Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in the community: A case-control study in patients in general practice, Denmark, 2009-2011

Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Epidemiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 2.54). 09/2013; 142(07):1-12. DOI: 10.1017/S0950268813002380
Source: PubMed


SUMMARY To identify risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Danish patients consulting general practice with gastrointestinal symptoms, a prospective matched case-control study was performed; cases (N = 259) had positive cultures for toxigenic C. difficile and controls (N = 455) negative cultures. Data were analysed by conditional logistic regression. In patients aged ⩾2 years (138 cases), hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 8·4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·1-23], consumption of beef (OR 5·5, 95% CI 2·0-15), phenoxymethylpenicillin (OR 15, 95% CI 2·7-82), dicloxacillin (OR 27, 95% CI 3·6-211), and extended spectrum penicillins (OR 9·2, 95% CI 1·9-45) were associated with CDI. In patients aged <2 years none of these were associated with CDI, but in a subgroup analysis contact with animals was associated with CDI (OR 8·1, 95% CI 1·0-64). This study emphasizes narrow-spectrum penicillins, and suggests beef consumption, as risk factors for CDI in adults, and indicates a different epidemiology of CDI in infants.

29 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is gradually being recognised as a cause of morbidity in the community. We investigated the incidence and clinical characteristics of CDI in a community setting and characterised the C. difficile strains by toxin gene profiling and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping. Patients included in the study had attended general practice, primarily because of diarrhoea; CDI patients (259 patients; 121 <2 years of age) had positive cultures for toxigenic C. difficile and non-CDI patients (455 patients) were culture-negative. Outcome variables included the frequency and duration of diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach ache, fever >38 °C, weight loss and sick leave. Data were analysed by logistic regression. CDI patients <2 and ≥2 years of age with C. difficile as the only enteropathogen in the faecal sample reported slimy stools (65 % vs. 62 %), stomach ache (60 % vs. 75 %), weight loss (50 % vs. 76 %) and duration of diarrhoea >15 days (59 % vs. 73 %) as the predominant symptoms. CDI patients ≥2 years old reported duration of diarrhoea >15 days more often compared to non-CDI patients (73 % vs. 27 %, p < 0.0001). The annual incidence of CDI was 518 and 23/100,000 for patients <2 and ≥2 years of age, respectively, and 46/100,000 in the subgroup of patients ≥60 years of age. CDI was characterised by stomach ache and persistent diarrhoea, often leading to weight loss. This emphasises the importance of diagnosing CDI not only in hospitalised patients, but also in individuals ≥2 years of age attending general practice because of gastrointestinal symptoms, especially in the elderly, where the incidence of CDI is high.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · European Journal of Clinical Microbiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The view of Clostridium difficile infection as a hospital-acquired infection transmitted only by symptomatic patients is changing. Although C difficile is present in food for human consumption, food-borne infection caused by C difficile has never been confirmed. More information on the infective dose and the level of contamination is needed to determine the risk for food-borne exposure to C difficile in humans. The emergence of C difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 078 in humans is epidemiologically linked to its presence in piglets and calves and their environment, suggesting zoonotic transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spores of toxigenic Clostridium difficile and spores of food-poisoning strains of Clostridium perfringens show a similar prevalence in meats. Spores of both species are heat resistant and can survive cooking of foods. C. perfringens is a major cause of foodborne illness; studies are needed to determine whether C. difficile transmission by a similar route is a cause of infection.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Show more