Dietary intake of vitamins A, C, and E and the risk of colorectal adenoma
To comprehensively summarize the association between dietary intake of vitamins A, C, and E and the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), the precursor of colorectal cancer, relevant studies were identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 31 October 2012. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled with a random-effects model. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q and I statistics. A total of 13 studies with 3832 CRA cases were included in this meta-analysis. On the basis of the highest versus lowest analysis, dietary intake of vitamin C reduced the risk of CRA by 22% (SRRs 0.78, 95% CIs: 0.62-0.98). Subgroup analyses showed that this relation was not modified by BMI, smoking status, and dietary energy intake. Further, dietary intake of β-carotene was also inversely associated with the risk of CRA. However, dietary intake of vitamins A and E was not associated with the risk of CRA in overall and subgroup analyses (vitamin A: SRRs 0.87, 95% CIs: 0.67-1.14; vitamin E: SRRs 0.87, 95% CIs: 0.69-1.10). Our results indicate that dietary intake of vitamin C and β-carotene, but not vitamins A and E, could reduce the risk of CRA. However, these associations seem to be limited. Further investigation using large samples and a rigorous methodology is warranted.
Available from: mdpi.com
- "In addition to their anti-tumor effects it is possible that some carotenoids might exert procarcinogenic effects. Vitamin A and β-carotene had been reported associated with some cancers39404142. A recent study had reported that highest category of dietary vegetables and fruits intake could reduce lung cancer risk . "
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ABSTRACT: Whether dietary β-carotene and vitamin A intake protect against lung cancer risk is not clear. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate the association between them. The related articles were searched using the databases PubMed and the Web of Knowledge up to May 2015. We used the random-effect model to estimate the relative risk (RR) and their 95% CI. Small-study effect was assessed using Egger's test. In total, 19 studies comprising 10,261 lung cancer cases met the inclusion criteria. The pooled RR and their 95% CI was 0.855 (0.739-0.989) for higher category of dietary vitamin A intake and lung cancer risk, especially among Asian populations and in the cohort studies. Evidence from 18 studies suggested that higher category of dietary β-carotene intake could reduce lung cancer risk (0.768 (0.675-0.874)).The associations were also significant in American and Asian populations. In conclusions, higher category of dietary β-carotene and vitamin A intakes could reduce the risk of lung cancer. However, the dose-response analysis was not performed due to the limited data in each individual study. Due to this limitation, further studies with detailed dose, cases and person-years for β-carotene and vitamin A of each category are wanted to assess this dose-response association.
Available from: Benjamín Alberto Rojano
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ABSTRACT: Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.
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Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category.
Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Body Mass Index evaluated nutritional status.
A total of 86 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years, with 55% males and 42% older adults were evaluated. The older adult category had a higher frequency of being underweight (24.4% vs 16.3%, p < 0.01) and a lower frequency of being overweight (7% vs. 15.1%, p < 0.01) than adults. Both, adult and older adults had a high frequency of smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. The older adults had lower consumption of calories, intake of iron and folic acid. Inadequacy of vitamin intake was observed in both groups; respectively, 52%, 43%, 95%, 76% and 88% for Vitamin A, C, D, E and folic acid. The older adults had a higher folic acid and calcium inadequacy than the adults (97% vs 82%, p <0.01; 88% vs 72%, p < 0.01). There was no association of micronutrient intake with cancer, nor with nutritional status.
The food intake, macro and micronutrients ingestion is insufficient among cancer individuals. Food intake of older adults was inferior, when compared to the adult category. There was a high prevalence of BMI excess in the adult group and a worst nutritional status in the older adult category.
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