Predicting aggressive behavior in nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

NorthShore University HealthSystems, Evanston, IL. Electronic address: .
Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.38). 10/2013; 154(4):785-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.surg.2013.07.004
Source: PubMed


The biologic potential of nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) is highly variable and difficult to predict before resection. This study was conducted to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with malignant behavior and death in patients diagnosed with PNETs.
We used International Classification of Diseases 9th edition codes to identify patients who underwent pancreatectomy for PNETs from 1998 to 2011 in the databases of 4 institutions. Functioning PNETs were excluded. Multivariate regression Cox proportional models were constructed to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with distant metastasis and survival.
The study included 128 patients-57 females and 71 males. The age (mean ± standard deviation) was 55 ± 14 years. The body mass index was 28 ± 5 kg/m(2). Eighty-nine (70%) patients presented with symptoms, and 39 (30%) had tumors discovered incidentally. The tumor size was 3.3 ± 2 cm with 56 (44%) of the tumors measuring ≤2 cm. Seventy-three (57%) patients had grade 1 histology tumors, 37 (29%) had grade 2, and 18 (14%) had grade 3. Peripancreatic lymph node involvement was present in 31 patients (24%), absent in 75 (59%), and unknown in 22 (17%). Distant metastasis occurred in 18 patients (14%). There were 12 deaths, including 1 perioperative, 8 disease related, and 3 of unknown cause. With a median follow-up of 33 months, the overall 5-year survival was 75%. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified age >55 (hazard ratio [HR], 5.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-20.58), grade 3 histology (HR, 6.08; 95% CI, 1.32-30.2), and distant metastasis (HR, 8.79; 95% CI, 2.67-28.9) as risk factors associated with death (P < .05). Gender, race, body mass index, clinical symptoms, lymphovascular and perineural invasion, and tumor size were not related to metastasis or survival (P > .05). Three patients with tumors ≤2 cm developed distant metastasis resulting in 2 disease-related deaths.
Age >55 years, grade 3 histology, and distant metastasis predict a greater risk of death from nonfunctioning PNETs. Resection or short-term surveillance should be considered regardless of tumor size.

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    • "Recent series regarding pNETs 2 cm reported lymph node metastases in up to 10%, but lymph-node status reported was unknown in over 20% of the patients with the theoretically underestimation of the number of positive lymph nodes [26] [27] [28]. In our institution lymphadenectomy is routinely performed also in patients with pNETs 2 cm. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Head dorsal pancreatectomy (HDP) is a segmental pancreatic resection, conservative variant of total dorsal pancreatectomy, applied to preserve the functional pancreatic parenchyma as an alternative to pancreaticoduodenectomy in not enucleable benign or low-grade malignant lesions. The absences of biliary and gastrointestinal resection/reconstruction are the other advantages of the technique. Methods We reported a case of HDP performed in a female 39-year-old patient for a neuroendocrine tumour of the dorsal portion of the pancreatic head. Results The superior mesenteric vein was dissected from the pancreatic neck. The pancreas was transected at the left margin of the superior mesenteric vein. After identification and mobilisation of gastroduodenal artery and the anterior superior pancreatico-duodenal artery, the head dorsal segment was dissected stepwise from the duodenal wall toward the common bile duct plane; the dissection of the pancreatic parenchyma was completed along the anterior surface of the common bile duct. An end-to-side duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy was performed. The main pancreatic duct in the ventral segment on the dissection parenchymal surface was ligated. With the inclusion of this case, there are a total of 3 cases involving resection of the dorsal portion of the pancreatic head reported in the literature. Conclusion HDP seems to be technically feasible and safe for not enucleable benign or low-grade malignant neoplasms involving the dorsal pancreatic head. However, due to the singularity of the indications and the few cases reported in the literature, further studies are needed to validate the technique.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Pancreatology

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background Nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) ≤2 cm have uncertain malignant potential, and optimal treatment remains unclear. Objectives of this study were to better understand their malignant potential, determine whether extent of surgery or lymph node dissection is associated with overall survival (OS), and identify other factors associated with OS. Methods Patients with nonfunctional PNETs ≤2 cm were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (1998 to 2011). Descriptive statistics were used for patient characteristics and surgical resection patterns. Five-year OS was estimated using Kaplan–Meier analyses across extent of surgery and compared using the log-rank test. Cox proportional regression modeling was used to test the association between survival and extent of surgery. Results A total of 1854 patients with nonfunctional PNETs ≤2 cm were included. From 1998 to 2011, these tumors increased three-fold as a proportion of all PNETs. Among tumors ≤0.5 cm, 33 % presented with regional lymph node metastases and 11 % with distant metastases. Five-year OS for patients not undergoing surgery was 27.6 % vs. 83.0 % for partial pancreatectomy, 72.3 % for pancreaticoduodenectomy, and 86.0 % for total pancreatectomy (p
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
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