Article

Total and per capita value of food loss in the United States

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Abstract

There are few peer-reviewed or major published studies that estimate the total amount of food loss in developed countries and even fewer attempt to estimate the monetary value. We compiled estimates of the amount and value of food loss for more than 200 individual foods in the United States using the US Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service’s Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data and then aggregated these values to estimate the total value of food loss and the value by food group. The results indicate that in 2008, the estimated total value of food loss at the retail and consumer levels in the United States as purchased at retail prices was $165.6 billion. The top three food groups in terms of the value of food loss at these levels are: meat, poultry, and fish (41%); vegetables (17%); and dairy products (14%). Looking more closely at the estimates for the consumer level, this level of loss translates into almost 124 kg (273 lb) of food lost from human consumption, per capita, in 2008 at an estimated retail price of $390/capita/year. Food loss represents a significant share of household food expenditures: our estimates suggest that the annual value of food loss is almost 10% of the average amount spent on food per consumer in 2008 and over 1% of the average disposable income. This consumer level loss translates into over .3 kg (0.7 lb) of food per capita per day valued at $1.07/day. Our estimates of the total value of food loss in the United States and loss estimates by food group are useful in that they can generate awareness of the issue among the food industry members, governments, and consumers. Potential large-scale approaches and economic incentives to mitigate food loss in developed countries are also discussed.

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... The associated cost is estimated to be EURO 143bn (Fusions, 2016). Up to $218bn worth of food, about 30-40 percent of total food production is wasted between food supply chain and consumer sides on an annual basis in the USA (Bräutigam et al., 2014;Buzby and Hyman, 2012;Rethink Food Waste, 2016). The amount is more than enough to feed 25m Americans who do not have enough nutritious food on their tables (Fottrell, 2015), while 41.2m people are facing hunger in this country (USDA, 2016). ...
... A lot of that waste happens between the farm and the grocery store, where strict cosmetic standards on fruits/vegetables' shape, size, color, weight and blemish level are followed (Gustavsson et al., 2011;Myers, 2016). Even though the imperfect "ugly" fruits and vegetables maintain perfect nutritional value, they are either never harvested, or are discarded between harvest and sale because food retailers are unwilling to sell this produce (Aschemann-Witzel et al., 2015;Buzby and Hyman, 2012). For example, in the state of California, 70 percent of cucumbers and 20-50 percent of citrus, stone fruits and grapes were discarded, albeit perfectly edible (Gunders, 2012). ...
... 2. Literature review 2.1 Food waste Food loss occurs when the qualitative or quantitative value of the food is dropped because of reduced nutrient value, decreased weight, or changed volume or shape of the food (Buzby and Hyman, 2012). When an edible food is discarded due to these reasons, it is considered food waste (Bloom, 2010). ...
... This was set along with the goal to eliminate landfilling virtually, implement waste management plans by 2025 and "meet an aspirational objective to reduce food waste by 30 per cent" (Finnveden et al., 2013;Milliute-Plepiene & Plepys, 2015, p. 182;Secondi et al., 2015). This is very crucial, since 40 per cent of food is wasted in households and other studies found out, that 10-30 per cent of food is wasted by consumers (Monier et al., 2010;Gjerres & Gaiani, 2013;Quested et al., 2013;Buzby & Hyman, 2012). To address this issue, EU countries have implemented a number of policies including initiatives and campaigns realized by Non-governmental organizations (NGO's) or authorities to reduce food waste in the EU for example the Waste and Resource Action Programme (WRAP) in the UK, "Love Food, Hate Waste" campaign and the Swedish research program "Towards a sustainable waste management" (TOSUWAMA) as well as EU-Fusions Food Use for Social Innovation by Optimising Waste Prevention Strategies (Secondi et al., 2015). ...
... Starting with the studies about food waste, the literature addresses mainly the household level to analyse food waste behaviour. There are in-depth studies about food waste in developed countries (Griffin et al., 2009;Mena et al., 2011;Sonnino & McWilliam, 2011;Buzby and Hyman, 2012;Beretta et al., 2013;Garrone et al., 2014). Some of the papers about food waste try to identify behavioural causes of food waste with the help of surveys and interviews (Graham-Rowe et al., 2015;Jorissen et al., 2015;Neff et al., 2015;Parizeau et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
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The issue of food waste and loss is becoming a critical issue all around the globe, resulting in an unsustainable food system. Therefore, food waste reduction is essential to provide food security and combat environmental impacts that deprive agricultural production in the upcoming decades. The UN's Sustainable Development Goals need to be reached by 2030, especially the goals 2 (end hunger) and 12 (ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns) as well as the targets set by the EU. Thus, this research aims to assess the impact of three policy instruments: the incineration tax, the landfill tax and the pay-as-you-throw approach to seek out the most efficient one among these three as well as find loopholes to successfully find a strategy that reaches sustainable development and satisfy the demand of the growing population without depriving the needs of future generations. Identifying the efficiency of the three market-based instruments will contribute to fulfil the EU requirements and targets. A conceptual framework was chosen to explain the relationships between the different factors that have an influence on the policy instruments and thus on the dependent variable "Food waste". The empirical method was a multiple regression model, giving the opportunity to show the significance of several regressors. In the findings, the level of income among the EU member countries was proved to have an insignificant effect on the amount of food waste. Additionally, the findings for the policy instruments showed that the incineration tax and the landfill tax are slightly increasing the quantity of food waste, while the findings for the pay-as-you-throw approach are revealing both and increasing as well as a decreasing effect on the amount of food waste among countries in the EU. The results for the control variables vary depending on the policy and country but the variable "Waste management" has proven to have a significant influence on the reduction of food waste in the EU. There is great need for an improve of data, unified definitions as well as collaboration among stakeholder on national and international level to build up a sustainable food system that is able to cope with the environmental, social and economic challenges. Abstract List of tables 5
... Reducing food waste shrinks its significant effect on the environment, saves money [44], and makes companies look more morally sound and equitable [40]. Companies vary in their efforts and FLW reduction achievements. ...
... Reducing food waste shrinks its significant effect on the environment, saves [44], and makes companies look more morally sound and equitable [40]. Compani in their efforts and FLW reduction achievements. ...
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Over 10% of the world’s population is undernourished, yet 1/3 of all food produced each year is lost or wasted. Such a level of inefficiency in the global food system has a significant economic, social, and environmental impact which has elicited calls for urgent global action. This paper responds to this call by developing an interdisciplinary framework focusing on legal, regulatory, accounting, and reporting frameworks to improve the prevention or reduction of food loss and waste (FLW). Mobilising a literature review, this paper advances a three-pronged suggestion for tackling FLW in UK seafood companies: the development of technological solutions in the form of sensors; the enactment of a comprehensive legal and regulatory reporting template for seafood companies; and finally, the development of accounting standards that mandate reporting beyond the current Food and Waste Accounting and Reporting Standard by the Water Resources Institute (WRI), which is modelled on voluntary compliance.
... This results in direct economic and ecological consequences. Buzby and Hyman (2012) estimated the economic losses of over 200 food types during retail in the United States in 2008, equating to a monetary loss of US $15.509 billion. A study by Sun et al. (2022) on the water and carbon footprints of fruit and vegetable wastes from 1970 to 2017 showed that the carbon footprint of vegetable wastes doubled, reaching 3.39 kg in 2017. ...
... There is a large production of fruit and vegetable waste during the retail stage (Buzby and Hyman, 2012). The retail market has become the dominant retailer of fruits and vegetables in China due to the high turnover of fruits and vegetables and residents' buying habits (He, 2006;Chen,2017). ...
Article
There remains little understanding of fruit and vegetable wastage and the influencing factors within retail. This study aimed to examine the processes contributing to vegetable and fruit wastage in traditional farmers’ markets widely existing in China, Thailand, and South Korea, with the farmers’ market in Hangzhou, China used as a case study. Questionnaires and follow-up surveys were conducted with the market stakeholders (market managers, retailers, and market cleaners) from April 2021 to January 2022. The results showed that the categories of discarded fruits and vegetables were related to their sales varieties, with leaf vegetables and bananas constituting the categories of vegetables and fruit with the most daily wastage. Wastage of fruits and vegetables mostly occurred in the morning. However, there was seasonal variation in fruit and vegetable wastage, with wastage in summer exceeding that in winter. The quantity of fruit and vegetable wastage was related to the size of the farmers' market. The volume of sales was also shown to be positively correlated to wastage. The analysis showed that the rank of factors influencing fruit and vegetable sales was: market service community size > appearance of fruits and vegetables > weather > market environment > fruit and vegetable price > fruit and vegetable origin. Finally, most stakeholders were motivated to reduce wastage, with their motivations including ethics, legal requirements, and economic reasons. The results of this study can act as an important reference for improving the management fruit and vegetable waste.
... Promoting surplus food redistribution is an important means of reducing food waste in consumption, such as promoting the donation of surplus and suboptimal food. Food rescue organizations in the United States identify the value of food that has exceeded its recommended "sell-by" date and partner with grocery stores and restaurants to collect such food and disperse it quickly with the help of supply chain management tools [18]. A study of the 2013 Ontario Food Donation Tax Credit policy case shows that incentivizing such donations presents administrative cost challenges, and the policy does not address the issue of food waste [115]. ...
... Findings of quantitative studies on food waste from households and eating out. The mentioned references in figure are[18][19][20][21][22]37,39,46,49,[51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][60][61][62][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73]. ...
Article
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With the help of CiteSpace software and the Web of Science core collection database, we quantitatively analyzed the global research progress of food waste, explored the core and hotspots, and compared and analyzed the methods and findings based on the literature. The results show the following: (1) The studies in the field are multidisciplinary, with researchers from different countries drawing from each other’s work. The United States, China, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Sweden are the top five in terms of the number of articles published. (2) Research hotspots have gradually transitioned from food waste treatment processes to the quantification of food waste, resource and environmental impacts, consumer behaviors, and interventions, with quantification studies and food waste in the restaurant industry being the emergent hotspots in recent years. (3) Quantitative studies were mostly conducted based on two or more methods, and a larger proportion of studies were based on secondary data. In terms of per capita food waste, the amount from eating out at restaurants was higher than eating at home, and higher in developed countries than others. (4) The environmental footprint implied by food waste reflects the inefficiency and unsustainability of the food supply chain, and the footprint of meat food is much larger than that of other types. (5) The future trend in behavioral research is to conduct in-depth randomized intervention studies to explore the impact of different interventions and policies on food waste behavior and to strengthen cooperation among experts in various fields to dig deeper into theoretical approaches, policy systems, and science and technology to propose more strategic and sustainable food consumption and promote the transformation of agricultural food systems.
... Gıda srafının çok boyutlu ve karmaşık yapısı araştırmacıların d kkat n çekmekte ve bu sayede bugüne kadar gıda srafı le lg l farklı alanlarda yapılmış pek çok çalışma bulunmaktadır. Bu araştırmaların bazıları gerçekleşen gıda kaybı ve srafının boyutlarını ele almaktayken (Buzby and Hyman, 2012;Gustafsson et al., 2013;L p nsk et al., 2013;Bagherzadeh et al., 2014;Ab ad and Meho, 2018; Türk ye İsrafı Önleme Vakfı(TİSVA), 2019; Tek ner ve ark., 2021); bazıları se gıda kaybı ve srafının nedenler n hane ç düzeyde ncelemekte ve bu kapsamda çeş tl pol t ka öner ler nde bulunmaktadır (Cecere et al., 2014;Graham-Rowe et al., 2014;Q and Roe, 2016;Mattar, Ab ad et al., 2018;Schanes et al., 2018;Adenuga et al., 2020;Dem r, 2020;L egeard and Mann ng, 2020). Ancak, gıda srafının üret mden tüket me farklı boyutlarda gerçekleşmes sosyoekonom k değ şkenler le b rl kte ncelenmes n n önem n arttırmaktadır. ...
... Gıda kaybı ve srafının üret mden tüket m aşamasına gel nceye kadar pek çok aşamada gerçekleş yor olması ve çok boyutlu b r kavram olması etk alanın da oldukça gen ş olmasıyla sonuçlanmaktadır. Gıdanın sraf ed lmes yalnızca üret len gıdanın değ l, aynı zamanda o gıdayı üretmek ç n kullanılan toprağın, suyun, enerj n n, ş gücünün yan tüm kaynakların da sraf ed ld ğ anlamına gelmekted r (Buzby and Hyman, 2012). Böyle düşünüldüğünde, gıda kaybı ve srafının dünya üzer ndek etk ler n n sanıldığından çok daha der n olduğu açıktır . ...
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Dünya genelinde artan nüfus tüketimi de arttırmakta; böylece ihtiyaç duyulandan çok daha fazlası satın alınmaktadır. Gıda kaybı ve israfı da bu sürecin önemli sonuçlarından birini oluşturmaktadır. Birleşmiş Milletler Gıda ve Tarım Örgütü (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)) verilerine göre her yıl üretilen gıdanın ortalama üçte biri israf edilmektedir. Gıda israfı çok boyutlu bir olgudur. Gıda kaybı ve israfının çok boyutluluğuna daha önce yapılan çalışmalarda rastlanmamış olması çalışmanın temel motivasyonunu oluşturmaktadır. Bu bağlamda, çalışmada gıda israfının nüfus, gayri safi yurtiçi hasıla (GSYH), elektrik tüketimi, yoksulluk, insani gelişme endeksi (İGE), eğitim ve istihdam gibi sosyoekonomik değişkenler ile ilişkisi ele alınmakta; gıda kaybı ve israfının olası nedenleri ve etkileri üzerinde durulmakta ve bu israfı azaltmak için uygulanan mevcut politikalara değinilmektedir. R paket programı ile korelasyon analizi yapılmakta ve çeşitli görselleştirmeler kullanılarak söz konusu sosyoekonomik değişkenler ile gıda israfı arasındaki ilişki incelenmektedir. Yapılan analiz ile gıda israfının nüfus, GSYH, elektrik tüketimi ve yoksulluk ile pozitif bir korelasyona; İGE ve eğitim ile negatif bir korelasyona sahip olduğu görülmüştür. Gıda israfı ile söz konusu değişkenler arasındaki korelasyon dikkate alındığında, gıda israfının pek çok sebebi olsa da aslında büyük oranının aşırı ve bilinçsiz tüketimden kaynaklandığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Özellikle hane içi düzeyde bireye tüketim bilinci kazandırılması ve bu amaçla eğitimler oluşturulması gibi çeşitli politika önerilerine sonuç ve öneriler kısmında yer verilmiştir.
... Scientific literature refers to differently definition of food loss and food waste; the former is frequently defined as waste materials occurring from post-harvest to pre-consumption by human and animals [11], and the latter indicates food loss occurring at the retail and final consumption [24]. Based on the FAO report, an approximately 32% of all food produced in the world occupied as a loss and waste in 2009 [3,14]. Organic composts which are derived from animal and food wastes have widely and consistently used in an agricultural sector with extensive purposes such as not only the promising crop production as an alternative source but also the improvement of soil quality, carbon sequestration and environmental issues [2,16,18]. ...
Article
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An optimal use of organic composts derived from animal and food wastes could provide an opportunity to achieve both sustainable crop production and soil quality, and a lot of research has provided the evidence. The nitrogen use efficiencies (NUEs) is a definition to evaluate the interaction between crop and nitrogen (N), and, due to this reason, widely used in agriculture. The current work tried to evaluate NUEs as an indicator of N acquisition capacity and physiological responses of rice grown under varying N levels. To do this, we employed different types and rates of nitrogen source, chemical fertilizer, livestock manure-based compost and food waste and livestock manure-containing compost. Despite of the enhanced rice growth and yield by fertilization, a difference by types and rates of fertilization was not observed. Net photosynthetic rate was significantly higher in the treatments of 90–317 N kg ha ⁻¹ . The NUE (N uptake efficiency × N utilization efficiency) was the highest in lower N application groups, and sharply reduced with an increase in fertilization rates. In contrast, the nitrogen harvest index (NHI, grain N/total biomass N, kg kg ⁻¹ ) showed higher (0.71– 0.76 kg kg ⁻¹ ) in greater N application treatments (≤ 317 N kg ha ⁻¹ ). Accordingly, in terms of NUE, our result suggest that rice may be affordable of the application of less than 300 kg N ha ⁻¹ (combination with chemical fertilizer and organic compost). Nevertheless, it should be investigated how excess N application affects soil quality, and how long rice plant and soil can accept excess N without an environmental load.
... Additionally, the study found that the public's willingness to implement in Shandong was significantly reduced after releasetype communication. This may be because food waste is more serious in developed agricultural regions [55]. The supply of grain in Shandong exceeds the demand, and the local residents cannot really realize the severity of the shortage of food resources and food security. ...
Article
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Release-type communication is a common way to guide the public to reduce food waste. It is of great significance to clarify the intervention effect of release-type communication on residents’ waste behavior and reveal the time evolution law of public response to reduce food waste. This study obtains 13,958 comments on food waste through big data mining and explores characteristics of public response to food waste behavior in different time and space from two dimensions of support intention and implementation intention. Through statistical analysis, empirical mode decomposition method, and cross-analysis, we find that: Public concern about release-type communication to stop food waste has experienced five stages: Incubation period, outbreak period, recession period, second outbreak period, and fading period. Overall, the support intention presents a down-up-down trend, the implementation intention rises and then descends, both appear inflection point in recession period. The trend term of empirical mode decomposition shows that the support intention goes down, the implementation intention goes up. Besides, the support intention and implementation intention of release-type communication to stop food waste are generally higher in western China. In particular, the support intention is significantly reduced in Beijing, Guangdong, and Fujian. The implementation intention is significantly increased in Shanghai, while it’s reduced notably in Shandong. This study provides important implications for guiding the public to reduce food waste, the government should formulate differentiated governance strategies to guide the public to reduce food waste according to the time change characteristics and spatial territorial differences of the public on release-type communication.
... For the agricultural production, postharvest handling and storage, the FLW estimated in this study is higher than those estimated by other scholars for the EU and South Africa [32,52,53], but lower than estimates for Peru [31]. A number of studies have concluded that the FL problem is more severe in developing countries, and that the main occurrence of FLW in developed countries is at the end of the FSC, especially at consumption [42,54,55]. ...
Article
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Evidence of China’s food loss and waste (FLW) and its increasing impacts on food security and environmental sustainability is urgently needed to guide policy intervention and avoid unnecessary damage to human health and the environment. This paper estimates the scale of China’s FLW in 2019 and assesses the environmental impacts of major food types along the entire food supply chain (FSC) by using a food balance and material flow analysis (MFA) based on existing empirical research. The results show a total FLW of 422.56 Mt which is around 22.37% of total food production (1889.12 Mt). There are also serious environmental impacts on the land footprint (LF), water footprint (WF), and the carbon footprint (CF) estimation (4152.36 × 109 gm2, 613.84 × 106 t CO2e and 506.07 × 109 m3 on average, respectively), most of which are found in foods of animal products, cereals, vegetables and fruit at the stages of consumption, agricultural production, postharvest handling and storage. In addition, the root causes of FLW generation at different levels—micro, meso and macro—were also analyzed. These results will provide significant guidance to researchers and decision-makers on primary data collection and reduction-policy development for China’s FLW.
... Food waste is recognized by the Food and Agricultural Organization to be a major global issue, with one third of all food that is produced for human consumption being wasted. Food waste and losses at the retail and consumer levels in the United States were estimated to be 188 kg per capita per year, with a total value of $165.6 billion (Buzby & Hyman, 2012;Davenport et al., 2019). Food waste in Europe and the North America is estimated to be between 280 kg to 300 kg per capita per year (Garrone et al., 2014;Ghafar, 2017). ...
Article
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Sustainable food waste management practices at the source are directly dependent on household behavior. A valid and reliable instrument is needed to evaluate the sustainable food waste management (SFWM) research framework. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to propose a new SFWM framework on a pilot scale before starting the main research. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the survey questionnaire’s usability and reliability. Respondents from 150 urban households in Klang Valley was surveyed using an online survey method. A detailed validation of the study constructs was done through the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), producing a usable final factor structure. The results confirmed the constructs have good reliability based on the Cronbach’s alpha values that ranges from 0.860 to 0.979. The results provide useful information on factors that could affect the behavioral intention of practicing SFWM in people’s daily life and may be adopted by future research on a larger scale. The article contributes to the body of research in this research context by describing the pilot test method and process. A proposed framework that integrates additional variables into a TPB-based theory was used for examining SFWM behavior outcome in a more comprehensive model. Other studies in the field were mostly conducted on food waste reduction behavior, but this study intends to close the gap of households’ intention to manage them sustainably. Besides providing a new framework for SFWM, the need for a pilot study is highlighted to achieve an improved research design, adding to the lack of literature on pilot studies in the sustainable food waste management context.
... One reason foods are lost prior to consumption, is due to spoilage rendering products unsuitable for eating due to quality or safety concerns. This often happens at a consumer level, where meat and muscle foods comprise 41% of the value lost (Buzby & Hyman, 2012). Muscle foods, often having high moisture content and requiring refrigeration, are particularly vulnerable to bacterial spoilage. ...
Article
As humankind grows in population, so will our need to compete against bacterial populations which spoil foodstuffs before we are able to consume them. This dissertation aims to identify the bacterial communities responsible for meat spoilage, and the mechanisms that govern the behaviors of these organisms. The literature review summarizes the state of knowledge regarding factors that influence meat microbiome composition, and how analytical methods can influence research outcomes. Study 1 aimed to identify the impact of additional ingredients and processing steps on the microbial ecology of processed turkey products. The main specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) belonged to the orders Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, and Lactobacillales. While thermal processing and subsequent contamination altered abundances of lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. were observed in all samples, affirming their prevalence in products produced in the Loeffel Meat Laboratory. In an attempt to modulate raw turkey microbiomes away from rapid SSOs like pseudomonads, Study 2 utilized packaging systems with varying atmosphere compositions. While some packaging systems steered accumulation of greater abundances of lactic acid bacteria or Brochothrix, Pseudomonas spp. were still recovered from all samples and were a substantial portion of the microbial communities. This incessant microbe illustrates that starting material and processing environment play an important role in setting a microbiome prior to additional hurdles. We hypothesize that the processing environment, as a proxy effect of its geographic location, plays a role in establishing the meat microbiome. The problematic pseudomonads from the previous studies were then submitted for whole genome sequencing to gain insight into the genetic mechanisms that may allow their survival in low oxygen conditions is discussed in Chapter 4. Advisor: Gary A. Sullivan
... По мнению экспертов Совета по защите природных ресурсов (Natural Resources Defense Council), до 40% пригодной для потребления пищи (по состоянию на 2012 г.) выбрасывалось 23 . В другом исследовании, которое оценило потери продовольствия как в весовом, так и стоимостном виде, заключается, что в 2008 г. потери продуктов питания на этапе личного потребления составили почти 10% суммы, затраченной потребителями на питание 24 . ...
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The problem of food waste and loss is one of the most important components of the global food problem. Its relevance has been steadily growing in the last 2-3 decades, due to the huge (about 1 billion tons annually) volume of food waste and loss against the background of a number of other problems, in particular, the degradation of the main natural resources used in agricultural production, as well as the presence of a significant number of hungry and malnourished population. Along with the fact that a significant amount of food waste and loss is produced in the USA (about 100 million tons annually), the formation of a coherent system of measures to combat food losses has begun in the country. This article analyzes the accounting methods/principles, as well as the structure and sources of food losses in the world and the USA.
... Many authors have proposed different policy recommendations to reduce food waste and, thus, food insecurity [6,19,51,52,[56][57][58][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][91][92][93][94]103,130,138,144,150,160,167,168,170,177]. Many have agreed on the importance of policies that promote information and education campaigns that spread awareness at household and public levels by improving meal planning and management in consumers. ...
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Food security is a central priority for international policy as one of the world’s most significantly urgent targets to achieve. It is considered one of the most pressing issues in many countries, the degree of food security representing the level of self-sufficiency and well-being of citizens. In particular, in the current COVID-19 pandemic era, it has more than ever become a mission-critical goal. In this research, we report on the food security drivers and the current state of recommended policies addressing chronic food insecurity aimed at ensuring the sustainability of future food production. Mapping the determinants of food security contributes to a better understanding of the issue and aids in the development of appropriate food security policies and strategies to enhance the sustainability of food production in all facets; namely environmental, social, and economic. Adopting the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) data screening and selection guidelines and standards, we carried out a comprehensive, reliable, systematic, and rigorous review of research from the last ten years in order to identify the most frequently mentioned drivers and policies of food security in the literature available in two databases: Scopus and Web of Science (WOS). The number of extracted articles was 141 papers in total. An analysis revealed 34 drivers of food security and 17 most recommended policies for the mitigation of food insecurity. The existence of food loss and waste (FLW) policies was the primary driver of food security, followed by food security policies (FSP) in their different forms. However, FSP were the most recommended policies, followed by FLW policies. The identified food security drivers and recommended policies should be used by policy-makers to improve food security, thus contributing to sustainable food production. Our research findings, reflected in the latest version of the Global Food Security Index (GFSI), resulted in more tangible policy implications, suggesting the addition of two dimensions regarding food security. We also identified elements not listed under the GFSI that could be considered in its future revision, including environmental policies/indicators, consumer representation, and traceability throughout the entire supply chain. Overall, it can be concluded that food security is a complicated and multi-faceted issue that cannot be restricted to a single variable, necessitating the deeper integration of various multi-disciplinary interventions.
... From an environmental point of view, when food waste is dumped into landfills, a significant percentage of it is transformed into carbon dioxide and methane, both potent greenhouse gases with direct consequences for global warming [62]. Furthermore, food waste reduction programs might lower food costs [63], increase supply chain efficiency [64], and enhance access to healthy meals for low-income families [58]. Food waste is an interdisciplinary topic that draws on research from various areas, including agriculture, science, environmental studies, logistics, and business [65]. ...
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Since food waste is a contemporary and complicated issue that is widely debated across many societal areas, the world community has designated the reduction of food waste as a crucial aspect of establishing a sustainable economy. However, waste management has numerous challenges, such as inadequate funding, poor waste treatment infrastructure, technological limitations, limited public awareness of proper sanitary practices, and inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks. A variety of microorganisms participate in the process of anaerobic digestion, which can be used to convert organic waste into biogas (e.g., methane) and nutrient-rich digestate. In this study, we propose a synergy among multiple disciplines such as nanotechnology, omics, artificial intelligence, and bioengineering that leverage anaerobic digestion processes to optimize the use of current scientific and technological knowledge in addressing global food waste challenges. The integration of these fields carries with it a vast amount of potential for improved waste management. In addition, we highlighted the relevance, importance, and applicability of numerous biogas-generating technologies accessible in each discipline, as well as assessing the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on waste production and management systems. We identify diverse solutions that acknowledge the necessity for integration aimed at drawing expertise from broad interdisciplinary research to address food waste management challenges.
... According to the literature review, the studies done previously can be divided into two main groups: the first group emphasize how to estimate or calculate the FL volume, while the second group focus on how to reduce the FL volume. Estimations of the FL volume have been carried out in certain developed countries such as the US (Buzby and Hyman, 2012). However, questions have been raised as to the estimation methods used, such as the form of aggregation of food losses of individual food items being misleading in the case of the US (Koester, 2013). ...
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The research finding showed that the Food Loss (FL) value as a percentage of GDP in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam (CLMV countries) which it was clearly shown higher than Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. In particular, Cambodia revealed the highest FL value as a percentage of GDP at 1.60%, which implied the lower level of development in post-harvesting and processing technologies as well as transportation in CLMV countries, while in Thailand and Malaysia, the FL values as a percentage of GDP were only 0.17% and 0.07%, respectively. Furthermore, in seven of these countries rice showed the highest FL value, while for Malaysia palm oil showed the highest FL value. On the other hand, in Indonesia the FL value of the palm oil continually increased at an average of 16% per year. In the 2000s, the ratio increased dramatically in Indonesia, from 3.60% during 1991–2000 to 24.43% during 2001–2010. Apart from rice in CLMV countries, it was further discovered in CLMV countries that significant FL values could also be found for bananas, cassava, maize, sugar cane, and sweet potato. In addition, estimates from an econometric model implicitly showed that the economic growth of ASEAN countries occurred at the expense of a higher food loss value. Economic development should therefore not focus purely on the expansion of conventional GDP only, but should also consider sustainability. Each country should set forth a target of “inclusive economic growth”. To reduce loss from the production processes and marketing, it is suggested that the economic system called the “circular economy for food” should be adopted. The government should divert more investment toward R&D regarding post-harvesting technologies and logistics system development to minimize the loss of agricultural products.
... For food consumption in the United States, the top three in terms of the values of food waste are meat, poultry, and fish (41%); vegetables (17%); and dairy products (14%) (Buzby & Hyman, 2012). Freshness is one of the most critical reasons in determining food consumption behavior. ...
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The global pandemic COVID-19 has led to an increase in the number of people purchasing food online, which has brought to a higher demand on the food supply chain. Such as the need to collect more information related to food safety and quality in real-time. Strengthening management of food logistics information flow can reduce food loss and waste and bring better quality and safety of food to consumers. In this review, the importance and applicability of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology to smart food packaging are described. This study emphasizes the recent advancement of the RFID tags in humidity, temperature, gas, pH, integrity, and traceability sensor applications in connection with food packaging. RFID sensors are more suitable for smart packaging both in terms of sensing ability and data transmission. A simpler, low-cost, more robust and less power-demanding sensors network is the development direction of smart packaging in the future. Chipless RFID sensors have the potential to achieve these functions. But it still faces many challenges to be overcome. For example, biocompatible, cost, reading range, multi-tag collision, multi-parameter sensors, recycling issues, security and privacy of RFID system should be solved.
... Food waste is also associated with excessive energy and water use, which are essential for production [8,9]. Reducing food waste contributes to greater savings [10], achieving a sustainable food system [11][12][13], and environmental improvements [14][15][16][17][18]. Study [19] indicated that food waste is determined by demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, psychological, and behavioral factors. ...
Article
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Food waste remains a major problem for the world and food security. Despite the fact that consumers are significant producers of food waste, little research attention has been paid to young people who are in college and living away from the family home. The present study aimed to assess food waste among college students living away from the family home, taking into account the nutritional knowledge acquired during college. In addition, the goal was to compare how nutritional knowledge affects food waste and consumer behavior in the study group. Descriptive statistics were performed on behaviors with food management at home, as well as shopping planning and self-shopping at the store, for the total respondents, students with nutritional knowledge and students without such knowledge. A chi-square test was performed to show whether the field of study influences the frequency of food throwing away and the appropriate management of excess food. Spearman's rank correlations were calculated for the frequency of food discarding, the frequency and amount of shopping and the field of study. The results indicate that the field of study determined food discarding and appropriate food management (p < 0.05), while it was found that fermented dairy beverages, fruits and vegetables and bread were the most frequently discarded foods in both study groups (p < 0.05). Students with nutritional knowledge were less likely to throw away food compared to students without nutritional knowledge and were better at managing excess food.
... Developing countries are likely to be the key players in determining the global food waste situation by the mid-21st century, and without major policy adjustments and behavioral changes, global per capita food waste will double by 2050 [6]. Food waste means large economic losses [7][8][9][10]. Accordingly, a reduction in waste has a positive impact on economic indicators such as import and export volumes and price indices of major agricultural products [11]. ...
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Food waste in the catering industry currently accounts for almost half of the total food waste in China and entails a large amount of land, water, and labor costs, in addition to the carbon footprint’s impacts on climate change. Under the background of increasing food consumption and waste from online catering, this study investigates the factors influencing the food waste behaviors (FW) of online food ordering in China and provides policy recommendations for food waste reduction. Using survey data from 482 consumers, we constructed a theoretical framework and examined the influence path of each factor using structural equation modeling (SEM) and a bootstrap test. The results showed that young consumers without farming experience and females wasted more on ordering food online. The more frequently the consumer ordered, the more they wasted. The level of consumers’ perceived behavioral control (PBC) was found to be lower than other factors, indicating that it was difficult for consumers to reduce food waste. Attitudes toward behavior (ATT), subjective norm (SN), PBC, and price consciousness (PC) were all positively related to behavioral intention to reduce food waste (BI). PBC and BI were negatively related to FW, and over-consumption behavior (OC) was positively related to FW. BI had a mediating effect on the paths of ATT, PBC, and PC to FW, but the pathway through which PC influenced FW was primarily through BI or PBC, not OC. In our research, BI had no mediating effect between SN and FW. Ultimately, our findings inform some policy recommendations to help nations, restaurants, food-ordering platforms, and consumers reduce waste.
... Os países desenvolvidos são os responsáveis pelas maiores quantidades de alimentos desperdiçados, isto quando comparados com os países em desenvolvimento, gerando um prejuízo econômico de aproximadamente US$ 680 bilhões . Para Buzby & Hyman (2012) o desperdício de alimentos presente nos Estados Unidos e países da Europa se dá pelo comportamento de pessoas com maiores rendas que consomem muito em restaurantes, e não planejam suas compras. Já para a (FAO, 2011), a perda de alimentos em países subdesenvolvidos, localizados no continente africano e asiático, está relacionada a falta de utilização de tecnologias no processo produtivo. ...
... Postharvest losses of horticultural fresh food produce are estimated to be between 30 and 50% worldwide (Hodges et al., 2011;Buzby and Hyman, 2012;Porat et al., 2018). Fruit and vegetables together account for ∼66% of total food losses. ...
Article
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Storage at low temperatures is a common practice to prolong postharvest life of fruit and vegetables with a minimal negative impact on human/environmental health. Storage at low temperatures, however, can be restricted due to produce susceptibility to non-freezing chilling temperatures, when injuries such as physiological disorders and decays may result in unmarketable produce. We have investigated tomato fruit response to postharvest chilling stress in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed from a cross between a chilling-sensitive cultivated tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) breeding line and a chilling-tolerant inbred accession of the tomato wild species S. pimpinellifolium L. Screening of the fruit of 148 RILs under cold storage (1.5°C) indicated presence of significant variations in chilling tolerance, manifested by varying degrees of fruit injury. Two extremely contrasting groups of RILs were identified, chilling-tolerant and chilling-sensitive RILs. The RILs in the two groups were further investigated under chilling stress conditions, and several physiological parameters, including weight loss, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm , and Performance Index ( PI ), were determined to be efficient markers for identifying response to chilling stress in postharvest fruit. The Fv/Fm values reflected the physiological damages endured by the fruit after cold storage, and PI was a sensitive marker for early changes in photosystem II function. These two parameters were early indicators of chilling response before occurrence of visible chilling injuries. Antioxidant activities and ascorbic acid content were significantly higher in the chilling-tolerant than the chilling-sensitive lines. Further, the expression of C-repeat/DREB binding factors ( CBFs ) genes swiftly changed within 1-hr of fruit exposure to the chilling temperature, and the SlCBF1 transcript level was generally higher in the chilling-tolerant than chilling-sensitive lines after 2-hr exposure to the low temperature. This research demonstrates the presence of potential genetic variation in fruit chilling tolerance in the tomato RIL population. Further investigation of the RIL population is underway to better understand the genetic, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms involved in postharvest fruit chilling tolerance in tomato.
... Deterioration of volume and weight is considered as quantitative and loss of nutritional value, texture and color are described as qualitative loss (Buzby and Hyman, 2012). Due to the lack of availability of storage structure, sterilized packaging, adequate harvesting equipment for crops and appropriate transport facilities, there has been a significant deterioration in fruit and vegetables (Anonymous, 2006). ...
... British study showed that the average value of food wasted by a household per year, amounts to 250 -400 GBP (WRAP, 2009). This number is almost twice as high in US -936 USD (Buzby & Hyman, 2012). In addition to that, household food waste contributes to further costs linked with its collecting, transporting, sorting and utilization (Priefer et al., 2013). ...
Article
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The primary challenge of global food system is to provide food for nearly 800 million starving people and the next generations of constantly growing population. One of the solutions to this challenge is to reduce food wastage, which is especially high in the households of developed countries. Considering this fact, the analysis of a questionnaire study among WULS students determines their knowledge and awareness of food waste issues, and most often wasted food products. The study also tests the attitudes of respondents towards food waste and its consequences. Results showed that baker’s good, fruit and vegetables were the most often wasted food while these products are recommended to consume in largest amounts. Respondents wrongly indicated that food service is the food chain sector with the highest food waste in Poland. The reduction of respondent’s disposable income was recognized as the most important effect of food waste. In conclusion, it can be stated that the higher knowledge and awareness of food wastage issues can contribute to reduction of the scale of the problem and improvement of food consumption.
... Böylece hem yiyeceklerin israf olmasını önlemekte hem de misafirlerin memnun olmasını sağlamaktadır (Talwar vd., 2021) Tüketim aşamasında meydana gelen yiyecek israfı, tabak israfı olarak da adlandırılmakta ve servis edilen, ancak tüketilmeyen yiyecekleri tanımlamak için kullanılmaktadır (Kuo ve Shih, 2016;Juvan vd., 2018). Tabak israfında özellikle yenilebilir yiyecek atıkları önemli bir yer tutmaktadır (Buzby ve Hyman, 2012). Söz gelimi, Bangkok'ta otel işletmeleri bünyesinde hizmet veren restoranlarda haftalık 1,3 ton yenilebilir yiyecek atığı ortaya çıktığından bahsedilmektedir (Lephilibert, 2016). ...
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Öz: Bu çalışma, turizm bağlamında restoran işletmelerinde arz ve talep kaynaklı ortaya çıkan yiyecek israfının değerlendirilmesini ve kavramsal bir model sunulmasını amaçlamaktadır. Önerilen model doğrultusunda restoran işletmelerinde yiyecek israfını belirleyiciler, kaynaklar ve çıktılar olmak üzere birbiriyle ilişkili üç süreçte ele almak mümkündür. Restoran türü ve servis şekli, yiyecek israfının belirleyicilerini oluştururken; üretim öncesi (satın alma, depolama gibi), esnası (yiyecek, fiziksel çevre gibi) ve sonrası (müşteri türü, profili gibi) aşamalarda yer alan unsurlar kaynakları meydana getirmektedir. Aynı zamanda modele göre yiyecek israfı birtakım çevresel, finansal ve sosyal çıktılara yol açmaktadır. Çalışma turizm bağlamında yiyecek israfını söz konusu faktörler üzerinden kavramsallaştıran ilk çalışmalardan biri olma özelliği taşımaktadır. Çalışmada araştırmacılar ve uygulamacılara yönelik öneriler de sunulmaktadır. Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the food waste taking place from supply and demand in restaurants as part of tourism and to propose a conceptual model. In the light of the proposed model, it is possible to deal with food waste in restaurants in three interrelated processes: determinants, resources, and outcomes. While the type of restaurant and type of service constitute the determinants of food waste; factors in pre-production (such as purchasing, storage), during-production (such as food, physical environment), and post-production (such as customer type, profile) stages constitute resources. According to the model, food waste also leads to various environmental, financial, and social outcomes. The study is one of the first studies to conceptualize food waste within the context of tourism through these factors. In the study, suggestions for researchers and practitioners are offered.
... For example, elimination of defects from a given commodity before marketing is much less rigorous in developing countries than in developed countries. This, however, is not necessarily bad, because appearance quality is often over-emphasized in developed countries [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. ...
Article
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The primary role of an effective post-harvest handling system is ensuring that the harvested product reaches the consumer, while fulfilling market/consumer expectations in terms of volume, quality, and other product and transaction attributes, including nutrition, food security, and product safety. The aim of this review was how to manage postharvest losses of crops for food security. Postharvest losses of crops commodities were managed or controlled by doing proper harvesting, transportation, packing, storage, processing, sorting and cleaning. Thus, reduction of post-harvest food losses is a critical component of ensuring future global food security.
... Böylece hem yiyeceklerin israf olmasını önlemekte hem de misafirlerin memnun olmasını sağlamaktadır (Talwar vd., 2021) Tüketim aşamasında meydana gelen yiyecek israfı, tabak israfı olarak da adlandırılmakta ve servis edilen, ancak tüketilmeyen yiyecekleri tanımlamak için kullanılmaktadır (Kuo ve Shih, 2016;Juvan vd., 2018). Tabak israfında özellikle yenilebilir yiyecek atıkları önemli bir yer tutmaktadır (Buzby ve Hyman, 2012). Söz gelimi, Bangkok'ta otel işletmeleri bünyesinde hizmet veren restoranlarda haftalık 1,3 ton yenilebilir yiyecek atığı ortaya çıktığından bahsedilmektedir (Lephilibert, 2016). ...
Article
Bu çalışma, turizm bağlamında restoran işletmelerinde arz ve talep kaynaklı ortaya çıkan yiyecek israfının değerlendirilmesini ve kavramsal bir model sunulmasını amaçlamaktadır. Önerilen model doğrultusunda restoran işletmelerinde yiyecek israfını belirleyiciler, kaynaklar ve çıktılar olmak üzere birbiriyle ilişkili üç süreçte ele almak mümkündür. Restoran türü ve servis şekli, yiyecek israfının belirleyicilerini oluştururken; üretim öncesi (satın alma, depolama gibi), esnası (yiyecek, fiziksel çevre gibi) ve sonrası (müşteri türü, profili gibi) aşamalarda yer alan unsurlar kaynakları meydana getirmektedir. Aynı zamanda modele göre yiyecek israfı birtakım çevresel, finansal ve sosyal çıktılara yol açmaktadır. Çalışma turizm bağlamında yiyecek israfını söz konusu faktörler üzerinden kavramsallaştıran ilk çalışmalardan biri olma özelliği taşımaktadır. Çalışmada araştırmacılar ve uygulamacılara yönelik öneriler sunulmaktadır.
... However, the results of the measure need to be further explored as there is insufficient statistical evidence on the percentage of waste data. Some scholars have also measured food waste in terms of energy equivalents [6], value [14] and resource and environmental costs [3]. As the subject of food waste, factors, such as consumers' education level, perceived attitudes, ability to manage food, household structure and income level all impact on their food waste behaviour [15][16][17][18]. ...
Article
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Reducing food waste is a priority for all sectors of society as it threatens national food security and the sustainability of global agriculture. Many studies on food waste have focused on a single subject, and the psychological factors of consumer waste are often overlooked. Based on evolutionary game theory, this paper introduces consumers’ normative illusion, constructs an evolutionary game model in which the government, caterers and consumers collaborate to reduce food waste, and simulates and analyses the behavioural strategies of the three stakeholders. The results show that: Firstly, food waste can be reduced under certain conditions by incentive-guided and punishment-inhibited policies. Moreover, incentive-guided policies can reduce government expenditures more than punishment-inhibited ones. Secondly, implementation of prior intervention, the resultant intervention and reducing the probability of consumers’ aversion to the intervention of caterers can optimise the government’s punishment-inhibited policy. Finally, under the punishment-inhibited policy, caterers can bear 60% of the prior intervention costs for food waste management. When caterers invest 40–60% of the prior intervention costs, both caterers and consumers can achieve the ideal state of cooperation; caterers can accept 40% of the resultant intervention cost for food waste management, and when the resultant intervention cost is less than 40%, consumers choose not to waste. Both caterers and consumers are involved in reducing food waste when the probability of consumer dissatisfaction with a caterer’s intervention is reduced to less than 40%.
... Immense energy, water, and natural resources (Cuéllar and Webber, 2010;Heller and Keoleian, 2015;Kummu et al., 2012) are consumed to grow and harvest crops, feed livestock, and process and package foods for consumption. Yet up to 40% of this food is never consumed (ReFed, 2016), and its economic value (Buzby and Hyman, 2012) and nutritional content (Spiker et al., 2017) are ultimately lost. In the U.S. alone, 125-160 billion pounds (57-73 million tonnes) of food are lost or wasted each year, due to agricultural overproduction, manufacturing inefficiencies, excess retail supply, and household overconsumption and mismanagement (Gunders and Bloom, 2017). ...
Article
Food waste is a growing global sustainability challenge. The United States plays a major role in food waste generation and yet has seen limited progress towards significantly reducing the amount of food ultimately being landfilled. Circular economy offers a compelling alternative to the current linear management of food and food waste, but the U.S. also lacks comprehensive public policy that would enable circular economy in the food system. This article provides a systemic analysis of U.S. federal and state policy to identify whether current regulations and initiatives are helping or hindering circular food waste management. One key finding is that the U.S. has ambitious national goals and initiatives aimed at reducing and recovering wasted food, but these efforts are voluntary and lack enforcement mechanisms. Individual states have enacted a wide array of policies expected to both directly and indirectly influence wasted food generation and management, including highly variable requirements for food date labeling and using excess food as animal feed. The majority of U.S. states have policies in place that would support donation of excess food for human use, and a few actually mandate wasted food management through landfill bans or diversion targets. However, the heterogeneity inherent to the observed “patchwork” of state policies is expected to confound broader circular economy goals and potentially limit new business models and stakeholder participation. Therefore, high priorities for policy efforts include federal standardization of date labeling and regional harmonization of state rescue and redistribution policies to support efficient business implementation and compliance.
... The main factors influencing food security, loss and waste in the food supply chain in the context of climate-smart agriculture Beausang et al. (2017) identify pre-harvest conditions and actions in the field that can lead to subsequent losses in the food supply chain due to differences in the quality at harvest; specifically, contracts may undersupply quantities more than necessary, and promotions by retailers can manage waste. Janousek et al. (2018) indicate that food producers, retailers and consumers experience financial losses associated with food waste stemming from direct losses, sales losses and the cost of waste management (Buzby & Hyman, 2012;Gunders, 2012;Hickey & Ozbay, 2014). Peira et al. (2018) analyse the management of unsold products and how operators act in such situations. ...
Article
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Purpose – This paper aims to reveal potential research possibilities for enhancing climate-smart agriculture through short supply chains. Research question – How can short supply chains assure food security and the promotion of climate-smart agriculture? Research methodology – Bibliographic and bibliometric coupling techniques were employed using data from 1990–2022. The raw data was processed using the VOSviewer 1.6.18 software version. Findings – The results confirm the positive effect of the systemically important relationship between the short supply chain and food security. Research limitations – Climate-smart agriculture is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Additional variables may have moderating and mediating effects on the impact of short supply chains on food security. Practical implications – The results establish the importance of having a short supply chain for food security in different aspects of the process from the harvest to the table. Originality and value – This study confirms the rationale for developing shorter food supply chains to assure food security and climate-smart agriculture when possible.
... Furthermore, another important aspect that drives food industries is the so called "food lose or food waste" phenomenon (Buzby & Hyman, 2012). More specifically, negative externalities arise from the production of food like: (a) greenhouse gas emissions (Lundqvist et al., 2008); (b) air pollution caused by farm machinery and trucks that transport food; (c) water pollution and marine damage induced by the agricultural chemical run-off during crop production; and (d) soil erosion, salinization, and nutrient depletion that arise from unsustainable production and irrigation practices (Nellemann et al., 2009). ...
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In this work, we focus on the following research question: “Could fake news extracted on Google be helpful in explaining the production and supply process in the food sector of the US economy?” In order to tackle this research question, we trace the supply chain of the US food sector based on Input–Output (IO) mapping. In fact, IO analysis is an essential tool for engineers, managers and decision makers across the globe, due to its direct link with the supply chain framework. The whole supply chain is perfectly captured based on the IO model. In this context, the paper studies the possibility of the production and supply processes being influenced by fakes news, captured by key phrases of Google searches, such as “collapse + US economy”. In this work, we incorporate fake news on the production process and estimate, using a suitably adjusted version of the traditional ARDL model augmented with Neural Network terms, their impact on the production process of the US food sector. We conclude that searches for fake news referring to the collapse of the US economy, could lead to significant improvement in the explanatory capability of the production process in the US food sector.
... In the USA, over 100 million tons of "wasted food" is generated each year from agriculture, processing, distribution, retailers, institutions, and households (U.S. EPA, 2018). This waste stream represents the loss of water, fertilizer, and land resources (Kummu et al., 2012), embodied energy (Cuéllar & Webber, 2010), economic value (Buzby & Hyman, 2012), and nutritional content (Spiker et al., 2017) of food that is never consumed. Further, wasted food is typically landfilled in the USA, leading to climate impacts due to carbon dioxide and methane release. ...
Chapter
Circular economy offers a compelling alternative to linear consumption and production practices that waste monetary and physical resources. However, the inconsistent development, implementation, and assessment of circular business models have hindered widespread adoption and realization of sustainability benefits from circular economy solutions. This chapter reviews the development of the circular economy field, drawing from foundational theories in management, science, economics, and design. To demonstrate the varying scales and scopes at which circular economy has been applied in practice, we review implementation challenges and success for the food system, consumer electronics, and cross-cutting examples in other sectors. Critical needs are also discussed for assessing circular economy models to avoid unintended consequences or rebound effects that offset potential environmental, social, or economic benefits.
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Yoksulluk, az gelişmiş ülkelerden gelişmiş ülkelere kadar tüm ülkelerde, farklı derecelerde müstakil problem haline gelmiş sosyo-ekonomik bir gerçekliktir. Bu gerçeklik, geçmişten günümüze kendi içerisinde farklı şekillerde tanımlanabilmekle birlikte, temas ettiği diğer sosyal sorunlarla beraber tekraren ve farklı bağlamlarda izaha muhtaç hale gelebilmektedir. Nitekim yoksulluk, bir yandan tüketememe (temel gıda ihtiyaçları) ve refah durumundan yoksunluk (barınma, sağlık hizmetleri) gibi temel soru(n)ların muhatabıyken, 1980’li yıllardan sonra değişen tüketim alışkanlıklarıyla birlikte farklı bağlamlarda değerlendirilmesi gerekilen bir mesele haline dönüşmüştür. Mutlak ve göreli olarak tanımlanabilen yoksulluk, diğer yandan insani yoksulluk, “yoksunluk”, “sosyal dışlanma”, “gelir adaletsizliği” gibi birçok sosyal sorunla ilişkilendirilebilmektedir. Küreselleşme ile beraber uluslararası örgütlerin de farklı açılardan değerlendirdiği yoksulluk meselesi, bir yandan küresel etkiler sebebiyle azaldığı iddia edilen bir sorun olarak görülürken, diğer yandan küreselleşme ile beraber daha da kötüleştiği iddia edilen bir gerçeklik olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Ancak küreselleşme ile beraber zamanla değerlendirilmeye dahil edilen yeni bağımsız değişken tüketim olmuştur. Zira değişen tüketim alışkanlıkları ile beraber toplumun fertlerine atfedilen bütün değerler “tüketim” üzerinden şekillenmektedir. Hal böyle olunca kapitalizmin arzuladığı, küreselleşmenin ise bu arzuyu teşvik ettiği “tükettiği kadar var olabilen insan” modeli kabul görmeye başlamıştır. Bu noktada tüketemeyenler ise daha az konuşulmuş ya da tüketemeyenlerin sorunları ötelenmiştir. Nihayetinde değişen küresel dinamiklerle birlikte yoksulların erişemediklerinden ziyade, tüketenlerin neye ne kadar eriştikleri daha önemli bir hal almaya başlamıştır. Bu çalışmanın amacı ise görünürler (tüketenler) üzerinden görün(e)meyeni (yoksullar) görünür çalışmaya kılmaktan ziyade hâlihazırda görünür olmayan üzerinden, görünür olanları tartışmaktır. Bu bağlamda aşırılıklar çağı olarak değerlendirebileceğimiz bu dönemde, sürdürülebilirlik ve israf gibi iki önemli meselenin literatürde kendine daha sık yer bulmaya başladığı ifade edilebilir. Bu kapsamda çalışmanın ilk kısmında yoksulluğun kavramsal çerçevesi ve yoksulluğun dünyadaki ve Türkiye’deki genel görünümü ortaya konmuş, daha sonra sürdürülebilir tüketim ve israf kavramları açıklanmış ve bu kavramların genel görünümü değerlendirilmiştir. Son olarak Türkiye’de ve dünyada yoksulluk ve israf ilişkisi özelinde politika önerileri sunularak çalışma nihayete erdirilmiştir.
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The present study endorses the point of purchase (POP) as a ‘decision point’ for the distribution of misshapen fruits and vegetables (FVs) and a contributor to reducing food waste. We have explored the influence of POP type on consumer perceptions of tomato shape abnormality and its purchase probability, and the moderating role of the actual tomato shape abnormality level. Two online surveys questioned a total of 1021 Romanian and British consumers. The results show that consumers perceive misshapen tomatoes as ‘least misshapen’ and ‘most likely to be bought’ in fresh markets (Romania) or the organic stand of the supermarkets (UK). This study provides managerial recommendations on the selection of point of sale for misshapen fresh FVs with the aim of addressing the problem of food waste.
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Günümüzde ciddi bir insani kriz haline gelen gıda israfı, ulusal ve uluslararası alanda hükümetler, yerel yönetimler, sivil toplum kuruluşları, sektör temsilcileri ve bazı aktivistlerin kişisel çabasıyla asgari düzeye çekilmesi amacıyla çeşitli uygulama ve kampanyalar düzenlenmektedir. Gıda israfını önlemeyi amaçlayan bu uygulama ve kampanyalardan gıdaya ihtiyaç duyan binlerce insan faydalanmaktadır.
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INCOHIS 2022 AUTUMN | NOVEMBER 25-26, 2022 İSTANBUL/TÜRKİYE | INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF NEW HORIZONS IN SCIENCES | PROCEEDINGS BOOK
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Waste in fast-moving consumer goods (FMCGs) is a tremendous economic and ethical issue for retailers and the rest of society. Due to methodological weaknesses, previous studies are inadequate in prioritizing fundamental causes and drivers of retail food waste (RFW) in this context. This research explores the peculiar causes and drivers of RFW concerning different perishable FMCG categories. This research employs the fuzzy level-based weight assessment (F-LBWA) methodology to provide a robust and effective decision-making tool to retailers responsible for preventing waste in their stores. This research categorizes the causes and drivers into different product categories giving insight into the reasons and drivers that need more attention than others for each product category. The findings reveal that inappropriate buying/delivery is the most significant cause of waste for fruit and vegetables, dairy products, fresh meat, fish and seafood, and baked products, whereas improper storage is the most critical cause of waste for frozen food. The present work ensures practical implications for developing product category-specific waste management policies to improve retailers' efficiency, competitiveness, and profitability. For a developing country like Turkey, the applicable insights of this research can also serve all supply chain members and policymakers to prevent food waste through partnership.
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This article focuses on the ongoing challenge of reduction of food waste at three downstream interfaces and food waste impact on triple bottom line dimensions: environmental, social (including ethical) and economic. The interplay between downstream interfaces (consumers-retailers; consumers-food service businesses; consumers-households) of food supply chain and areas of food waste accumulation is discussed in the article. The findings are based on a two-step method: first, a systematic literature review of the published studies on food waste between 2008 and 2020, and second, theme development to understand food waste at the three interfaces and to develop propositions for future research. The propositions are strategic interventions to provide managerial recommendations for food waste reduction involving downstream food supply chain stakeholders. The findings highlight the conundrum of balancing conflicting stakeholder perspectives within triple bottom line dimensions to tackle food waste: economic and social dimensions of triple bottom line take priority over the environmental dimension. Testing the propositions as part of future research will help to further streamline the policy recommendations to reduce food waste at the downstream part of the supply chain.
Article
Grain loss is a key barrier to promote food security and sustainable development. To assess grain losses in the supply chain and their associated environmental impact, we developed an integrated methodological framework combining material flow analysis, life cycle assessment and environmental footprint approaches. The framework was applied to Shanghe county, which is one of the national advanced grain production counties in North China. Results show that around 7% of wheat and maize was lost during the pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest periods. The wheat and maize losses have caused serious waste of water and land resource, and additional carbon emissions. The application also shows that environmental impact of changes in material flows caused by relevant stakeholders’ decision could be easily assessed using the framework. In conclusion, the framework can help policy makers to better explore grain loss management and reduction strategies in China and can be expanded to other developing countries.
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Vegetables are the fundamentals of our regular eating routine. In India the creation of vegetables is in unbelievable trip. After China, India is the fourth greatest maker of vegetables. Starting late the increasing expenses of vegetables have been an authentic concern in Indian homes. This paper attempts to recognize the variation in cost of Cabbage in various seasons from farmers to end clients concerning organized retail. in the connecting territory of Ranchi. In case you accept that it is simply onions whose cost is extending, you are significantly stirred up. Masters express that a rising in central sustenance things in India is chiefly an immediate consequence of the extending thing costs abroad, increase in fuel expenses and fertilizers, which accordingly impact the local produce by growing info costs. With a development in the masses, there is moreover an addition in the enthusiasm for vegetables. In India's trading system, the conclusive outcome shows up at the customer in the wake of experiencing various authorities or agents. Each center individual endeavors to get benefits by extending the principal cost and the end cost ends up being amazingly higher than the genuine expense. Thusly, it is typical in India that we, as customers, finish on a noteworthy cost and at the same time the farmers don't get a justifying cost for the vegetables. In this way the aftereffect of this paper shows that there is a significant difference in the cost of Cabbage in various seasons from the farmers to end client having various intermediates.
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Nowadays, in addition to the severe imbalance between food supply and demand, only a tiny portion of the human population has the chance to have healthy eating conditions and free access to food. Besides, most of humanity has to live with insufficient food danger due to political, geographical, and economic reasons. Although increasing the food supply can be considered a remedy, it is not a sufficient measure, as a particular minority will be advantageous in accessing food due to the aforementioned reasons. In addition, reducing the amount of wasted food and delivering food to all people equally should be considered the most valid solution.
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Vamos compartilhar mais ciência?? O e-book do #WICTA2021 contém os Artigos de Revisão aprovados no evento. Programação visual - Capa: Sibele Righi Scaramussa Editoração eletrônica: Sibele Righi Scaramussa e Camila Nunes da Rosa Revisão: Paula Lange Borges https://repositorio.ufsm.br/handle/1/23515
Article
Addressing food loss along the supply chain in developing countries is often hindered by low quantity and quality of food loss data. This is particularly important for the animal products supply chain of China, the world's most populous country that is experiencing dietary structure change towards more animal-based food. Here, we aim to address this important gap based on primary data obtained from a large-scale field survey conducted during 2015–2019, which covers the entire supply chain of major animal products (pork, beef, lamb, poultry, aquatic products, dairy products, and eggs). In the survey, a stratified sampling method was used and eventually over 510 sampled enterprises in 23 provinces across China were included in the questionnaire survey and semi-structured one-on-one interviews. We show that the normalized total loss rate of meat, aquatic products, dairy products, and eggs were 6.4%, 10.2%, 5.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of their total production. Such losses would add up to 4.9 million tons, 3.8 million tons, 1.7 million tons, and 1.1 million tons, respectively, based on China's average production of meat, aquatic products, dairy products, and eggs between 2015 and 2019. Considering the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes for adults, these losses equal to an energy feeding potential of 26.2 million adults and a protein feeding potential of 56.4 million adults. While China's animal product loss rate is comparably lower than that of industrialized countries, addressing such increasing loss still deserves special attention and mitigation efforts, considering further dietary structure change and pressing environmental challenges in the future.
Chapter
The need to establish actions to reduce food waste is part of the European Union’s comprehensive approach to efficient use of resources so that economic development must derive from a linear economy to a circular economy. One of the most important aspects to be developed in this policy framework is the fight against food waste. At a regional level, the Government of Cantabria raised strategic lines and transversal measures within the Social Emergency Plan 2016–2017 to achieve practical proposals aimed at reducing food waste, coordinating efforts that derive from a greater articulation of the agrifood value chain. The research group Economic Management for Sustainable Development of the Primary Sector, to which the authors of this book chapter belong, collaborated with the government of Cantabria to define the Strategy against food waste in Cantabria. This chapter aims to expose the collaborative process of the development and planning of this strategy. The first stage involved searching for the main initiatives carried out by public and private agents in the fight against food waste. As a result, we obtained a catalogue with more than 100 national and international initiatives. The second stage involved meetings with the Cantabria agrifood value chain agents, intending to assess the suggested proposals’ suitability. Having collected their feedback, the third stage included the selection of the final recommendations. Finally, the fourth stage included the definition of the final strategy, as well as disclosing issues. This book chapter emphasizes the need to publicize development processes prior to transversal strategies. It can serve as an example for other regions and communities that have concerns regarding food waste.
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Feedstock resources for renewable natural gas (RNG) production by biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion) and thermochemical (e.g., gasification) conversion methods in Hawaii have been reviewed. Statewide estimates of RNG production potential from urban resources (wastewater, existing landfills, foodwaste, construction and demolition waste, and municipal solid waste) total 8,860 TJ y‐1. Honolulu has the largest resource base for these urban waste streams. Underutilized agricultural land resources in the state could support substantial RNG production from dedicated energy crops (260 – 520 GJ ha‐1 y‐1), although agronomic suitability of specific candidate energy crops would need to be evaluated and confirmed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Reducing post-harvest loss (PHL) and waste have become important methods for alleviating food security challenges. Based on survey data from 3490 rural households in 28 provinces in China, we first estimated on-farm PHL and waste and assessed the effects of loss and waste on resources in China. We then proposed potential methods to reduce loss and waste. The results showed that the PHL levels experienced by smallholders varied for different varieties, e.g. 4.36% of maize lost in the postharvest chain, while rice and wheat losses were 5.21% and 5.67%, respectively. Meanwhile, 1.73% of the total food is wasted during consumption every day. These losses and waste caused 38.55 million tons of grain to be lost or wasted in total, which is equivalent to 7.03 million hectares of land and 373.37 billion m³ water being meaninglessly input into grain production. This also means that these losses and waste add 9.68 million tons of carbon emissions. The empirical analysis reveals that mechanical harvesting is associated with a high harvest loss, and modern storage facilities are associated with a low storage loss. To reduce these losses, modern handling practices should be improved and promoted.
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Food loss and waste account for more than a third of all food produced for human consumption on an annual basis, yet 811 million people go hungry every day. This dire situation necessitates action on the part of all stakeholders in the food supply chain. This chapter discusses current changes to the food supply chain’s food loss and waste (FLW). The article provides a basic overview of FLW definitions and their relevance to the sustainable development goals. There is a brief discussion of the extensive environmental implications of food waste. The chapter then discusses the life cycle evaluation of FLW in order to determine its environmental effect and potential for food waste reduction. Various regulatory systems are examined in Europe, the United States of America, and international contexts. Additionally, the influence of COVID-19 on FLW is discussed. The chapter concludes with solutions for reducing FLW in order to ensure resilient food systems and long-term development.
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Yield loss is a major issue in agricultural sector seeking immediate attention in order to provide food security to continuously increasing population. An estimated loss of 23 million tonnes of food cereals, 12 million tonnes of fruits and 21 million tonnes of vegetables are reported each year, with a total estimated value of Rs 240 billion. The current review paper examines the factors causing yield loss in major cereal crops i.e rice, wheat and maize. The studies conducted by different authors on yield loss due to weed, disease & pest infestation and post-harvest loss were critically reviewed and major inferences has been drawn for eastern region.
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Purpose This paper aims to identify Australian consumer segments based on sustainable lifestyles and attitudes towards food waste and model the factors (socio-demographic, attitudinal and lifestyle) contributing to different levels of food waste. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a face-to-face survey of 334 respondents. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to identify consumer segments, and econometric analysis is used to model the factors contributing to different levels of food waste. Findings A total of six lifestyle segments are identified: the freshness lovers, the vegetarian and organic food lovers, the recycle/reuse advocates, the waste-conscious consumers, the label-conscious/sensory consumer and the food waste defenders. This research distinguishes between low and medium levels of food waste based on marginal effects analysis. At low levels of food waste, consumers who worry about the food waste cost, making efforts to reduce food waste are less likely to waste food. Affluent consumers, who claim to be waste conscious, have young children and frequently eat outside, are more likely to waste food than others, lying in the medium waste group. Originality/value Australia, like many other countries, has high levels of food waste and despite policy efforts, curbing household food waste remains a challenge. In addition, there are limited food waste studies that focus on consumers who practice sustainable lifestyles. The current paper contributes to the market segmentation literature and has several implications for food policy and practice.
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Federal dietary guidance advises Americans to consume more vegetables and fruits because most Americans do not consume the recommended quantities or variety. Food prices, along with taste, convenience, income, and awareness of the link between diet and health, shape food choices. We used 2008 Nielsen Homescan data to estimate the average price at retail stores of a pound and an edible cup equivalent (or, for juices, a pint and an edible cup equivalent) of 153 commonly consumed fresh and processed fruits and vegetables. We found that average prices ranged from less than 20 cents per edible cup equivalent to more than $2 per edible cup equivalent. We also found that, in 2008, an adult on a 2,000- calorie diet could satisfy recommendations for vegetable and fruit consumption in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (amounts and variety) at an average price of $2 to $2.50 per day, or approximately 50 cents per edible cup equivalent.
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This review compares and contrasts postharvest food losses (PHLs) and waste in developed countries (especially the USA and the UK) with those in less developed countries (LDCs), especially the case of cereals in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing food losses offers an important way of increasing food availability without requiring additional production resources, and in LDCs it can contribute to rural development and poverty reduction by improving agribusiness livelihoods. The critical factors governing PHLs and food waste are mostly after the farm gate in developed countries but before the farm gate in LDCs. In the foreseeable future (e.g. up to 2030), the main drivers for reducing PHLs differ: in the developed world, they include consumer education campaigns, carefully targeted taxation and private and public sector partnerships sharing the responsibility for loss reduction. The LDCs’ drivers include more widespread education of farmers in the causes of PHLs; better infrastructure to connect smallholders to markets; more effective value chains that provide sufficient financial incentives at the producer level; opportunities to adopt collective marketing and better technologies supported by access to microcredit; and the public and private sectors sharing the investment costs and risks in market-orientated interventions.
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We report results from a validation study of the Nielsen Homescan consumer panel data. We use data from a large grocery retailer to match transactions that were recorded by the retailer (at the store) and by the Homescan panelist (at home). The matched data allow us to identify and document discrepancies between the two data sets in reported shopping trips, products, prices, and quantities. We find that the discrepancies are largest for the price variable, and show that they are due to two effects: the first seems like standard recording errors (by Nielsen or the panelists), while the second is likely due to the way Nielsen imputes prices. We present two simple applications to illustrate the impact of recording differences, and we use one of the applications to illustrate how the validation study can be used to adjust estimates obtained from Nielsen Homescan data. The results suggest that while recording discrepancies are clearly present and potentially impact results, corrections, like the one we employ, can be adopted by users of Homescan to investigate the robustness of their results to such potential recording differences. KeywordsMeasurement error-Validation study-Self-reported data JEL ClassificationC81-D12
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This report fulfills a request by the House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations (H.R. 106-619). USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) reviewed the literature on plate waste in school nutrition programs, particularly the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), to determine the level of plate waste in these programs, factors that contribute to plate waste, and strategies that may reduce waste. The best national estimate available indicates that about 12 percent of calories from food served to students under the NSLP go uneaten. The estimate is derived from a large, nationally representative study conducted in 1991-92 and, therefore, may not reflect current conditions in schools. Some plate waste is inevitable. Nevertheless, reducing plate waste could make program operations more efficient and lower costs. Possible causes of plate waste include wide variation in student appetites and energy needs, differ- ences between meals served and student preferences, scheduling constraints that interfere with meal consumption or result in meals being served when children are less hungry, and availability of substitute foods from competing sources. The review identified possible strate- gies for reducing plate waste, such as using the offer versus serve provision for meal service, rescheduling lunch hours, improving the quality and condition of food, tailoring serving sizes to student appetites via self-service, and providing nutrition education.
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A certain amount of food in supermarkets is deemed unusable (“food loss”) because of moisture loss, spoilage, and other causes. This study analyzed updated food loss estimates for fresh fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, and seafood obtained through a competitive grant with the Perishables Group, Inc. This independent consulting firm compared supplier shipment data with point-of-sale data from six large national and regional supermarket retailers to identify loss in 2005 and 2006. The new estimates, when incorporated into the ERS Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data, had little impact on aggregate per capita food loss estimates in 2006 because the new estimates were, on average, close to the previous loss assumptions. The new estimates increased annual per capita estimates of fresh fruit available at the retail level by 0.7 pounds (0.6 percent), 4.2 pounds (2.7 percent) for fresh vegetables, and 4.8 pounds (2.7 percent) for fresh meat, poultry, and seafood. The commodity-specific food loss estimates are more accurate than in previous years.
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Food waste in the global food supply chain is reviewed in relation to the prospects for feeding a population of nine billion by 2050. Different definitions of food waste with respect to the complexities of food supply chains (FSCs)are discussed. An international literature review found a dearth of data on food waste and estimates varied widely; those for post-harvest losses of grain in developing countries might be overestimated. As much of the post-harvest loss data for developing countries was collected over 30 years ago, current global losses cannot be quantified. A significant gap exists in the understanding of the food waste implications of the rapid development of 'BRIC' economies. The limited data suggest that losses are much higher at the immediate post-harvest stages in developing countries and higher for perishable foods across industrialized and developing economies alike. For affluent economies, post-consumer food waste accounts for the greatest overall losses. To supplement the fragmentary picture and to gain a forward view, interviews were conducted with international FSC experts. The analyses highlighted the scale of the problem, the scope for improved system efficiencies and the challenges of affecting behavioural change to reduce post-consumer waste in affluent populations.
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Researchers use Nielsen Homescan data, which provide detailed food-purchase information from a panel of U.S. households, to address a variety of important research topics. However, some question the credibility of the data since the data are self-recorded and the recording process is time-consuming. Matching purchase records from 2004 Homescan data with data obtained from a large grocery retailer, it is evident that quantities purchased are reported more accurately in Homescan than are prices. Many of the price differences may be driven by the way Nielsen imputes prices: when available, Nielsen uses store-level prices instead of the actual price paid by the household. There are also differences by household type in the tendency to make mistakes that are correlated with demographic variables. However, the fraction of variance explained by the documented recording errors is in line with other research data sets for which cross-validation studies have been conducted.
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"We need to use our water prudently – no one will argue with this statement. But in fact we are wasteful. This need will become more pronounced, and the cost of bad water management will get higher in the future with increasing water demands from increasing population, cities, agriculture, and the environment. Moreover water management will become more difficult with climate change. New solutions and fast actions are required now. Agriculture is the largest human use of water. Clearly, agricultural practices need to be targeted to reduce wastage of water. This has been the center of attention for water saving practices for years. But there are additional ways to save water. Food consumers and businesses have a key role. Losses of food between the farmers’ field to our dinner table – in food storage, transport, food processing, retail and in our kitchens – are huge. This loss of food is equivalent to a loss in water. Reducing food loss and wastage lessens water needs in agriculture. We need to pay more attention to this fact. Our Key Message: Make the Food Chain More Efficient to Save Water to Facilitate the Achievement of Multiple Development Objectives"
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Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here.
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Food waste contributes to excess consumption of freshwater and fossil fuels which, along with methane and CO(2) emissions from decomposing food, impacts global climate change. Here, we calculate the energy content of nationwide food waste from the difference between the US food supply and the food consumed by the population. The latter was estimated using a validated mathematical model of metabolism relating body weight to the amount of food eaten. We found that US per capita food waste has progressively increased by approximately 50% since 1974 reaching more than 1400 kcal per person per day or 150 trillion kcal per year. Food waste now accounts for more than one quarter of the total freshwater consumption and approximately 300 million barrels of oil per year.
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Many Americans do not consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables. Almost half of Americans think eating more fruits and vegetables would make their diets healthier, so why don't they? One argument is that fruits and vegetables are expensive, especially when purchased fresh. According to an ERS study, a consumer can meet the recommendation of three servings of fruits and four servings of vegetables daily for 64 cents.
Article
Food loss at the retail and consumer levels in the United States includes 14.8 billion pounds of fruit and 23.4 billion pounds of vegetables, valued at $15.1 billion and $27.7 billion, respectively, in 2008 retail market prices. The total value of these losses is $42.8 billion per year, or roughly $141 per capita. To most efficiently reduce the annual food loss, it may be beneficial to focus efforts on the four fruits (fresh apples, grapes, peaches and strawberries) and four vegetables (fresh and canned tomatoes and fresh and frozen potatoes) that have the greatest amount of loss.
Article
Qualitative losses (such as loss of caloric and nutritive value, loss of acceptability by consumers, and loss of edibility) are more difficult to measure than quantitative losses of fresh fruits and vegetables. While reduction of quantitative losses is a higher priority than qualitative losses in developing countries, the opposite is true in developed countries where consumer dissatisfaction with produce quality results in a greater percentage of the total postharvet losses. Providing consumers with fruits and vegetables that taste good can greatly increase their consumption of the recommended minimum of five servings per day for better health. Development of new cultivars with better flavor and nutritional quality plus adequate productivity should be given high priority in all countries. Strategies for reducing postharvest losses in developing countries include: (1) Application of current knowledge to improve the handling systems (especially packaging and cold chain maintenance) of horticultural perishables and assure their quality and safety; (2) Overcoming the socioeconomic constraints, such as inadequacies of infrastructure, poor marketing systems, and weak R&D capacity; and (3) Encouraging consolidation and vertical integration among producers and marketers of horticultural crops.
Article
Lowering food losses is a potential measure to overcome hunger and reduce the ecological side effects from the food system. However, few observations of food losses have been reported in the literature during recent years. We studied food losses in four food service institutions in Stockholm, Sweden. The results show that about one-fifth of the food is lost. Plate waste is the single largest source of loss, at 11–13% of the amount of food served. Losses in food service institutions can be of significant economic value, and arable land equivalent to 1.5% of the area under cultivation in Sweden may be used to produce food eventually lost in food service institutions. The results indicate that the economic and environmental consequences of current levels of food losses may be substantial. More research is needed in order to better estimate levels, devise prevention strategies and identify policy implications.
Article
Household scanner data contain rich information on household demographics and transactions in actual markets over a long time period. To more fully understand the characteristics of these data, we conducted an analysis to determine whether household expenditures in the Nielsen Homescan panel are similar to the Bureau of Labor Statistic’s Consumer Expenditure Diary Survey. We found that many differences in reported expenditures across the two datasets can be explained by such household demographics as female head, income, and household size, for example. The largest degrees of discrepancies across datasets occur for food categories containing more random-weight foods without universal product codes.
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