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Flavonoids belong to the plant phenolics. The varied biological properties of flavonoids have stimulated an interest in these compounds. The rutin is one of flavonoids which is not sufficiently studied. The increasing interest in powerful biological activity of plant rutin outlined the necessity of determining content in fruits, vegetables and not edible plants. The study comprised 12 food products – 5 fruit and 2 vegetable dry species, 2 dry not edible plants and 3 dry extracts of not edible plants. The results of fruits showed the highest content in aronia (0.34%). The lowest rutin content was established in white cherry (0.15%). The results of vegetables showed the greatest value of rutin in red hot chillis pepper (0.22%). The highest content of rutin was established in not edible plants (Rhus cotinus – 10.53%). The aim of this study was to analyze rutin content in dry fruits and vegetables, dry not edible and dry extract of not edible plants. Recommend to assess the influence of regular daily consumption of dry fruits and vegetables on naturally occurring antioxidants from plant foods, oxidative stress, cardiovascular risk and gaining in health effect.
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M.Atanassova , V. Bagdassarian
201
Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 44, 2, 2009, 201-203
Short Communication
RUTIN CONTENT IN PLANT PRODUCTS
M.Atanassova , V. Bagdassarian
National Center of Public Health Protection,
Department of Food Chemistry,
Sofia 1431, Bulgaria
E-mail: mr_staefanova@hotmail.com
ABSTRACT
Flavonoids belong to the plant phenolics. The varied biological properties of flavonoids have stimulated an
interest in these compounds. The rutin is one of flavonoids which is not sufficiently studied. The increasing interest in
powerful biological activity of plant rutin outlined the necessity of determining content in fruits, vegetables and not edible
plants. The study comprised 12 food products - 5 fruit and 2 vegetable dry species, 2 dry not edible plants and 3 dry
extracts of not edible plants. The results of fruits showed the highest content in aronia (0.34 %). The lowest rutin content
was established in white cherry (0.15 %). The results of vegetables showed the greatest value of rutin in red hot chillis
pepper (0.22 %). The highest content of rutin was established in not edible plants (Rhus cotinus  10.53 %). The aim of this
study was to analyze rutin content in dry fruits and vegetables, dry not edible and dry extract of not edible plants.
Recommend to assess the influence of regular daily consumption of dry fruits and vegetables on naturally occurring
antioxidants from plant foods, oxidative stress, cardiovascular risk and gaining in health effect.
Keywords: rutin, fruits, vegetables, dry not edible and dry extract of not edible plants.
Received 05 March 2009
Accepted 12 May 2009
INTRODUCTION
Rutin, also called rutoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside
and sophorin, is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in
buckwheat [1], the leaves and petioles of Rheum spe-
cies, and the fruit of the Fava DAnta tree (from Brazil),
as well as other sources. Its name comes from the name
of Ruta graveolens, a plant, that also contains rutin. Rutin
is the glycoside between the flavonol quercetin and the
disaccharide rutinose [2].
Rutin is one of the bioactive flavonoid compounds,
which are present in substantial amounts in plants. Some
related investigations showed that rutin has a broad range
of physiological activities [3]. Bao at al. [4] pointed out
that an electrochemical inactive supromolecular com-
plex of rutin-DNA was formed by cyclic voltammetry.
Solimani [5] indirectly suggested that probably only the
benzopyranic-4-one portion of rutin, as well as querce-
tin, could be located into the biopolymer, whereas the
coplanar catecholic portion would more likely be ori-
ented towards the external aqueous medium by linear
dichroism technique. As well known, â-cyclodextrin (â-
CD) can provide a hydrophobic molecules or groups to
form inclusion complexes. It can combine with cations,
supplying nutrients from the soil to the cells in plants. In
humans, it attaches to the iron ion Fe2+, preventing it
from binding to hydrogen peroxide, which would other-
wise create a highly-reactive free-radical that may dam-
age cells. It is also an antioxidant, and therefore plays a
role in inhibiting some cancers [2[.
Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 44, 2, 2009
202
The production of flavonoids in plants is enhanced
in response to stresses such as fungal or bacterial infec-
tion or exposure to UV radiation. Recent interest of the
scientific community in flavonoids in foods centers on
the varied biological properties of certain flavonoid
compounds; these include antioxidative, antimicrobial,
and possibly anticancerogenic, and/or cardioprotective
effects. Therefore a food composition database for fla-
vonoids in foods is essential to evaluate associations
between flavonoids intakes and risk factors for various
chronic degenerative diseases [6]. Rutin also strength-
ens the capillaries, and, therefore, can reduce the symp-
toms of hemophilia. It also may help to prevent a com-
mon unpleasant-looking venous edema of the legs. Ru-
tin, as ferulic acid, can reduce the cytotoxicity of oxi-
dized LDL cholesterol and lower the risk of heart dis-
ease [2]. Rutin has a veterinary use in the management
of chylothorax in dogs [2]. Based on numerous evidence
on the strong biological activity of flavonoid compounds
and on the scarcity of data for their content in foods the
aim of current study was focused on determination of
rutin content in fruits and vegetables in Bulgarian mar-
ket as well as in some not edible plants and extracts of
not edible plants.
EXPERIMENTAL
The study covered 12 food products. Random-
ized market sampling was applied. The average sample
consisted of representative amounts of three individual
samples from different manufactories. All samples data
are stated in the sampling protocol.
Sample preparation
A sample of 1 to 5 g was extracted with 15 ml
HPLC 80 % methanol at room temperature. The filtrated
samples were transfered into 50 ml volumetric flask and
were diluted to this volume with HPLC 80 % methanol.
Rutin assay
The analyses of rutin content in fruits and veg-
etables were performed according to the AOAC Offi-
cial method [7]. This method has been modified using
HPLC 80 % methanol. 0.5 g of the sample is dissolved
into 50 ml HPLC 80 % methanol. Then 2 ml of the
extract thus obtained is transfered into 50 ml volumet-
ric flask. 2 ml dd H2O and 5 ml ammonium molybdate
are added. Then the mixture is diluted to 50 ml with dd
H2O. The standard solution is prepared through dis-
solving of 0.02 g rutin in 50 ml HPLC 80 % methanol.
Then 1 ml of this solution is used following the same
procedure as for the sample analysis.
The absorbance of the sample against dd H2O as
a blank sample was determined at 360 nm with an UV-
VIS Spectrophotometer CARY Varian (Varian Austra-
lian Pry. Ltd). All samples were analyzed in duplicates.
Calculations
Calculations are based on averaging results from
analyses of duplicate samples.
The content of rutin (R), %, in the sample is
calculated as follows:
(%) sample
standard
AxCxx
RAxWx
=
50 100
2,
where: Asample - absorbance of the sample at 360 nm, Astandard
- absorbance of the standard solution at 360 nm,
C  concentration of standard solution of rutin, g ml-1,
W  weight of the sample, g , 2  volume of the sample, ml.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Rutin contents in Bulgarian dry products
Table 1 presents the analytical data of rutin con-
tent in Bulgarian dry fruits and vegetables. The range of
rutin contents in dry fruits and dry vegetables is rela-
Dry fruits Dry vegetables
Rutin
(%)
Apple Sweet
cherry
Morello
cherry
White
cherry
Aronia Red pepper Red hot
chillis
pepper
0.17 0.18 0.18 0.15 0.34 0.17 0.22
Table 1. Content of rutin in dry fruit and vegetable species.
M.Atanassova , V. Bagdassarian
203
tively close (0.25 % in white cherry, 0.17 % in apple
and red dry pepper, 0.18 % in sweet cherry and morello
cherry and 0.22 % in red hot chillis pepper). The ex-
ception is only the rutin contents in aronia - 0.34 %.
Rutin contents in dry plants
The results for rutin content in dry not edible
plants are presented in Table 2. This results show that
the rutin contents in this samples is more than 10 times
higher compared to that in the dry fruits and vegetables
(2.28 % in geranium and 10.53 % in Rhus cotinus).
Rutin contents in dry extract of dry plants
The results for rutin contents in dry extracts in
not edible plants are presented in Table 3. The values
of the rutin in green tea and grappe seeds is practically
equal (10.16 % in grape seeds and 10.16 % in grape
seeds). In Betulae pendula leaves the rutin conents is
two time lower  5.54 % . The comparison between the
results for tannin contents in dry fruits, vegetables and
not edible plants and this for the dry extracts from plants
show the same order of results but this comparison is
not correct because of different methods of analysis.
CONCLUSIONS
In this paper an original data for rutin contents in
five Bulgarian dry fruits, two Bulgarian dry vegetables
and two dry not edible pants as well as the data for three
dry extracts of not edible plants are presented. It is found
that in the case of the dry fruits and vegetables the rutin
content varies in close ranges ( from 0.15 % to 0.18 %) in
exception of the red hot chillis pepper - 0.22 % and aronia
- 0.34 %. In dry not edible plants the rutin content is ten
times higher compared to that in the dry fruits and veg-
etables. The analyses of rutin content in dry extracts in
not edible plants are also carried out. These values are
close to those in dry not edible plants but the comparison
of these results with another three groups is not correct
because of different approaches for analysis.
REFERENCES
1. S. Kreft , M.Knapp., I. Kreft, Extraction of rutin from
buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) seeds
and determination by capillary electrophoresis, Jour-
nal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47, 11,
1999, 4649-4652.
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutin.
3. G.-J. Yang, J.-J. Xu, H.-Y. Chen, Z.-Z. Leng, Studies
on the interaction between rutin and DNA in the
absence and presence of â-cyclodextrin by electro-
chemical and spectroscopic methods, Chinese Jour-
nal of Chemistry, 22, 2004, 1325-1329.
4. X. Y Bao, J. G. Chen, X. Chen, Y. L. Dang, Chinese
Journal of Anal. Lab., 20, 2, 2001, 1.
5. R. Solimani, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 281, 1997, 1336.
6. S. Bhagwat, G. R. Beecher, J. M. Holden, S. Gebhardt,
J. Dwyer, J. Peterson A. Eldridge, Development of
Database for Flavonoids in Foods, USDA, Agricul-
tural Research Service, 2002.
7. AOAC Official Method, Spectrophotometric Method.
Dry not edible plants
Rutin
(%)
Geranium Rhus cotinus
2.28 10.53
Table 2. Content of rutin in dry not edible plants.
Dry extract of not edible plants
Rutin
(%)
Green tea Grape seeds Betulae
pendula leaves
10.18 10.16 5.54
Table 3. Content of rutin in dry extract of not edible
plants.
... Rutin, an important component of plant fruits, has demonstrated a number of pharmacological functions, as an antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, larvicidal, antimalarial, antiretroviral, antiviral, and so on (Ganeshpurkar and Saluja 2017). In dry nonedible plants, rutin content is 10 times higher compared with that in the dry fruits and vegetables (Atanassova and Bagdassaria 2009). Fruiting bodies of Rosa laevigata Michx, a white fragrant rose native to Asia, when harvested at fully ripe stage exhibited the highest level of flavonoids, saponins, and antioxidant activity (Dong et al. 2014;Liu et al. 2010;Xie et al. 2016;Zhang et al. 2013). ...
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... Rutin, vitamin P, is one of the bioactive flavonoid compounds present in plants. Chemically, it is a glycoside comprising of flavonolic aglycone quercetin along with disaccharide rutinose (Atanassova & Christova-Bagdassarian, 2009;Ganeshpurkar & Saluja, 2017;Ghorbani, 2017;Siti et al., 2020). Rutin and its glycoses were found in various fruits, vegetables, tea leaves, coffee grains, etc, and are considered to have high antioxidant capacity because of their ability to bind free radicals and metal ions. ...
... Rutin, present in substantial quantity in plants, has a broad range of physiological activities. It can diminish the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL cholesterol and the risk of heart diseases (Atanassova and Bagdassarian, 2009). Medicinally utilization of rutin has the advantage of reducing capillary fragility associated with some hemorrhagic diseases or hypertension in humans (Jiang et al., 2007). ...
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The content of the flavonoid rutin was determined in different milling fractions of buckwheat seeds and in buckwheat stems, leaves, and flowers. The extraction was performed by using a solvent containing 60% of ethanol and 5% of ammonia in water. The extracts were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (running buffer of 50 mM borate (pH 9.3), 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate; determination at 380 nm). In bran fractions the concentration of rutin was 131−476 ppm, and in flour fractions 19−168 ppm. On average, about 300, 1000, and 46000 ppm of rutin were found in leaves, stems, and flowers, respectively. The results indicate that buckwheat could be an important nutritional source of flavonoids, especially in countries with a low mean daily flavonoid intake. Keywords: Fagopyrum esculentum; flavonoids; rutin; nutraceuticals; capillary electrophoresis
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The interactions between rutin or the inclusion complex of rutin-beta-cyclodextrin and DNA were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The apparent binding constant of rutin with DNA is found to be 2.9 x 10(4) L/mol. The results showed that the benzopyranic-4-one plane of rutin mainly intercalated into DNA in the absence of beta-cyclodextrin, while the catecholic portion of rutin was located in the double helix of DNA in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin.
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The content of the flavonoid rutin was determined in different milling fractions of buckwheat seeds and in buckwheat stems, leaves, and flowers. The extraction was performed by using a solvent containing 60% of ethanol and 5% of ammonia in water. The extracts were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (running buffer of 50 mM borate (pH 9.3), 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate; determination at 380 nm). In bran fractions the concentration of rutin was 131-476 ppm, and in flour fractions 19-168 ppm. On average, about 300, 1000, and 46000 ppm of rutin were found in leaves, stems, and flowers, respectively. The results indicate that buckwheat could be an important nutritional source of flavonoids, especially in countries with a low mean daily flavonoid intake.
  • X Bao
  • J G Chen
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X. Y Bao, J. G. Chen, X. Chen, Y. L. Dang, Chinese Journal of Anal. Lab., 20, 2, 2001, 1.
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  • J Dwyer
  • J Peterson
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S. Bhagwat, G. R. Beecher, J. M. Holden, S. Gebhardt, J. Dwyer, J. Peterson A. Eldridge, Development of Database for Flavonoids in Foods, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 2002.
  • R Solimani
R. Solimani, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 281, 1997, 1336.