Papandria D, Lardaro T, Rhee D et al.: Risk factors for conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery: analysis of 2138 converted operations in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Am Surg 79: 914-21
Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The American surgeon
(Impact Factor: 0.82).
Minimal access procedures have influenced surgical practice and patient expectations. Risk of laparoscopic conversion to open surgery is frequently cited but vaguely quantified. The present study examines three common procedures to identify risk factors for laparoscopic conversion to open (LCO) events. Cross-sectional analysis using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP; 2005 to 2009) identified cases with laparoscopic procedure codes for appendectomy, cholecystectomy, and bariatric procedures. The primary outcome was conversion of a laparoscopic procedure to its open equivalent. Summary statistics for laparoscopic and LCO groups were compared and logistic regression analysis was used to estimate patient and operative risk factors for conversion. Of 176,014 selected laparoscopic operations, 2,138 (1.2%) were converted. Most patients were female (68%) and white (71.2%); mean age was 45.1 years. LCO cholecystectomy was significantly more likely (n = 1526 [1.9%]) and LCO bariatric procedures were less likely (n = 121 [0.3%]); appendectomy was intermediate (n = 491 [1.0%], P < 0.001). Patient factors associated with LCO included male sex (P < 0.001), age 30 years or older (P < 0.025), American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 2 to 4 (P < 0.001), obesity (P < 0.01), history of bleeding disorder (P = 0.036), or preoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis (P < 0.001). LCO was associated with greater incidence of postoperative complications, including death, organ space surgical site infection, sepsis, wound dehiscence, and return to the operating room (P < 0.001). Overall LCO incidence is low in hospitals participating in ACS-NSQIP. Conversion risk factors include patient age, sex, obesity, and preoperative comorbidity as well as the procedure performed. This information should be valuable to clinicians in discussing conversion risk with patients.
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Despite the increased use of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy, open conversion may occur due to surgical complications, surgeon inexperience or failure to progress. We used nationally representative data to quantify the impact of open conversion compared to nonconverted minimally invasive radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy, and identify predictors of open conversion.
Materials and methods:
Years 2004 to 2010 of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were queried for patients who underwent radical prostatectomy to analyze the association of open conversion during minimally invasive radical prostatectomy with Clavien complications. Multivariate regression models yielded significant predictors of open conversion.
From 2004 to 2010, 134,398 (95% CI 111,509-157,287) minimally invasive radical prostatectomies were performed with a 1.8% (95% CI 1.4-2.1) open conversion rate, translating to 2,360 (95% CI 2,001-2,720) conversions. Open conversion cases had a longer length of stay (4.17 vs 1.71 days, p <0.001) and higher hospital charges ($51,049 vs $37,418, p <0.001) than nonconverted cases. Of open conversion cases 45.2% experienced a complication vs 7.2% and 12.9% of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy cases, respectively (p <0.001). After adjusting for age and comorbidities, open conversion was associated with significantly increased odds of a Clavien grade 1, 2, 3 and 4 complication compared to nonconverted minimally invasive radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy (OR range 2.913 to 15.670, p <0.001). Significant multivariate predictors of open conversion were obesity (OR 1.916), adhesions (OR 3.060), anemia (OR 5.692) and surgeon volume for minimally invasive radical prostatectomy less than 25 cases per year (OR 7.376) (all p <0.01).
Open conversion during minimally invasive radical prostatectomy is associated with a higher than expected increase in complications compared to open radical prostatectomy and minimally invasive radical prostatectomy after adjusting for age and comorbidities. External validation of predictors of open conversion may prove useful in minimizing open conversion during minimally invasive radical prostatectomy.
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ABSTRACT: Background: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was implemented to longitudinally track surgical 30-day surgical outcomes and complications. The authors analyze the program-reported outcomes for immediate breast reconstruction from 2007 to 2011, to assess whether longitudinal data collection has improved national outcomes and to highlight areas in need of continued improvement. Methods: The authors reviewed the database from 2007 to 2011 and identified encounters for immediate breast reconstruction using Current Procedural Terminology codes for prosthetic and autologous reconstruction. Demographics and comorbidities were tabulated for all patients. Postoperative complications analyzed included surgical-site infection, wound dehiscence, implant or flap loss, pulmonary embolism, and respiratory infections. Results: A total of 15,978 patients underwent mastectomy and immediate reconstruction. Fewer smokers underwent immediate reconstruction over time (p = 0.126), whereas more obese patients (p = 0.001) and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 and 4 patients (p < 0.001) underwent surgery. An overall increase in superficial surgical-site infection was noted, from 1.7 percent to 2.3 percent (p = 0.214). Wound dehiscence (p = 0.036) increased over time, whereas implant loss (p = 0.015) and flap loss (p = 0.012) decreased over time. Mean operative times increased over the analyzed years, as did all complications for prosthetic and autologous reconstruction. Conclusions: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set has shown an increase in complications for immediate breast reconstruction over time, because of a longitudinally higher number of comorbid patients and longer operative times. This knowledge allows plastic surgeons the unique opportunity to improve patient selection criteria and efficiency. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.
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To introduce a new strategy during complicated open appendectomy - converting open operation to laparoscopy.
We retrospectively reviewed databases at two institutions between October 2010 and January 2013, identifying 826 patients who had undergone complicated appendectomy for histologically confirmed acute or chronic appendicitis. They included 214 complicated appendectomies: 155 lengthened-incision open appendectomies (LIA group) and 59 open appendectomies with conversion to laparoscopy (OACL group).
A total of 214 patients with complicated appendectomies were included in the study, including 155 cases of LIA and 59 cases of OACL. No major complication leading to death occurred in the study. Patient characteristics of the two groups were similar. Several parameters showed a significant difference between the two groups. For the OACL vs LIA groups they were, respectively: incision length (3.8 ± 1.4 cm vs 6.2 ± 3.5 cm, P < 0.05); time to flatus recovery (2.3 ± 0.6 d vs 4.2 ± 0.8 d, P < 0.05), drainage rate (61.0% vs 80.0%, P < 0.05); pain level (3.6 ± 1.8 vs 7.2 ± 2.4, P < 0.05); hospital stay (5.1 ± 2.7 d vs 8.7 ± 3.2 d, P < 0.05); complication rate (8.5% vs 14.7%, P < 0.05). Other factors showed no significant differences.
Lengthened-incision open appendectomy increases the incidence of complications and prolongs the hospital stay. Conversion of open to laparoscopic appendectomy is feasible and efficient in complicated cases. It decreases the rate of incisional and abdominal infections, allows faster return of bowel movements, and shortens the hospital stay.
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