Nanostructured WC–Co and WC–Co–Al coatings, with about 300-μm as-deposited coating thickness, were deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying. Agglomerated nanostructured cermet powders produced by the Mechanomade® process was used for HVOF spraying. Dense and well-adherent coatings with crystal sizes below 30 nm were deposited on stainless steel 304 substrate. Porosity was less than 5% and the bond strength with the substrate was around 60 MPa. Experimental data on friction, wear, and abrasion resistance revealed that nanostructured WC–Co based coatings containing some Al as alloying element, exhibit improved tribological characteristics in comparison to nanostructured and micron-sized WC–Co coatings. This was attributed to a carbide particle distribution within the coating revealed by SEM, the absence of brittle W2C-like phases revealed by XRD, and the presence of Al at particle/matrix boundaries revealed by TEM.