Effect of large colon ischemia and reperfusion on concentrations of calprotectin and other clinicopathologic variables in jugular and colonic venous blood in horses
Island Whirl Equine Colic Research Laboratory, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610., Shands Transplant Center at University of Florida, University of Florida Health, Gainesville, FL 32608.American Journal of Veterinary Research (Impact Factor: 1.34). 10/2013; 74(10):1281-90. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.74.10.1281
Objective-To determine the effect of large colon ischemia and reperfusion on concentrations of the inflammatory neutrophilic protein calprotectin and other clinicopathologic variables in jugular and colonic venous blood in horses. Animals-6 healthy horses. Procedures-Horses were anesthetized, and ischemia was induced for 1 hour followed by 4 hours of reperfusion in a segment of the pelvic flexure of the large colon. Blood samples were obtained before anesthesia, before induction of ischemia, 1 hour after the start of ischemia, and 1, 2, and 4 hours after the start of reperfusion from jugular veins and veins of the segment of the large colon that underwent ischemia and reperfusion. A sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of equine calprotectin. Serum calprotectin concentrations and values of blood gas, hematologic, and biochemical analysis variables were determined. Results-Large colon ischemia caused metabolic acidosis, a significant increase in lactate and potassium concentrations and creatine kinase activities, and a nonsignificant decrease in glucose concentrations in colonic venous blood samples. Values of these variables after reperfusion were similar to values before ischemia. Ischemia and reperfusion induced activation of an inflammatory response characterized by an increase in neutrophil cell turnover rate in jugular and colonic venous blood samples and calprotectin concentrations in colonic venous blood samples. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results of this study suggested that large colon ischemia and reperfusion caused local and systemic inflammation in horses. Serum calprotectin concentration may be useful as a marker of this inflammatory response.
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ABSTRACT: Admission blood lactate concentration is widely used as a prognostic indicator in equine medicine and can be a useful indicator of disease severity but typically fails to completely discriminate survivors from nonsurvivors. Increased admission lactate concentrations in adult horses typically return to normal within 12 to 24 hours. Lactate concentrations in neonatal foals are higher than adult concentrations for the first 24 to 72 hours of life. Serial measures reflecting both the magnitude and duration of hyperlactatemia might enable more accurate prognostication and provide insight into disease pathogenesis and could be a valuable therapeutic guide.
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ABSTRACT: To compare the perioperative response of serum amyloid A (SAA) to fibrinogen in horses requiring exploratory celiotomy for colic and to determine if SAA could be used to predict complications and outcome. Prospective observational clinical study. University teaching hospital. Eighteen horses undergoing exploratory celiotomy for colic. Inclusion criteria for the study included survival and anesthetic recovery from exploratory celiotomy, no history of surgery within the past year. Blood was obtained via jugular venipuncture before surgery (time 0) and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after recovery from anesthesia. Quantitative and semiquantitative fibrinogen, SAA, total nucleated cell counts, and total protein were evaluated at each time point. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess differences at each time point and after grouping horses according to duration of colic prior to surgery, strangulating surgical lesion or not, presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) on admission, and postsurgical complications. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in SAA concentrations occurred in all cases after surgery compared to fibrinogen concentration, which only demonstrated a mild, clinically insignificant increase postsurgery. SAA concentrations were also significantly increased (P < 0.05) in cases identified with SIRS prior to surgery and postoperatively at 48 (P = 0.05) and 72 hours (P = 0.02) in horses that developed complications. Measurement of SAA is a more sensitive indicator of inflammation than fibrinogen in the perioperative period of horses requiring exploratory celiotomy for colic. Serial measurement of SAA at 48, 72, and 96 hours after surgery may be helpful to determine risk of complications and guide postoperative management. Measurement of SAA on admission also allows for quantification of SIRS when it is detected clinically. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.
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