Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: Genetic and clinical spectrum in a Spanish clinical series

and School of Medicine (F.P.), University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.29). 09/2013; DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182a9f56a
Source: PubMed


To determine the genetic distribution and the phenotypic correlation of an extensive series of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in a geographically well-defined Mediterranean area.
A thorough genetic screening, including most of the known genes involved in this disease, was performed and analyzed in this longitudinal descriptive study. Clinical data were analyzed and compared among the genetic subgroups.
Molecular diagnosis was accomplished in 365 of 438 patients (83.3%), with a higher success rate in demyelinating forms of the disease. The CMT1A duplication (PMP22 gene) was the most frequent genetic diagnosis (50.4%), followed by mutations in the GJB1 gene (15.3%), and in the GDAP1 gene (11.5%). Mutations in 13 other genes were identified, but were much less frequent. Sixteen novel mutations were detected and characterized phenotypically.
The relatively high frequency of GDAP1 mutations, coupled with the scarceness of MFN2 mutations (1.1%) and the high proportion of recessive inheritance (11.6%) in this series exemplify the particularity of the genetic distribution of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in this region.

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    ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most prevalent inherited neuropathy. Today more than 40 CMT genes have been identified. Diagnosing heterogeneous diseases by conventional Sanger sequencing is time consuming and expensive. Thus, more efficient and less costly methods are needed in clinical diagnostics. We included a population based sample of 81 CMT families. Gene mutations had previously been identified in 22 families; the remaining 59 families were analysed by next-generation sequencing. Thirty-two CMT genes and 19 genes causing other inherited neuropathies were included in a custom panel. Variants were classified into five pathogenicity classes by genotype-phenotype correlations and bioinformatics tools. Gene mutations, classified certainly or likely pathogenic, were identified in 37 (46%) of the 81 families. Point mutations in known CMT genes were identified in 21 families (26%), whereas four families (5%) had point mutations in other neuropathy genes, ARHGEF10, POLG, SETX, and SOD1. Eleven families (14%) carried the PMP22 duplication and one family carried a MPZ duplication (1%). Most mutations were identified not only in known CMT genes but also in other neuropathy genes, emphasising that genetic analysis should not be restricted to CMT genes only. Next-generation sequencing is a cost-effective tool in diagnosis of CMT improving diagnostic precision and time efficiency.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic neuropathies are operationally classified as primarily demyelinating or axonal, on the basis of electrodiagnostic or pathological criteria. Demyelinating neuropathies are further classified as hereditary or acquired-this distinction is important, because the acquired neuropathies are immune-mediated and, thus, amenable to treatment. The acquired chronic demyelinating neuropathies include chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), neuropathy associated with monoclonal IgM antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG; anti-MAG neuropathy), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), and POEMS syndrome. They have characteristic-though overlapping-clinical presentations, are mediated by distinct immune mechanisms, and respond to different therapies. CIDP is the default diagnosis if the neuropathy is demyelinating and no other cause is found. Anti-MAG neuropathy is diagnosed on the basis of the presence of anti-MAG antibodies, MMN is characterized by multifocal weakness and motor conduction blocks, and POEMS syndrome is associated with IgG or IgA λ-type monoclonal gammopathy and osteosclerotic myeloma. The correct diagnosis, however, can be difficult to make in patients with atypical or overlapping presentations, or nondefinitive laboratory studies. First-line treatments include intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), corticosteroids or plasmapheresis for CIDP; IVIg for MMN; rituximab for anti-MAG neuropathy; and irradiation or chemotherapy for POEMS syndrome. A correct diagnosis is required for choosing the appropriate treatment, with the aim of preventing progressive neuropathy.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Nature Reviews Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a neuropathy that affects sensory and motor nerves. The most common CMT subtype is CMT1A due to a PMP22 duplication of a 1.5 Mb fragment on the 17p11.2-p12. The development of a specific molecular technique that detects the PMP22 duplication is necessary for the diagnosis of CMT1A. AIM. To establish a routinary test for detection of the PMP22 gene duplication in Mexican population and to estimate the CMT1A frequency in patients clinically diagnosed as CMT. PATIENTS AND METHODS. A cohort of 157 individuals clinically diagnosed as CMT were analyzed. The detection of the PMP22 gene duplication was performed using the comparative 2-ΔΔCT qPCR method. RESULTS. The comparative 2-ΔΔCT method was sensitive and reliable for the detection of the PMP22 duplication. In order to validate the testing, data was compared with FISH results. Duplication of PMP22 was detected in 79 patients (50.3%). Although CMT1A frequency is different among populations, in Mexican patients it was similar with other populations such as United States, Australia, Finland, Sweden and Spain. CONCLUSIONS. The qPCR technique is an accurate and inexpensive method for the diagnosis of CMT1A. This method can be routinely used in Mexico where CMT1A represents ≍ 50% of CMT cases. Molecular diagnosis of CMT1A is essential for the genetic counseling and treatment of patients.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Revista de neurologia
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