Molecular approaches for enhancing sweetness in fruits and vegetables

Scientia Horticulturae (Impact Factor: 1.37). 11/2010; 127(1):1–15. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2010.09.014


The quality of fruits and vegetables is mainly dependant on the sweetness determined by the level of soluble sugars such as glucose, fructose and sucrose. Other fruit quality parameters include Brix content, acidity, aroma, color, size and shape. Total sugar content in fruits and vegetables is a function of genetic, nutritional, environmental and developmental factors. Understanding the factors controlling sweetness is important to design strategies for enhancing quality of fruits and vegetables. Modifying the activity of enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism such as sucrose synthase (SuSy), acid invertase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose transporters were found to influence carbohydrate partitioning and sucrose accumulation in sink tissues of several food crops. Plant based taste-modifying sweet proteins such as brazzein, cucurmin, mabinlin, monellin, miraculin, neoculin and thaumatin have potential application for developing transgenic plants to improve the sweetness and quality of fruits and vegetables. The present review envisages various cultural, breeding and molecular approaches used for enhancing sugar content and sweetness in fruits and vegetables.

Download full-text


Available from: Chandrama Upadhyaya
  • Source
    • "Overall, sugar concentrations increased considerably during fruit maturation, with ratios of glucose to fructose (G/F) ranging between 0.72 and 0.86 during fruit development. This observation is noteworthy in characterizing the fruit cultivar as fructose is twice as sweet as glucose (Nookaraju et al., 2010). Total sugar significantly increased between 54 and 110 DAFB, and then gradually increased afterwards. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Scientia Horticulturae j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / s c i h o r t i Changes in physical properties, chemical and elemental composition and antioxidant capacity of pomegranate (cv. Ruby) fruit at five maturity stages a b s t r a c t This study was conducted to investigate the physical and compositional changes as well as antioxidant properties of pomegranate fruit (cv. Ruby) at five distinct maturity stages between 54 and 139 days after full bloom (DAFB). Physico-chemical properties such as fruit mass, size, juiciness, colour, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), individual organic acids and sugars, and phenolic composition were investigated. Mineral element concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) while total antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH scavenging activity (DPPH) and ferric ion reducing power (FRAP). Results showed that major compositional changes in fruit are developmentally regulated. Significant increases in total soluble solids (TSS), sugars (glucose and fructose) and anthocyanins composition, coupled with significant decline in titratable acidity (TA), organic acids and total phenolics occurred with advancing maturity. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fruit at advanced maturity stages (132 and 139 DAFB) were characterized by intense peel and aril pigmentation and better juice quality. PCA results also showed that peel and aril colour attributes and indices of sugar/acid ratio (TSS/TA and BrimA index) could be useful measures of fruit maturity and ripeness for 'Ruby' pomegranate cultivar, and therefore might be suitable for the development of reliable fruit maturity index to assess fruit optimal maturity.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Scientia Horticulturae
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Not Available
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 1994
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Postharvest losses in quantity and quality of tropical and subtropical fruits are commonly very high, especially as many of these fruits are produced in developing countries and transported long distance to markets in developing and developed countries. Biological factors involved in deterioration of fresh fruit quality include the rates of respiration, ethylene production and transpiration and fruit sensitivity to ethylene and also compositional changes that affect color, texture, flavor (taste and aroma) and nutritional quality. Several physiological disorders also reduce fruit quality postharvest. These are the result of products' responses to various environmental and physical stresses, including temperature (the most significant factor), relative humidity, ethylene, atmospheric composition (concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide and other gases), and light. Lastly, other biological factors such as disease and insect infestation can reduce fruit quality. There are many opportunities to reduce quality deterioration associated with biological factors by selecting genotypes that have lower respiration and ethylene production rates, less sensitivity to ethylene, slower softening rate, improved flavor quality, enhanced nutritional quality (vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytonutrients including carotenoids and phenolic compounds), reduced browning potential, decreased susceptibility to chilling injury, and/or increased resistance to postharvest decay-causing pathogens. This chapter describes some of the important biological and environmental factors that influence deterioration rates, therefore causing losses of tropical and subtropical fruits. The potential uses of biotechnological approaches for improving quality and postharvest life are also briefly discussed.
    No preview · Chapter · Sep 2011
Show more