Współczesne głębokomorskie budowle węglanowe – nieznany świat podmorskich oaz

Article (PDF Available)inPrzeglad Geologiczny 60(6):325-332 · June 2012with164 Reads
Deep-marine carbonate buildups constitute one of the most spectacular and enigmatic features found on modern seafloors. Despite some characteristics shared by all the deep-marine carbonate buildups, they represent, in fact, several distinct types, which differ in terms of their geneses, as well as sedimentary, biotic and geo-chemical features. These structures can be roughly divided into hydrocarbon seep limestones, carbonate-built hydrothermal vents and deep-water coral reefs. The former group include carbonate concretions, lenses, mud mounds and mud volcanoes forming as a result of decrease in alkalinity, caused by an activity of methane-oxidizing microbes. The rare examples of hydrothermal-derived limestone columns, in turn, grow in response to mixing of ambient, cold seawater and warm, Ca 2+ -rich fluids originating from peridotite massifs. In contrast, growth of the deep-water coral reefs appears to be stimulated largely by hydrological and bathymetric constraints, whereas a potential input of fluid seepage is rather of subordinate importance in diagenetic lithification of these structures. Surprisingly, studies on deep-water carbonates may turn out to be relevant also for understanding the shallow-water carbonate factories, providing evidence that abiotic factors are more important in marine limestone precipitation than previously thought.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the importance of seep primary production to the nutrition of Lophelia pertusa and associated communities and examine local trophic interactions, we analyzed stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur compositions in seven quantitative L. pertusa community collections. A significant seep signature was only detected in one of the 35 species tested (Provanna sculpta, a common seep gastropod) despite the presence of seep fauna at the three sample sites. A potential predator of L. pertusa was identified (Coralliophila sp.), and a variety of other trophic interactions among the fauna occupying the coral framework were suggested by the data, including the galatheid crab Munidopsis sp. 2 feeding upon hydroids and the polychaete Eunice sp. feeding upon the sabellid polychaete Euratella sp. Stable carbon abundances were also determined for different sections of L. pertusa skeleton representing different stages in the growth and life of the aggregation. There was no temporal trend detected in the skeleton isotope values, suggesting that L. pertusa settles in these areas only after seepage has largely subsided. Isotope values of individual taxa that were collected from both L. pertusa and vestimentiferan habitats showed decreasing reliance upon seep primary production with average age of the vestimentiferan aggregation, and finally, no seep signature was detected in the coral collections. Together our data suggest that it is the presence of authigenic carbonate substrata, a product of past seep microbial activity, as well as hydrodynamic processes that drive L. pertusa occurrence at seep sites in the Gulf of Mexico, not nutritional dependence upon primary production by seep microbes.
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Petrographic and stable-isotope (delta C-13, delta O-18) patterns of carbonates from the Logatchev Hydrothermal Field (LHF), the Gakkel Ridge (GR), and a Late Devonian outcrop from the Frankenwald (Germany) were compared in an attempt to understand the genesis of carbonate minerals in marine volcanic rocks. Specifically, were the carbonate samples from modern sea floor settings and the Devonian analog of hydrothermal origin, low-temperature abiogenic origin (as inferred for aragonite in serpentinites from elsewhere on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge), or biogenic origin? Aragonite is the most abundant carbonate mineral in serpentinites from the two modern spreading ridges and occurs within massive sulfides of the LHF. The precipitation and preservation of aragonite suggests high Mg2+ and sulfate concentrations in fluids. Values of delta O-18(PDB) as high as +5.3 parts per thousand for serpentinite-hosted aragonite and as high as +4.2 parts per thousand for sulfide-hosted aragonite are consistent with precipitation from cold seawater. Most of the corresponding delta C-13 values indicate a marine carbon source, whereas delta C-13 values for sulfide-hosted aragonite as high as +3.6 parts per thousand may reflect residual carbon dioxide in the zone of methanogenesis. Calcite veins from the LHF, by contrast, have low delta O-18(PDB) (-20.0 parts per thousand to -16.1 parts per thousand) and delta C-13 values (-5.8 parts per thousand to -4.5 parts per thousand), indicative of precipitation from hydrothermal solutions (similar to 129 degrees-186 degrees C) dominated by magmatic CO2. Calcite formation was probably favored by fluid rock interactions at elevated temperatures, which tend to remove solutes that inhibit calcite precipitation in seawater (Mg2+ and sulfate). Devonian Frankenwald calcites show low delta O-18 values, reflecting diagenetic and metamorphic overprinting. Values of delta C-13 around 0 parts per thousand for basalt-hosted calcite indicate seawater-derived inorganic carbon, whereas delta C-13 values for serpentinite-hosted calcite agree with mantle-derived CO2 (for values as low as -6 parts per thousand) with a contribution of amagmatic carbon (for values as low as -8.6 parts per thousand), presumably methane. Secondary mineral phases from the LHF for which a biogenic origin appears feasible include dolomite dumbbells, clotted carbonate, and a network of iron- and silica-rich filaments.
    Article · May 2009
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous small calcite mounds, up to 2.5 m in diameter and 0.75 m in height, accompanied by Ba, Hg and Tl mineralisation, occur in shallow submarine hydrothermal vents on the sea bottom, at 10 m depth, near Punta Mita, on the western coast of Mexico. The hydrothermal activity consists in water and gas (mainly nitrogen and methane) venting at 85°C, through a 100-m-long fissure hosted in basaltic rocks and partially covered by a thin layer of unconsolidated detrital sediments. The mounds consist of travertine-like calcite aggregates that develop around the main submarine hot springs amidst a hydrothermally altered basaltic host rock. Two main calcite generations are texturally recognisable: the first generation shows a radial-fibrous texture; the second is fine-grained calcite, which cements detrital grains and fills the pore spaces. The δ13C analyses of calcite reveal a strong depletion in 13C, with values as low as −39.2‰ (Vienna PeeDee Belemnite), which suggest that microbial communities may have induced calcite precipitation through microbial methane oxidation. Barite, sulphides (mainly pyrite and cinnabar) and phosphates (carbonate–hydroxylapatite) are also present in the mounds in lower concentrations and form by direct precipitation from the hydrothermal fluid. The Punta Mita hydrothermal carbonate mounds represent a potentially novel environment for microbially induced carbonate mineralisation, which is characterised by high temperatures not encountered in areas of cold seep carbonate formation. Stable isotope results suggest that microorganisms responsible for the oxidation of methane may be present and active at temperatures near 85°C at the Punta Mita vents.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2003
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