual and thermal comfort. The visual comfort analysis of the refurbished apartment results in average improvements of 15% in terms of Daylight Factor and 30% of daylight autonomy. Therefore, this research proposes, the renovation of aged Korean apartment buildings to enhance daylighting and visual comfort.
... EPA, 2015; Myclimate, xxxx), academic writings (e.g. Suzuki, Oka, & Okada, 1995;Yan, Shen, Fan, Wang, & Zhang, 2010;Jeong, Lee, & Huh, 2012;Sandanayake, Lokuge, Zhang, Setunge, & Thushar, 2018) have been developed. Since we just want to validate the proposed model and confirm the efficiency of that, obtaining exact data for environmental and social parameters is not our first priority. ...
... Driven by mandatory energy reduction targets and an ambitious plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60e65% by 2030, China is seeking to achieve a greener and more sustainable urbanization process by improving energy efficiency in the building sector. Although the operational phase consumes more energy in the lifecycle of a building, the significance of investigating the embodied energy use of a building has been gradually realized by the research community because of its vital role in achieving sustainability in the building sector (Emmanuel, 2004;Huberman and Pearlmutter, 2008;Jeong et al., 2012;Tucker et al., 1993). ...
Article
Given the substantial resource use and emissions generated from the building sector, China is seeking a more sustainable and greener mode of building construction. To grasp the characteristics of the embodied energy use of the building sector across provinces in China, a multidimensional framework is developed to examine the spatial and sectoral distributions through the whole supply chain using a multiregional input-output (MRIO) analysis and structural path analysis (SPA) as the underlying methods. The results show that from a regional perspective, Liaoning, Shandong, and Guangdong are identified as top contributors, while from a sectoral perspective, the manufacture of nonmetallic mineral products, smelting and pressing of metals, and transportation, storage, posts, and telecommunications are the largest energy suppliers. The upstream examination indicates that self-digestion is an obvious and dominant energy use behavior for most regions, while the relative importance of sectoral suppliers changes regularly with the increase in upstream stages. The energy capture that occurred in the cross-regional energy transfers indicates that Zhejiang and Hebei are the national leading net importer and net exporter of energy use in China's building sector, respectively.
... Therefore, improving the energy efficiency in buildings might help to reduce the amount of CO 2 emissions which represent the leading causes of global warming. Notably, the construction industry contributes nearly 40 % of the total CO 2 emissions globally [47] as the industry consumes a significant amount of energy to operate. Interestingly, most of the time this industry is responsible for altering much of the landscape and adversely impacting the environment [46]. ...
Article
Building information modelling (BIM) is usually implemented for gathering, generating and analysing building information, while providing benefits and enhancements regarding the level of communication between all parties and stakeholders involved. BIM helps to overcome inconsistency in building performance and any deficiencies that result in the age of the building and services. Whether managing and maintaining a facility or performing retrofit measures in buildings, it requires historical building data. This article aims to review a general framework of BIM and its application in the pre-construction and post-construction phases with regards to undertaking an energy performance assessment. The computational analysis from previous researchers has been reviewed and discussed regarding optimisation and simulation tools that are employed for the application of performing a building energy assessment. Furthermore, this article has reviewed the present situation of BIM in the context of the Malaysian construction industry and the potential for its implementation for energy performance analysis.
... By investigating CO 2 emissions of 78 office buildings in China during the pre-use stage, it was found that material production accounted for 75% of the total CO 2 emissions and steel, concrete, mortar and wall materials made up over 80% of the emissions of material production stage ( Luo et al., 2015). Most of the previous studies focused on reinforced concrete structures which gave evidence for the prominence of concrete and reinforcement steel in carbon emissions during the material production stage ( Jeong et al., 2012;Luo et al., 2015;Sim et al., 2016). The life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption of pre-fabricated reusable building modules have been compared with those of the conventional concrete construction methods ( Aye et al., 2012). ...
... This frame is constructed throughout 66 four phases: fabrication of formwork and scaffolding, erection of 67 reinforcement bar, placement of concrete, and dismantling of form- 68 work and scaffolding [8] . The second component is known as a 69 wall system which consists of non-load bearing brick acting as 70 infill materials. Meanwhile, cast-in-situ formworks, prefabricated, 71 and composite systems were classified as IBS. ...
Full-text available
Article
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is considered to be the most systematic methodology that is widely used in the area of energy analysis. However, embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) analysis requires significant time and effort to ensure the reliability of the LCA results. Therefore, a more comprehensive model of conducting the energy analysis is required to provide more realistic EE and EC analysis in turn. Hybrid LCA has been identified as the best model in improving the completeness of EE and EC inventory data. However, such a benefit was not empirically verified extensively, especially in the Malaysian construction industry. This paper demonstrates an extended application of hybrid LCA to Malaysian building design systems, and further investigates the completeness of the model. Finally, the potential for EE and EC reduction through the allocation of low EE and EC intensities of alternative materials, products or components has been evaluated. The results revealed that the hybrid LCA improved the completeness of the EE and EC inventory data compared with other models. By using low EE and EC intensity materials, products or components, a total EE and EC reduction of 43% and 41%, respectively was achieved. The results showed that the proposed methodology can assist designers practically during the early stage of the design process in the Malaysian construction industry.
... The carbon emissions 8 of pre-fabricated and conventionally constructed buildings were compared and the advantages of pre- 9 fabricated buildings in terms of carbon emissions were emphasized [23][24][25][26]. The importance of the main 10 structural materials such as concrete and steel in embodied carbon assessment of buildings was identified in a 11 number of studies [8,[24][25][26][27][28][29]. Atmaca and Atmaca [30] pointed out that material selection, durability, local 12 availability and recycling facilities are important considerations for a building to perform efficiently in terms 13 of energy and carbon emissions. ...
Full-text available
Article
Buildings, due to their significant environmental footprint, are major contributors to global energy use and carbon emission. Although buildings consume more than 50% of raw materials in the construction sector of Sri Lanka, there is a notable lack of building energy and carbon related studies based on the country. The present study assesses the embodied carbon of a commercial office building in Sri Lanka, focusing on the material production phase of the building life cycle. The embodied carbon in the material production phase was found to be 629.6 kgCO2/m² of the gross floor area of the building. Reinforced concrete and clay bricks are the major carbon emitting materials contributing to more than 70% of the total embodied carbon. It was found that in selecting building materials, both the mass materials and high carbon emitting materials should be given special attention. The study identified several important strategies for the reduction of embodied energy and carbon of buildings in Sri Lanka. Taking a proactive approach in mitigating embodied energy and carbon impacts of buildings will lead to energy efficient and low-carbon buildings, enabling Sri Lanka to take part in overcoming the global environmental challenges in future.
Article
With the proposal of carbon neutralization, countries pay much more attention to environmental protection. As waste electric vehicle battery (WEVB) has an important impact on the environment, its reverse logistics process has been a vital issue, in which an excellent reverse logistics network (RLN) becomes a prerequisite for waste recycling, cost reduction, profit increasement and efficiency improvement. However, reverse logistics network design (RLND) for WEVBs is still a significant challenge. In general, the amount and quality of the returned product in a RLN are highly uncertain, and the WEVB market in China is no exception to this. From a circular economic and environmental perspective, this paper is devoted to designing a multi-participants-based RLN for WEVBs, considering recycling and remanufacturing processes. Then, a fuzzy optimization model is proposed to determine the number and location of facilities in this RLN, promote sustainable development, reduce environmental pollution, and consider carbon emissions and two types of WEVBs. Finally, the results from a case study in Chongqing show good performance in cost reduction, profit increasement and efficiency improvement, which could significantly support the decision-making of WEVBs recycling.
Article
Although aerogels exhibit excellent thermal insulating properties, their high costs and poor mechanical properties have hindered their application. Semi-rigid polyurethane foams (SRPUFs) have been widely used in daily life as thermal and acoustic insulators owing to their low cost and good mechanical properties despite their poorer thermal insulating performance compared with aerogels. To utilize both aerogels and SRPUFs, in this study, we prepared a SRPUF/aerogel composite using an economical and practical approach for the first time. Specifically, a sol state of polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) was prepared via the hydrolysis of methyltrimethoxysilane under acidic conditions, followed by the gelation of PMSQ on the surface of SRPUF under basic conditions to yield the SRPUF/aerogl composite. The fabricated SRPUF/aerogel composite with 63 phr (parts per hundred resin) of PMSQ aerogel exhibits promising properties, including a decline in the thermal conductivity from 41.0 to 36.0 mW/m·K and an improvement in the average sound absorption coefficient at higher frequency range from 0.57 to 0.67 compared with neat SRPUF. Moreover, the composite exhibits enhanced hydrophobicity, which is crucial for preserving the structural, thermal, and acoustic features of the composite in use. Hence, we expect that this study will set a precedent for the utilization of the excellent thermal properties of aerogels for various applications.
Full-text available
Article
Driven by energy shortages and climate concerns, the electric vehicles are popular around the world with their energy-saving and environmentally friendly advantages. As electric vehicle batteries (EVBs) mainly use lithium batteries, and the batteries’ performance decreases with the increase of charging times, a large number of batteries are entering the end-of-life (EoL) stage. Recycling and reuse of EVBs are effective ways to reduce environmental pollution and promote resources utilization and is now a top priority. Building a recycling network is the foundation of battery recycling. However, there are few studies on battery recycling networks and the construction of recycling networks is expensive, which impedes the sustainable development of electric vehicles. Based on this, recycling network design is critical for EVB recycling. This paper first analyzes three strategies to deal with used batteries: remanufacturing, reuse, and recycling materials. Secondly, an EVB recycling network model is developed with the objective of minimizing the total cost and carbon emissions. The model solves the problem of siting the centers in the network and the vehicle routing in the recycling process. Finally, the model was applied to GEM (a Chinese company dedicated to circular economy) and validated using a greedy algorithm. In addition, the results show that logistics costs and operating costs account for the majority of the recycling network total expense, at 48.45% and 31%, respectively. Therefore, if companies want to further reduce the cost of EVB recycling, they should reduce logistics costs and operating costs. In summary, this paper provides a decision-making approach for EVB recycling enterprises to carry out recycling and reuse, and offers advice on how to promote the sustainable economic and environmental development of the electric vehicle battery industry.
Article
s The building industry has traditionally been driven by cost and time metrics while meeting quality and safety requirements. However, environmental concerns such as the carbon effect of the final product receive less attention. Due to increasing emissions awareness within the society, there have been calls from the public for greater environmental and social accountability. While many client organizations seek to add environmental measures to their tender selection criteria, efforts to reduce carbon emissions in the building construction are not well understood. This paper proposes that by selecting appropriate structural parameters and building sites, the construction of buildings will be in accordance with a low carbon footprint intensity (CFI). This is demonstrated by the analysis of various factories producing structural materials, along with a wide range of residential buildings. It was found that through the replacement of steel structures with concrete structures, a 24.46% decrease (69.97 kg/m²) in the CFI of structures will be achieved. It was also found that replacing an eight-story steel structure with two different four-story structures will result in a 35.94% (127.82 kg/m²) reduction in carbon intensity. In addition, a 14.44% (47.64 kg/m²) reduction in the CFI of a steel structure located in a site with stiff soil was observed by relocating it to a very dense soil site. This figure for a concrete structure was 13.94% (34.87 kg/m²). It is hoped that project managers and client organizations find the results of this research useful when deciding on structural parameters with lower carbon emissions. In this way, the paper contributes to the current performance of sustainable buildings.
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Este trabalho busca mostrar, através de um estudo de caso, como a vida útil de projeto pode ser utilizada como estratégia para a redução de impactos ambientais gerados por estruturas de concreto armado. Os modelos para análise foram gerados a partir dos projetos estruturais elaborados para um edifício comercial de 30 pavimentos em concreto armado, considerando vidas úteis de projeto de 50 (Modelo I) e 100 (Modelo II) anos. Os impactos ambientais gerados pelos diferentes modelos estruturais nas fases de produção de materiais, construção da estrutura e fim de vida, foram quantificados através da aplicação da metodologia de Avaliação do Ciclo de Vida (ACV). Os resultados da ACV mostram que a etapa de produção dos materiais é a responsável pela maior parte dos impactos ambientais gerados por ambos os modelos. Os impactos ambientais quantificados para o Modelo I correspondem a 75-90% dos quantificados para Modelo II, e a diferença se torna menos expressiva para as categorias de impacto acidificação, depleção da camada de ozônio e mudanças climáticas. Este estudo de caso evidencia o potencial de redução dos impactos ambientais em estruturas de concreto armado com o aumento da vida útil de projeto.
Chapter
The construction industry is regarded as a major contributor to environmental emissions, due to extensive usage of resources and the waste products produced. This article presents a building information modeling (BIM)-based model that is capable of measuring six types of emissions for different activities of construction projects. The paper investigates eight multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques for ranking alternatives based on project time; project life cycle cost; project environmental impact; and primary energy consumed by different activities. Three group decision- making techniques are performed to provide consensus and final ranking of alternatives. The Monte Carlo simulation is implemented in order to account for the discrepancy in the calculation of greenhouse gases produced from buildings. Also, a case study of academic buildings is introduced in order to demonstrate the practical features of the proposed model.
Article
The development of prefabricated concrete (PC) buildings can potentially reduce the consumption of resources and energy, and meet the requirements of low carbon and environmental protection in the construction industry. Therefore, this study aims to investigate PC buildings and their carbon footprint in the materialization phase. Based on databases from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Chinese Life Cycle Database (CLCD), a database of carbon emission factors was compiled. A carbon footprint calculation model for the materialization phase of PC buildings was established combining with BIM technology. The obtained results indicate that the carbon footprint per unit area of PC construction projects is significantly lower than that of other building types. The carbon footprint of the production phase accounts for more than 90% of the total, and the carbon footprint per unit area of the transportation phase and the construction and installation phase are equivalent. The carbon emission of a building material on its degree of influence is ranked as cement, steel, concrete and wire. In addition, the results can also provide a theoretical support for the formulation of regulations and emission reduction policies based on building energy conservation and carbon emission reduction.
Article
Passive building is generally regarded as the energy-efficient building to reduce the primary energy consumption and related carbon emissions. It is suggested that the most effective way to minimize the space heating energy demand is to decrease heat loss by enhancing the thermal and airtightness performance of building envelope. And it is suited to the buildings in cold climates for decreasing space heating energy consumption which dominates the operational energy. However, the appropriate design strategy of building depends on climates. In HSCW (hot summer and cold winter) zone in China, for instance, the space heating is just one issue of energy demand in operational stage, the energy use for cooling and dehumidification in summer also accounts for a considerable proportion in operational stage of buildings. The effect of decreasing the cooling energy demand will become smaller as thickness of insulation layer increases, the unfavorable highly insulated envelope may even cause the overheating risk in summer. In addition, embodied energy and carbon emissions will markedly increase as more materials are consumed in passive buildings. Therefore, in order to get an appropriate design strategy of passive buildings in HSCW zone in China, further research on energy consumption and carbon emissions of embodied and operational stage is needed. In this case, detailed life cycle analysis of embodied and operational energy use and carbon emissions of a passive building is given and then compared with a conventional building in the same unique climate zone. The embodied energy consumption and carbon emissions of the passive building is 7.31 GJ/m² and carbon 0.98 t CO2 eq/m², 37.6% and 16.2% higher than that of conventional building respectively. Due to the benefits on the operational stage, the total life cycle energy requirement and carbon emissions of passive building is 17.4% and 22.7% lower than that of conventional building, respectively. Towards a zero energy and impact building, the design of passive cooling, high efficiency cooling equipment and renewable energy to reduce remaining energy demand should be paid more attention in further passive buildings in this climate.
Article
This study provides the physical and durable properties of chemically bonded cements (CBC)-based repair materials containing magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics (MKPC) for concrete slab under laboratory atmospheric conditions, comparing it to the existing calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) type commercial ultra-rapid hardening cement for concrete repair. Also, this paper presents the field application of MKPC-based repair material. The results obtained from the laboratory tests during the fresh state show similar levels of workability and working time to the commercial repair material. Regarding the physical and durable properties of hardened MKPC-based mortar, it shows more desirable characteristics than the commercial repair material. In the field application, the MKPC-based repair material for cracks demonstrates considerable volume stability for a year, not showing any crack propagation and reoccurrence. Furthermore, for overlay repair, MKPC-based material shows good bonding strength to old substrate concrete slab.
Full-text available
Article
The type of frame system, materials, and power consumption used for the construction of new buildings cause environmental issues because of the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Therefore, a new type of sustainable precast concrete structural system called SMART frame has been introduced to reduce the CO2 emissions during the construction of buildings. To determine the effectiveness of the CO2 emission reduction based on the new SMART frame, a similar frame configuration based on reinforced concrete (RC) was used. The SMART and RC building frames consisted of 12 storeys with similar floor areas and were designed under similar conditions. The CO2 emissions based on the material resources and construction methods used for the two building models were analysed. Additionally, the power consumption associated with the use of electricity and fuels for the devices and equipment was considered in the analysis of the total CO2 emissions. The total CO2 emissions of the SMART and RC frame buildings in kilograms (kg) per square meter (m²) are 455.94 and 516.12 kg CO2/m², respectively. Thus, the total amount of CO2 emission reduction achieved in this study is 60.18 kg CO2/m². In terms of the individual effects of materials and power consumption, the SMART building has a larger contribution, accounting for a 12.42% and 8.12% decrease in the CO2 emissions, respectively, compared with the RC building. Overall, based on the materials and power consumption used during the construction stage of the SMART frame building, the total CO2 emissions decreased by 11.66% compared with the RC building. Therefore, the SMART frame can be adopted as a sustainable frame alternative to the RC frame system.
The materials stocked in infrastructures comprehensively reflect resource consumption, waste generation and sustainable development; therefore, research investigating this topic is particularly important. First, this paper uses the bottom-up material flow analysis method to account for the material stocks (MS) in urban infrastructures and examines the spatial and temporal changes in the MS in China from 1997 to 2016. The results show that MS increased 4.04 times during this period and are spatially inclined to decrease from coastal regions to inland areas. Second, this paper combines the population and economic factors using the IPAT model (which considers the environmental Impact as a product of the Population, Affluence and Technology) and a panel data regression analysis to conclude that affluence is the major driving factor increasing MS, while the impact of technology has a negative effect throughout China. The effect of affluence in different regions is consistent with that throughout China, but the population and technology changes have different effects. Third, this study estimates the environmental impact under different scenarios and proposes suggestions and strategies for promoting sustainable development.
Article
Under the background of the development of construction waste recycling in China, optimizing the site of construction waste recycling and disposal plant is important, considering not only the cost of construction waste recycling but also the impact on the surrounding environment. This study aims to minimize the cost and negative environmental effects. In order to find the best method to solve the problem of multiobjective function optimization, we propose a multiobjective location model which combines genetic algorithm with probabilistic robust optimization. The model first uses genetic algorithm to get preliminary result and then it uses probabilistic robust optimization to find the optimal solution. The preliminary results show that 1, 3, 5 of the candidate sites more cost-effective and environmentally friendly than other. The fitness value converges at a stable value of 1.55 × 10⁻⁵, and the Pareto optimal frontier presents considerable clustering characteristics, which prove the rationality and operability of the site selection optimization model. Meanwhile, the robust model analysis under the given uncertain environment achieves the purpose of further optimization of the site. The research results can provide the government with a theoretical basis for the site selection of construction and demolition waste recycling plants.
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Abstrak Embodied energy dan carbon emission merupakan parameter yang sering digunakan dalam penelitian Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Kedua penelitian tersebut memiliki implikasi yang berbeda dalam menilai kualitas material bangunan. Namun perbedaannya masih sulit untuk dipisahkan sehingga penggunaan kedua parameter tersebut selalu dikaitkan satu sama lain. Hal ini menyebabkan sulitnya perumusan permasalahan penelitian dalam mengukur embodied energy dan carbon emission pada material bangunan. Artikel ini bermaksud memaparkan bagaimana hubungan, posisi dan karakteristik embodied energy dan carbon emission dalam penelitian LCA terutama kaitannya dengan kualitas lingkungan serta memperjelas ruang lingkup permasalahan penelitian yang dapat dirumuskan dengan menggunakan kedua parameter tersebut. Kata-kunci : embodied energy, carbon emission, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), material bangunan, permasalahan penelitian Pengantar Penilaian kualitas lingkungan akibat penggunaan material bangunan beberapa waktu ini men-dapat perhatian yang lebih signifikan akibat dari berbagai kerusakan lingkungan yang diakibatkan oleh kegiatan konstruksi bangunan. Hal ini juga diungkapkan oleh Bribián et al. (2011) bahwa pekerjaan sipil dan konstruksi bangunan meng-konsumsi 60% dari bahan baku yang diambil dari litosfer. Upaya yang dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi kerusakan lingkungan yaitu dikeluarkannya standar internasional untuk menilai kualitas lingkungan atau lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Penilaian LCA mengkaji daur hidup bangunan yang dimulai dari ekstraski bahan bangunan sampai demolisasi bangunan. Embodied energy dan carbon emission merupakan kajian yang sering digunakan dalam pendekatan LCA. Tidak hanya LCA, sebagian besar penelitian yang berkaitan dengan penilaian kerusakan lingkungan menggunakan kedua ukuran ini dengan menghitung berapa besar jumlah embodied energy dan carbon emission yang dihasilkan pada proses pembuatan maupun konstruksi material. Penelitian kualitas material bangunan yang sering mengaitkan kedua ukuran ini membuat definisi keduanya menjadi kabur padahal keduanya memiliki implikasi yang berbeda satu sama lain ketika digunakan dalam penelitian. Selain itu ketepatan penggunaan parameter dan metode penelitian dalam membahas per-masalahan embodied energy dan carbon emission imerupakan hal yang substansial yang berpengaruh pada kevalidan hasil penelitian. Salah satu hal yang penting untuk diper-timbangkan dalam penggunaan embodied energy dan carbon emission sebagai parameter untuk menilai kualitas material yaitu dengan mengetahui kapan dan bagaimana kedua tersebut dapat digunakan sebagai parameter dalam penelitian LCA. Pemahaman mengenai hubungan, posisi dan karakteristik embodied energy dan carbon emission dapat membantu memperjelas permasalahan penelitian untuk menilai kualitas material terhadap lingkungan. Artikel ini akan membahas parameter dan metode yang digunakan untuk mengukur embodied energy dan carbon emission dengan membahas berbagai preseden untuk memper-jelas karakteristik kedua parameter tersebut dalam perumusan permasalahan penelitian.
Book
This book explains how energy demand and energy consumption in new buildings can be predicted and how these aspects and the resulting CO2 emissions can be reduced. It is based upon the authors’ extensive research into the design and energy optimization of office buildings in Chile. The authors first introduce a calculation procedure that can be used for the optimization of energy parameters in office buildings, and to predict how a changing climate may affect energy demand. The prediction of energy demand, consumption and CO2 emissions is demonstrated by solving simple equations using the example of Chilean buildings, and the findings are subsequently applied to buildings around the globe. An optimization process based on Artificial Neural Networks is discussed in detail, which predicts heating and cooling energy demands, energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Taken together, these processes will show readers how to reduce energy demand, consumption and CO2 emissions associated with office buildings in the future. Readers will gain an advanced understanding of energy use in buildings and how it can be reduced.
Article
A better understanding of the economy-material-emissions nexus is fundamental in order to reveal the interactions between human development and the natural environment, and more importantly, to design integrated de-carbonization and de-materialization policies. In this paper, we conducted a decoupling analysis of fossil fuel-induced CO2 emissions and in-use material stocks in infrastructure to economic growth at the provincial level in China and investigated the trilateral causal relationships among the three indicators. The results show that the average elasticity of CO2 emissions and material stocks to economic growth was smaller than 1, representing a status of relative decoupling. However, in many less developed provinces in central and western China, we observed increasing trends of elasticity in the past three decades, which suggest their economic growth became more tightly linked to CO2 emissions and the accumulation of material stocks. Granger tests suggest that in the long run there existed a unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions, economic growth and urbanization to material stocks. In the short run, a bi-directional causality between CO2 emissions and economic growth and a unidirectional causality from material stocks to CO2 emissions were detected. Policy implications for the de-carbonization and de-materialization transition include enhancing renewable energy utilization, upgrading industries to less carbon-intensive ones, developing compact cities, prolonging the lifespan of infrastructure, and strengthening the life-cycle carbon management of infrastructure.
Full-text available
Article
The energy and environmental implications of applying different conservative technologies in school buildings in arid Andean regions of Mendoza—Argentina have been assessed in this work using life cycle assessment. The case studied is a school building which has recently been built in Lavalle, a county in northern Mendoza's province. The obtained results show that almost all the environmental effects investigated are improved when the conservative technologies are implemented, except for the photochemical ozone formation potential. The use of wood in an uncontrolled combustion as the energetic source for brick baking has been identified as the responsible process of that unintended negative effect.
Full-text available
Article
The article provides a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a 3-bed room semi detached house in Scotland. Detailed LCA of five main construction materials i.e. wood, aluminium, glass, concrete and ceramic tiles have been provided to determine their respective embodied energy and associated environmental impacts. Embodied energy of various construction materials involved has been estimated to be equal to 227.4 GJ. It is found that concrete, timber and ceramic tiles are the three major energy expensive materials involved. It as been calculated that concrete alone consumes 65% of the total embodied energy of the home while its share of environmental impacts is even more crucial.
Article
A method for estimating CO2 emissions given off over the entire life cycle of various types of residential buildings was examined. In the method for estimating CO2 emissions, the life cycle of a residential building was divided into four stages (manufacturing, construction, operation, and demolition). The result showed that CO2 emissions resulting from construction, including manufacturing building materials for residential building were in the range of 381.1-620.1 kg-C/10 m(2) for each building type. However, Most CO2 emissions given off during the residential building life cycle were due to the building operation having 87.5-96.9% of total CO2 emissions. And when comparing residential building types, single-family houses using liquefied petroleum gas as the main heating energy source had the lowest CO2 emissions, with 5,260 kg-C/10 m(2) of floor area during their life cycles. On the other hand, single-family houses using briquette as the main heating energy source had the highest CO2 emissions (15,100 k-C/10 m(2)), with emissions being 2.9 times more than those of the (former) single-family house using liquefied petroleum gas.
Article
Buildings’ construction has a major determining role on the environment through consumption of land and raw materials and generation of waste. It is also a significant user of non-renewable energy and an emitter of greenhouse gases and other gaseous wastes. As environmental issues continue to become increasingly significant, buildings become more energy efficient and the energy needs for their operation decreases. Thus, the energy required for construction and consequently, for the material production, is getting of greater importance. The present paper investigates the role of different construction materials and quantifies them in terms of the embodied energy and the equivalent emissions of CO2 and SO2 in contemporary office buildings. It also assesses the importance of the embodied energy of the building's structure as compared to the operational energy of the building. It was shown that the embodied energy of the structure's building materials (concrete and reinforcement steel) represents the largest component in the building's total embodied energy of the examined buildings, varing from 66.73% to 59.57%, while the embodied energy of the building envelope's materials represents a lower but significant proportion of the building's total embodied energy. When the construction elements are examined, the slabs have the higher contribution at the embodied energy of the studied buildings and from the envelope elements, the external wall is contributing the maximum in the overall embodied energy of the building. The embodied energy correspondence varies between 12.55 and 18.50% of the energy needed for the operation of an office building over a 50 years life.
Article
A great quantity of CO2 is emitted to the atmosphere through the different phases of a building life cycle: in the production of materials and products, in the construction of the building itself, in the setting on site, in the exploitation, the renovations, the later rehabilitations, up to the final demolition. The present paper shows the possibility of reducing the CO2 emissions up to 30% in the construction phase, through a careful selection of low environmental impact materials. The purpose of this study is to quantify the total amount of CO2 emissions saved by the method presented in the particular phase of material selection within the life cycle of a building. This material selection, as well as the bioclimatic characteristics, must be defined from the early design project phase.The research presented here has been carried out on a case study of three terraced houses built in Spain, comparing them with a building with similar characteristics but constructed in a conventional way and with no selection of materials. The houses have been constructed following low environmental impact criteria, including alternative energies for future use and maintenance.
Article
Basic sector classification Input/Output Tables of Japan (Research Committee of International Trade and Industry, Tokyo, Japan, 1988) were applied to quantify the total energy consumption and CO2 emission including direct and indirect effects due to the construction of various types of houses. As a result, energy consumption for construction is calculated as 8–10 GJ per square meter of floor area for multi-family SRC (steel reinforced concrete) houses, 3 GJ for wooden single-family houses, 4.5 GJ for lightweight steel structure single-family houses. CO2 emission resulting from construction is 850, 250 and 400 kg/m2, respectively.
Article
During the design process of heating and air conditioning systems, the designer must analyse various factors in order to determine the best design options. Therefore, the environmental aspects of a product should be included in the analysis and selection of design options if an environmentally aware design is to be produced or selected. The comparison between three different heating systems was made with the Eco-indicator 95 method. The study included the environmental impact at the production phase of the system, because alternative production methods have different kinds of environmental burdens. The results showed that the three different concepts of heating systems with different construction materials varied the Eco-indicator value. For radiator heating system the Eco-indicator value is far superlative than for floor or fan coil convector heating system. Copper pipes and other copper parts contribute to the greatest environmental impact. Radiator heating Eco-indicator showed three times higher value for copper pipes than for the steel pipes despite smaller dimensions. The lowest values are obtained for floor heating systems. Reasonable values are obtained for fan coil units; analysis shows up, that heat exchanger contributes the main part of the value.
Article
Minimizing the use of energy is a central task in sustainable building. Minimizing the use of natural resources and maximizing the recycling potential are other important tasks to take into consideration. In low-energy buildings, the embodied energy accounts for a considerable part of the total energy use of the building. Therefore, it is also imperative to pay attention to the choice of building materials used. This article presents how material choice may affect both embodied energy and recycling potential in one of the most energy efficient apartment-type housing projects in Sweden (calculated energy for operation is 45 kWh/m2 floor area per year). Initially, the embodied energy was 40% of total energy needed for a lifetime expectancy of 50 years. Through material substitution, the embodied energy can be decreased by approximately 17% or increased by about 6%.