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Fatty acid profile and nutritive value of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds and plants at different growth stages

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Abstract

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is native to the Andean region and belongs to the group of crops known as pseudocereals. It has great potential for improving food for humans and animals due to its interesting nutritional value. Quinoa was studied to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition, chemical composition, gross energy, in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility (IVDMD) and neutral detergent fibre digestibility (IVNDFD) of the seeds and plant during growth. Herbage samples were collected six times at progressive morphological stages from the early vegetative to the grain fill stage. Effects of plant ageing was analysed by polynomial contrasts. The chemical composition of quinoa is closely connected to development of the plant with the quality of crop decreased with increasing morphological stages. Dry matter, organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content increased linearly from the mid vegetative to the grain fill stage, while acid detergent fibre (ADFom) content increased linearly from the first to the last stage. The pattern of FA in the seed was characterised by: palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), oleic acid (OA, C18:1n-9) and linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6). Among main FA of the plant during growth, α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3) was the most abundant FA (from 385 to 473 g/kg of total FA), while LA content, which ranged from 146 to 176 g/kg of total FA, decreased with increasing growth until the shoot stage and then increased, while PA, OA and stearidonic acid (C18:4n-3) did not show differences in their content during growth. IVDMD and IVNDFD decreased linearly with increasing growth stage. The first summer cut of quinoa, whose lipid fraction is rich in ALA and other polyunsaturated FA, should be before shooting, since its nutritional quality deteriorates when cutting is delayed.

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... The whole plant, seeds, and harvest residues can be used as animal feeds (Peiretti et al. 2013) due to the substantial protein content and the wide range of minerals and vitamins (Angeli et al. 2020). Quinoa plant contains considerable concentrations of the amino acids lysine, threonine and methionine (Angeli et al. 2020), high phenolic and flavonoid concentrations (Dębski et al. 2013), and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities (Farajzadeh et al. 2020). ...
... This makes it a suitable alternative to conventional feeds (Farajzadeh et al. 2020). The main problem with quinoa may be the high ash content (about 189 to 205 g/kg) (Peiretti et al. 2013). Mineral ash is not degraded and does not contribute to energy or protein and is therefore a detriment to the nutritive value of the plant. ...
... Asher et al. (2020) evaluated the nutritive value of whole quinoa plant hay and residual straw after seed harvest and reported that the crude protein concentration was 19.9 and 10.6%, with an in vitro DM digestibility of 75.8 and 54.2%, respectively. Peiretti et al. (2013) also evaluated the nutritive value of quinoa using the in vitro technique, and concluded that the in vitro DM digestibility was 710 to 900 g/kg DM, while neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was 430 to 840 g/kg NDF. Kakabouki et al. (2014) evaluated the nutritive value of quinoa whole plant as a ruminant feed and concluded that quinoa can replace local legume forages in the Mediterranean region. ...
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Replacement of conventional feedstuffs with inexpensive and non-conventional ingredients such as quinoa may improve animal performance and the quality of their products. Quinoa supplementation is believed to have a good nutritive value as a ruminant feed, but evidence is scarce. The present experiment aimed to evaluate the nutritive value of whole, dried quinoa plant (Chenopodium quinoa) as a feed for ruminants. In the first experiment, the in sacco technique was used to evaluate nutrient disappearance and fermentation kinetics of quinoa. In the second experiment, the in vitro gas production technique was used to evaluate diets with substitution of clover hay with quinoa at 0 (Q0), 15 (Q15), 30 (Q30), and 45% (Q45) of the diets. Proximate analysis showed that quinoa contained about 18.6% crude protein (CP) with oleic acid, arachic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid as the major fatty acids. The in sacco degradability showed that the “a” fraction of dry matter (DM) was low, while the fraction “b” was high for DM and CP. Replacing clover hay with quinoa did not affect gas or methane production; however, Q30 treatment quadratically increased (P < 0.05) its production. It is concluded that quinoa can be used as a feed for ruminants and can replace clover hay up to 45% in the diet.
... The highest DM was obtained from dough stage in Red head genotype. Peiretti et al. (2013) and Temel and Yolcu (2020) reported that the DM contents at the different cutting stages of quinoa increased as the harvest time delayed. Asher et al. (2020) reported that the DM ratios of quinoa forage in dough stage was 28-30% like our results. ...
... The highest NDF content was obtained from Mint vanilla genotype whereas the lowest NDF was found out Titicaca genotype (Table 2). Differences between quinoa genotypes in terms of NDF content have also been reported by Peiretti et al. (2013). Unlike the result of the present study, Uke et al. (2017) reported that NDF contents were increased with advanced plant maturity stage. ...
... Shah et al. (2020) reported that the ADF content in anthesis and grain filling stages of different quinoa genotypes ranged from 17.5 to 26.8% and 21.8 to 30.6%, respectively. Peiretti et al. (2013) determined that the ADF content of quinoa in six different cutting stages varied significantly. The ADF values determined in this study are within the limits reported in the above-mentioned literature. ...
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Genotype choosing and cutting stage are very significant to obtained better forage yield and quality. However, researches about forage production from quinoa plant genotypes harvested at different cutting stages are not enough in Mediterranean conditions. This study was conducted to determine the forage yield and quality of five different quinoa genotypes (Red head, Cherry vanilla, French vanilla, Mint vanilla and Titicaca) at three different cutting stages (flowering, milky and dough). The experiment was laid out in split plot of randomized complete blocks with three replications in 2019 and 2020 years. To evaluate the forage yield and quality of different quinoa genotypes harvested at different cutting stages, plant height, stem diameter, dry forage yield, dry matter content, water soluble carbohydrate, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, condensed tannins, ether extract, crude protein, crude ash, organic matter, non-fiber carbohydrate and relative feed value properties were investigated. As a result of the research, it was determined that it is appropriate to harvest quinoa as a roughage source at the dough stage, and that Mint vanilla genotype is the most productive genotype.
... Various studies has been conducted focusing on the characterization of the high-quality protein (Gonzalez et al., 2012), phenolic compound Paśko et al., 2008;Paśko et al., 2009), fatty acid and carotenoid compositions of quinoa seeds. On the other hand, only few studies concerning the nutritional value in terms of proteins , lipids, tocopherols, and carotenoids (Tang et al., 2014;Peiretti et al., 2013) of the green parts of quinoa are available. ...
... The study was conducted in the Western Po Valley near Cuneo, Italy (longitude 7°E, latitude 44°N) as described by Peiretti et al., (2013). Quinoa seeds (Ayni variety), harvested in Mantaro Valley (Peru), were obtained from the Escuela de Nutrición Psicosomática in Lima (Peru) and seeded on May. ...
... The gross energy (GE) content of quinoa seeds (19.2 MJ/kg DM; Peiretti et al., 2013) has been found to be lower than the GE of other seeds with similar chemical compositions, such as Galega officinalis (20.5 MJ/kg DM; Peiretti and Gai, 2006), chia (26.1 MJ/kg DM; Peiretti and Gai, 2009) and false flax (28.1 MJ/kg DM; Peiretti and Meineri, 2007). Gai et al., (2018) have determined the total polyphenol content in the aerial parts (stems and leaves) of quinoa over its growth cycle to identify which growth stage is richest in terms of antioxidants and therefore potentially the most favorable for exploitation for pharmacological and/or nutritional purposes. ...
... Various studies has been conducted focusing on the characterization of the high-quality protein (Gonzalez et al., 2012), phenolic compound Paśko et al., 2008;Paśko et al., 2009), fatty acid and carotenoid compositions of quinoa seeds. On the other hand, only few studies concerning the nutritional value in terms of proteins , lipids, tocopherols, and carotenoids (Tang et al., 2014;Peiretti et al., 2013) of the green parts of quinoa are available. ...
... The study was conducted in the Western Po Valley near Cuneo, Italy (longitude 7°E, latitude 44°N) as described by Peiretti et al., (2013). Quinoa seeds (Ayni variety), harvested in Mantaro Valley (Peru), were obtained from the Escuela de Nutrición Psicosomática in Lima (Peru) and seeded on May. ...
... The gross energy (GE) content of quinoa seeds (19.2 MJ/kg DM; Peiretti et al., 2013) has been found to be lower than the GE of other seeds with similar chemical compositions, such as Galega officinalis (20.5 MJ/kg DM; Peiretti and Gai, 2006), chia (26.1 MJ/kg DM; Peiretti and Gai, 2009) and false flax (28.1 MJ/kg DM; Peiretti and Meineri, 2007). Gai et al., (2018) have determined the total polyphenol content in the aerial parts (stems and leaves) of quinoa over its growth cycle to identify which growth stage is richest in terms of antioxidants and therefore potentially the most favorable for exploitation for pharmacological and/or nutritional purposes. ...
Book
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a pseudocereal of Andean origin that is becoming more and more popular in Europe, Asia and the United States of America because it is a good source of different nutrients, rich in antioxidant compounds and it offers an alternative to classical cereals in celiac diet because its seeds are gluten-free. Concerning its employment in food application, quinoa-derived products have been successfully employed in the preparation of different foods as fat/cream substitutes and to enhance the quality of baked foods. This book aims to review recent advances in the quinoa plant cultivation as well as the nutritional properties and effects on human health of quinoa-derived products. Chapter One focuses on the morphophenological evaluation of different quinoa accessions collected all over the world and their agronomical performances tested both in the experimental field and open field trials. In Chapter Two, the authors provide a description of the phenology, made on three different growing seasons, of a wide group of quinoa varieties, collected in different environments, in field conditions at the Peruvian central coast. Chapter Three evaluates the antioxidative capacity and phenolic compounds content in the aerial part of the quinoa plant during its growth cycle in six progressive morphological stages from the early vegetative to the grain fill stage. In Chapter Four, the authors determined the nutritional value and content of some bioactive compounds in different quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) and kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L.) ecotypes collected in Peru. Chapter Five describes the potential use of quinoa seed and plant in animal nutrition. The authors of Chapter Six described the employment of the fermentation process to improve technological, nutritional and sensory quality of quinoa in order to obtain the fortification of conventional or novel foods. The aim of chapter seven is to review the available studies on the use of quinoa as a bread making ingredient. In Chapter Eight, the authors examined the quality characteristics of cereal-based foods enriched with quinoa flour and inulin with a different degree of polymerization in order to obtain new fortified breads and pasta with lowering glicemic index effect. Chapter Nine evaluates studies carried out to develop healthier gluten-free products, considering sensory and technological aspects of quality to help promoting the quality of life for people who need to follow a gluten-free diet. Chapter Ten critically reviews studies on the use of quinoa as a milk substitute on dairy products since it presents a good source of protein with a low glycemic index. In Chapter Eleven authors proposed a novel icing system based on the use of an aqueous/ethanolic saponin-free quinoa extract to obtain improvement in the quality of both lean and fatty fish species during commercialization under chilled conditions. Finally, nutritional implications of quinoa intake have been revised in Chapter Twelve.
... The majority of the C16:0 concentration values assessed are above the ones determined for other quinoa varieties (Pasto, Atlas, Marisma, Jessie, Roja, Pot-4) grown in Europe (Rodríguez Gómez et al., 2021). Nevertheless, previous studies also identified this fatty acid as one of the major components of the fatty acid pool of quinoa seeds (Peiretti et al., 2013;Pellegrini et al., 2018;Rodríguez Gómez et al., 2021;Tang et al., 2015). In nutritional terms, saturated fatty acids such as myristic and palmitic acids are known to increase the ratio of High-density lipoprotein (HDL) to cholesterol (Orsavova et al., 2015). ...
... Stearic acid (C18:0) content in the evaluated varieties was found to range from 0.4 (Achachino, ACH) to 2.7 % (Hualhuas, HAL) of the total fatty acid content in quinoa seeds. These values for C18:0 are also in line with previous works (Tang et al., 2015), although in other reports this fatty acid was present in higher concentrations, with these differences ascribed to genetic variability (Peiretti et al., 2013). Some other studies report lower stearic acid contents in other quinoa varieties than the ones here presented (Pellegrini et al., 2018). ...
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Article
Quinoa consumption has increased in worldwide importance due to an extraordinary nutritional value and public acceptance as alternative food. Fatty acid profiles of 10 quinoa varieties grown in the same geographical location were analyzed using different chemometric multivariate approaches [variable in importance partial least square discriminant analysis (VIP-PLS-DA), stepwise linear discriminant analysis (S-LDA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), random forests (RF) and canonical analysis of principal components (CAP)]. The application of variable selection approaches such as S-LDA and LDA significantly increased the classification accuracy (78 % and 74 % respectively) of the samples according to their variety. The S-LDA approach allowed to reduce the number of selected fatty acids, representing those fatty acids with higher statistical significance when applying other random and non-random approaches. These fatty acid profiles also allowed to estimate the nutritional lipid profiles of each variety for suitability in human diet, providing insights on the various nutritional qualities of each quinoa variety. It is proposed that these results can be used to facilitate selection of varieties with optimized economic value.
... Many digestibility studies have used the RF collected at the slaughterhouse as inoculum [10][11][12][13], and a video of the sampling procedure is available online [14]. Additionally, the influence of storage time and temperature on the ability of rumen microorganisms to degrade NDF has been investigated by many authors [15]. ...
... thermometer, (4) plastic beaker, (5) colander, (6) knife and spatula, (7) gloves, (8) gown, (9) nylon socks, (10) helmet, (11) goggles, (12) facemask. For collection of RF at laboratory: (1) 500 mL graduated cylinder (2) plastic beaker with hot water (40 • C) (3) funnel (4) cheesecloth (5) CO 2 gas bottles (6) pH meter (7) thermometer (8) gloves (9) lab coat (10) nylon socks. ...
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Digestibility trials need a viable rumen fluid as inoculum to degrade feeds. The variability of rumen fluid depends on the animal’s diet, while its viability is greatly influenced by the sampling and handling procedures. In this article, we present a replicable protocol for sampling the rumen fluid from slaughtered animals for in vitro digestibility trials. A detailed list of the tools and a step-by-step standardized procedure for the collection, storage and the transportation of the rumen fluid from the slaughterhouse to the laboratory is presented. We also describe a digestibility trial for establishing the maximum storage time of rumen fluid from sampling to its use. The results show that the rumen fluid, collected and maintained according to the proposed protocol, can be stored and used from 30 to 300 min from sampling without significantly compromising the fermentative activity of the microbial population.
... The fat content of green leaves of quinoa ranged from 2.4 to 4.5%, lower than in quinoa grains (4.0 to 7.6%; Table 2). The fatty acid (FA) profile of quinoa plant parts at different growth stages compared with spinach, kale, and quinoa grains is presented in Table 3. Peiretti et al. (2013) [28] analyzed fatty acids and the nutritive value of quinoa grains and plant parts at different growth stages. At the early vegetative stage of quinoa, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was most abundant at about 47%, and linoleic acid (LA) was 16% of total fatty acid (TFA). ...
... The fat content of green leaves of quinoa ranged from 2.4 to 4.5%, lower than in quinoa grains (4.0 to 7.6%; Table 2). The fatty acid (FA) profile of quinoa plant parts at different growth stages compared with spinach, kale, and quinoa grains is presented in Table 3. Peiretti et al. (2013) [28] analyzed fatty acids and the nutritive value of quinoa grains and plant parts at different growth stages. At the early vegetative stage of quinoa, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was most abundant at about 47%, and linoleic acid (LA) was 16% of total fatty acid (TFA). ...
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Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a nutrient-rich grain native to South America and eaten worldwide as a healthy food, sometimes even referred to as a ”superfood”. Like quinoa grains, quinoa greens (green leaves, sprouts, and microgreens) are also rich in nutrients and have health promoting properties such as being antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiobesity, and cardio-beneficial. Quinoa greens are gluten-free and provide an excellent source of protein, amino acids, essential minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids. Quinoa greens represent a promising value-added vegetable that could resolve malnutrition problems and contribute to food and nutritional security. The greens can be grown year-round (in the field, high tunnel, and greenhouse) and have short growth durations. In addition, quinoa is salt-, drought-, and cold-tolerant and requires little fertilizer and water to grow. Nevertheless, consumption of quinoa greens as leafy vegetables is uncommon. To date, only a few researchers have investigated the nutritional properties, phytochemical composition, and human health benefits of quinoa greens. We undertook a comprehensive review of the literature on quinoa greens to explore their nutritional and functional significance to human health and to bring awareness to their use in human diets.
... Quinoa has a higher total protein content (12.9 per cent to 16.5 per cent) than barley (10.8 per cent to 11.0 per cent), oat (11.6 per cent), rice (7.5 per cent to 9.1 per cent), and maize (10.2 per cent to 13.4 per cent) and a total protein content equal to that of wheat (14.3 per cent to 15.4 per cent) (Comai et al., 2007 andPeiretti et al., 2013) [2,11] . Quinoa is rich in fiber and minerals, apart from having a sufficient quantity of carbohydrates (52-69%), proteins (13.8-16.5%) ...
... Quinoa has a higher total protein content (12.9 per cent to 16.5 per cent) than barley (10.8 per cent to 11.0 per cent), oat (11.6 per cent), rice (7.5 per cent to 9.1 per cent), and maize (10.2 per cent to 13.4 per cent) and a total protein content equal to that of wheat (14.3 per cent to 15.4 per cent) (Comai et al., 2007 andPeiretti et al., 2013) [2,11] . Quinoa is rich in fiber and minerals, apart from having a sufficient quantity of carbohydrates (52-69%), proteins (13.8-16.5%) ...
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Article
The present research was carried out to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of quinoa seeds. Physical properties such as colour, shape, thousand kernel weight, bulk density, true density, porosity and angle of repose were determined. Chemical/proximate composition of the quinoa seeds was analyzed for the parameters such as moisture, fat, carbohydrate, protein, crude fibre, and ash. Obtained result found that the quinoa seeds having the good nutritional profile with carbohydrate (61.12±0.31%), protein (15.24±0.25%) and fat (6.1±0.58%). Quinoa seeds were also found to be good source of minerals such as potassium (731.6±0.70mg), magnesium (501.3±0.97mg), phosphorus (410.8±0.80mg) and calcium (86.7±.070mg). Quinoa seeds were to be utilized in development of different food products to enhance nutritional and health benefits.
... Quinoa has a higher total protein content (12.9 per cent to 16.5 per cent) than barley (10.8 per cent to 11.0 per cent), oat (11.6 per cent), rice (7.5 per cent to 9.1 per cent), and maize (10.2 per cent to 13.4 per cent) and a total protein content equal to that of wheat (14.3 per cent to 15.4 per cent) (Comai et al., 2007 andPeiretti et al., 2013) [2,11] . Quinoa is rich in fiber and minerals, apart from having a sufficient quantity of carbohydrates (52-69%), proteins (13.8-16.5%) ...
... Quinoa has a higher total protein content (12.9 per cent to 16.5 per cent) than barley (10.8 per cent to 11.0 per cent), oat (11.6 per cent), rice (7.5 per cent to 9.1 per cent), and maize (10.2 per cent to 13.4 per cent) and a total protein content equal to that of wheat (14.3 per cent to 15.4 per cent) (Comai et al., 2007 andPeiretti et al., 2013) [2,11] . Quinoa is rich in fiber and minerals, apart from having a sufficient quantity of carbohydrates (52-69%), proteins (13.8-16.5%) ...
... linolenic acid (5.82-7.5 %) and palmitic acid ( 9.22-9.99%). These results agree with the fatty acid amounts in quinoa oil found by other authors (Peiretti et al. 2013, Pellegrini et al. 2018). However, this study was found that all quinoas contain 1.3-1.4 ...
... 2% erucic acid. These results are consistent with other studies (Peiretti et al. 2013, Pellegrini et al. 2018Vera et al. 2019). ...
... Proline can also be a substitute energy source if necessary; proline degrades and releases energy as a reducing agent (Polavarapu et al., 2014). Peiretti et al. (2013), in their studies revealed that the chemical composition of quinoa is closely connected to development of the plant with the quality of crop decreasing with increasing morphological stages. The pattern of FAs in the seed was characterized by PA (C 16:0 ), OA (C 18:1 n−9 ), and LA (C 18:2 n−6 ). ...
... The mechanisms of antitumor effects of squalene studied so far include decreasing farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and free radical levels in cells, inhibition via negative feedback to the HMG-CoA enzyme, lessening the synthesis of FPP (Newmark, 1999;Reddy and Couvreur, 2009). The rich squalene content in quinoa seeds supports the levels and patterns of seed development and maturation stages due to its extraordinary antioxidant properties (Peiretti et al., 2013). Thus, the results of this study showed that the content of FAs and squalene in quinoa seeds is more influenced by the level of salinity than by chemistry, but moderate sulfate salinity has a greater negative effect than chloride salinity. ...
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The effects of climate change and soil salinization on dryland ecosystems are already widespread, and ensuring food security is a crucial challenge. In this article, we demonstrate changes in growth performance and seed quality of a new high- yielding quinoa genotype (Q5) exposed to sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and mixed salts (NaCl + Na2SO4). Differential responses to salt stress in growth performance, seed yield, and seed quality were identified. High salinity (mixed Na2SO4 + NaCl) reduces plant height by ∼30%, shoot and root dry weights by ∼29%, head panicle length and panicle weight by 36–43%, and seed yield by 37%, compared with control conditions. However, the 1,000-seed weight changes insignificantly under salinity. High content of essential minerals, such as Fe, Zn, and Ca in quinoa Q5 seeds produced under salinity, gives the Q5 genotype a remarkable advantage for human consumption. Biomarkers detected in our studies show that the content of most essential amino acids is unchanged under salinity. The content of amino acids Pro, Gly, and Ile positively correlates with Na+ concentration in soil and seeds, whereas the content of squalene and most fatty acids negatively correlates. Variation in squalene content under increasing salinity is most likely due to toxic effects of sodium and chlorine ions as a result of the decrease in membrane permeability for ion movement as a protective reaction to an increase in the sodium ion concentration. Low squalene accumulation might also occur to redirect the NADPH cofactor to enhance the biosynthesis of proline in response to salinity, as both syntheses (squalene and proline) require NADPH. This evidence can potentially be used by the food and pharmaceutical industries in the development of new food and health products.
... C. quinoa oil appears to be high-quality edible oil, similar in fatty acid composition to soybean oil. Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid are the three dominant fatty acids of quinoa oil seed [8]. ...
... Being one of the most important crops to contribute to worldwide food security [15], and as stated in the literature [8], our data confirmed the high content of unsaturated fatty acid constituents in C. quinoa seed oil. It was found to be rich in two essential fatty acid: linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid). ...
... Various studies has been conducted focusing on the characterization of the high-quality protein (Gonzalez et al., 2012), phenolic compound (Nsimba et al., 2008;Paśko et al., 2008;Paśko et al., 2009), fatty acid and carotenoid (Tang et al., 2015) compositions of quinoa seeds. On the other hand, only few studies concerning the nutritional value in terms of proteins (Bhargava et al., 2006), lipids, tocopherols, and carotenoids (Tang et al., 2014;Peiretti et al., 2013) of the green parts of quinoa are available. Pseudocereal leaves are considered a valuable supplement for functional food such as bread (Gawlik-Dziki et al., 2009;Chlopicka et al., 2012;Świeca et al., 2014) as well as for pharmacological purposes (Gawlik-Dziki et al., 2013). ...
... The study was conducted in the Western Po Valley near Cuneo, Italy (longitude 7°E, latitude 44°N) as described by Peiretti et al., (2013). Quinoa seeds (Ayni variety), harvested in Mantaro Valley (Peru), were obtained from the Escuela de Nutrición Psicosomática in Lima (Peru) and seeded on May. ...
Chapter
In this study, the changes in the antioxidative capacity and phenolic compounds content in the aerial part of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plant during its growth cycle were analysed. These parameters were evaluated at six progressive morphological stages from the early vegetative to the grain fill stage. The extracts obtained from the early and late vegetative stage were characterized by the highest content of total phenolic compounds. In the first three stages of growth high values of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were determined. The lowest value of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was observed in the early vegetative stage. The highest antiradical activity against DPPH radical was noted for extract obtained from late vegetative plants. The profile of phenolic compounds was characterized by the presence of five compounds. Based on UV-DAD spectra, one was described as p-coumaric acid derivative, the other four as flavonols.
... The gross energy (GE) content of quinoa seeds (19.2 MJ/kg DM; Peiretti et al., 2013) has been found to be lower than the GE of other seeds with similar chemical compositions, such as Galega officinalis (20.5 MJ/kg DM; Peiretti and Gai, 2006), chia (26.1 MJ/kg DM; Peiretti and Gai, 2009) and false flax (28.1 MJ/kg DM; Peiretti and Meineri, 2007). Gai et al., (2018) have determined the total polyphenol content in the aerial parts (stems and leaves) of quinoa over its growth cycle to identify which growth stage is richest in terms of antioxidants and therefore potentially the most favorable for exploitation for pharmacological and/or nutritional purposes. ...
... Digestibility is the basal unit that is considered when evaluating the nutritive value of quinoa and other forages, and it is the most common nutritive parameter used to establish the feeding standards for ruminants (Tassone et al., 2014). Peiretti et al., (2013) reported the nutritive value and FA profile of the aerial parts of quinoa during its growth cycle to identify the richest growth stage and therefore the potentially most favorable for exploitation for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. The digestibility of quinoa, which was determined using an in vitro technique, declined with advancing maturity throughout the growing season. ...
Chapter
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) belongs to the group of crops that are known as pseudocereals and it is a native of the Andean region. Quinoa has also been used in many countries as a grain, forage or silage crop for animals. Although claims of a nutritionally favorable quality of quinoa seed have been made, only limited information is available on the evolution of the chemical composition in the whole plant at different growth stages. The aim of this review is to highlight the potentialities of quinoa in animal nutrition, that is, for cattle, chickens, pigs, rabbits and laboratory animals, in order to increase the knowledge of this plant, and to encourage its use as an alternative protein and fibre source and as a source of important bioactive components (essential fatty acids, flavonoids, stanols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids and squalene).
... Regarding NDF content, the amount was higher in T1 seeds. However, the values for every treatment are higher in comparison to what was obtained by Peiretti et al. (2013), who reported values of 12.75%. The amount of ADF in the test was low compared to studies by Simranpreet et al. (2017), who reported 77.73%. ...
... It is noteworthy that reports of ADF and NDF are very diverse in different tests reported in around the world. This could be happening because of the variety, maturity stage of the grain and fertilization, as referenced by Peiretti et al. (2013), whose results were 12.75% of ADF and 5.49% of NDF. On the other hand, Marmouzi et al. (2015) reported ADF of 72.03% and ADF of 27.06%, similar to the results of Simranpreet et al. (2017), with values of 77.73% and 27.4% for NDF and ADF, respectively. ...
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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is native to South America; it is characterized by its high nutritional composition and high adaptation capacity to diverse edapho-climatic conditions, which highlights how genetic variability is expressed as multiple physiological and phenological responses. The objective of this research was to evaluate the physiological response and proximal composition of the grain to three types of fertilization under the environmental conditions in the municipality of Oicata (Boyaca, Colombia), located at 2,875 m a.s.l. In this place, the white Soracá variety was planted using a completely randomized design with four treatments and four repetitions. It was observed that the fertilization sources have an effect on the physiological and phenological behavior, mainly on the number of leaves, length of stem and chlorophyll content. In addition, the proximal composition of seeds changes, which is attributed to the application of mineral organic fertilizer that improves the production of quinoa grains, while N-P-K contribution shows greater growth and vegetable development, but less yield.
... Quinoa seeds have around 2 to 9.5% lipids whose amount is higher than that of corn (Ando et al., 2002;Peiretti et al, 2013). Quinoa oil is rich in fatty acids such as linoleic acid (49-56.4%), ...
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Quinoa is a grain from the Andean region in South America that possesses high potential due to its nutritional and functional qualities. However, outside the Andean region, quinoa is rarely consumed. This may happen due to lack of knowledge about their nutritional quality and health benefits or the high cost of importing the grains. Taking that into account, the study aimed to evaluate the profile of Brazilian consumers in relation to the use of quinoa in food, knowledge about its nutritional value and health benefits of its consumption. Data were obtained through an online form and analyzed using Epi Info® software. The survey was carried out with 406 people and showed that the profile was predominantly female who were 36 to 50 years old. Most of the interviewed public have omnivorous food. It was found that the 258 respondents knew about quinoa and 187 said they consume or have already consumed the grains. The frequency of consumption is sporadic with white quinoa being the most used one. Knowledge about quinoa and its health benefits is little which can influence the frequency and interest in its consumption. Thus, it is extremely important that works are published regarding quinoa and its nutritional value and health benefits in order to encourage its introduction into population’s diet as well as to stimulate food industries make use of it as an ingredient in the production of nutritious and functional food.
... C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, C18:3n3 and DHA were significantly higher than in the CK group. This is mainly because the main SFAs found in quinoa are C16:0, and the UFAs are C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c and C18:3n3 [48][49][50]. Adding a certain proportion of quinoa in the diet changes the composition and content of fatty acids in the diet, which has a certain effect on meat quality. Meanwhile, studies have found that C18:2n6c can be metabolized to C20:4n6, and C18:3n3 can be metabolized to EPA and DHA, which play an important role in the prevention and treatment of prostaglandins, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, immunity, and anti-inflammatory and membrane function [7,51]. ...
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To study the effects of adding quinoa seed (raw grain) to the diet of the Luhua chicken on the cecal microorganism abundance and fatty acid composition of muscle, 120 49-day-old healthy female dewormed Luhua chickens (body weight 1476.21 ± 101.39 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups, with 3 replicates in each group and 10 chickens in each repetition. The control group (CK group) was fed a basal diet and the experimental groups were fed with 4% (Q4), 8% (Q8), and 12% (Q12) quinoa seed (raw grain) added to the basal diet for 75 days. After 121 days of age, the animals were slaughtered and the 16S rRNA characteristics of cecal flora, as well as composition and content of fatty acids in muscle, were determined and analyzed. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n3; DHA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the breast and leg muscles significantly increased in the experimental groups supplemented with quinoa seeds (p < 0.05). However, the content of saturated fatty acids (SAFs) and ratio of n-6/n-3 in breast muscle and leg muscle significantly decreased (p < 0.05). In addition, adding a certain percentage of quinoa seeds in the diet can also affect the community composition and content of microorganisms in the ceca of Luhua chickens. At the phylum level, the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Synergistetes and Melainabacteria ??in experimental groups (Q4, Q8 and Q12) were significantly lower than those in the CK group (p < 0.05). At the genus level, Desulfovibrio, Synergistes, Olsenella, Parabacteroides, Mailhella, Sutterella and Ruminiclostridiu in group Q4 were significantly lower than those in group CK (p < 0.05) while Faecalibacterium in Q8 group, and Lawsonia and Faecalibacterium in Q12 group were significantly higher than those in the CK group (p < 0.05). Enrichment analysis of the microbial function showed that compared with the CK group, Metabolism and Enzyme Families were significantly enriched in the Q4 group (p < 0.05). Cellular Processes and Signaling were significantly enriched in the Q8 group (p < 0.05). The association analysis of fatty acids with microorganisms showed that the abundance of Faecalibacterium, Lawsonia and Meagmonas was significantly correlated with partial SFAs and UFAs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, adding quinoa seeds to diets significantly increased the content of muscle DHA, UFAs and n-3 PUFAs. The content of SAFs and the n-6/n-3 ratio were significantly reduced. Taken together, quinoa can effectively improve the cecal microbiota structure, inhibit the number of harmful bacteria and increase the number of beneficial bacteria, regulating the intestinal environment and promoting the body health of female Luhua chickens.
... Therefore, it can grow well in many marginal conditions. Apart from the purpose for grain production, many researchers have realised the great potential of whole-plant quinoa (WPQ) as a forage crop for animal feeding (Peiretti et al. 2013;Basra et al. 2014). Ramos and Cruz (2002) reported that the biomass yield of WPQ can reach over 9,000 kg/ha with proper fertilisation and tilling techniques. ...
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different additives on the fermentation quality and bacterial community of silage prepared from fresh-cut whole-plant quinoa (WPQ). Fresh-cut WPQ without wilting process was directly ensiled with one of the following additives: (i) untreated (control); (ii) fibrolytic enzyme (E); (iii) molasses (M); (iv) LAB inoculant (L); (v) a combination of fibrolytic enzyme and LAB inoculant (EL); and (vi) a combination of molasses and LAB inoculant (ML). The fermentation quality and bacterial community after 60 days of ensiling were analysed. The results showed that control silage was dominated by enterobacteria (>50%), with high pH value (5.25), acetic acid (77.9 g/kg DM) and NH3–N production (261 g/kg TN). Adding E, EL and ML shifted the fermentation pattern towards increased intensity of lactic acid production, as indicated by increased lactic acid content (>62.4 g/kg DM), lactic/acetic acid ratio (>1.12) and relative abundance of Lactobacillus (>62.0%), and decreased pH value (<4.73), contents of acetic acid (<60.7 g/kg DM) and NH3-N (<179 g/kg TN) and the relative abundance of enterobacteria. The results suggested that treatments of E, EL and ML could be the feasible solutions for improving the fermentation quality and protein preservation of silage prepared from fresh-cut WPQ. The results of this study could be beneficial for producing high-quality WPQ silage in aeras where wilting is hard to conduct before ensiling. • HIGHLIGHTS • WPQ silage was prone to acetic acid-type fermentation dominated by enterobacteria. • Adding E, EL and ML improved the lactic acid fermentation and protein preservation of fresh-cut WPQ silage. • This study provided feasible solutions for producing high-quality WPQ silage under adverse climate conditions.
... Tian et al. used Osborne fractionation method and extracted four proteins from quinoa bran; they found that albumin accounted for 40.86% of the total proteins, (2017) followed by globulin 28.15%, and glutenin and gliadin are 6.23% and 4.45%, respectively (Tian et al. 2017). The protein content of quinoa is as high as 13-17%, which is much higher than that of other common grains such as oats, rice, barley and corn, and the protein content of quinoa is almost the same as the protein content of wheat (Peiretti, Gai, and Tassone 2013;Comai et al. 2007). The available proteins in quinoa are higher than those of other ordinary grains. ...
Article
Quinoa is known to be a rich source of nutrients and bioactive components. Quinoa bran, used mainly as animal feed in processing by-products, is also a potential source of bioactive ingredients being conducive to human health. The importance of nutrition and function of quinoa seed has been discussed in many studies, but the bioactive properties of quinoa bran often are overlooked. This review systemically summarized the progress in bioactive components, extraction, and functional investigations of quinoa bran. It suggests that chemically assisted electronic fractionation could be used to extract albumin from quinoa bran. Ultrasound-assisted extraction method is a very useful method for extracting phenolic acids, triterpene saponins, and flavonoids from quinoa bran. Based on in vitro and in vivo studies for biological activities, quinoa bran extract exhibits a wide range of beneficial properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammation, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer functions. However, human experiments and action mechanisms need to investigate. Further exploring quinoa bran will promote its applications in functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and poultry feed in the future.
... Due to high grain yield, biomass, and nutritional quality, quinoa is regarded as a dual-purpose crop both for grain production and livestock feed [24]. After seed harvesting, there is potential for quinoa growers to market straw a forage crop [24][25][26]. Generally, genotypes with thick stems, more branches, and moderate plant height producing higher biomass are ideal for fodder and genotypes with compact inflorescence are ideal for grain purpose [27]. ...
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Quinoa is known as a super food due to its extraordinary nutritional qualities and has the potential to ensure future global food and nutritional security. As a model plant with halophytic behavior, quinoa has potential to meet the challenges of climate change and salinization due to its capabilities for survival in harsh climatic conditions. The quinoa crop has received worldwide attention due to its adoption and production expanded in countries out of the native Andean region. Quinoa was introduced to Pakistan in 2009 and it is still a new crop in Pakistan. The first quinoa variety was registered in 2019, then afterward, its cultivation started on a larger scale. Weed pressure, terminal heat stress, stem lodging, bold grain size, and an unstructured market are the major challenges in the production and promotion of the crop. The potential of superior features of quinoa has not been fully explored and utilized. Hence, there is a need to acquire more diverse quinoa germplasm and to establish a strong breeding program to develop new lines with higher productivity and improved crop features for the Pakistan market. Mechanized production, processing practices, and a structured market are needed for further scaling of quinoa production in Pakistan. To achieve these objectives, there is a dire need to create an enabling environment for quinoa production and promotion through the involvement of policymakers, research institutions, farmers associations, and the private sector.
... Due to high grain yield, biomass, and nutritional quality, quinoa is regarded as a dual-purpose crop both for grain production and livestock feed [24]. After seed harvesting, there is potential for quinoa growers to market straw a forage crop [24][25][26]. Generally, genotypes with thick stems, more branches, and moderate plant height producing higher biomass are ideal for fodder and genotypes with compact inflorescence are ideal for grain purpose [27]. ...
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Quinoa is known as a super food due to its extraordinary nutritional qualities and has the potential to ensure future global food and nutritional security. As a model plant with halophytic behavior, quinoa has potential to meet the challenges of climate change and salinization due to its capabilities for survival in harsh climatic conditions. The quinoa crop has received worldwide attention due to its adoption and production expanded in countries out of the native Andean region. Quinoa was introduced to Pakistan in 2009 and it is still a new crop in Pakistan. The first quinoa variety was registered in 2019, then afterward, its cultivation started on a larger scale. Weed pressure , terminal heat stress, stem lodging, bold grain size, and an unstructured market are the major challenges in the production and promotion of the crop. The potential of superior features of quinoa has not been fully explored and utilized. Hence, there is a need to acquire more diverse quinoa germplasm and to establish a strong breeding program to develop new lines with higher productivity and improved crop features for the Pakistan market. Mechanized production, processing practices, and a structured market are needed for further scaling of quinoa production in Pakistan. To achieve these objectives, there is a dire need to create an enabling environment for quinoa production and promotion through the involvement of policymakers, research institutions, farmers associations , and the private sector.
... The lipid content of quinoa ranges from 5-10 (g per 100g). Quinoa fat has higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids namely oleic and linoleic acid (Peiretti et al., 2013;Marmouzi et al., 2015). ...
Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a stress-bearing crop, able to grow in drought, salt-affected and low soil fertility areas and gaining importance for its nutritional quality. It is an excellent option for crop diversification and environmental protection. Quinoa grains contain saponin, a bitter compound that acts as a natural pesticide and insecticide for the grain. During consumption of quinoa, saponin can be easily removed by washing or soaking. It is mainly valued for its balanced protein content and lysine a limiting amino acid in most of cereals. It has been used as a functional ingredient in various food formulations to enhance the nutritional value of the product. Its gluten-free nature makes it an excellent choice for persons suffering from celiac disease. This article sheds a light on the production, nutritional and processing aspects of quinoa for promoting this as a future crop for food security.
... However, it is characterized by a lack of gluten and high digestibility. Quinoa has a higher total protein content (12.9% to 16.5%) than barley (10.8% to 11.0%), oats (11.6%), rice (7.5% up to 9.1%) and corn (from 10.2% to 13.4%), and is similar in total protein content to wheat (from 14.3% to 15.4%) [15][16][17][18] . ...
Article
In this analytical review, data on the proteins characteristics and main biologically active compounds (BAC) composition of quinoa grains (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as well as pharmacological and nutritional properties are considered. The main BAC groups of quinoa grains are polyphenols, steroids and phytoecdysteroids. Quinoa grains is a food raw materials with high nutritional value and unique phytochemical composition. Food products derived from quinoa and their individual chemical constituents have a variety of advantageous properties. Further research of this object will allow to assess its advantages over other cereals and understand the mechanism of action of its BAC, to develop new functional food ingredients in specialized food products.
... La quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) es un pseudocereal propio de América del Sur [1], debido a su alta calidad nutricional y a la capacidad de soportar condiciones ambientales extremas, la quinua ha sido seleccionada como uno de los cultivos destinados a ofrecer seguridad alimentaria en el siglo XXI [2], a tal punto de ser considerado un superalimento. En nuestro país, las provincias que mayor aptitud tienen para el cultivo de esta especie son: Bolívar, Cañar, Carchi. ...
Article
Abstract The main objective of this work was to design the industrial process for the elaboration of quinoa extruded (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) of vanilla, chocolate and passion fruit flavors. The first step was the physical, bromatological and microbiological characterization of the raw material according to the `NTE INEN 1673 (2013): Quinoa Requirements'. Next, both the laboratory and industrial processes were performed, in which the unitary operations suitable for precise design were determined, including extrusion, evaporation, mixing and drying. Simultaneously, data of the necessary processes were taken (humidity, temperature and time) which facilitated all engineering calculations essential to generate a daily production using 17 kg of natural quinoa extrude to obtain 22,702 kg of vanilla, 23,491 kg of chocolate or 24,137 kg of passion fruit values that were determined by mass balances. With these processed samples, a sensory evaluation was conducted using a preference test in which the vanilla flavor obtained a 63.03% acceptability, followed by passion fruit with 20.72%, and finally chocolate with 16.22%. Once it was completed, the design was validated through the `NTE INEN 2570 (2011): grain, cereal and seed snacks. Requirements', recording values within the limits recommended by the norm. Thus, the product is suitable for human consumption.
... The presence of tocopherols in quinoa reduces the risk of oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. 12 Quinoa contains a large number of secondary metabolites (fatty acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and phytoecdysteroids). The high content determines a wide range of biological activity: antidiabetic, antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating. ...
Article
Objective: Quinoa grains (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) contain a large number of secondary metabolites. Phytoecdysteroids and polyphenols, secondary metabolites, are of great interest for research today. The aim of the study is a method development for the extraction of biologically active substances (BAS) from quinoa grains to obtain a functional food ingredient (FFI) enriched with phytoecdysteroids and polyphenols. Materials and methods: The content of phytoecdysteroids at each stage of quinoa extract production was determined by two methods: HPLC with a spectrophotometric detector and HPLC with a mass spectrometer. The content of total polyphenols was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The flavonoid profile was determined using a liquid chromatography system with a diode array spectrophotometric detector and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detector. Results: The chosen technological scheme for the production of FFI can concentrate more than 200 times the major phytoecdysteroid 20-hydroxyecdysone major in quinoa in the final product relative to the raw material. The maximum yield of flavonoids in the final product was observed in cases of 20 and 40% ethanol extraction. Conclusion: These results lead to the conclusion that highly enriched sources of BAS can be obtained using fairly simple technological approaches and commercially available reagents from quinoa grains.
... The protein quantity and quality of quinoa are generally superior to those of cereal grains, while offering gluten-free property and high digestibility. Quinoa has a higher total protein content (12.9% to 16.5%) than barley (10.8% to 11.0%), oat (11.6%), rice (7.5% to 9.1%), and maize (10.2% to 13.4%), and a total protein content equal to that of wheat (14.3% to 15.4%) (Comai et al., 2007, Abugoch James et al., 2009and Peiretti et al., 2013. ...
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This grain has attracted scientific community for its high nutritional value as it is quantitatively rich in proteins, dietary fiber, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and natural antioxidants such as phenols and flavonoids, it is considered as “superfood”. Also absence of gluten has made it an important and healthy food option for celiac patients. Quinoa also helps to reduce the risk of various diseases like cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes, some cancer, high blood pressure, obesity and is also a good option for people who are allergic to certain food groups.
... Rights reserved. [43,44]. Erythrocentaurin (peak 5) which belongs to the pyran class was detected as the only major peak in the bound fraction and its derivatives have been reported to have hepatitis B virus inhibitory activities [45]. ...
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There is a growing global demand for teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) grain due to its gluten-free nature, high level of essential amino acids, high mineral content, low glycemic index, high crude fiber content, longer shelf life, and slow staling of its bread products compared to those of wheat, sorghum, rice, barley, and maize. However, only a limited and less reliable data exists on phenolic profiles of teff grain. This article aimed at exploring phenolic contents and chemical compositions of four teff grain samples (two white and two brown) as well as their in vitro antioxidant capacity. Identification of individual bioactive compounds in white teff was also conducted using UPLC-qTOF-MS. In general, teff grain was found to have a much higher phenolic content compared to other commonly consumed grains and pseudo cereals; brown teff contained higher than the white one. Antioxidant activity was also relatively higher than other common whole flour food sources. Furthermore, combination of UPLC separation, qTOF‐MS detection and automated data processing software with scientific library using UNIFI ver. 1.8 allowed us to identify a total of 61 bioactive compounds mainly phenolic compounds and saponins in teff for the first time. The findings of this study significantly contribute to enhancing the limited data on teff phenolics.
... 0.61% palmitic acid and 0.40% docosanoic acid were found. Linoleic acid was found to be dominant in the seed oil of C. album at 53.05% and oleic acid was found at 20.74%, which is similar to the Ayani variety of C. album from Mantaro valley (Peru) (Peiretti and Tassone, 2013). It also contained 2.01% linolenic acid, 6.32% palmitic acid, 1.67% decanoic acid, 1.11% eicosanoic acid and 0.94% docosenoic acid. ...
Article
Angelica glauca Edgew. and Chenopodium album Linn. are medicinally important plants with aromatic, nutritious and flavor-enhancing properties. In this study the fatty acid composition of petroleum ether seed extracts (PE) of processed plants were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The PE consisted mainly of unsaturated fatty acids, such as petroselinic acid 74.26% and oleic acid 7.37% for A. glauca and linoleic acid 53.05% and oleic acid 20.74% for C. album. The de-fatted seed extracts were screened for their antioxidant activities using 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. Almost all the assays resulted in defatted seed extracts showing powerful radical scavenging activity. These findings suggest that the processed plants could be used as ingredients (as a source of natural antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids) for the formulation of functional foods.
... Quinoa oil is the main source of essential fatty acids such as linoleic (52%) and linolenic (4.0%) (Valencia-Chamorro, 2003). Triglycerides are the main fraction of fats and make up more than the half of neutral lipids (Alvarez-Jubete et al., 2009;Peiretti et al., 2013). In addition to concentrated energy sources of lipids, they are structural constituents of cell membranes that the body uses to perform various normal functions Tang et al., 2015). ...
Article
In recent years, quinoa gained increased attention due to its great adaptability to harsh environmental conditions, high nutritional values, and high preference as ingredients of gluten‐free and functional foods. In order to improve the diet and direct the population to a better health, the search for new foodstuffs suitable for a healthy lifestyle and proper diet is still on going and quinoa seeds is one of these food raw materials. It is a promising variety for human consumption and nutrition in the world, as it has higher nutritional and health values than traditional cereal grains, such as high concentration of protein, fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds, and low glycaemic index and gluten‐free nature. Its consumption is not spread worldwide due to lack of knowledge regarding nutritional and health benefits of quinoa among consumers. This review summarizes the nutritional values, bioactive properties, antinutritional factors, and uses of quinoa seeds and oils.
... The omega-3 content of chia vegetative parts is remarkable compared to the average values reported for some common forage grasses and legumes [70] and higher than values reported for other omega-3-rich species such as birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor Scop.) [71]. The ALA concentration is also higher than values reported for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willdenow) at early vegetative stages (460 g kg −1 of total FA) [72]. Currently, one of the main goals of the dairy and meat industry is to improve omega-3 content. ...
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Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds are considered a superfood, but research on vegetative biomass uses is scarce. We conducted a two-year trial under the hypothesis that short-day flowering black chia would provide quality forage at high latitudes and tested sowing density (D1 = 125, D2 = 25, D3 = 8 and D4 = 4 plants m−2) and top-dressing N fertilization (N = 0, N = 20 kg ha−1) at three stages (EV = early vegetative, LV = late vegetative and EF = early flowering). Forage yield reached 9.0 and 5.64 t ha-1 of total and 2.07 and 1.56 t ha−1 of leaf dry mass at EF in 2013 and 2014, respectively. High plant density corresponded to higher biomass but to lower plant relative growth rate, stem diameter, branching, proportion of leaves and lipid and crude protein content. Crude protein declined from 18% at EV to about 8% at EF and was lower in D1 than in D4. Lipids ranged between 33.83 g kg−1 (D4, EV) and 17.34 g kg−1 (D1, EF) (p < 0.005). N topdressing affected forage quality but not yield. Alpha-linolenic acid was the most abundant fatty acid (FA) (608 g kg−1 FA at EV). The long vegetative growth of short-day flowering chia in southern Europe is favorable to fodder production, and management should be optimized by seeking balance between growth rate and stand density while optimizing vegetative stage growth for the highest forage quality.
... The IVDMD (g kg −1 DM) and IVNDFD (g kg −1 NDF) were calculated from differences between the amount of nutrients in the herbage and residue after incubation according to a described model. 26 Rumen fluid was collected before feeding from four adult fistulated dorper rams fed a diet of 550 g kg −1 DM sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis, (Trin.) Tzvel), 294 g kg −1 DM maize seed, 140 g kg −1 DM soybean (Glycine max (Linn.) ...
Article
BACKGROUND The use of common vetch in grassland‐livestock systems has expanded greatly within recent years, partly because of its value as a high‐quality forage crop, but also to improve the soil nitrogen availability. In‐field estimation of forage yield potential and nutritional characteristics is required for providing management decision to farmers on how to optimize the management and use of common vetch forages. The aim of this work was to study changes in forage partitioning and nutritive value responses of a late‐maturing and an early‐maturing cultivar of common vetch in a two‐year study on the Tibetan plateau. RESULTS This study provided evidence for differential patterns of forage accumulation for common vetch with contrasting maturity over two years. The late‐maturing cultivar exhibited greater forage yield and a lower proportion of pods, compared to the early‐maturing cultivar. There was a tendency towards lower forage nutritive value with the late‐maturing cultivar. Regressions of nutritive value parameters of common vetch forages on growing degree days were explained by the cubic (P < 0.001) models, all with high coefficients of determination (R² ≥ 0.792). CONCLUSION This study shows that the late‐maturing cultivar harvested at end of the pod‐filling stage produces high forage yield, increasing the availability of high quality forage for ruminants, thereby improving the self‐sufficiency of farmers, in terms of forage yield and high‐concentration protein. For early‐maturing cultivars, it may be better to harvest at the early flowering stage for better nutritive value and in part to enable a subsequent double crop of oat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Fatty acid (FA) composition was determined on the lyophilized samples. The lipid extraction of the samples was performed according to Peiretti et al. [17]. The FA methyl esters in hexane were then injected into a gas chromatograph (GC1000 DPC; Dani Instruments S.p.A., Cologno Monzese, Italy) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). ...
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The popularity of small berries has rapidly increased in Western countries given their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities and health-promoting properties. The aim of this study was to compare the fatty acid (FA) profile, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity of extracts of 11 berries cultivated in the North West of Italy. Berry samples were extracted and evaluated for FA profile and total anthocyanin (TAC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and for their radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH •) radical. The main polyphenols of berry extracts were characterized by HPLC-DAD-UV-ESI HRMS in positive ion mode. Results showed that the highest TAC and TFC contents were recorded in black currants, blackberries, and blueberries. Maximum and minimum DPPH • radical scavenging activities, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, and FRAP measurements confirmed the same trend recorded for TAC and TFC values. HPLC-HRMS analyses highlight how blueberries and blackberries have the highest concentration in polyphenols. Palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and γ-linolenic acids significantly differ between berries, with oleic and α-linolenic acid representing the most abundant FAs in raspberries. Among the berries investigated, results of phytochemical characterization suggest choosing black currants and blueberries as an excellent source of natural antioxidants for food and health purposes.
... on the contrary the total unsaturated fatty acids increased from 84.55% in the control sample to 86.40% in formula No. 3. [47] and [48] stated that amaranth flour are a good source in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and it is recommended for use in functional foods to prevent cardiovascular disease, Also its use in diets increases unsaturated fatty acids and natural antioxidants that play an important role in protecting cellular membranes from oxidative damage. ...
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Amaranth has become an unconventional crop that interesting of scientists and researchers due to its unique nutritional properties, in addition to bear the water lack and be suitable for all types of soil. The objective of this study was to utilize amaranth flour in preparation of high nutritional value bakery products, crackers and tortilla produced by using amaranth flour instead of corn flour (w/w) by 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% levels substitution. The prepared products were evaluated for its chemical composition, minerals content, amino acids composition, fatty acid composition, color analysis, biological active compounds analysis and sensory evaluation. Results showed that substitution with amaranth flour increased protein, fat, ash and fiber. As for minerals and amino acid, it indicated that the formula No. 3 (25% corn flour/75% amaranth flour) in crackers and the formula No. 2 (50% corn flour/50% amaranth flour) in tortilla contained higher amount of minerals such as iron, calcium, potassium, zinc, magnesium, manganese, copper and phosphorus, and of the essential amino acids such as Leucine, Lysine and va-line. On the other hand the formula No. 3 in crackers had the highest unsa-turated fatty acids content and lowest of total saturated fatty acids content. While the formula No. 2 in tortilla had the highest saturated fatty acids content and lowest of unsaturated fatty acids content. The results also showed that the incorporation of amaranth flour in the preparation of the crackers and tortilla led to significantly decreased yellowness and lightness compared with control. Also, results indicated that crackers and tortilla which prepared with amaranth flour exhibited higher antioxidant activity than control formulas. Concerning sensory evaluation of crackers, results showed significant decrease in appearance, color and overall acceptability while, tortilla had significant decrease in general appearance, color and total score at all formulas. Based on the results obtained here, amaranth is a rich source of bioactive compounds and due to its nutritional benefits, it can be used in the develop-How to cite this paper
... on the contrary the total unsaturated fatty acids increased from 84.55% in the control sample to 86.40% in formula No. 3. [47] and [48] stated that amaranth flour are a good source in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and it is recommended for use in functional foods to prevent cardiovascular disease, Also its use in diets increases unsaturated fatty acids and natural antioxidants that play an important role in protecting cellular membranes from oxidative damage. ...
... At present, It has high price in European market (Panta et al., 2014). It has high nutritive value than other cereal and gluten free diet (Peiretti et al., 2013). It could be alternative crop in saline soil and water with limited access to nonsaline water. ...
Chapter
Climate change and water mismanagement have confronted Iran with water scarcity, desertification, and reduction of water quality. In 2020, Iran will need 165 billion m³ of water annually for producing 120 million tons of foodstuffs. In 2012, the agriculture sector used more than 90% of the renewable water of Iran. Therefore, this country faces water crisis, and the extension of the agriculture sector based on fresh water is nearly impossible. Using saline water and soil for the cultivation of halophytes or high salt-tolerant crops could be considered as an alternative solution. Among native halophytes, Chenopodiaceae has the highest (44%) number of species with wide adaptability and different usage (forage, vegetable, food, and oil). Successful utilization of native and exotic chenopods in Iran like Atriplex and Kochia scoparia as forage and Salicornia as oil crop and quinoa as a food is promising. Halocnemum strobilaceum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus, Halostachys caspica, Suaeda fruticosa, and Salsola were evaluated as forage crops, and among them Halocnemum strobilaceum showed high salt tolerance and wide adaptability. However, the highest forage quality belonged to Halostachys caspica. Evaluation of forage quality showed that low metabolic energy is the main problem of using these species as feed. Suaeda aegyptiaca, Salsola soda, and Salicornia persica could be considered as vegetables. Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Suaeda fruticosa, Suaeda aegyptiaca, Halocnemum strobilaceum, and Salicornia persica with 10 up to 30% edible oil could be promising oil crops in the future. In addition, chenopods are host of four species of Cistanche that are capable to use as medicinal plants.
... In galega (Galega officinalis L.) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), Peiretti and Gai (2006) and Peiretti et al. (2013) found similar and higher concentration of linoleic acid compare to linseed, whereas α-linolenic acid had an opposite trend. ...
Article
This research was aimed at studying the bromatological traits, fatty acid profile, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) shoots harvested at six codified morphological stages. Quality traits were significantly related to cumulated growing degree days from seedling emergence to senescence. The crude protein and ash contents exhibited a gradual decrease and were negatively correlated with morphological stages, whereas cell wall components such as neutral, acid detergent fibers and lignin (NDF, ADF, and ADL) and ether extract (EE) showed a positive correlation. Both ABTS [(2,2’-azinobis (3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt] and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assays indicated a reduction in antioxidant capacities from stem extension to senescence, from 16 to 7.1, and 19 to 7 mmol TEAC/100g DW, for ABTS and DPPH, respectively. Significant linear correlation among the antioxidant activity, phenolics, NDF, ADF, ADL, and EE were found showed usually. Total phenolic (9.6-26.4 g GAE kg–1) and total flavonoid (5.2-16.7 g CE kg–1) contents were negatively related with morphological stages. The morphological stage was significantly correlated with oil content, although individual fatty acid content did not. Research gives new insights into the evolution of chemical composition of linseed shoot. Remarkable variations in quality traits, fatty acid contents, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity evidence the possibility to use green linseed in animals’ diet, also suggesting the exploitation of linseed plant as forage source.
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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is an environmental stress-resilient crop of increasing global importance. Sowing density is a critical factor in the quinoa cultivation protocol. We evaluated the row-spacing effect on quinoa growth, yield, and grain quality under Mediterranean conditions. We hypothesized that lower row spacing would reduce quinoa stem diameter and increase yield but may reduce grain quality. Two quinoa accessions were sown in northern Israel with 16, 26, or 80 cm between rows during two consecutive years, in November and January each year. Plant density at harvest ranged from 22 to 260 plants m−2. Plant height and stem diameter ranged from 77 to 126 and 6.3 to 10.5 cm, respectively. Hay, grain, and straw yield ranged from 2259 to 17,979, 1604 to 4266, and 1212 to 3660 kg DM ha−1, respectively. Grain protein content (PC) ranged from 5.2 to 14.2 and thousand grain weight (TGW) from 2033 to 3446 mg. Plant density, hay, grain, and straw yield were negatively correlated to row spacing. Stem diameter was positively correlated to row spacing, while there were no correlations between this parameter and plant height, grain PC, or TGW. Results indicated that 16 cm between rows may be optimal, as this produced the greatest yields with no effect on grain quality. However, as it may result in plant lodging, 26 cm row spacing should also be considered. The effects of additional management-related parameters on quinoa production should be examined.
Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an Andean pseudocereal produced in countries such as Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and southern Colombia, with more than 3,000 varieties, distinguished by their nutritional properties and adaptation to different agro-ecological zones. Quinoa's nutritional profile stands out for its protein, carbohydrate, lipid and gluten-free content; it is rich in vitamins; and it is an excellent source of minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus. It is one of the few foods that have in its composition all the essential amino acids, standing out from other cereals such as rice or wheat. It is an excellent source of bioactive compounds, which have antioxidant, cytotoxic, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. With respect to quinoa leaves, several studies have indicated that they have higher protein content than grains, as well as inorganic nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, iron and zinc. In addition, they can potentially serve as a rich source of phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Conventional heat treatments greatly or slightly affect the composition of the food, including bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity. Germination provides the product with greater bioavailability and an increase in bioactive compounds. The purpose of this work was to document research on quinoa and its leaves, the effect of thermal treatments and germination on its bioactive compounds, in order to promote the creation and innovation of products based on its bioactive compounds, thus combating malnutrition in our population.
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The livestock farming sector in Israel constitutes about 40% of the total agricultural production. Recently, quinoa has been evaluated worldwide as a high-quality fodder crop. The diverse abiotic stress resistance of quinoa to various harsh climate conditions in the Middle East, such as drought, heat and salinity, makes it an excellent candidate for local cultivation for both human consumption and livestock feed. This work examined the effect of different abiotic stress conditions on the germination of a quinoa cultivar suitable for fodder production. Our results indicated that, although quinoa seeds germination was affected by all the abiotic stresses examined, it was highly resistant to all those.
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The present study entitled "Antioxidant and nutritional analysis of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and its incorporation in cookies" was carried out with the objectives to assess the Nutritional and Antioxidant properties of quinoa seed and its incorporation in development of value added food products. The study followed the guidelines of Research Methodology. Antioxidant levels of quinoa seed flour has been assessed to get the nutritive value of the quinoa seed flour & developed products. Chemical analysis was done by standardized method (AOAC 2007). On the basis of finding quinoa seed flour was nutritionally rich specially in protein, calcium & iron. The prepared value added food products cookies by incorporation of quinoa seed flour (in different proportion (10%, 20% and 30% per 100 gram) and served as treatment T1, T2 and T3 respectively. product has been developed after home level processing like soaking, drying, grinding into flour, baking at microwave. Proximate composition, Antioxidant levels of developed product has been assessed to get the nutritive value of the product. Chemical analysis was done by standardized method (AOAC 2007). On the basis of finding, the incorporation level of quinoa seed powder in the developed value added food product Cookies were found nutritionally rich in comparison to control treatment. Statistical Analysis has been done by SPSS version 20. ANOVA test, t test has been used to test the validity of the hypothesis.
Article
Aiming to determine the genetic variability of accessions of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. "Quinoa" from the Germplasm Bank of INIA - Ayacucho, analyze 29 accessions, which were characterized using AFLP molecular markers. The quality of the DNA extracted by the Doyle and modified Doyle method was optimal for all samples, obtaining modifications in a range of 100 - 400 ng / μl. In the standardization of the AFLP technique, it was determined that the proteins between 100 and 200 ng / μl of digested DNA were adequate to efficiently develop the AFLP technique, and it was also determined that the preamplification products that allowed the resolution amplification profiles variables were higher with a 1:4 ratio. A total of 7 primer combinations generated 220 DNA bands, being 201 polymorphic loci. Molecular data grouped the accessions into seven groups at a similarity of 0.81 ultrametric units, of which a group is made up of 23 accessions and the remaining six made up of a single accession. It was found that the mean genetic variance was 0.306 ± 0.011, with a Shannon information index of 0.463 ± 0.015, these results showed that in the 29 quinoa accessions it presents a high degree of genetic variability and there is no duplicate accession. The study determines the genetic relationship and is essential to raise the genetic improvement and conservation of quinoa.
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Proximate, mineral and sugar composition, amino acid and fatty acid profile and saponin content were determined in six quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) varieties (Pasto, Atlas, Marisma, Jessie, Roja, Pot-4). The aim of this study was to provide a detailed characterization of the nutritional composition of these varieties cultivated in Southern Europe. In addition, saponin content was analyzed as an antinutritional compound. Results show nutritional values in consonance with those reported for quinoa due to high content and quality of proteins between 15.6 – 18.7% with a wide amino acid spectrum, rich in arginine and lysine, and unsaturated fatty acids (approximately 85%) mainly linoleic (18:2n-6, Ω6) (58-61%), oleic acid (18:1n-9) (18-20%) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, Ω3) (6-8%). Mineral composition showed high contents of mainly potassium, phosphorous and magnesium (908–1323, 516.2–582.9 and 182–232 mg 100 g⁻¹ dw respectively). The main sugar was sucrose (ca. 1.5%), with low fructose and glucose content. All varieties showed low saponin contents (≤0.9%). Results indicate that under Southern European agri-environmental conditions the studied varieties have nutritional values according to composition traits reported for quinoa.
Article
In this study, fatty acids, amino acids and organic acids in three color quinoas (WQ, white quinoa; RQ, red quinoa; BQ, black quinoa) were analyzed based on untargeted and targeted metabolomics. A total of 20 fatty acids, 30 amino acids and 17 organic acids were detected, and 4 fatty acids, 12 amino acids, and 12 organic acids were reported in quinoas for the first time. Significant differences (p<0.05) of fatty acids (256.65 mg/g in RQ to 294.10 mg/g in BQ), amino acids (6627.54 μg/g in WQ to 10452.72 μg/g in BQ) and organic acids (21.21 mg/g in WQ to 31.84 mg/g in RQ) were presented in different quinoas. C16:0 (77.26 mg/g~97.58 mg/g), C18:2n6c (73.26 mg/g~99.67 mg/g), glutamic acid (1926.43 μg/g~3632.53 μg/g), tyrosine (931.00 μg/g~1197.94 μg/g), succinic acid (12.16 mg/g~17.30 mg/g) and L-malic acid (1.14 mg/g~5.39 mg/g) were common in quinoas. According to principal component analysis (PCA), WQ could be characterized by heptadecanoic acid (1.99 mg/g), palmitic acid (97.58 mg/g), glutamine (5.43 μg/g), ornithine (53.78 μg/g) and citric acid (0.79 mg/g); BQ was characterized by oleic acid (86.33 mg/g), myristic acid (2.02 mg/g), beta-alanine (31.64 μg/g), tyrosine (1197.94 μg/g), proline (2003.69 μg/g) and lactic acid (2.57 mg/g); RQ was characterized by L-alanine (746.41 μg/g), L-norvaline (6.67 μg/g), succinic acid (17.30 mg/g) and L-malic acid (5.39 mg/g), respectively. In conclusion, characterization of fatty acids, amino acids and organic acids in three colored quinoas could be well analyzed based on metabolomics.
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The use of common vetch in smallholder crop-livestock systems has expanded widely in recent years, partly to relieve grazing pressure and improve seasonal supply of high-quality herbage. The aim of this work was to evaluate plant fraction biomass accumulation, forage quality attributes and nutrient yields, and water use efficiency (WUE) responses of a local and an improved cultivar of common vetch in a two-year study on the Tibetan Plateau. No differences were observed between the cultivars for dry forage yield, nutrient yields, and WUE. Regressions of forage quality attributes and nutrient yields on growing degree days were explained and coefficients of determination were high in all cases (R² ≥ 0.833). These results demonstrate that air temperature information can be a useful tool for understanding forage quality attributes and nutrient yields of common vetch. The models from this study also provided in-field estimation of forage yield potential and nutrient components, which can guide farmers in appropriate use of common vetch forages.
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The effects of processing on the content of amino acids and fatty acids and the release of glucose from quinoa grains were evaluated in this paper. The processes included dehulling, boiling, extrusion, heating under pressure, and baking (infrared heating). The retention rate (AR) of essential amino acids and fatty acids of dehulled and boiled quinoa was 100%. The oil content of the extruded quinoa samples of two varieties was 47.71% and 39.75% lower than the corresponding raw quinoa samples. Baking and heating under pressure had different effects on the essential amino acid content, fatty acid content, and hydrolysis rate of quinoa starch. The results indicated the different cooking methods affect the essential amino acid content, fatty acid composition, release of glucose, and nutritional quality of quinoa, and moderate processing should be adopted to fully utilize the essential amino acids, fatty acids, and starch in quinoa. Thermal treatment has different effects on the essential amino acid content, fatty acid content, and the hydrolysis rate of quinoa starch. The proper processing methods for quinoa products to satisfy the nutritional demand of consumers are important. The results of this paper may help commercial or production industries easily choose the appropriate processing method to meet the consumer's request for nutrition in quinoa grain, effectively increase the value of quinoa products, and enhance its industrial profits.
Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed-producing, environmental stress-resilient crop plant that originates in the Andean Plateau. Quinoa seeds exhibit high nutritional value as they have a high protein level, contain all the essential amino acids, are gluten-free and are also rich in bioactive compounds. Bolivia and Peru are the major producers of quinoa seeds and cultivation of the plant has been introduced to more than 95 countries. Quinoa is also evaluated worldwide for its potential use as a forage crop due the high nutritional value of the entire plant for livestock. In this study, we investigated quinoa cultivation for grain (seed) production and cattle feeding in Israel. Six quinoa accessions were sown in northern Israel at two different winter dates for two years using a scarce amount of irrigation. In plots sown in November 2016 and 2017 or January 2017 and 2018, hay dry matter (DM) yield ranged from 8,820−12,310, 5,270−8,850, 11,480−12,710 and 10,190−12,340 kg·ha⁻¹, respectively; seed yield (SY) ranged from 3,220−4,730, 1,540−2,220, 4,010−5,630 and 4,280−6,360 kg·ha⁻¹, respectively; straw yield ranged from 4,580−9,180, 550−1,000, 5,230−6,420 and 3,220−4,170 kg·ha⁻¹, respectively. Quinoa hay and straw quality were high as crude protein concentration reached 19.9 % and 10.6 %, respectively with an in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) of 75.8 % and 54.2 %, respectively. In conclusion, high quinoa hay biomass and SY, as well as high hay quality, suggest a high prospect for quinoa cultivation in Israel and other Mediterranean countries, as a dual-purpose crop for grain production and livestock feed. A novel whole-use approach may be the use of quinoa straw for cattle feed.
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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is native to the Andean region and has attracted a global growing interest due its unique nutritional value. The protein content of quinoa grains is higher than other cereals while it has better distribution of essential amino acids. It can be used as an alternative to milk proteins. Additionally, quinoa contains a high amount of essential fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, dietary fibers, and carbohydrates with beneficial hypoglycemic effects while being gluten-free. Furthermore, the quinoa plant is resistant to cold, salt, and drought, which leaves no doubt as to why it has been called the "golden grain". On that account, production of quinoa and its products followed an increasing trend that gained attraction in 2013, as it was proclaimed to be the international year of quinoa. In this respect, this review provides an overview of the published results regarding the nutritional and biological properties of quinoa that have been cultivated in different parts of the world during the last two decades. This review sheds light on how traditional quinoa processing and products evolved and are being adopted into novel food processing and modern food products, as well as noting the potential of side stream processing of quinoa by-products in various industrial sectors. Furthermore, this review moves beyond the technological aspects of quinoa production by addressing the socioeconomic and environmental challenges of its production, consumption, and marketizations to reflect a holistic view of promoting the production and consumption of quinoa.
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Quinoa has higher protein content (11-16% m/m) and better amino acid profile than cereals and represents a valuable resource for healthy nutrition. The aim of this work was to study the saponins extraction kinetics during washing of soaked quinoa. The experimental curves of saponins content as a function of time was measured at water temperatures of 20, 40, 60, and 70ºC. A spectrophotometric method was proposed to determine total saponins content, while an unsteady state diffusional model was applied to this extraction problem, assuming strict internal control to the mass transfer rate. As a first analysis, the complete analytical solution for constant diffusion coefficient (Deff) using the initial radius (R0) provided an accurate predicted curve at each temperature. The diffusion coefficients (around 10−10 m2s-1), were correlated with temperature using an Arrhenius-type relationship to obtain an activation energy Ea of 16.9 kJ mol-1. The preliminary values of Ea and preexponential factor (D0) thus obtained were used as initial values of a second, more robust fitting where the whole dataset of saponins concentrations as a function of time for all temperatures. The Arrhenius equation was directly inserted into the diffusional solution. The following parameters were obtained: Ea= 17.2 kJ mol-1 and, D0= 3.232×107 m2 s-1, respectively with an overall r2=0.985. Saponins content agreed well with experimental values. As the equation is capable of predicting saponin extraction times for various operating conditions, it can be used within equipment design schemes.
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This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cahuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in all the nutritional properties of the quinoa seeds in all three areas. Quinoa of the Villarrica ecotype showed the highest protein content (16.10 g 100 g(-1) DM) and the highest content of vitamins E and C (4.644 +/- 0.240 and 23.065 +/- 1.119 mg 100 g(-1) DM, respectively). The highest content of vitamins B1 (0.648 +/- 0.006 mg 100 g(-1) DM) and B3 (1.569 +/- 0.026 mg 100 g(-1) DM) was found in the Regalona ecotype, while the highest value of vitamin B2 (0.081 +/- 0.002 mg 100 g(-1) DM) occurred in the Ancovinto ecotype. Potassium was the most abundant mineral with a maximum value of 2325.56 mg 100 g(-1) DM in the Cancosa ecotype. Saponin content varied from 0.84 g 100 g(-1) DM in the Villarrica ecotype to 3.91 g 100 g(-1) DM in the Cahuil ecotype. Significant differences were found among the Chilean quinoa ecotypes grown under different climatic conditions; however, all the quinoa seeds exhibited a high nutritional value. These results are compatible with the genetic differences previously observed in the three geographical areas under study. Thus, if more studies are conducted to show the particular properties of quinoa from specific areas, it would be possible in the future to coin the term "controlled designation of origin" (appellation d'origine controlee) and add commercial value to Chilean quinoa seeds in the domestic and international markets.
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This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P
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The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), is a pseudocereal that has been cultivated in the Andean region in South America and especially in Narino, Colombia. The quinoa has a great potential in the improvement of food for humans and animals. Its importance could be due to the quality of its proteins, the content and balance of its amino acids. The objective was to determine the factors that affect quinoa adoption, by using the model innovation-decision process (Rogers 2003) which structured and evaluated following parameters: level of consumption, use in animal feed, quinoa related to profitability and expectations with the improvement of quinoa. The results of the survey indicated that high proportion of small farmers know the quinoa crop, but only a short time (16 years ago), this could be the main reason of the a low consumption and low quinoa production. Low proportion of farmers (20%) have used quinoa in animal feed so we could consider them as the Innovators and early Adopters according to Innovation Adoption Curve categories of Rogers (2003). Due to knowledge of quinoa from previous state projects there is a good potential adoption to innovate food production. Quinoa has a good nutritional content, the availability of adequate agricultural conditions and broad varieties.
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In many cases health and welfare problems are observed in organic egg production systems, as are high environmental risks related to nutrient leaching. These disadvantages might be reduced if the layers are allowed to utilise their ability to forage to a higher degree thereby reducing the import of nutrients into the system and stimulating the hens to perform a natural behaviour. However, very little is known about the ability of modern high-producing layers to take advantage of foraging to cover their nutritional needs, and the aim of the present work was to clarify this subject. Six flocks, each of 26 hens and one cock, were moved regularly in a rotation between different forage crops for a period of 130 days. Half of the flocks were fed typical layer feed for organic layers and half were fed whole wheat. The forage crops consisted of grass/clover, pea/vetch/oats, lupin and quinoa. At the beginning of the experiment, wheat-fed hens had a lower intake of supplementary feed (wheat) and a lower laying rate, egg weight and body weight. However, after a period of 6 to 7 weeks, the intake of wheat increased to approximately 100 g per hen per day and the laying rate increased to the same level as for the hens fed layer feed. For both groups of hens egg weight and body weight increased during the remaining part of the experiment. Crop analysis revealed different food preferences for hens fed layer feed and wheat-fed hens. Wheat-fed hens ate less of the cultivated seeds, whereas the amounts of plant material, oyster shells, insoluble grit stone and soil were larger in the crops from wheat-fed hens. Floor eggs were significantly more frequent in the hens fed layer feed, whereas wheat-fed hens only rarely laid floor eggs. Irrespective of treatment, hens were found to have excellent health and welfare. We conclude that nutrient-restricted, high-producing organic layers are capable of finding and utilising considerable amounts of different feed items from a cultivated foraging area without negative effects on their health and welfare.
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A simple procedure suitable for rapid transmethylation of triacylglycerols, other neutral lipids (including cholesteryl esters), and glycerophospholipids is described. Lipids in diethyl ether solution (50 volumes), in the presence of methyl acetate (1 vol), are reacted with 1 M sodium methoxide in methanol (1 vol) at room temperature. Essentially complete transmethylation can occur within a few minutes with no hydrolysis. Glassware and reagent requirements are minimal and samples are ready for gas-liquid chromatography analysis with very little work-up.
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Effects of the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from forage on performance of dairy cows were evaluated statistically using treatment means for 13 sets of forage comparisons reported in the literature. All comparisons reported significant differences in NDF digestibilities of forages in situ or in vitro. Treatment means were blocked by study or by additional factorial treatment within a study to remove variation among experiments. The statistical model included random effect of block, fixed factorial effect of NDF digestibility (high or low), and dietary NDF concentration as a covariate. Enhanced NDF digestibility of forage significantly increased dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield. A one-unit increase in NDF digestibility in vitro or in situ was associated with a 0.17-kg increase in DMI and a 0.25-kg increase in 4% fat-corrected milk. Differences in NDF digestibility between treatments were greater when measured in vitro or in situ than when measured in vivo. Digestibility of NDF in vitro or in situ might be a better indicator of DMI than NDF digestibility in vivo because forages with high in vitro or in situ NDF digestibilities might have shorter rumen retention times, allowing greater DMI at the expense of NDF digestibility in vivo. Digestibility of NDF is an important parameter of forage quality.
Article
The performance of sunflower (Helianthus annus), amaranthus (Amaranthus cruentus), dolicho (Lablab purpureus), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), soybean (Glycine max L.), maize (Zea mays Lin) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) for forage production during the dry season was studied using a random block design with four replications. The experiment was performed in typical red ferrallitic soil. Among the tall crops, sunflower and maize showed the greatest height (P < 0.001), with 169.22 and 170.68 cm, respectively. Among the short crops, amaranthus and quinoa showed the greatest height with 97.50 and 82.52 cm, respectively, differing between them. Soybean showed the highest DM percentage in whole plant (26.25%), differing (P < 0.001) from the rest of the crops, whereas maize showed the lowest (11.70%) percentage. Similar performance was shown in DM for soybean (24.25%) and maize (14.35%) leaves, not differing from sunflower (14.00%). Kenaf had the highest DM percentage in stem (22.65%), differing from the rest of the crops, except quinoa (22.26%). The highest DM production was detected in sunflower (7.11 t/ha), while kenaf and maize did not differ between them (4.47 and 4.22 t/ha, respectively). The percentages of leaves were higher in amaranthus and dolicho (64.02 and 61.13%, respectively), differing (P < 0.001) between them and from the rest of the crops. The highest production of leaves was found in sunflower (3437.68 kg/ha). The highest CP production in leaves was also obtained in sunflower (649.72 kg/ha), as well as the highest CP production in whole plant (1188.79 kg/ha). Quinoa showed the highest Ca percentage (3.34%) differing (P < 0.001) from the rest of the crops. Sunflower had the highest P percentage (0.54%) and kenaf had the highest crude fiber percentage (34.52%), differing (P < 0.001) from the rest of the crops. The sowing of sunflower and maize is recommended to obtain higher forage production, while amaranthus, soybean, dolicho and quinoa are recommended for high quality forage production.
Article
In organic dairy farm systems the input of protein from concentrates purchase is restricted, on the one hand by legislative regulation and on the other due to a shortage of high protein feeds on the markets. In organic dairy farm systems, improvement of self-support with protein from home grown forages is the only alternative to increase the level of dietary protein in rations for dairy cows. Therefore, there is an intensive quest going on for novel feed crops that are suitable protein sources for dairy cows in organic farming systems. Research in Denmark and the Netherlands has indicated that quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa) is quite promising as a high yielding and protein rich forage crop. In a relatively short period of time, a whole quinoa crop harvested prior to seed filling can yield to ca. 11 tons of dry matter/ha with a crude protein content that varies between 17 and 21 %. The seed of the quinoa contains saponines which reduce the palatability due to their bitterness. However, recent breeding efforts have yielded new sweet quinoa varieties that are low in saponines. Forage production with low saponine quinoa varieties may have the advantage that the seeds can also contribute to the dry matter yield and feeding value. Based on the high expectations for dry matter and protein yields, it was concluded that quinoa whole crop silage (quinoa WCS) could be attractive as an alternative forage crop for organic dairy farm systems. However, no data on quinoa WCS as forage for dairy cows have been published yet. Therefore a feeding experiment was conducted with the aim to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of wilted grass-clover silage by quinoa whole crop silage on feed intake and milk production and milk composition of dairy cows. Thirty Red Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 10 blocks of 3 cows each in order to form 3 balanced treatment groups. The treatment groups were defined as Q0 (control), Q20 and Q40. The experimental period consisted of a three week pre-treatment period and a five week treatment period. During the pre-treatment period all cows received the same basal diet that consisted of a mixture of maize silage and wilted grass-clover silage (ratio 35:65 on a dry matter basis) ad libitum. During the treatment period, the ratios between maize silage, wilted grass-clover silage and quinoa WCS in the basal diets of Q0, Q20 and Q40 were 5:65:0, 35:45:20 and 35:25:40 on a dry matter basis, respectively. This diet was supplemented with a commercial organic concentrate. The level of concentrate supplementation was equal for all cows within one block. The quinoa WCS was harvested at a dough ripe stage of maturity. Compared to data from the literature, the protein content and digestibility of the organic matter were very low. The treatment means of the forage dry matter intake (FDMI) and total dry matter intake (TDMI) for Q0, Q20 and Q40 were 15.3, 16.4 and 15.5 kg DM/d and 21.8, 22.9 and 22.1 kg DM/d, respectively. The FDMI and consequently TDMI were significantly higher for Q20 than for Q0 and Q40. The intake of VEM (net energy for lactation) was not significantly different between the treatments. The intakes of DVE (digestible protein available in the intestine) and OEB (degradable protein balance) declined with higher amounts of quinoa WCS in the diet. This resulted in significant differences in the intakes of both DVE and OEB between the treatments (p<0.05). The mean values for the milk, fat, protein and FPCM yields of treatments Q0, Q20 and Q40 were 26.4, 25.8 and 24.4 kg milk/d, 1252, 1271 and 1176 g fat/d, 936, 889, 831 g protein/d, 29.0, 28.8 and 27.1 kg FPCM/d, respectively. The yields of milk, protein and FPCM were significantly lower for Q40 than for Q0 and Q20 (p<0.05). In addition, there was a tendency for a lower fat yield for Q40 than for Q0 and Q20 (0.05<p<0.10). The protein yield for Q0 was significantly higher than for Q20. There were no significant differences between the treatments in the concentrations of fat and protein in milk. The excretion of urea in milk was inversely related to the portion of quinoa-WCS in the diet, resulting in significant differences between the treatments (P<0.001). The concentration of milk urea was significantly lower for Q20 and Q40 than for Q0. Body weight, body changes and BCS were similar for all treatment groups. The feeding value of quinoa WCS was based on the same formulas that are currently in use for calculation of the feeding value of cereal WCS. Calculations on the energy and protein balances and the actual and expected FPCM and protein yield were performed to assess the accuracy of these formulas. The results indicated that the formulas for calculation of the feeding value of cereal WCS are also applicable for calculation of the feeding value of quinoa WCS. It can be concluded that quinoa WCS is a palatable feed with a low feeding value however. Therefore, future research should be focussed on improvement of digestibility and protein content while maintaining its good points such as growth rate, yield potential and palatability. https://edepot.wur.nl/34280 for full report (in Dutch).
Article
Quinoa is a cereal grain that originated in the highlands of South America. It is high in protein (12.2% Crude Protein (CP)), and in the limiting amino acids lysine and methionine. It also contains a number of anti-nutritional substances, such as saponins, phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitors, which can have a negative effect on performance and survival of monogastric animals when it is used as the primary dietary energy source. Four trials were conducted to determine what effect different methods of processing quinoa (raw, washed, polished) and dietary CP levels would have on the performance and survival of broiler chicks fed quinoa as compared to wheat, maize and sorghum based diets. Raw quinoa fed broilers had reduced growth and dramatically reduced survival rates as compared to the washed or polished treatments. Broilers fed washed quinoa performed better than those fed polished quinoa. Chicks receiving the washed quinoa performed nearly as well as those receiving the maize/soybean meal diets. The washing seemed to be more effective than removing the outer hull (polishing) in removing the anti-quality factors that were depressing performance. Elevating the dietary protein level from (13.2 to 18 to 23 %) was shown to improve growth and survival in the quinoa-fed groups. The results of these trials indicated that washing and polishing the quinoa seeds prior to feeding and increasing the dietary CP or slightly reducing the amount of quinoa present in the diet, by adding soybean meal, improved growth and survival of broiler chicks.
Article
Frost is one of the principal limiting factors for agricultural production in the high Andean region. One of the most important grain crops in that region, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), is generally less affected by frost than most other crop species, but little is known about its specific mechanisms for frost resistance. This study was undertaken to help understand quinoa’s response to various intensities and durations of frost under different levels of relative humidity (RH). The effect of frost on seed yield and plant death rate was studied, and content of soluble sugars, proteins, and free proline, was analyzed, in order to develop criteria for the selection of cultivars with improved resistance to frost. On the basis of greenhouse and phytotron experiments, it was concluded that at the two-leaf stage, cultivars from the altiplano of Peru, 3800 m above sea level, tolerated −8 °C for 4 h, whereas a cultivar from the Andean valleys tolerated the same temperature for only 2 h. At −4 °C, plant death rate increased from 25% at high relative humidity to 56% at low RH After a frost treatment of −4 °C applied at the two-leaf stage, final seed yield was reduced by 9% compared to control plants not exposed to frost. For the same treatment applied at the 12-leaf and flowering stages, yield reductions were 51 and 66%, respectively, indicating that frost for 2 h or more during anthesis caused significant damage to the plants. In general, an increased level of soluble sugars implied a greater tolerance to frost, resulting in higher yields.
Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a human food staple of Andean South America that has received attention as an alternative crop elsewhere in the world because of its high nutritional value, due in particular to the favorable amino-acid composition of seed proteins. Although claims of a nutritionally favorable quantity of lipids in quinoa seed have been made, only limited information is available on the seed fatty-acid composition. The purpose of this research was to determine the seed lipid content and fatty-acid composition from three genetically diverse cultivars of quinoa. Total seed lipid content and fatty-acid composition varied little among the three cultivars examined. The average seed lipid content was 5.3%, 85% of which yielded fatty acids. Approximately 11% of the fatty acids were saturated, with palmitic acid predominating. Linoleic, oleic, and α-linolenic acids accounted for 52.3, 23.0, and 8.1%, respectively, of the total fatty acids. Erucic acid was slightly below 2% in all samples. Quinoa oil appears to be a high quality edible oil, similar in fatty-acid composition to soybean oil.
Article
The fatty acid (FA) profile, chemical composition, gross energy and organic matter digestibility of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) have been determined in the seed and in the plant collected at five progressive morphological stages from early vegetative to budding stage. The FA analyses disclosed quantitative differences between the plant stages that were characterised by a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which made up from 752 to 623g/kg of the total FA of the plant during the growth cycle. The α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n–3) decreased from 649g/kg, at the early vegetative stage, to 499g/kg of the total FA, at the budding stage, while all the other FAs increased with increasing growth stage. The chia seed FAs were also highly unsaturated, with their main components being ALA (641g/kg of the total FA) and linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n–6; 188g/kg of the total FA).The evolution of the quality of chia is closely related to the ageing of the plant. The chia plant provides a forage with a good nutritive value when harvested at a stage before the shooting period. After this, the nutritional quality of the plant considerably decreases with an increase in the fibrous fractions and a dramatical decrease of the crude protein content.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition, nutritive value, fatty acid profile and amino acid concentrations of Galega officinalis L. during its first growth cycle and in regrowth. Herbage samples were collected three times at progressive morphological stages from the vegetative to the budding stage, and during regrowth. The dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDFom), acid detergent fibre (ADFom), lignin (sa) and gross energy (GE) increased during maturation, while the crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), ash and OM digestibility (OMD) decreased with increasing stage. During the whole growth cycle, and in regrowth, the NEL was unchanged. Analyses of fatty acids did not reveal differences among plant stages, but did instead between the first cut and regrowth cut. The fatty acid profiles in the plant during growth was characterised by three dominant fatty acids, being α-linolenic acid (C18:3n−3), palmitic acid (C16:0), and linoleic acid (C18:2n−6). The α-linolenic acid content was instead lower than in the whole plant during growth. The n−6/n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the plant was steady at 0.13 during the growth cycle and in regrowth, while it was 0.78 in the seed. The individual amino acid contents of G. officinalis declined with increasing stage of maturity, as the CP declined, but with the exception of the serine content, there was no change in the relative proportions of the individual amino acids due to stage of maturity. Data shows that the nutritive value of G. officinalis forage did not diminish during its growth cycle and that it can improve the self sufficiency of dairy farms. Autumn regrowth was judged to be a good quality forage with a high nutritive value and a higher level of α-linolenic acid than during the first growth cycle.
Article
False flax (Camelina sativa L.) was studied to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition, chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility, and gross energy of the seeds and of the plant during growth. Herbage samples were collected five times at progressive morphological stages from the vegetative to the ripe seed–pod stage. The fatty acid analyses disclosed quantitative differences between the plant stages. The linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) and palmitic acid (PA, 16:0) increased with increasing growth stage, while the α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) content ranged from 560g/kg of total FA, at the vegetative stage, to 484g/kg of total FA at the ripe seed–pod stage. The pattern of fatty acids in the plant during growth, characterised by these three dominant fatty acids, was also differed from that of the seeds, where the average contents of oleic acid (18:1 n-9), LA, ALA, and gondoic acid (20:1 n-9) were 129, 177, 373, and 144g/kg of total FA, respectively. The n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the plant increased from 0.18, at the vegetative stage, to 0.38, at the ripe seed–pod stage, while in the seed it was 0.59. The dry matter content (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDFom), acid detergent fibre (ADFom), lignin (lignin (sa)) and gross energy (GE) increased with increasing growth stage, while the crude protein, ash, and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) decreased with increasing stage and the ether extract content decreased from the vegetative stage to the early seed–pod stage and then increased at the ripe seed–pod stage.
Article
The effect of within-day delays of 0.5, 2.5, 4.5 and 6.5h between collection of rumen fluid from a cow and initiation of in vitro fermentation, as well as storage of rumen fluid for 48h at either −24°C or 6, 22 and 39°C, on in vitro digestion of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) at 48h was determined. In addition, the 48h in vitro digestion of NDF, determined with a minimum time delay (i.e., 0.5h) between collection from the cow and initiation of incubation, was compared to NDF digestion determined in sacco at 48h. Rumen inoculum from a single cow was utilized in a thrice replicated incubation with whole crop alfalfa, corn, cereal and sudangrass forages of a lower and higher quality. The same cow was used as the host for the in sacco bags. The in vitro procedure used a bulk procedure with 5.0cm×5.5cm multi-weave polyethylene polyester polymer bags that retained particles of 25mm and larger. The in sacco procedure used the same bags retained in a large mesh bag. A within-day time delay of up to 6.5h between collection of rumen fluid from the cow and initiation of in vitro fermentation had no impact on measured 48h in vitro digestion of NDF. In contrast, no temperature dependent storage procedure maintained 48h in vitro digestion of NDF at levels determined with no 48h storage, although high quality alfalfa was least affected by any storage procedure. The 48h in vitro digestion of NDF, determined using the minimum time delay between collection from the cow and initiation of the incubation, was higher than values obtained in sacco. Results show that this bulk in vitro procedure resulted in higher 48h digestion of NDF than those determined with a similar in sacco procedure, thereby suggesting that laboratories located some distance from the donor animal can utilize in vitro procedures to accurately estimate 48h digestion of NDF. However, storage of rumen fluid for 48h, by any temperature dependent procedure examined, in order to facilitate fewer trips to the donor animal, or trips of substantially longer duration, will underestimate 48h digestion of NDF to an extent that depends upon the forage incubated.
Article
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of inclusion of Danish grown quinoa seed (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in feed for broilers containing wheat, rapeseed, peas and soybean meal. The effect of dehulling to remove saponins from quinoa was assessed.In the first experiment the broilers received mash feed diets from 6 to 36 days of age. Diets containing 100, 200 and 400 g kg−1 whole quinoa seed, unprocessed and dehulled, were compared with a control feed. A linear growth depression (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing inclusion of quinoa was found. As the chickens grew older the growth depression decreased from 1.8 to 0.8% per 10 g kg−1 quinoa added. A negligible beneficial effect of dehulling (P ≤ 0.05) was found only for the first week of the experiment.In the second experiment the broilers received pelleted diets from 0 to 39 days of age. Diets containing 150 g kg−1 unprocessed, 150 g kg−1 dehulled quinoa and 50 g kg−1 quinoa germ were compared with the control diet. No effect of dehulling was found. A level of 150 g kg−1 quinoa reduced liveweight at 20 and 39 days from 627 to 601 g and from 1760 to 1709 g, respectively, and the feed conversion was increased at 20 days of age from 1437 to 1486 g feed kg−1 liveweight (P ≤ 0.05). The performance of broilers receiving 50 g kg−1 of a germ fraction from the dehulling was quite as good as the control.It was concluded that quinoa has potential as broiler feed, but the inclusion should not exceed 150 g kg−1 of the diet.
Article
Analysis of variance of saponin content showed significant differences only for water deficit treatments, stages, and stage × deficit interaction. The saponin content showed highly significant differences (p < 0.01) among the 3 soil water deficit treatments based on analysis of variance. Saponin content for the low soil water deficit plants was 0.456% whereas that for the high water deficit was 0.386%. Highly significant differ- ences (p < 0.01) were also observed among the growing stages. The lowest saponin content (0.309%) was found in the branching stage and the highest (0.608%) in blooming. These results are in agreement with those
Article
This paper reports the fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions of five Amaranthus accessions (RRC1011, R149, A.K343, A.K432, and A. K433) representing two species and a cross between one of these and a third species. Seed oils of these were analyzed by gas chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and their compositional properties compared with buck-wheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), corn (Zea mays), rice bran (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), sesame (Sesamum indicum), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) oils. All Amaranthus accessions were relatively high in palmitic (21.4–23.8%) and low in oleic (22.8–31.5%) and linolenic (0.65–0.93%) acids when compared to most of the grain and seed oils. The fatty acid composition of Amaranthus accessions K343, K433, and K432 (group I) were different from R149 and RRC1011 (group II) in mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, but the saturate/unsaturate (S/U) ratios were very similar. All Amaranthus accessions were similar in TAG type, but showed slight differences in percentage. High similarities in UUU, UUS, and USS composition were observed among Amaranthus K343, K433 and K432, and between R149 and RRC1011. The fatty acid compositions of Amaranthus oil (group I) and cottonseed oil were similar, but their TAG compositions were different. The grain and oilseed oils were different from each other and from the Amaranthus accessions oils in terms of fatty acid composition, S/U, and TAG ratios. The UUU, UUS, and USS percentages were very diverse in grain and seed oils. The percentages of squalene in the TAG sample from the Amaranthus accessions were 8.05% in K343, 11.10% in K433, 11.19% in K432, 9.96% in R149, and 9.16% in RRC1011. Squalene was also tentatively identified in quinoa and ricebran oils at levels of 3.39 and 3.10%, respectively.
Article
Frost is one of the principal limiting factors for agricultural production in the high Andean region. One of the most important grain crops in that region, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), is generally less affected by frost than most other crop species, but little is known about its specific mechanisms for frost resistance. This study was undertaken to help understand quinoa’s response to various intensities and durations of frost under different levels of relative humidity (RH). The effect of frost on seed yield and plant death rate was studied, and content of soluble sugars, proteins, and free proline, was analyzed, in order to develop criteria for the selection of cultivars with improved resistance to frost. On the basis of greenhouse and phytotron experiments, it was concluded that at the two-leaf stage, cultivars from the altiplano of Peru, 3800 m above sea level, tolerated −8 °C for 4 h, whereas a cultivar from the Andean valleys tolerated the same temperature for only 2 h. At −4 °C, plant death rate increased from 25% at high relative humidity to 56% at low RH After a frost treatment of −4 °C applied at the two-leaf stage, final seed yield was reduced by 9% compared to control plants not exposed to frost. For