CDC42 switches IRSp53 from inhibition of actin growth to elongation by clustering of VASP
IFOM, Fondazione Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare, Milan, Italy. The EMBO Journal
(Impact Factor: 10.43).
09/2013; 32(20). DOI: 10.1038/emboj.2013.208
Filopodia explore the environment, sensing soluble and mechanical cues during directional motility and tissue morphogenesis. How filopodia are initiated and spatially restricted to specific sites on the plasma membrane is still unclear. Here, we show that the membrane deforming and curvature sensing IRSp53 (Insulin Receptor Substrate of 53 kDa) protein slows down actin filament barbed end growth. This inhibition is relieved by CDC42 and counteracted by VASP, which also binds to IRSp53. The VASP:IRSp53 interaction is regulated by activated CDC42 and promotes high-density clustering of VASP, which is required for processive actin filament elongation. The interaction also mediates VASP recruitment to liposomes. In cells, IRSp53 and VASP accumulate at discrete foci at the leading edge, where filopodia are initiated. Genetic removal of IRSp53 impairs the formation of VASP foci, filopodia and chemotactic motility, while IRSp53 null mice display defective wound healing. Thus, IRSp53 dampens barbed end growth. CDC42 activation inhibits this activity and promotes IRSp53-dependent recruitment and clustering of VASP to drive actin assembly. These events result in spatial restriction of VASP filament elongation for initiation of filopodia during cell migration, invasion, and tissue repair.
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Available from: Gregor Witte
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ABSTRACT: Here, we analyzed the single I-BAR family member IBARa from D. discoideum. The X-ray structure of the N-terminal I-BAR domain solved at 2.2 Å resolution revealed an all-α helical structure that self-associates into a 165 Å zeppelin-shaped antiparallel dimer. The structural data are consistent with its shape in solution obtained by small-angle X-ray-scattering. Cosedimentation, fluorescence-anisotropy as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy revealed the I-BAR domain to bind preferentially to phosphoinositide-containing vesicles and drive the formation of negatively curved tubules. Immunofluorescence labelling further showed accumulation of endogenous IBARa at the tips of filopodia, the rim of constricting phagocytic cups, in foci connecting dividing cells during the final stage of cytokinesis, and most prominently at the osmoregulatory contractile vacuole (CV). Consistently, IBARa-null mutants displayed defects in CV formation and discharge, growth, phagocytosis and mitotic cell division, whereas filopodia formation was not compromised. Of note, IBARa-null mutants were also strongly impaired in cell spreading. Together, these data suggest IBARa to constitute an important regulator of numerous cellular processes intimately linked with the dynamic rearrangement of cellular membranes.
Available from: Jonathan Winkelman
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ABSTRACT: Filopodia are exploratory finger-like projections composed of multiple long, straight, parallel-bundled actin filaments that protrude from the leading edge of migrating cells. Drosophila melanogaster Enabled (Ena) is a member of the Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein protein family, which facilitates the assembly of filopodial actin filaments that are bundled by Fascin. However, the mechanism by which Ena and Fascin promote the assembly of uniformly thick F-actin bundles that are capable of producing coordinated protrusive forces without buckling is not well understood. We used multicolor evanescent wave fluorescence microscopy imaging to follow individual Ena molecules on both single and Fascin-bundled F-actin in vitro. Individual Ena tetramers increase the elongation rate approximately two- to threefold and inhibit capping protein by remaining processively associated with the barbed end for an average of ∼10 s in solution, for ∼60 s when immobilized on a surface, and for ∼110 s when multiple Ena tetramers are clustered on a surface. Ena also can gather and simultaneously elongate multiple barbed ends. Collectively, these properties could facilitate the recruitment of Fascin and initiate filopodia formation. Remarkably, we found that Ena's actin-assembly properties are tunable on Fascin-bundled filaments, facilitating the formation of filopodia-like F-actin networks without tapered barbed ends. Ena-associated trailing barbed ends in Fascin-bundled actin filaments have approximately twofold more frequent and approximately fivefold longer processive runs, allowing them to catch up with leading barbed ends efficiently. Therefore, Fascin and Ena cooperate to extend and maintain robust filopodia of uniform thickness with aligned barbed ends by a unique mechanistic cycle.
Available from: Melanie Barzik
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ABSTRACT: Filopodia are long plasma membrane extensions involved in the formation of adhesive, contractile, and protrusive actin-based structures in spreading and migrating cells. Whether or not filopodia formed by different molecular mechanisms equally support these cellular functions is unresolved. We used Ena/VASP-deficient MV(D7) fibroblasts, which are also devoid of endogenous mDia2, as a model system to investigate how these different actin regulatory proteins impact filopodia morphology and dynamics independently of the other. Filopodia initiated by either Ena/VASP or mDia2 contained similar molecular inventory, but differed significantly in parameters such as number, length, F-actin organization, lifetime, and protrusive persistence. Moreover, in the absence of Ena/VASP, filopodia generated by mDia2 did not support initiation of integrin-dependent signaling cascades required for adhesion and subsequent lamellipodial extension, thereby causing a defect in early cell spreading. Co-expression of VASP with constitutively active mDia2(M/A) rescued these early adhesion defects. We conclude that Ena/VASP and mDia2 support the formation of filopodia with significantly distinct properties, and that Ena/VASP regulates mDia2-initiated filopodial morphology, dynamics, and function.
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