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Eye movements on restaurant menus: A revisitation on gaze motion and consumer scanpaths

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... The researchers intended to develop an ideal menu design strategy by presenting customer's behaviors when they were analyzing the menu and also, they intended to produce different theories about the effects of the design on customer's preferences. Though many different theories and assumptions were presented, there are limited scientific research (Kincaid and Corsun, 2003;Reynolds et al., 2005;Choi et al., 2010;Yang, 2012;Shafei et al., 2016) in this field. ...
... al, 2010). According to the results of Yang's (2012) research, the customers scan the page starting from the upper corner of the page on the left. ...
... With the help of this software, basic metrics of eye movements and statistical information about the fixation in the area of interest were obtained. The fixation in the area of interests was evaluated within defined 10 fields which were determined by the visuals, categories, and researched the menu (Yang, 2012;Gallup, 1987). These were fields were shown in Figure 2. ...
... This technology allows researchers to track and measure the sequences of eye movement, i.e. the scan paths of individuals. For example, Yang (2012) suggested that the area where customers' scan paths pass first, last, or the most frequently gazed spot, that customers see on the menu, is often known as the focal point or the "sweet spot" (see also Gallup Organization, 1987). Examining the implications of menu design on organizational outcome, Scanlon (1999) demonstrated that items placed at the focal points of a menu could substantially attract the reader's attention and thus increase the chances of customers purchasing those items. ...
... Despite these efforts, scholars have yet to consistently identify a sweet spot based upon the empirical evidence yielded from Western samples (cf. Choi et al., 2010;Report, 1987;Yang, 2012). ...
... Based on this rationale, in the field of menu design researchers and restaurant operators have long believed in the presence of the 'sweet spot' on the menu. This controversial term refers to the area on the menu where customers have a psychological tendency to pay attention to by first or last look (Report, 1987), or a customer's most frequently gazed at spot (Yang, 2012), whilst the rest of the information is easily disregarded (Dayan & Bar-Hillel, 2011;Gallup Organization, 1987). This inattentive area can be considered as the 'sour spot' which refers to the area on the menu to which customers do not pay attention (Yang, 2012). ...
Article
Research on consumer reading (i.e., visual patterns) of Asian restaurant menus is new territory for academic research. This study is the first attempt to scrutinize consumers’ visual patterns toward restaurant menus varied by the combination of page orientation (landscape vs. portrait) and menu script (horizontal vs. vertical). Based on existing menus, four distinct versions were created and tested on 54 participants, while collecting eye-tracking measures. After applying the two-way ANOVA, we found that page orientation, menu scripts, and their interaction do not cause a significant impact on the average total fixation time of the participants. Contingency table tests and the one-way ANOVA reveal that a sweet spot and sour spot exist on three of the four menus studied.
... Findings from this study reveal that, compared to the literature, the logos and photographs placed towards the advertisement perform better than the text in order to attract attention and keep the attention high (Lohse, 1997;. It is understood that the text information in the advertisement should be presented more concisely in order to increase the effectiveness of the advertisement (Fox et al., 1998;Yang, 2012). Particular emphasis should be placed on the findings, in the multi-text catalogs, viewers first read the large text. ...
... The heat map highlights the areas of an image on which the eye focuses most with most hits, thus determining what the eye sees initially and intensively. One of the most sensitively interpreted data in terms of reaching the correct result in eye-tracking is the heat map data (Yang, 2012). Visual inspection of the heat map indicates that the primarily concentrated area is in the upper mid of the ad, which hosts the brand name and logo of the company. ...
... It is also understood that the textual information in the advertising materials must be presented in a more concise way to contribute to the comprehension. The eye is more focused on the text printed in capital letters and short text lines regardless of their position in the image (Fox et al., 1998;Yang, 2012). If there is a lot of text in a catalog, viewers read the big text first, and the small ones are often skipped (Murphy et al., 2005;Velazquez & Pasch, 2014). ...
Chapter
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The purpose of this chapter, which is designed to measure where and how the consumer focuses in an advertising brochure, which visual is more striking, and how much eye strain (twitch) it takes, is to measure the density and visual attention of the eyes through the eye-tracking device during the individual examination. For this study, an experimental laboratory for neuromarketing research was used. After watching the videos and images of the participants in the eye-tracking module, the general evaluations were taken to determine what they remembered, and a comparison opportunity was born. According to the findings, logos, and photographs are more effective than texts. Viewers read large text and skip small text. Suggestions for future research are presented in the chapter.
... Menus are designed differently and may include a single page to multiple pages. Yang (2012) showed that restaurant customers typically read menus like a book from left to right. It was also noted that and from the top to the bottom. ...
... It was also noted that and from the top to the bottom. Yang (2012) discussed how 'sweet spots' in menus do not exist. A sweet spot was defined as a place on the menu that people look at the most. ...
... A sweet spot was defined as a place on the menu that people look at the most. According to Yang (2012), not only do they not exist, but not one spot of the menu is fixated on more than any other. Dayan and Bar-Hillel (2011) found that a menu item's popularity could go up by 20% if placed either at the beginning or end of the menu. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of color on eye movements while viewing a restaurant menu. Heat maps suggest that participants tended to view the middle and upper-left parts of the menu the most, regardless of color upon first exposure. Gaze plots showing the order of fixations indicated that color may have impacted initial eye movements in the first 10 seconds. Participants tended to view the center of the menu first in the color condition and the top left portion of the menu first in the non-color version. These results may be useful when designing restaurant menus and understanding the role color may have when attracting users’ gaze.
... Arkasında herhangi bir teorik açıklama olmamasına rağmen en yaygın kullanılan modellerdendir. (Yang, 2012). Doerfler Modeli 1978 yılında Livingston tarafından tanıtılmıştır. ...
... Bazı çalışmalarda insanların menüleri merkezden başlayarak sırasıyla sağ üst köşe, sol üst köşe, sol alt köşe, sağ alt köşe, sol sayfanın ortası ve sonra geri dönmek üzere zikzak şekilde taradığı belirtilmiştir (Bowen ve Morris, 1995;Hug ve Warfel, 1991;Kelson, 1994;Kotschevar, 2008;Miller, 1992;Miller ve Pavesic, 1996;Panitz, 2000;Pavesic, 2005;Scanlon, 1998). Endüstride en fazla kabul gören menü okuma şeklinin bu olduğu varsayılmasına rağmen, arkasında yatan nedenler ampirik olarak tam olarak açıklanmamıştır (Yang, 2012). ...
... Menü yerleşiminde önemli etkisi olduğu düşünülen bir diğer teori ise Seri Pozisyon Etkisi Teorisi'dir. Sözel öğrenme ve bellek üzerine ilk deneysel araştırmaları yapan Alman psikolog Hermann Ebbinghaus tarafından ortaya atılan bu teori, bir listenin başındaki ve sonundaki maddelerin diğerlerinden daha kolay hatırlandığı ve daha fazla tercih edildiği yönündeki teoridir (Dayan ve Bar-Hillel, 2011;Gallup Organization, 1987;Yang, 2012). Teori öncelik etkisi ve sonralık etkisi olmak üzere iki terim içerir. ...
... There are two theories underlying these thoughts. One of these theories is gaze movement studies known as "Eye Tracking, Gaze Motoin or Doerfler Theory" (Bowen & Morris, 1995;Reynolds et al., 2005;Pavesic, 1993;Choi et al., 2010;Yang, 2012;Kim et al., 2018;Robertson & Lunn, 2019;Chen et al., 2020). The second theory put forward in this field is the "Priority and Innovation Rule", which is explained with different concepts in the literature (e.g., Primacy and Recency Theory, Von Restorff Effect). ...
... The second theory put forward in this field is the "Priority and Innovation Rule", which is explained with different concepts in the literature (e.g., Primacy and Recency Theory, Von Restorff Effect). According to this rule, it is the theory that is based on the thoughts that the first and last items read from any text or list are remembered the most and easiest, and therefore most preferred (Dayan & Bar-Hillel, 2011;Yang, 2012). ...
Article
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The study aimed to determine the approaches of the kitchen chefs of restaurant businesses to the menu engineering processes. A focus group interview with six professional kitchen chefs was held in 2020 to achieve this goal. The analysis of the data collected by the focus group interview method was carried out with descriptive analysis, which is one of the qualitative data analysis methods. In the research findings, it was determined that restaurant kitchen chefs tended to use different applications in menu engineering processes due to intense competition and changing guest expectations. In this process, it was determined that guest satisfaction, raw material cost, labor cost, efficiency, availability of materials, suppliers, qualified personnel, equipment needs, compliance with guest requests, target customer, and concept were the most striking factors. Overall, it was determined that kitchen chefs prioritize guest satisfaction more in menu engineering processes.
... The "light and fresh" (i.e., green symbol placed next to the lower-than-600 calorie items) menu resulted in a significant increase in the portion of subjects that chose items lower in calories. These results support the findings of previous studies that determined that traffic lights (i.e., red, amber, and green) with or without calorie numeric information on menus result in consumers choosing fewer calories [39][40][41]. In addition to these findings, the data indicates that only a green light symbol is needed in combination with numeric calorie information to encourage some customers to order a restaurant entree that is less than 1/3 of an adult's daily caloric needs. ...
... This area of the menu is commonly referred to as the "focal point" of a menu during menu design, although why it is thought to be the focal point has not been established [22]. Yan [40], in a literature review, discussed that there is a lack of empirical evidence supporting the effect of primacy and recency and a sweet spot on restaurant menu item purchase behavior, purchase intention, actual sales, or even attention. This list can now include that there is no support that these psychological methods are able to influence young adults' odds of choosing a lower calorie entree from a menu. ...
Article
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The obesity pandemic is associated with increased consumption of restaurant food. Labeling of menus is an intervention used to provide consumers with kilocalorie (calorie) information in hopes of them making healthier food choices. This study evaluated the relationship between young adults’ calorie choices on restaurant menus and menu design, dietary behaviors, and demographic characteristics. A 3 (fast-casual restaurants) × 4 (menu-designs based on menu engineering theories) between-subjects (n = 480, 18–24-year olds) experimental design was used. The relationship between the participants’ calorie choices (high versus low) and menu design, stage of change, gender, race, educational level and weight status was evaluated using logistic regression. All independent variables had at least one category that had greater odds (CI 95% ± 5%) of subjects choosing a lower calorie entree, except education level and race/ethnic group. Normal weight and overweight subjects had greater odds of choosing lower calorie entrees than those that were obese. In addition, subjects that had started to control their calorie intake for less than six months or had sustained this change for at least six months, had greater odds of choosing lower calorie entrees compared to others. Including a green symbol and calories on fast casual restaurant menus may influence some young adults to choose lower calorie entrees.
... Consumers visually process a food menu at restaurants to order what they want to eat. Yang investigated scanpaths of two-page restaurant menus (Yang, 2012). Generally speaking, participants read a two-page restaurant menu as though reading a book. ...
... Nevertheless, one can understand how consumers seek and process information using a pattern of attention. In the case of sensory and consumer science, scan paths have been used for information processing of chocolate packages (Rebollar et al., 2015) and food menus (Yang, 2012). Additionally, transitions are useful for ascertaining consumers' search and information processing strategies. ...
Article
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Visual processing is a core cognitive element of sensory and consumer science. Consumers visually attend to food types, packaging, label design, advertisements, supermarket shelves, food menus, and other visible information. During the past decade, sensory and consumer science have used eye tracking to elucidate visual processing by consumers. This review paper summarizes earlier findings in terms of bottom-up (i.e., stimulus-driven) processing such as visual salience, size, and top-down (i.e., goal-driven) processing such as goals, task instructions, task complexity, and emotions. Downstream effects of gaze on choice are also reviewed. Pitfalls and future directions of eye-tracking research on sensory and consumer science are also discussed.
... İlgili alanyazın incelenmiş ve görsel içeriklerle ilgili madde listesi dört ana başlık ve 36 alt başlık üzerinden oluşturulmuştur (Clark vd., 1997;Abdullah, 1998;Karamustafa vd., 2002;Alican, 2014;Conte vd., 2005;Rudnicka, 2009;Bonnardel vd., 2011;Garrett, 2011;Yang, 2012;Drumeva, 2013;Fırlar ve Özdem, 2013;Boutique Media Communication, 2014;Jormakka, 2015;W3C, 2018, Kovacevic ve Brozovic, 2018Khuong vd., 2018;Oyibo ve Vassileva, 2020); renkler, yapı (görsel hiyerarşi, mizanpaj ve denge), tipografi ve görsel objeler. ...
... Dolayısıyla web sitelerinde renk sadeliğini sağlayabilmek için dörtten daha fazla renk kullanılmamalıdır. Kaynak: (Clark vd., 1997;Abdullah, 1998;Karamustafa vd., 2002;Alican, 2014;Conte vd., 2005;Rudnicka, 2009;Bonnardel vd., 2011;Garrett, 2011;Yang, 2012;Drumeva, 2013 Web tasarımları dahil olmak üzere tüm görsel içerikler için önemli bir özellik olan tipografi, harf ve sembollerin kullanılmasıyla ortaya çıkarılan yazı sanatı olarak ifade edilmektedir (Drumeva, 2013). Web sitelerinde doğru bir altyapı ile belirlenmeyen görsel metin içerikleri, kullanıldıkları içeriklere (başlık, ana sayfanın mesajı, alt metin bölgeleri) göre iyi bir şekilde planlanmayan yazı karakterleri, okunurluk ve kullanıcı deneyimi açısından büyük sorunlar oluşmasına neden olmaktadır (Alican, 2014: 86). ...
Article
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Dijital dönüşüm ile birlikte pazarlama stratejilerinde çok yönlü uygulamalar ön plana çıkmaktadır. Günümüzde yiyecek işletmelerinin kullanım sıklığının artması, çok yönlü uygulamaların başarısından kaynaklanmaktadır. Yiyecek işletmelerinin web siteleri pazarlama açısından oldukça önemlidir. İlgili literatüre göre bu web sitelerinin görsel içerik maddelerini dört temel başlık altında toplamak mümkündür; renkler, tipografi, yapı ve görsel objeler. Bu araştırmanın çıkış noktasını oluşturan bu durum ile dünyanın en çok tercih edilen dört yiyecek işletmesinin web sitesi içerik analizi yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. Bu web sitelerindeki ortalama kalış süreleri, web sayfalarının ortalama görüntülenme sayısı, web sitelerindeki toplam kelime sayıları ve hiper-metin özellikleri tespit edilmiş; görsel içerikler ise literatürden çıkarılan dört ana madde ve alt maddeleri olan 36 madde ile araştırmanın temaları olarak kabul edilmiş ve bu temalara göre bir kontrol listesi oluşturularak kodlamaları yapılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre dört websitesinin; beyaz alan kullanımı, kırmızı-siyah, mavi-yeşil renk bileşimlerinin kullanımı, farklı puntoların kullanımı ve sayfalarında ana mesaj kullanımı gibi görsel içerik maddelerini uyguladıkları tespit edilmiştir.
... In a supplemental study, we tested one method of increasing visibility, simply making the note larger, which did not yield clear benefits (see Study S1). In Study 7 we attempt to increase visibility by moving the note to a more primary visual location, the top left corner of the page [38], and representing the text as a physical note appended to the menu. To help ensure that our attempts to increase visibility did not come at the cost of other important properties, we also include measures regarding the note's perceived accuracy, if it is perceived as normal or as strange, and whether it causes people to feel coerced. ...
... The Corner Note condition approximately doubled the size of the note and font size, and put it in the upper left-most corner of the menu. Eye tracking research has found that the top-left corner is often viewed first when people scan a menu for something to purchase [38]. Further, the convention in English (and other languages) is that the top left is where one begins to read a document. ...
Article
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How can we curb the current norm of unsustainable levels of meat consumption? Research on dynamic norms finds that learning that others are starting to eat less meat can inspire people to follow suit. Across four field experiments, we test efforts to scale dynamic-norm messages by incorporating them into restaurant and web-based menus. Studies 1–3 find increases in vegetarian orders when dynamic norms are included in menus (1–2.5 percentage points), although this effect does not always reach statistical significance and varies across populations and analytic models. In Study 4, dynamic norms significantly reduced vegetarian orders. These results raise two critical questions. First, where and with whom should a dynamic norm message reduce meat consumption? Our field data and past theory point to non-high socioeconomic contexts, and contexts where the reference group of people who have changed is meaningful to consumers. Second, how can the treatment be strengthened? Over five online experiments, we find that the visibility of the messages can be greatly improved, and more relatable norm referents can be selected. Although impacts on food orders appear modest, the minimal costs of scaling menu-based dynamic norm messages and the possibility of improving effect sizes make this a promising approach.
... Multiple factors including background and text colors, texture, photos, item and price positioning, font size, use of boxes, and menu size affect consumers' ordering behavior (Panitz, 2000). According to Yang (2012), menu design recommendations are based on two wellknown effects in psychology and cognitive science: the serial position effect and the von Restorff effect. The serial position effect, commonly referred to as the "rules of primacy and recency," refers to our tendency to have clearest memory of the first and last items in any given list (McCrary and Hunter, 1953;Bar-Hillel, 2015). ...
... Visual attention is a vital channel for recognizing stimuli (Hernandez et al., 2017;Meibner et al., 2016), and so eye movement studies have expanded rapidly in marketing research in the interest of assessing customers' perceptions of food labels and other visual stimuli (Malhotra, 2007). The general strategy of restaurant menu engineering is to efficiently convey enough information to customers for them to choose what menu engineers would prefer them to buy (Yang, 2012). As Davenport and Beck (2001, p. 19) have stated: "The eyes don't lie. ...
Article
Food is as cultural as it is practical, and names of dishes accordingly have cultural nuances. Menus serve as communication tools between restaurants and their guests, representing the culinary philosophy of the chefs and proprietors involved. The purpose of this experimental lab study is to compare differences of attention paid to textual and pictorial elements of menus with metaphorical and/or metonymic names. Eye movement technology was applied in a 2 × 3 between-subject experiment (n = 40), comparing the strength of visual metaphors (e.g., images of menu items on the menu) and direct textual names in Chinese and English with regard to guests’ willingness to purchase the dishes in question. Post-test questionnaires were also employed to assess participants’ attitudes toward menu designs. Study results suggest that visual metaphors are more efficient when reflecting a product’s strength. Images are shown to positively influence consumers’ expectations of taste and enjoyment, garnering the most attention under all six conditions studied here, and constitute the most effective format when Chinese alone names are present. The textual claim increases perception of the strength of menu items along with purchase intention. Metaphorical dish names with bilingual (i.e., Chinese and English) names hold the greatest appeal. This result can be interpreted from the perspective of grounded cognition theory, which suggests that situated simulations and re-enactment of perceptual, motor, and affective processes can support abstract thought. The lab results and survey provide specific theoretical and managerial implications with regard to translating names of Chinese dishes to attract customers’ attention to specific menu items.
... The Gallup Organisation (1987), for instance, published the results of a study in which it was reported that a diner's scan-path when inspecting a restaurant menu is more like what is seen when reading a book (i.e., going from top to bottom on the left page, and then doing the same thing on the right page). Yang (2012) too obtained a book-like pattern of gaze shifts when using the latest in eye-tracking technology. 6 That said, it is worth remembering that highlighting is sometimes used as a means of deliberately drawing the customer's eye to the star dishes or other high value items on the menu (see Poundstone, 2010;, and this may disrupt or 'hack' the visual scan-paths that might typically be seen when people scan a uniform menu. ...
... While not the purpose of the underpinning research, it is also worth noting here that we have published a number of studies in which large Fig. 3. Diagram illustrating what is often reported to be the most common visual scan-path when it comes to reading a two-page restaurant menu [Source: Yang (2012).]. 7 The vertical position of images on a plate or product packaging is also important (Dong and Gleim, 2018;Meier and Robinson, 2004;Van Rompay, Fransen and Borgelink, 2014; though see also Velasco et al., 2019;Simmonds et al., 2018). ...
Article
How do diners visually inspect the plate when it is first placed down in front of them? Do any regularities in the patterns of visual inspection across diners (such as reading from top-left to bottom-right) provide useful predictions concerning the way in which the element(s) on the plate should be arranged? In this review, I look at the evidence concerning the perceptual/interpretational biases that may be elicited by placing various food elements at different positions on the plate, focusing specifically on their left-right (i.e., lateral) arrangement. An analogy is drawn both with the patterns of eye-movements that have been documented in reading (e.g., the menu) and when people visually inspect paintings. Where relevant, comparisons are also made with the literature on the representation of food on/through product packaging. Taken together, the evidence suggests that while visual attention is typically drawn to the single item, or high energy-density item(s), on the plate, when multiple elements are presented, a left-to-right viewing bias is likely (at least amongst those who read from left-to-right). Understanding any such biases in ‘reading’, or visually-inspecting, the plate can presumably be used to help provide guidelines concerning the arrangement/interpretation of food elements. For instance, it has been reported that people prefer it when the direction of flow of images coincides with their own reading direction. Viewers also tend to prefer images when there is a higher density of items on the right than on the left. The question is raised as to whether a similar bias is also seen in aesthetic plating.
... Menu item position refers to positioning of menu items on a menu display (a card or a board), and in a menu category list. In this domain of menu design, researchers (Sobol & Barry, 1980;Bowen & Morris, 1995;Kincaid & Corsun, 2003;Reynolds et al., 2005;Choi et al., 2010;Yang, 2012;Dayan & Bar-Hillel, 2011) attempted to understand are there any so called menu sweet spots (if they exist, these are placed in the right upper or lower corner of a page where the reader's initial and final glances are focused on), and whether the placement of menu items on those spots or at the top or bottom of the category list may increase their sales. Although the studies did not present consistent findings, this line of research suggests that placement of an item on a menu display can increase customers' awareness of that item, and may positively influence its sales. ...
... Several researchers have used theoretical frameworks to explain the associations between the attributes of menu design and consumers' ordering behaviors. One of the most notable of them is called as gaze motion studies along with the rule of primacy and recency, which are cited by several menu researchers including Bowen and Morris (1995), Kincaid and Corsun (2003), Choi et al. (2010), andYang (2012). A reader has an identifiable pattern of gaze movements across a display like a menu card and people can more accurately recall the first and last items seen or reviewed. ...
Article
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This study aims at identifying the existence of menu design techniques in actual menu cards, and to question whether use of those techniques is intentional. In total, 86 menu cards were collected from restaurants located in Alanya which is a tourist resort in Antalya, Turkey. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed. First, content analysis was utilized to categorize the qualitative data, and second logistic regression was conducted to test the prescribed relations between menu variety and existence of techniques. Findings from qualitative analysis revealed that restaurant operators rarely use menu design techniques intentionally for boosting sales of high-price menu items. Subsequently, the quantitative analysis showed that existence of a technique on the menu card is not predicted by menu variety. This finding confirms the view that use of menu design techniques was unintentional. Theoretical and practical implications of findings were also discussed along with the limitations of current study and recommendations for future research.
... Then, the fried chicken with Balinese chili sauce and three slices of lime on it describe the appearance of SL 'ayam sere lemo', that is, fried chicken with Balinese chili sauce in which some chilies and tomatoes are crushed and given a squeeze of lime. The lime is also added as the garnish on the fried chicken and the chili sauce (Krieger et al., 2013;Yang, 2012;Ozdemir & Caliskan, 2014;Singapurwa et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Translated Balinese menu is not only used to communicate to the guests the dishes available for sale, along with pieces and short descriptions of each item, but it is also used to present various names of special dishes as part of Balinese local wisdom. With regard to Balinese menu translation, it is such challenging thing along with the existence of images and colour. This research aims to analyse the translated menu featuring Balinese dishes in order to know the translation strategies used and to establish the extent to which intersemiotic translation is used to complement the translation. The data were taken from Balinese menus in Bale Udang Mang Engking Restaurant, Gemitir Open Garden Café, and Flinders Cafe. The data were collected and analysed using the theories proposed by Li (2018) and Baker (2001). The results showed that the translation strategies used in these three menus are loan word with explanation and paraphrase with the intersemiotic aspects followed are words to image and colour also words to image, colour, and gesture.
... There are doubts that these experimental findings can be applied to commercial settings (Magnini and Kim, 2016). For instance, Yang (2012) and Reynolds et al. (2005) cannot find any effect of item positioning in field settings. These phenomena pertain to the debate over external and internal validity (Viglia and Dolnicar, 2020). ...
Article
A meta-analysis of 53 papers with 16,522 participants is conducted in the menu-design literature. To conceptualize different design elements, we extend a four-dimensional model by including two new dimensions—menu card label and menu item characteristics. We find that effect sizes vary among these six dimensions. Specifically, menu card characteristics that concern non-descriptive design elements have the largest effect size. The six dimensions are divided into two broad categories that relate to the entire menu or individual menu items. Our meta-analytical results show that the former category yields larger effect than the latter. Concerning the dependent variables, menu design has a large effect on physiological measures, a moderate effect on intention and attitude, and a marginal effect on actual purchase. Furthermore, laboratory studies yield larger effects than field studies do, and mock menus have stronger effect than real menus. Lastly, publication bias seems to be moderate.
... In a study where Yang (2012) examined eye movements in the menus of food and beverage businesses, it is stated that the place that the eyes find attractive is the upper right corner of the menu. In this context, managers should pay attention to the menu contents. ...
Article
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The main purpose of this study is to determine the visual contents that should be used in food business websites by neuromarketing measurement. It is inevitable that the visual content planning to be made on a website will increase the experience performance of the users on that website. In this research, an experimental design was planned, and two websites were created from twenty-eight visual content items obtained from the literature. By creating the experimental procedure, an experimental area was prepared for eight subjects, and websites were shown to them. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye-tracking measurements were taken over the websites shown during the experiment. The results revealed that the experiment1 website using structured visual contents was more efficient on attention, higher concentration, and total fixation. The findings revealed that the anxiety level of the experiment2 website, which used unplanned visual contents, was more pronounced for the subjects. In light of the findings obtained in this study, professionals can create visual contents that they use on food business websites much more efficiently.
... A menu can determine the brand image and the personality of the restaurant (Magnini and Kim, 2016) and a correctly designed menu will direct customers' attention to a particular menu item. Given the importance of a menu within restaurant operations and management, a plethora of research studies have examined menu design and its impact on customer responses and intentions (Yang, 2012;Wansink and Love, 2014;Ozdemir and Caliskan, 2015). These restaurant menu studies fall into two research streams, namely menu item placement and menu design properties. ...
Conference Paper
Tourism is an area of vital interest to the Portuguese economy, having been, in 2019, the largest export economic activity in the country, accounting for 52.3% of services exports and 19.7% of total exports, having tourist revenues recorded an 8.7% contribution to Portuguese GDP (INE). Low density regions such as the territories of Vale do Côa, which, in their absence, would face great difficulties to develop are essential factors for development. The Tourism Strategy 2027 identified people as the main assets (single cross-cutting asset), differentiating assets (such as climate and light, history and culture; the sea; nature; water), qualifying assets (gastronomy and wines; events artistic, cultural, sports and business) and emerging assets (well-being, living). Tourism can take on a double dimension in these territories, on the one hand, constituting itself as a method of dynamizing and changing space, implementing new social and consumption patterns, generating new practices and multiple impacts, on the other, boosting local tourist resources (natural, heritage and cultural), beneficially contributing to the local economy. Promote Regions is a multidisciplinary challenge. This paper present a contribution-approach to promote regions heritage through a IT solutions based on mobile devices and making a restaurant digital menu a window to the promotion of reginal material and immaterial heritage, business promotion and cultural education, using the Côa Museum restaurant as a start point.
... Comparing horizontal versus vertical display types, Deng et al. [56] discovered that consumers purchased higher quantities and greater varieties from horizontal displays; horizontal displays increased processing fluency; thus consumers perceived that horizontal assortments had a higher level of variety; and when faced with time constraints, consumers spent more time processing horizontal displays and fixated on a larger number of items. For a menu selection, related somewhat to product choice, Yang [57] showed that the scanpath of subjects reading a restaurant menu consisted of two vertical (top to bottom) scans; this finding was counter to the almost circular viewing path the restaurant industry hypothesized. ...
Article
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Eye tracking studies have analyzed the relationship between visual attention to point of purchase marketing elements (price, signage, etc.) and purchase intention. Our study is the first to investigate the relationship between the gaze sequence in which consumers view a display (including gaze aversion away from products) and the influence of consumer (top down) characteristics on product choice. We conducted an in-lab 3 (display size: large, moderate, small) X 2 (price: sale, non-sale) within-subject experiment with 92 persons. After viewing the displays, subjects completed an online survey to provide demographic data, self-reported and actual product knowledge, and past purchase information. We employed a random forest machine learning approach via R software to analyze all possible three-unit subsequences of gaze fixations. Models comparing multiclass F1-macro score and F1-micro score of product choice were analyzed. Gaze sequence models that included gaze aversion more accurately predicted product choice in a lab setting for more complex displays. Inclusion of consumer characteristics generally improved model predictive F1-macro and F1-micro scores for less complex displays with fewer plant sizes Consumer attributes that helped improve model prediction performance were product expertise, ethnicity, and previous plant purchases.
... Bowen and Morris (1995) mentioned that color, paper, typeface, layout and other design elements could be used to create a menu that will draw the customer's attention to the item that a restaurant would like to sell. Furthermore, Yang (2012) mention that menu gives enough information for customer to choose happily what they prefer to buy. Thus, Menu Design recommendation focus on making sure customer that product or food exists by making them satisfy with our service. ...
... Robson and Noone (2014) have identified the main areas for use of eye-tracking techniques: choice analysis, distribution channel conversion analysis, facility design analysis, and employee development. Choice analysis techniques may be applied to evaluation of restaurant menus (Ozdemir & Caliskan, 2015;Yang, 2012) to test response to the offering list. Eye-tracking can add to the analysis of customer selections (clicks) in studying the effectiveness of electronic distribution channels. ...
Chapter
Technological advancement provides opportunities for improvements in the methods academics use in their research. Traditional studies of advertising and interpretive material effectiveness typically use self-report surveys that are subject to subjectivity and data validity bias. Eye-tracking technology provides researchers with an alternative, objective research method to study the processes involved in visual attention to and interest in such stimuli. Psychological research on eye movements began around one hundred years ago, but the recent development of cheap and reliable eye-tracking equipment makes it more accessible to tourism researchers, both for laboratory and in-situ data collection. Application of such eye-tracking methods may enlarge our understanding of our tourists’ attention and perception as cognitive processes. This chapter provides a review of eye-tracking methods, its theoretical basis, advantages and disadvantages, data collection and analysis procedures. Gaps in knowledge and topics for future research are provided.
... Tests show that the average number of low calorie meals is more than high-calorie meals. The results of this study are conformed with Gerend [33], Taylor and Wilkening [29], yang [39] studies. The results of this empirical research have shown that when managers of catering centers want to affect customer behavior, it is sufficient to pre-define the type of treatment with customer by using accepted scientific principles and theories related to customer behavior. ...
Conference Paper
Study the consumer behavior has been always of great interest to researchers, specifically, when the researchers want to study the choice behaviors of customers with instant purchase. The aim of current study is to affect customer choice behaviors by making several changes in e.menu design, exactly when they want to order their interest food. This study is experimental and has been conducted in Iran. In this research, one restaurant was selected and by making four changes in price, layout, images and inserting calories in restaurant e. menu, the behaviors of 1000 customers in 5 non-consecutive weeks, were examined. The results showed that targeted changes in the restaurant menu under the study had a significant influence on consumer's behavior. The findings also proved that insert the image on the menu, had a direct relationship with consumer's choice of the same type of food. This variable has caused the greatest amount of sales.
... Eye tracking studies can yield insights into patterns of viewing behavior. Prior eye tracking studies infer these patterns by analyzing transition sequences among areas of interest (AOIs) [Goldberg et al. 2002;Netzel et al. 2017;Yang 2012]. Sensemaking during these analyses requires contextual knowledge about the stimuli and tasks and, therefore, need a human analyst in the loop. ...
Conference Paper
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Several visual analytics (VA) systems are used for analyzing eye-tracking data because they synergize human-in-the-loop exploration with speed and accuracy of the computer. In the VA systems, the choices of visualization techniques could afford discovering certain types of insights while hindering others. Understanding these affordances and hindrances is essential to design effective VA systems. In this paper, we focus on two approaches for visualizing AOI transitions: the transition based approach (exemplified by the radial transition graph, RTG) and the sequence-based approach (exemplified by the Alpscarf). We captured the insights generated by two analysts who individually use each visualization technique on the same dataset. Based on the results, we identify four phases of analytic activities and discuss opportunities that the two visualization approaches can complement each other. We point out design implications for VA systems that combine these visualization approaches.
... Eye tracking studies can yield insights into patterns of viewing behavior. Prior eye tracking studies infer these patterns by analyzing transition sequences among areas of interest (AOIs) [Goldberg et al. 2002;Netzel et al. 2017;Yang 2012]. Sensemaking during these analyses requires contextual knowledge about the stimuli and tasks and, therefore, need a human analyst in the loop. ...
... Step 2: Surveys: a t-test was used to compare behavioral intentions Nature-based servicescapes were more attractive than built-based servicescapes and triggered consumers' visit intentions. Performing arts activities in nature-based servicescapes attracted more attention Topic: menus Sample: 25 faculty, graduates and undergraduates Nonlinear stimuli: one dinner menu and two wine lists Author: Yang (2012) Eye-tracking: fixation durations and fixation sequence. An optimal matching analysis was conducted using standardized Levenshtein distances ...
[Purpose] Destination management organizations deliver travel-related information through visitor guides to build destination awareness and attract potential tourists. Therefore, this research aims to investigate how people read such a guide, understand their attitudes and to provide recommendations on enhancing its design. ----- [Design/methodology/approach] This research used eye-tracking technology in tandem with surveys and in-depth interviews. Eye-tracking technology uncovered the elements of a visitor guide that attracted particular attention, whereas surveys and interviews provided deeper insights into people’s attitudes toward them. ----- [Findings] People do not spend attention equally on each page of a visitor guide. Instead, they look at the reference points (i.e. photo credits, photos, headings and bolded words) and then read the adjacent areas if the information triggers their interest. The characteristics of the attractive components of a visitor guide were discussed and suggestions on designing a more appealing guide were provided. ----- [Research limitations/implications] The triangulated approach not only generated objective and insightful results but also enhanced research validity. This exploratory sequential mixed method can usefully be applied to test other stimuli and assess attention. ----- [Practical implications] To be deemed appealing, a visitor guide should avoid ads unrelated to the destination, include more photos, use the list format and bolded words, add stories or selected comments from social media and provide well-designed maps. ----- [Originality/value] This research fills a gap in the literature by using a triangulated approach including eye-tracking, survey and interviews to examine a 68-page visitor guide. The concept of reference-point reading behavior is proposed. Practical implications are discussed to improve the design of a visitor guide.
... In the restaurant menu context, a few studies investigated how restaurant customers read menus using eye-tracking (e.g. Yang, 2012). Eye-tracking research on restaurant menu labelling was undertaken primarily in the context of nutritional information (Kim et al., 2018;Reale & Flint, 2016;Schwebler, Harrington, & Ottenbacher, 2018). ...
Article
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This empirical study explores visual attention to carbon labels on restaurant menus. Carbon labels can support consumers in making deliberate low-carbon menu choices if, and only if, consumers pay attention to such labels. Using eye-tracking, we investigate how much attention consumers pay to carbon labels. We also compare how much attention they pay to carbon labels compared to labels indicating the benefit of each menu item to the local community. Results indicate that both carbon labels and labels communicating local community benefits attract little attention, suggesting that they are insufficient to direct patrons towards ordering low emissions menu items. Directing patrons toward more environmentally friendly menu items could significantly reduce the negative environmental impact of tourism and hospitality.
... In the context of tourism, eye tracking has proven particularly useful in providing insights about attention paid to tourism advertisements (Scott, Green, & Fairley, 2015), photos (Wang & Sparks, 2014), restaurant menus (Yang, 2012), and marketing information more generally (Li, Scott, & Walters, 2015;Scott, Zhang, Le, & Moyle, 2017). Tourism-related website usability studies have used eye tracking to examine how people use online information (Green, Murray, & Warner, 2011;Marchiori & Cantoni, 2015;Pan et al., 2004;Pan, Zhang, & Smith, 2011), for example in relation to accommodation websites (Hao, Tang, Yu, Li, & Law, 2015;Noone & Robson, 2014;Pan, Zhang, & Law, 2013Wang, Tsai, & Tang, 2018. ...
Article
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This empirical study explores the amount of attention tourists pay to social responsibility (environment and community) information when booking accommodation online. Visual attention is a necessary requirement for tourists to consider the social responsibility of different accommodation options when making bookings. Eye tracking methodology was used to measure the visual attention paid to social responsibility initiatives in a simulated accommodation booking webpage. Results reveal that information about social responsibility initiatives does not attract significant visual attention from tourists, especially when they are confronted with a typically large amount of information about accommodation options. Such information is therefore unlikely to affect booking decisions. Accommodation providers can actively direct tourists’ attention to social responsibility initiatives by reducing the total amount of information provided.
... In a study by Rausyan (2011) menu design elements such as cover, size, item descriptions, font style, and pictures all had a significant effect on customers purchase intention, with quality of the menu cover being the most influential factor. Creative and attractive menu design also directs customers' attention to the items that the restaurant wishes to feature by placing items in sweet spots that attract the focus of customers (Yang, 2012). Menu items with attractive names and descriptions provide important cues, aimed at enticing the consumer and highlighting the characteristics of the product (McCall, 2008;Shoemaker, 2005). ...
... Bowen and Morris (1995) mentioned that color, paper, typeface, layout and other design elements could be used to create a menu that will draw the customer's attention to the item that a restaurant would like to sell. Furthermore, Yang (2012) mention that menu gives enough information for customer to choose happily what they prefer to buy. Thus, Menu Design recommendation focus on making sure customer that product or food exists by making them satisfy with our service. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The diversity nature of hospitality business is always related to service quality and customer satisfaction. These two concepts are the most important key marketing strategies for sustaining competitive advantage in the industry. Due to the competition in the service business, measuring customer satisfaction has become a common practice in university foodservice, including campus coffeehouse. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between service quality dimensions (i.e., employee skills, ambience, menu design, and food quality) towards student satisfaction in Caffé Giunto.A sample of 170 students who had dined at Caffé Giunto is surveyed in order to test the hypothesis. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The result of the study indicated that there is a significant relationship between service quality and student satisfaction in Caffé Giunto. The outcome of this research provides a direction towards improving the service quality at Caffé Giunto in the future as well as other university foodservice outlets.
... Customers' attention can be assessed by observing customers' eye movements, which leads to informed product choices (Meißner et al., 2016). In marketing, the eye tracking technique, which captures individual eye movements, has had use for evaluating customers' attention to advertising (Wedel and Pieters, 2008), but scant applications appear in hospitality literature (e.g., Li et al., 2016;Yang, 2012). Furthermore, customers' visual attention to physical activity-based menu labeling in a restaurant setting has not been an employed technique. ...
Article
This study examines customers' visual attention when choosing food and beverage items of a fast-food menu. Three formats on menu labeling were examined, including numeric, color-coded, and physical activity-based formats. An experimental choice paradigm combined with eye tracking technology explored customers' visual attention, preferences for format, and menu choices. The study revealed that customers increased visual attention and chose healthier selections when viewing physical activity-based labeling, and customers preferred physical activity-based formats over numeric or color-coded labeling. Overall, the physical activity-based labeling on calorie information app to be the most effective format for inducing healthy choices. This study provides important implications for industry practitioners to effectively utilize menu labeling to improve cus-tomers' awareness of healthy eating options.
... However, all the recommendations to the practitioners have not yet been validated empirically. Eye-tracking experiments of S. S.Yang (2012) with 25 participants from her University have shown that on average people made their initial reading of a two sided menu in quite a consistent manner. The area, at which participants looked at first, is the upper left corner of the first page. ...
Chapter
This chapter provides a general overview of eye-tracking techniques and their applications in consumer research with a focus on the food area. Firstly, the scientific approaches leading to the development of eye-trackers are described, followed by a review of the principles and technical solutions of measuring gazing behavior. After a description of the factors influencing gaze behavior and a discussion of the relation between gaze, choice and decision making we present applications of eye-tracking in the fields of packaging, label and menu design, in-store consumer behavior, emotional responses and eating disorders. Finally, we discuss a case study involving the use of eye-tracking for studying consumer food choice in more detail.
... Robson and Noone (2014) have identified the main areas for use of eye-tracking techniques: choice analysis, distribution channel conversion analysis, facility design analysis, and employee development. Choice analysis techniques may be applied to evaluation of restaurant menus (Ozdemir & Caliskan, 2015;Yang, 2012) to test response to the offering list. Eye-tracking can add to the analysis of customer selections (clicks) in studying the effectiveness of electronic distribution channels. ...
Article
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This study provides a review of eye-tracking as a technique for measurement of attention. The review discusses its theoretical basis, advantages and disadvantages, data collection procedures, analysis methods, and application in tourism and hospitality. Areas for further research in tourism and hospitality are provided based on a systematic review of tourism research using eye-tracking.
The purpose of this study was to explore consumers’ attention patterns and information search behaviors when they make online restaurant decisions on consumer review websites. Eye-tracking experiments and retrospective think-aloud interviews were conducted with 30 participants. In the browsing stage, the company-generated advertisements attracted most attention from consumers on one website; however, the attracted attention was not impactful on their dining decisions. In the deliberation stage, instead of reading the user-generated reviews in details, consumers skimmed through reviews; and their attention was attracted more to images embedded within the reviews. In addition, participants verbalized their overall preferences of information that helped them make quick decisions such as images and filter. This study provides valuable insights for hospitality researchers and practitioners.
Article
In recent years, the number of studies in tourism using the eye tracking technique has increased and started generating valuable information for both academics and the industry. However, there is a gap in the literature concerning systematic reviews focused on recent articles and their findings. Thus, the aim of this study is to close this gap by systematically analysing 70 research papers tackling the subject of eye tracking in tourism and published in highly ranked tourism journals. The study identifies the most popular topics and trends for eye tracking research, as well as the most used types of visual stimuli, such as exhibitions, restaurant menus, promotional pictures or websites. The study also details on measurements specific for the analysis of eye tracking data, including fixations, saccades and heat maps. Results are emphasized along with their theoretical and practical implications. In addition, we highlight the lack of the use of dynamic stimuli in the existing literature and suggest further research directions using the eye tracking technique.
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Journal of Tourism Intelligence and Smartness, 4(2), 2021
Article
Purpose The study selected five small-scale food operations as visual stimuli and eye-tracking experiment was conducted with 36 female participants in a laboratory setting. Heat maps were used to visualize viewers' visual attention on the storefronts. The eye-movement data were analyzed using one-way repeated ANOVA to identify a significant difference between stimuli in terms of average fixation duration, fixation counts and revisits. An independent t -test was also used to examine statistical difference among text and image in menu board. The significance cut-off of p -value was set to <0.05. Design/methodology/approach The exteriors of food-service establishments are major business representation. However, few studies have been conducted to examine customers' visual processing toward small-scale restaurants. The present study accordingly aims to discover customers' different levels of attention to the frontage in food stands through eye tracking, which would be practical for future owners to plan their exterior shop design. Findings The findings can be summarized as follows: First, upper board shows the highest level of attention, suggesting an optimal location of menu board for grasping customers' attention. Second, customers also gaze the inside of a store along with the food on display, which are related with food hygiene and the perception. Third, textual information on menu boards tends to attract more visual attention than those of images. Overall, the current study indicates various customers' attention toward the location of menu boards as well as the type of visual information on menu board. Originality/value The results of this study make a new insight into customers' viewing behavior toward exteriors of food-service establishments. This study is one of the first attempts to explore how customers distribute visual attention to the exterior images of food stand by using eye-tracking technology. The findings of this research thus enrich the food-service literature and offer meaningful discoveries on customers' visual behaviors. For example, this study suggests that customers tend to be attracted to textual information on menu boards rather than graphical ones.
Article
Drawing on cognitive load theory, congruence research, and dual processing models, the purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of online advertising in social media. To this end, three separate studies were conducted. First, using eye-tracking and electroencephalography, we examine the differences, based on whether or not an ad is embedded, in subjects’ visual attention and engagement in a TripAdvisor webpage. Our findings showed that synergies between social media content and advertising content positively affect users’ visual attention. A second study, using an online survey, assessed the impact of congruent/incongruent ads on ad recall. A third study, using eye-tracking, assessed the impact of congruent/incongruent ads on visual attention. Our findings suggest that consumers exposed to online ads for very limited time periods rely on less effortful, more heuristic, context-based processing strategies. Congruent ad-media contexts can act as peripheral cues, activating knowledge structures and facilitating message processing.
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This chapter evaluates the use of eye tracking in tourism from the perspective of its potential and limitations. It opens with a rationale for the use of eye tracking in tourism, followed by an overview of the use of eye tracking in tourism. Then, the study presents practical tourism examples to show how eye tracking can be used on its own and together with other psychophysiological tools in tourism. The chapter also provides an evaluation of the potential, advantages, limitations and drawbacks of eye tracking.
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It is a well-known fact that hospitality is a sector that can contribute to the economic growth of any country and tourism industry is an important component of same which includes number of sectors such as lodging, catering, transportation, visitor attractions, entertainment etc. Food & beverage service sector is considered one of the major fields which bring quite a great deal of profit and satisfying the tourist. Food and beverage service operations are continuing to improve and develop, together with progresses in quality. The tourism industry depends on good quality of food and beverages service because most of the tourist spend more than 25% (Outlook June, 2012 | Emerging Trends in Food & Beverage Services Retailing in India) of their expenses on same. In current scenario people don't like regular service style for food and beverage but they want some innovation which can be entertaining, attractive and presentable even physical environment which include service staff, ambience, table setting and lighting is also very important to attract the guests. Service quality plays a very important position to make the customers cheerful and insists them to revisit the restaurant. The food and beverage industry is subject to numerous trends and these trends have an impact on restaurant business success or failure. This study focuses on new trends and innovations admitted by food and beverage service style and why physical environment is important for any restaurant. Index Terms-food and beverage service, innovation, trend, physical environment.
Chapter
An important task for restaurant managers is the prediction of customer behaviors. A restaurant manager must predict the number of customers coming in several days in advance and prepare foods based on the estimated sales quantities of their products. Based on those estimations, the manager’s most important job is purchasing foods and ingredients and preparing for the necessary staff members in advance. However, the job is not always easy for several reasons. An important task for restaurant managers is the prediction of customer behaviors. A restaurant manager must predict the number of customers coming in several days in advance and prepare foods based on the estimated sales quantities of their products. Based on those estimations, the manager’s most important job is purchasing foods and ingredients and preparing for the necessary staff members in advance. However, the job is not always easy for several reasons. This chapter discusses the problem structure of restaurant management related to customer behaviors. Then it presents some research examples for demand forecasting and menu design through analysis of customer behaviors using big data. Moreover, it describes the customer satisfaction mechanism based on survey data and presents discussion of how service productivity can be enhanced based on customer behavior characteristics.
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Menu engineering is a popular technique deployed by restaurant operators to assess menu item popularity and profitability, and guide key decisions including menu item pricing, sell strategies, and menu design. While traditional menu engineering models have been criticized for their underlying assumption of menu item interdependency, there has been little focus in the literature on addressing this shortcoming. In this paper, we address one type of interdependency, menu item substitution. We propose a holistic 5-stage approach to menu item pricing and menu placement that leverages own- and cross-pricing elasticity data to account for within-category substitutes. We present a field experiment, using two years of data from 48 outlets within a U.S. steakhouse restaurant chain, to demonstrate how this approach can be applied in a restaurant setting. We also provide empirical support for the positive net revenue effects of menu item pricing, and menu placement, decisions that account for within-category substitutes.
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Well-designed and executed experiments prove cause-and-effect relationships. The ability to draw causal conclusions is critical to knowledge development in any field of research. In this article, we discuss the benefits of experimental designs over alternative research approaches for the social sciences, discuss advantages and disadvantages of different types of experiments, review existing experimental studies specific to tourism and hospitality, and offer guidance to researchers who wish to conduct such studies. Properly executed experiments using actual behaviour of real stakeholders as a dependent variable lead to conclusions with high external validity. Our discussion of practical implementation issues culminates in a checklist for researchers. The article launches the Annals of Tourism Research Curated Collection on experimental research in tourism and hospitality.
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While technology has significantly changed how we communicate, our knowledge of how to utilize electronic menus in restaurants is lacking. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating customer response to various multimedia presentation formats on a digital platform. To test this, we developed four menu presentation formats and examined how different presentation formats affect mental imagery and the desire to eat. The results reveal that mental imagery positively affects the desire to eat, while mental imagery itself varies depending on the presentation format and cognitive style. The video menu elicited the highest mental imagery followed by the picture, narration, and conventional menus. Visualizers and verbalizers appear to form similar mental imagery with these presentation formats. Providing support for dual coding theory, the results suggest that while the visual domain plays the strongest role in mental imagery and the desire to eat, they are also influenced by auditory stimuli.
Chapter
Fifth edition of the best-selling textbook updated and revised to take account of current trends such as the experience economy, CSR, connectivity and smart controls, and allergen and data protection laws.
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Çalışmanın amacı görsel ilgi kapsamında mouse (fare) imleciyle oluşturulan tıklamaları inceleyerek, konaklama işletmelerinin web sitelerini ziyaret eden turistlerin davranışlarını analiz etmektir. Böylelikle konaklama işletmeleri web sitelerini ziyaret edenlerin davranışlarından anlamlı ve ilişkilendirilebilir enformasyon elde ederek hizmet üretim ve pazarlama süreçlerinde kullanabileceklerdir. Tezde kullanılan yöntem görsel ilginin analiz edilmesinde kullanılan yeni yöntemlerden bir tanesidir. Uluslararası yazında sıkça kullanılan bu yöntemin ulusal turizm yazınına tanıtılması da tezin yenilikçi olduğunun göstergesidir. Bünyesinde Belek'te 4, Side'de 4, Kemer'de 3, Kapadokya'da 1, Bodrum'da 1 olmak üzere 13 oteli barındıran ulusal bir otel grubuna ait web sitesinin ana sayfasını bir sene boyunca ziyaret eden ziyaretçilerin verileri değerlendirilmiştir. İncelenen veriler algısal değildir ve tamamı gerçek verilerden oluşmaktadır. İncelemeye dâhil edilen örneklem sayısı toplam 97891 (56210 Türkçe, 12132 Rusça, 2603 Almanca, 26946 İngilizce ana sayfa ziyaretçisi) kişiden oluşmaktadır. Durum çalışması olarak değerlendirilebilecek çalışmada veriler Yandex.Metrica adı verilen bir analitik programyla toplanmış ve aynı servis kullanılarak elde edilen tıklama haritaları segmentlere ayrılarak süzülmüştür. Bu segmentler, dil, yaş, cinsiyet, ziyaretçi sıklığı, ziyaretçi kaynağı olarak gruplandırılmıştır. Böylece site ziyaretçilerinin ilgili değişkenlere göre hangi davranışları sergilediği incelenmiştir. Ziyaretçilerin genel görsel ilgi yönelimleri incelendiğinde Türkçe ve Rusça ana sayfayı ziyaret edenlerin davranışlarının diğer dillere ait sayfaları ziyaret edenlerden daha çok birbirine benzerlik gösterdiği sonucu ortaya çıkmıştır. Gerçek veriler üzerinden hareket edilerek yapılan bu saptama, turistik ürün ve hizmet üreten turizm arz unsurları açısından önemlidir. Satın alma gücü daha düşük yaş gruplarının (örneğin 18 yaş altı) rezervasyon butonuna daha az görsel ilgi yönelttiği, siteyi bir kereden fazla ziyaret eden kullanıcıların ise rezervasyona daha çok görsel ilgi gösterdiği tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca siteye arama motoru ile erişenlerin diğer yöntemlerle erişenlere nazaran daha çok alt sayfaya ve daha fazla oranda rezervasyon butonuna görsel ilgi gösterdiği bulunan bir diğer sonuçtur. Son olarak araştırmamız neticesinde elde edilen sonuçlar bağlamında uygulamacılara ve araştırmacılara turist davranışı ile ilgili önemli ipuçları sunulmuştur.
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The increasing popularity and capabilities of eye-tracking technology applied in a tourism setting have allowed for a deeper understanding of tourist behaviours and perceptions than ever before. Used in the context of travel guidebooks, this exploratory study combines eye-tracking technology with traditional survey and interview data to build an informed understanding of the variability in tourism guidebook reading behaviours. After a structured qualitative analysis with 22 participants tasked with planning a trip to Ottawa, Canada, the findings reveal four broad types of readers: holistic content examiners, visual passives, supplemental scanners, and visual dominants. Each group's characteristics and patterns are compared and contrasted in regard to time to first fixation, visit count, and total fixation duration in each of the 68 pages within the guide, revealing nuanced descriptions of how destination marketers may better design their travel guides to accommodate these various reader types. Practical implications are provided, as well as important implications for marketing researchers aiming to better understand how to use eye-tracking technology to organise their participants into meaningful segments.
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Eye movement measurement is both non-invasive to the learner, and available at a cost that is steadily decreasing. There are currently several mainstream laptop computers on the market that ship with fully integrated eye-tracking. Eye movements will take on a role as inputs to predict individualized learning performance. In response to the increased usage of this tool, this study uses eye-tracking technology to investigate the effects of time pressure and feedback on changes in eye movement by generating structural models. We tracked participants’ eye movement, and to relate this eye movement to human learning behaviors while participants were asked to complete online training for a Project Management task. The study measured participants’ eye-movements in response to the amount of time to deadlines and feedback updating the remaining time. Results showed that eye movement partially mediated the relationship between time to deadline and task completion time. The results of the study will be advantageous in predicting individualized learning performance based on eye movements.
Chapter
Get the opening wrong and there's no way to recover. Haven't we all been there, invited out for a celebratory meal, you sit down and immediately ‘know’ it is going to be mediocre at best and terrible at worst. In this chapter, we take a closer look at the start of the perfect meal, covering everything from the social aspects of dining through to the design and layout of the menu. Both the interaction with the waiting staff, as well as the social dynamic between the diners themselves, can exert a profound impact on how a meal progresses and how much we enjoy the overall experience. Who, after all, has had their perfect meal while eating alone? It turns out that our mood influences our perception of food, and some of the world's most innovative chefs have already been developing ways to enhance the mood of their diners. It's no guarantee of success, but get the opening right and you are certainly one step closer to pulling off the perfect meal.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the joint effects of menu pages (single page vs multiple pages) and assortment organization (benefit- vs attribute-based) on consumers’ perceptions of variety with large assortments. Design/methodology/approach A 2 (assortment structure: single page vs multiple pages)×2 (assortment organization: benefit- vs attribute-based) experimental between-subjects design was used to test the hypotheses. Findings The results suggest that with a one-page tea menu, participants perceived greater variety with the attribute-based (e.g. black teas, herbal teas, green teas, and oolong teas) menu than with the (e.g. energy-boosting, stress-relief, weight loss, and immune system-improvement) benefit-based menu. Conversely, when the menu was displayed on four pages, participants showed similar perceptions of variety across the two menu types. Research limitations/implications In some contexts, 20 menu items may not be considered a large assortment. Also, the authors did not test consumers’ preexisting preferences. Practical implications When food service operators offer an extensive benefit-based menu, it is advisable to place the options over multiple pages. If the menu needs to be displayed on a single spatial unit (e.g. a black board, or applications on a tablet or smartphone), practitioners should organize the menu based on attributes rather than benefits. Originality/value Although the demand for healthy dining options has led many foodservice operators to apply benefit-based organization to items on their menus, for example, by using terms such as “energy-boosting,” “stress-relief,” “weight-loss,” and “immune system-improvement,” little is known about the effectiveness of such a strategy.
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The difference in product attributes presented by different labels represents an important factor for consumers when making a purchase decision. Research has shown that a greater variety of options can cater to a wider range of tastes and preferences (Lancaster 1990). That is, with different product attributes, the quality of the product, as perceived by consumers, increases. However, providing consumers with more information on the product’s attributes does not necessarily imply a direct effect on their preference ordering. Other emotional triggers may drive the purchase decision and can be hard for the researcher to capture. The current dissertation continues a long line of previous work that have focused on consumer’s perceptions of different labels for both food and plants products, and how their perception of these labels can have a direct impact on their buying decision.
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The isolation effect is a well-known memory phenomenon whose discovery is frequently attributed to von Restorff (1933). If all but one item of a list are similar on some dimension, memory for the different item will be enhanced. Modern theory of the isolation effect emphasizes perceptual salience and accompanying differential attention to the isolated item as necessary for enhanced memory. In fact, von Restorff, whose paper is not available in English, presented evidence that perceptual salience is not necessary for the isolation effect. She further argued that the difference between the isolated and surrounding items is not sufficient to produce isolation effects but must be considered in the context of similarity. Von Restorff's reasoning and data have implications for the use of distinctiveness in contemporary memory research, where distinctiveness is sometimes defined as perceptual salience and sometimes as a theoretical process of discrimination. As a theoretical construct, distinctiveness is a useful description of the effects of differences even in the absence of perceptual salience, but distinctiveness must be used in conjunction with constructs referring to similarity to provide an adequate account of the isolation effect and probably any other memory phenomena.
Conference Paper
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The World Wide Web has become a ubiquitous information source and communication channel. With such an extensive user population, it is imperative to understand how web users view different web pages. Based on an eye tracking study of 30 subjects on 22 web pages from 11 popular web sites, this research intends to explore the determinants of ocular behavior on a single web page: whether it is determined by individual differences of the subjects, different types of web sites, the order of web pages being viewed, or the task at hand. The results indicate that gender of subjects, the viewing order of a web page, and the interaction between page order and site type influences online ocular behavior. Task instruction did not significantly affect web viewing behavior. Scanpath analysis revealed that the complexity of web page design influences the degree of scanpath variation among different subjects on the same web page. The contributions and limitations of this research, and future research directions are discussed.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Net paper readers have been shown to read deeper into articles than newspaper readers. It has also been claimed that newspaper readers rather scan than read newspapers. Do these findings mean that net paper readers read proportionally more than newspaper readers? This paper presents results showing that in fact net paper readers scan more and read less than newspaper readers. We furthermore investigate whether this result can be explained by the differences in layout, navigation structure and purpose of reading between the two media.
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For years, menu design consultants have asserted that the layout of the items on menus is asociated with item sales. To date, no scientific studies exist either supporting or refuting this assertion. In order to test this relationship we conducted a field experiment in which we tracked the pre- and post-treatment sales of items on a three-page menu over a period of four months. The treatment consisted of switching the contents of pages 2 and 3 of the menu. The data revealed no significant differences in item sales from time 1 to time 2. Implications for restaurant managers are discussed.
For years, menu designers have operated on the premise that menu layout affects sales directly. The supporting research in this area has, however, been sparse. To evaluate this relationship empirically, an experiment was conducted in an independent, casual-dining restaurant located at a large, northeastern university. The first treatment integrated manipulations of price location on menus but did not result in significantly different average-check totals. The second tested the effects of displaying specific items more prominently on the menu. Again contrary to the hypothesis, this failed to affect the probability that guests would purchase either of the selected items. The concluding discussion addresses implications for restaurateurs and the future of menu design.
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The number of brands in the marketplace has vastly increased in the 1980s and 1990s, and the amount of money spent on advertising has run parallel. Print advertising is a major communication instrument for advertisers, but print media have become cluttered with advertisements for brands. Therefore, it has become difficult to attract and keep consumers' attention. Advertisements that fail to gain and retain consumers' attention cannot be effective, but attention is not sufficient: Advertising needs to leave durable traces of brands in memory. Eye movements are eminent indicators of visual attention. However, what is currently missing in eye movementresearch is a serious account of the processing that takes place to store information in long-term memory. We attempt to provide such an account through the development of a formal model. We model the process by which eye fixations on print advertisements lead to memory for the advertised brands, using a hierarchical Bayesian model, but, rather than postulating such a model as a mere data-analysis tool, we derive it from substantive theory on attention and memory. The model is calibrated to eye-movement data that are collected during exposure of subjects to ads in magazines, and subsequent recognition of the brand in a perceptual memory task. During exposure to the ads we record the frequencies of fixations on three ad elements; brand, pictorial and text and, during the memory task, the accuracy and latency of memory. Thus, the available data for each subject consist of the frequency of fixations on the ad elements and the accuracy and the latency of memory. The model that we develop is grounded in attention and memory theory and describes information extraction and accumulation during ad exposure and their effect on the accuracy and latency of brand memory. In formulating it, we assume that subjects have different eye-fixation rates for the different ad elements, because of which a negative binomial model of fixation frequency arises, and we specify the influence of the size of the ad elements. It is assumed that the number of fixations, not their duration, is related to the amount of information a consumer extracts from an ad. The information chunks extracted at each fixation are assumed to be random, varying across ads and consumers, and are estimated from the observed data. The accumulation of information across multiple fixations to the ad elements in long-term memory is assumed to be additive. The total amount of accumulated information that is not directly observed but estimated using our model influences both the accuracy and latency of subsequent brand memory. Accurate memory is assumed to occur when the accumulated information exceeds a threshold that varies randomly across ads and consumers in a binary probit-type of model component. The effect of two media-planning variables, the ad's serial position in a magazine and the ad's location on the double page, on the brand memory threshold are specified. We formulate hypotheses on the effects of ad element surface, serial position, and location. The model is applied in a study involving a sample of 88 consumers who were exposed to 65 print ads appearing in their natural context in two magazines. The frequency of eye fixations was recorded for each consumer and advertisement with infrared eye-tracking methodology. In a subsequent indirect memory task, consumers identified the brands from pixelated images of the ads. Across the two magazines, fixations to the pictorial and the brand systematically promote accurate brand memory, but text fixations do not. Brand surface has a particularly prominent effect. The more information is extracted from an ad during fixations, the shorter the latency of brand memory is. We find a systematic recency effect: When subjects are exposed to an ad later, they tend to identify it better. In addition, there is a small primacy effect. The effect of the ad's location on the right or left of the page depends on the advertising context. We show how the model supports advertising planning and testing and offer recommendations for further research on the effectiveness of brand communication. In future research the model may be extended to accommodate the effects of repeated exposure to ads, to further detail the representation of strength and association of memory, and to include the effects of creative tactics and media planning variables beyond the ones we included in the present study.
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Eye fixations were recorded while subjects chose their most preferred of six used cars. Fixation sequences of the form X-Y-X-... were used to identify pair comparisons. This assumption was validated by verbal protocols and by a comparison between X-Y-X and X-Y-X-Y-... patterns. The results of three experiments showed: (1) that the multialternative choice process was composed primarily of pair comparisons; (2) that evaluative processing took placeonly during these comparisons; (3) that strategies for selecting the pairs were based primarily on information processing convenience; (4) that the sequence of pair comparisons was not used by the subjects as a sequential elimination process; and (5)that subjects changed their strategies to adapt to different task environments. These results have implications for current choice models and for the use of eye fixations in other complex tasks.
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Subjects learned and recognized patterns which were marginally visible, requiring them to fixate directly each feature to which they wished to attend. Fixed "scanpaths," specific to subject and pattern, appeared in their saccadic eye movements, both intermittently during learning and in initial eye movements during recognition. A proposed theory of pattern perception explains these results.
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Recent studies of eye movements in reading and other information processing tasks, such as music reading, typing, visual search, and scene perception, are reviewed. The major emphasis of the review is on reading as a specific example of cognitive processing. Basic topics discussed with respect to reading are (a) the characteristics of eye movements, (b) the perceptual span, (c) integration of information across saccades, (d) eye movement control, and (e) individual differences (including dyslexia). Similar topics are discussed with respect to the other tasks examined. The basic theme of the review is that eye movement data reflect moment-to-moment cognitive processes in the various tasks examined. Theoretical and practical considerations concerning the use of eye movement data are also discussed.
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We test and confirm the hypothesis that individual investors are net buyers of attention-grabbing stocks, e.g., stocks in the news, stocks experiencing high abnormal trading volume, and stocks with extreme one-day returns. Attention-driven buying results from the difficulty that investors have searching the thousands of stocks they can potentially buy. Individual investors do not face the same search problem when selling because they tend to sell only stocks they already own. We hypothesize that many investors consider purchasing only stocks that have first caught their attention. Thus, preferences determine choices after attention has determined the choice set.
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Process tracing data help understand how yellow pages advertisement characteristics influence consumer information processing behavior. A laboratory experiment collected eye movement data while consumers chose businesses from phone directories. Consumers scan listings in alphabetic order. Their scan is not exhaustive. As a result, some ads are never seen. Consumers noticed over 93% of the quarter page display ads but only 26% of the plain listings. Consumers perceived color ads before ads without color, noticed more color ads than non-color ads and viewed color ads 21% longer than equivalent ads without color. Users viewed 42% more bold listings than plain listings. Consumers spent 54% more time viewing ads they end up choosing which demonstrates the importance of attention on subsequent choice behavior. 1 INTRODUCTION In 1992, yellow pages directories were a $9.4 billion dollar information services business that reached 98% of American households (Mangel 1992). It is the fourth larg...
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