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Machine Learning and Cloud Computing: Survey of Distributed and SaaS Solutions

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Applying popular machine learning algorithms to large amounts of data raised new challenges for the ML practitioners. Traditional ML libraries does not support well processing of huge datasets, so that new approaches were needed. Parallelization using modern parallel computing frameworks, such as MapReduce, CUDA, or Dryad gained in popularity and acceptance, resulting in new ML libraries developed on top of these frameworks. We will briefly introduce the most prominent industrial and academic outcomes, such as Apache Mahouttexttrademark, GraphLab or Jubatus. We will investigate how cloud computing paradigm impacted the field of ML. First direction is of popular statistics tools and libraries (R system, Python) deployed in the cloud. A second line of products is augmenting existing tools with plugins that allow users to create a Hadoop cluster in the cloud and run jobs on it. Next on the list are libraries of distributed implementations for ML algorithms, and on-premise deployments of complex systems for data analytics and data mining. Last approach on the radar of this survey is ML as Software-as-a-Service, several BigData start-ups (and large companies as well) already opening their solutions to the market.
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Machine Learning and Cloud Computing: Survey of Distributed and
SaaS Solutions
Daniel Pop
Institute e-Austria Timi¸soara
Bd. Vasile Pˆarvan No. 4, 300223 Timi¸soara, Romˆania
E-mail: danielpop@info.uvt.ro
Abstract
Applying popular machine learning algorithms to
large amounts of data raised new challenges for the
ML practitioners. Traditional ML libraries does not
support well processing of huge datasets, so that new
approaches were needed. Parallelization using mod-
ern parallel computing frameworks, such as MapRe-
duce, CUDA, or Dryad gained in popularity and accep-
tance, resulting in new ML libraries developed on top
of these frameworks. We will briefly introduce the most
prominent industrial and academic outcomes, such as
Apache MahoutTM, GraphLab or Jubatus.
We will investigate how cloud computing paradigm
impacted the field of ML. First direction is of popu-
lar statistics tools and libraries (R system, Python) de-
ployed in the cloud. A second line of products is aug-
menting existing tools with plugins that allow users to
create a Hadoop cluster in the cloud and run jobs on
it. Next on the list are libraries of distributed imple-
mentations for ML algorithms, and on-premise deploy-
ments of complex systems for data analytics and data
mining. Last approach on the radar of this survey is
ML as Software-as-a-Service, several BigData start-ups
(and large companies as well) already opening their so-
lutions to the market.
1 Introduction
Given the enormous growth of collected and avail-
able data in companies, industry and science, tech-
niques for analyzing such data are becoming ever more
important. Today, data to be analyzed are no longer
restricted to sensor data and classical databases, but
more and more include textual documents and web-
pages (text mining, Web mining), spatial data, mul-
timedia data, relational data (molecules, social net-
works). Analytics tools allow end-users to harvest the
meaningful patterns buried in large volumes of struc-
tured and unstructured data. Analyzing big datasets
gives users the power to identify new revenue sources,
develop loyal and profitable customer relationships,
and run your overall organization more efficiently and
cost effectively.
Research in knowledge discovery and machine learn-
ing combines classical questions of computer science
(efficient algorithms, software systems, databases) with
elements from artificial intelligence and statistics up to
user oriented issues (visualization, interactive mining).
Although for more than two decades, parallel
database products, such as Teradata, Oracle or Netezza
have provided means to realize a parallel implemen-
tation of ML-DM algorithms, expressing ML-DM al-
gorithms in SQL code is a complex task and difficult
to maintain. Furthermore, large-scale installations of
these products are expensive and are not an afford-
able option in most cases. Another driver for paradigm
shift from relational model to other alternatives is the
new nature of data. Until about five years ago, most
data was transactional in nature, consisting of numeric
or string data that fit easily into rows and columns
of relational databases. Since then, while structured
data is following a near-linear growth, unstructured
(e.g. audio and video) and semi-structured data (e.g,
Web traffic data, social media content, sensor gener-
ated data etc.) exhibit an exponential growth (see fig-
ure 1). Most of the new data is either semi-structured
in format, i.e. it consists of headers followed by text
strings, or pure unstructured data (photo, video, au-
dio). While the latter has limited textual content and
is more difficult to parse and analyze, semi-structured
data triggered a plethora of non-relational data stores
(NoSQL data stores) solutions tailored to handle huge
amount of data. Consequently, the past 5 years have
seen researchers moving to parallelization of ML-DM
using these new platforms, such as NoSQL datastores,
1
Figure 1. Trends in data growth
distributed processing environments (MapReduce), or
cloud computing.
At this point, it is worth reflecting to a nice
metaphor by Ben Werther [18], co-founder of Platfora,
for big data processing today:
In ‘industrial revolution’ terms, we are in
the pre-industrial era of artisanship that
preceeded mass production.
It is the equivalent of needing to engage an
expert blacksmith to forge the forks and
spoons for our dinner table.
Machine Learning is inherently a time consuming
task, thus plenty of efforts were conducted to speed-up
the execution time. Cloud computing paradigm and
cloud providers turned out to be valuable alternatives
to speed-up machine learning platforms. Thus, popular
statistics tools environments – like R, Octave, Python
– went in the cloud as well. There are two main direc-
tions to integrate them with cloud providers: create a
cluster in the cloud and bootstrapping it with statistic
tools, or augment statistic environments with plugins
that allow users to create Hadoop clusters in the cloud
and run jobs on them.
Environments like R, Octave, Mapple and similar
offer low-level infrastructure for data analysis, that
can be applied for large datasets once leveraged by
cloud providers. Machine Learning is something that
comes on top of this and facilitates the retrieval of
useful knowledge out of huge data for customers with
no/less statistical background by automatically infer-
ring ‘knowledge models’ out of data. To support this
need, an explosion of start-ups, some of them in stealth
mode yet, who are offering machine learning services
to their customers, or big data analysis services can be
noticed in past 5 years. These initiatives can be either
PaaS/SaaS platforms or products that can be deployed
on private environments.
Reviewing the literature and the market, we can
conclude that ML-DM comes in many flavors. We clas-
sify these approaches in 5 distinct classes:
Machine Learning environments from the cloud –
create a computer cluster in the cloud and boot-
strapping it with statistics tools. Section 3.
Plugins for Machine Learning tools – augment
statistics tools with plugins that allow users to cre-
ate a Hadoop cluster in the cloud and run ML jobs
on it. Section 4.
Distributed Machine Learning libraries – collec-
tions of parallelized implementations of ML al-
gorithms for distributed environments (Hadoop,
Dryad etc). Section 5.
Complex Machine Learning systems – products
that need to be installed on private data centers
(or in the cloud) and offers high performance data
mining and analysis. Section 6.
Software as a Service providers for Machine Learn-
ing – PaaS/SaaS solutions that allow clients to ac-
cess ML algorithms via Web services. Section 7.
The remaining of the paper is structured as follows:
next section presents similar, recent studies, followed
by 5 sections, each of them devoted to a particular
class identified above. The paper ends with conclusion
and future plans.
2 Related studies
Since 1995, many implementations were proposed
for ML-DM algorithms parallelization for shared or
distributed systems. For a comprehensive study the
reader is referred to a recent survey [17]. Our work
is focused in frameworks, toolkits, libraries that al-
low large-scale, distributed implementations of state-
of-the-art ML-DM algorithms. To this respect, we
mention a recent book dealing with machine learning at
large [1], which contains both presentations of general
frameworks for highly scalable ML implementations,
like DryadLINQ or IBM PMLT, and specific imple-
mentations of ML techniques on these platforms, like
ensemble decision trees, SVM, k-Means etc. It contains
contributions from both industry leaders (Google, HP,
IBM, Microsoft) and academia (Berkeley, NYU, Uni-
versity of California etc).
2
Recent articles, such as those of S. Charrington [3],
W. Eckerson [4] and D. Harris [5], review different
large-scale ML solutions providers that are trying to
offer better tools and technologies, most of them based
on Hadoop infrastructure, to move forward the novel
industry of big data. They are aiming at improving
user experience, at product recommendations, or web-
site optimization applicable for finance, telecommuni-
cations, retail, advertising or media.
3 Machine Learning environments
from the cloud
Providers of this category offer computer clusters
using public cloud providers, such as Amazon EC2,
Rackspace etc, pre-installed with statistics software,
preferred packages being R system, Octave or Map-
ple. These solutions offer scalable high-performance
resources in the cloud to their customers, who are freed
from the burden of installating and managing own clus-
ters.
Cloudnumbers.com 1are using Amazon EC2 2
provider to setup computer clusters preinstalled with
software for scientific computing, such as R system,
Octave or Mapple. Customers benefit from a web-
interface where they can create own workspaces, con-
figure and monitor the cluster, upload datasets or con-
nect to public databases. On top of default features
from cloud provider, Cloudnumbers offers high secu-
rity standards by providing secure encryption for data
transmission and storage. Overall, a HPC platform in
the cloud, easy to create and effortless to maintain.
CloudStat 3is a cloud integrated development en-
vironment built based on R system, and exposes its
functionalities via 2 types of user interfaces: console –
for experienced users in R language, and applications
– designed as a point and click forms based interface
for R for users with no R programming skills. There
is also a CloudStat AppStore where users can choose
applications from a growing repository.
Opani 4is offering similar services to Cloudnum-
bers.com, but additionally helps customers to size their
cluster according to their needs: size of data and the
time-frame for processing this data. They are us-
ing Rackspace’s 5infrastructure and support environ-
ments such as R system, Node and Python, bundled
with map/reduce, visualization, security and version
1http://cloudnumbers.com
2http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/
3http://cs.croakun.com
4http://opani.com
5http://rackspace.com
control packages. Results of data analysis processes,
named dashboard in Opani, can easily be visualized
and shared from desktop or mobile devices.
Approaches in this class are powerful and flexible
solutions, offering users the possibility to develop com-
plex ML-DM applications ran on the cloud. Users are
freed from the burden of provisioning own distributed
environments for scientific computing, while being able
to use their favorite environments. On the other side,
users of these tools need to have extensive experience in
programming and strong knowledge of statistics. Per-
haps, due to this limited audience, the stable providers
in this category are fewer than in other categories, some
of them (such as CRdata.org) shutting down the oper-
ation only shortly after taking off.
4 Plugins for Machine Learning toosl
In this class, statistics applications (e.g. R system,
Python) are extended with plugins that allow users to
create a Hadoop cluster in the cloud and run time con-
suming jobs over large datasets on it. Most of the in-
terest went towards R, for which several extensions are
available, comparing to Python for which less effort
was invested until recently in supporting distributed
processing. In this section we will mention several so-
lutions for R and Python.
RHIPE 6is a R package that implements a
map/reduce framework for R offering access to a
Hadoop installation from within R environment. Us-
ing specific R functions, users are able to launch
map/reduce jobs executed on the Hadoop cluster and
results are then retrieved from HDFS.
Snow 7[16] and its variants (snowfall, snowFT) im-
plement a framework that is able to express an impor-
tant class of parallel computations and is easy to use
within an interactive environment like R. It supports
three types of clusters: socket-based, MPI, and PVM.
Segue for R 8project makes it easier to run
map/reduce jobs from within R environment on elastic
clusters at Amazon Elastic Map Reduce 9.
Anaconda 10 is a scalable data analytics and scien-
tific computing in Python offered by Continuum An-
alytics 11. It is a collection of packages (NumbaPro –
fast, multi-core and GPU-enabled computation, IOPro
6http://www.stat.purdue.edu/ sguha/rhipe/doc/html/index.html
7http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/
available packages by name.html
8http://code.google.com/p/segue/
9http://aws.amazon.com/elasticmapreduce/
10https://store.continuum.io/cshop/anaconda
11http://continuum.io
3
– fast data access, and wiseRF Pine – multi-core imple-
mentation of the Random Forest) that enables large-
scale data management, analysis, and visualization and
more. It can be installed as a full Python distribution
or can be plugged into an existing installation.
Due to its popularity among ML-DM practitioners,
R system being the preferred tool for such tasks in past
2 years [15, 10], efforts have been made recently to par-
allelize lengthy processes on scalable distributed frame-
works (Hadoop). This approach is largely preferred
over ML in the cloud due to the possibility to re-use ex-
isting infrastructure of research, or industrial (private)
data centers. To the best of our knowledge, there are
no similar approaches for related mathematical tools,
such as Mathematica, Maple or Matlab/Octave, except
HadoopLink 12 for Mathematica. The audience of this
class of solutions is also highly qualified in program-
ming languages, mathematics, statistics and machine
learning algorithms.
5 Distributed Machine Learning li-
braries
This category offers complex libraries operating on
various distributed setups (Hadoop, Dryad, MPI).
They allow users to use out-of-the-box algorithms, or
implement their own, that are run in parallel mode over
a cluster of computers. These solutions does not inte-
grate, nor use, statistics/mathematics software, rather
they offer self-contained packages of optimised, state-
of-the-art ML-DM methods and algorithms.
Apache MahoutTM 13 [12] is an Apache project
to produce free implementations of distributed or oth-
erwise scalable machine learning algorithms on the
Hadoop platform [20]. It started as a collection of in-
dependent, ”Hadoop-free” components, e.g. ”Taste”
collaborative-filtering. Its goal is to build scalable ma-
chine learning libraries, where scalable has a broader
meaning:
Scalable to reasonably large datasets. Mahout’s
core algorithms for clustering, classification and
batch based collaborative filtering are imple-
mented on top of Apache Hadoop [20] using the
map/reduce paradigm. However, it does not re-
strict contributions to Hadoop based implemen-
tations: contributions that run on a single node
or on a non-Hadoop cluster are welcome as well.
The core libraries are highly optimized to allow
for good performance also for non-distributed al-
gorithms.
12https://github.com/shadanan/HadoopLink
13http://mahout.apache.org
Scalable to support various business cases. Ma-
hout is distributed under a commercially friendly
Apache Software license.
Scalable community. The goal of Mahout is to
build a vibrant, responsive, diverse community to
facilitate discussions not only on the project itself
but also on potential use cases.
Currently Mahout supports mainly four use cases:
Recommendation mining takes users’ behavior
and from that tries to find items users might like
Clustering takes e.g. text documents and groups
them into groups of topically related documents
Classification learns from existing categorized doc-
uments what documents of a specific category look
like and is able to assign unlabelled documents to
the (hopefully) correct category.
Frequent itemset mining takes a set of item groups
(terms in a query session, shopping cart content)
and identifies, which individual items usually ap-
pear together.
Integration with initiatives such as graph processing
platforms Apache Giraph 14 are actively under discus-
sion. An active community is behind this project.
GraphLab 15 [11] is a framework for ML-DM in
the Cloud. While high-level data parallel frameworks,
like MapReduce, simplify the design and implementa-
tion of large-scale data processing systems, they do not
naturally or efficiently support many important data
mining and machine learning algorithms and can lead
to inefficient learning systems. To help fill this criti-
cal void, GraphLab is an abstraction which naturally
expresses asynchronous, dynamic, graph-parallel com-
putation while ensuring data consistency and achieving
a high degree of parallel performance, in both shared-
memory and distributed settings. It is written in C++
and is able to directly access data from Hadoop Dis-
tributed File System (HDFS) [20]. The authors report
out-performing similar approaches by orders of magni-
tude.
DryadLINQ 16 [19, 2] is LINQ (Language IN-
tegrated Query 17 subsystem developed at Microsoft
Research on top of Dryad [9], a general purpose ar-
chitecture for execution of data parallel applications.
It supports DAG-based abstractions, inherited from
Dryad, for implementing data processing algorithms.
14http://incubator.apache.org/giraph/
15http://graphlab.org
16http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/projects/DryadLINQ/
17http://msdn.microsoft.com/netframework/future/linq/
4
A DryadLINQ program is a sequential program com-
posed of LINQ expressions performing arbitrary side-
effect-free transformations on datasets, and can be
written and debugged using standard .NET develop-
ment tools. The DryadLINQ system automatically and
transparently translates the data-parallel portions of
the program into a distributed execution plan which is
passed to the Dryad execution platform that ensures
efficient and reliable execution of this plan. Authors
demonstrate near-linear scaling of execution time on
the number of computers used for a job. While the
DAG-based abstraction permits rich computational de-
pendencies, it does not naturally express iterative, data
parallel, task parallel and dynamic data driven algo-
rithms that are prevalent in ML-DM.
Jubatus 18 [8], started April 2011, is an online/real-
time machine learning platform, implemented on a dis-
tributed architecture. Comparing to MahoutTM is a
next-step platform that offers stream processing and
online learning. In online ML, the model is continu-
ously updated with each data sample that is coming
by fast and not memory-intensive algorithms. It re-
quires no data storage, nor sharing; only model mixing.
It supports classification problems (Passive Aggressive
(PA), Confidence Weighted Learning, AROW), PA-
based regression, nearest neighbor (LSH, MinHash, Eu-
clid LSH), recommendation, anomaly detection (LOF
based on NN) and graph analysis (shortest path,
PageRank). In order to efficiently support online learn-
ing, Jubatus operates updates on local models and
then each server transmits its model difference that are
merged and distributed back to all servers. The mixed
model improves gradually thanks to all servers’ work.
IBM Parallel Machine Learning Tool-
box 19 [13] (PMLT), a joint effort of the Machine
Learning group at the IBM Haifa Lab and the Data
Analytics department at the IBM Watson Lab, pro-
vides tools for execution of data mining and machine
learning algorithms on multiple processor environ-
ments or on multiple threaded machines. The toolbox
comprises two main components: an API for running
the users’ own machine learning algorithms, and
several pre-programmed algorithms which serve both
as examples and for comparison. The pre-programmed
algorithms include a parallel version of the Support
Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, linear regression,
transform regression, nearest neighbors, k-means,
fuzzy k-means, kernel k-means, PCA, and kernel PCA.
One of the main advantages of the PML toolbox is the
ability to run it on a variety of operating systems and
18http://jubat.us/
19https://www.research.ibm.com/haifa/projects/verification/
ml toolbox/index.html
platforms, from multi-core laptops to supercomputers
such as BlueGene. This is because the toolbox incor-
porates a parallelization infrastructure that completely
separates parallel communications, control, and data
access from learning algorithm implementation. This
approach enables learning algorithm designers to
focus on algorithmic issues without having to concern
themselves with low-level parallelization issues. It also
enables learning algorithms to be deployed on multiple
hardware architectures, running either serially or in
parallel, without having to change any algorithmic
code. The toolbox uses the popular MPI library as
the basis for its operation, and is written in C++.
Despite of our effort to get latest news on this project,
we found no recent activity on this project since 2007,
except for a chapter in [1] (2012). On the other side,
the toolkit is suited for parallel environments, not for
distributed ones.
NIMBLE [6] is a sequel project to Parallel Ma-
chine Learning Toolbox, also developed at IBM Re-
search Labs. It exposes a multi-layered framework
where developers may express their ML-DM algorithms
as tasks. Tasks are then passed to the next layer, an
architecture independent layer, composed of one queue
of DAGs of tasks, plus worker threads pool that unfold
this queue. Next layer is an architecture dependent
layer that translates the generic entities from upper
layer into various runtimes. Currently, NIMBLE sup-
ports execution on Hadoop platform [20] only. Other
platforms, such as Dryad [9], are also good candidates,
but not yet supported. Advantages of this framework
include:
higher level of abstraction, hiding low-level con-
trol and choreography details of most of the
distributed and parallel programming paradigms
(MR, MPI etc), allowing programmers to compose
parallel ML-DM algorithms using reusable (serial
and parallel) building blocks
portability: providing specific implementation for
architecture dependent layer, same code can be
executed on various distributed runtimes
efficiency and scalability: due to optimisation in-
troduced by DAGs of tasks and co-scheduling, re-
sults presented in [6] for Hadoop runtime show
speedup improvement with increasing dataset size
and dimensionality.
SystemML [7], developed at IBM Research labs
as NIMBLE and PMLT, proposes an R-like language
(Declarative Machine Learning language) that includes
linear algebra primitives and shows how it can be
5
optimized and compiled down to MapReduce. They
report an extensive performance evaluation on three
(Group Nonnegative Matrix Factorization, Liner re-
gression, Page Rank) ML algorithms on varying data
and Hadoop cluster sizes.
Table 5 presents a synthesis on investigated plat-
forms. One can notice that Java is the preferred envi-
ronment, due to large adoption and usage of Hadoop
as distributed processing model. The good news is the
fact that most active and lively solutions are the open-
source ones. Target audience of this class of products
are programmers, system developers and ML experts
who need fast, scalable distributed solutions for ML-
DM problems.
6 Complex Machine Learning systems
This section present several solutions for business
intelligence and data analytics that share a set of com-
mon features: (i) all are deployable on on-premise or
in-the-cloud clusters, (ii) provide rich set of graphical
tools to analyse, explore and visualize large amounts
of data, (iii) expose a rather limited set of ML-DM
functions, usually limited to prediction models and
(iv) utilize Apache Hadoop [20] as processing engine
and/or storage environment. There are differences on
how data is integrated and processed, supported data
sources or related to complexity of the system. Here
are the most known ones:
Kitenga Analytics 20 , recently purchased by Dell,
is a native Hadoop application that offers visual ETL,
Apache SolrTM 21-based search, natural language pro-
cessing, Apache Mahout-based data mining, and ad-
vanced visualization capabilities. It is a big data en-
vironment for sophisticated analysts who want a ro-
bust toolbox of analytical tools, all from an easy-to-
use interface that that does not require understanding
of complex programming or the Apache Hadoop stack
itself.
Pentaho Business Analytics 22 offers a complete
solution for big data analytics, supporting all phases of
an analytics process, from pre-processing to advanced
data exploration and visualization. It offers (i) a com-
plete visual design tool to accelerate data prepara-
tion and modeling, (ii) data integration from NoSQL
and relational databases, (iii) distributed execution on
Hadoop platform [20], (iv) instant and interactive anal-
ysis (no code, no ETL (Extract, Transform, Load))
20http://www.quest.com/news-release/quest-software-
expands-its-big-data-solution-with-new-hadoop-ce-102012-
818658.aspx
21http://lucene.apache.org/solr/
22http://www.pentaho.org
and (v) business analytics platform: data discovery, ex-
ploration, visualization and predictive analytics. Main
characteristics of Pentaho solution include:
MapReduce-based data processing
Can be configured for different Hadoop distribu-
tions (such as Cloudera, Hadapt etc.)
Data can be loaded and processed into Hadoop
HDFS, HBase 23, or Hive 24
Supports Pig scripts
Native support for most NoSQL databases, such
as Apache Cassandra, DataStax, Apache HBase,
MongoDB, 10gen etc.
Enables performance-optimized data analysis,
reporting and data integration for analytic
databases (such as Teradata, monetdb, Netezza
etc.), through deep integration with native SQL
dialects and parallel bulk data loader
Integration wit HPCC (High Performance Com-
puting Cluster) from LexisNexis Risk Solutions 25
Import/export from/to PMML (Predictive Mod-
eling Markup Language)
Pentaho Instaview, a visual application to reduce
the time needed to deploy data analytics solutions
and to help novice users to get insights of their
data, in three simple steps: select data source, au-
tomatically prepare data for analytics, and visual-
ize and explore built models.
Pentaho Mobile - application for iPad that pro-
vides interactive business analytics for business
users
Their ecosystem is composed of several powerful sys-
tems, each of them a complex project of its own:
Pentaho BI Platform/Server the BI platform is a
framework providing core services, such as authen-
tication, logging, auditing and rules engines; it also
has a solution engine that integrates all other sys-
tems (reporting, analysis, integration and data min-
ing); BI Server is the most well known implementation
of the platform, which functions as a web based report
management system, application integration server and
lightweight workflow engine.
Pentaho Reporting based on JFreeReport, is a suite
of open-source tools – Pentaho Report Designer, Pen-
taho Reporting Engine, Pentaho Reporting SDK and
23http://hbase.apache.org
24hive.apache.org
25http://hpccsystems.com
6
the common reporting libraries shared with the entire
Pentaho BI Platform – that allows users to create rela-
tional and analytical reports from a variety of sources
outputting results in various formats (HTML, PDF,
Excel etc.)
Pentaho Data Integration (Kettle) delivers powerful
ETL capabilities using metadata-driven approach with
an intuitive, graphical, drag and drop design environ-
ment;
Pentaho Analysis Service (Mondrian) is an Online
Analytical Processing (OLAP) server that supports
data analysis in real-time
Pentaho Data Mining (Weka) a collection of ma-
chine learning algorithms for classification, regression,
clustering and association rules;
Platfora 26 delivers in-memory business intelligence
with no separate data warehouse or ETL required. Its
visual interface built on HTML5 allows business users
to analyse data. Results may be easily shared between
users. It relies on Hadoop cluster, that can be installed
either on own premise, or on cloud providers (Amazon
EMR and S3). It is primarly focused on BI features,
such as elaborated visualization types (charts, plots,
maps), or slice-and-dice operations, but also offers a
predictive analysis framework.
Skytree Server 27 is a general purpose machine
learning and data analytics system that supports data
coming from relational databases, Hadoop systems, or
flat files and offers connectors to common statistical
packages and ML libraries. ML methods supported are:
Support Vector Machine (SVM), Nearest Neighbor, K-
Means, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear
Regression, 2-point correlation and Kernel Density Es-
timation (KDE). Skytree Server connects with analyt-
ics front-ends, such as Web services or statistical and
ML libraries (R, Weka), for data visualization. Its de-
ployment options include cloud providers, or dedicated
cluster based on Linux machines. It also supports cus-
tomers in estimating the size of the cluster they need
by a simple formula (Analytics Requirements Index).
Wibidata 28 is a complex solution based on
open source software stack from Apache, combining
Hadoop, HBase and Avro with proprietary compo-
nents. WibiData’s machine learning libraries give
the tools to start building complex data processing
pipelines immediately. WibiData also provides graphi-
cal tools to export your data from its distributed data
repository into any relational database [21]. In order to
simplify data processing using Hadoop, WibiData in-
troduces the concepts of producers – computation func-
26http://platfora.com
27http://skytree.net
28http://wibidata.com
tions that update a row in a table, and gatherers – close
the gap between WibiData table and key-value pairs
processed by Hadoop MapReduce engine.
We are aware that we could not cover all the solu-
tion provider in the field of business intelligence and big
data analytics. We tried to cover those who are also of-
fering ML components in their applications, many oth-
ers focusing only on big data analytics, such as Alteryx,
SiSense, SAS or SAP, being omitted from this survey.
Solutions in this category target mostly business users,
who need to quickly and easily extract insights from
their data, being good candidates for users with less
computer or statistics background.
7 Software as a Service providers for
Machine Learning
This section focuses on platform-as-a-service, or
software-as-a-service providers for machine learning
problems. They are offering the services mainly via
RESTful interfaces, and in some (rare) cases the solu-
tion may also be installed on-premise (Myrrix), con-
trasting to solutions from previous section that are
mainly deployable systems on private data centers.
As class of ML problems, predictive modeling is the
favorite (BigML, Google Prediction API, Eigendog)
among these systems. We did not include in this study
providers of SQL over Hadoop solutions (e.g. Cloudera
Impala, Hadapt, Hive) because their main target is not
ML-DM, rather fast, elastic and scalable SQL process-
ing of relational data using the distributed architecture
of Hadoop.
BigML 29 is a SaaS approach to machine learning.
Users can setup datasources, create, visualize and share
prediction models (only decision trees are supported),
and use models to generate predictions. All from a
Web interface or programmatically using REST API.
BitYota 30 is a young start-up (2012) SaaS provider
for BigData warehousing solution. On top of data in-
tegration from different sources (relational, NoSQL,
HDFS) it also allows customers to run statistics and
summarization queries in SQL92, standard R statistics
and custom functions written in JavaScript, Perl, or
Python on a parallel analytics engine. Results are vi-
sualized by integrating with popular BI tools and dash-
boards.
Precog 31 has a more elaborate SaaS solution com-
posed of Precog database, Quirrel language, Report-
Grid and LabCoat tools. At the core of Precog, we
29http://bigml.com
30http://bityota.com
31http://precog.com
7
have an original (no Hadoop, no other NoSQL based),
schemaless, columnar database designed for storing
and analyzing semi-structured, measured data, such as
events (users clicking, engaging, and buying), sensor
data, activity stream data, facts, and other kinds of
data that do not need to be mutably updated. Precog’s
functionality is exposed by REST APIs, but client li-
braries are available in JavaScript, Python, PHP, Ruby,
Java, or C#. LabCoat is a GUI tool for creation and
management of Quirrel queries. Quirrel is a a highly
expressive data analysis language that makes it easy
to do in-database analytics, statistics, and machine
learning across any kind of measured data. Results
are available in JSON or CSV formats. ReportGrid is
an HTML5 visualization engine that interactively, or
programmatically, build reports and charts.
Google Prediction API 32 is Google’s cloud-
based machine learning tools that can help analyze
your data. It is closely connected to Google Cloud
Storage33 where training data is stored and offers its
services using a RESTful interface, client libraries al-
lowing programmers to connect from Java, JavaScript,
.NET, Ruby, Python etc. In the first step, the model
need to be trained from data, supported models being
classification and regression for now. After the model
is built, one can query this model to obtain predic-
tions on new instances. Adding new data to a trained
model is called Streaming Training and it is also nicely
supported. Recently, PMML preprocessing feature has
been added, i.e. Prediction API .supports preprocess-
ing your data against a PMML transform specified us-
ing PMML 4.0 syntax; does not support importing of
a complete PMML model that includes data. Created
models can be shared as hosted models in the market-
place.
EigenDog 34 is a service for scalable predictive
modeling, hosted on Amazon EC2 (for computation)
and S3 (for data and models storage) platforms. It
builds decision tree model out of data in Weka’s ARFF
format. Models can be downloaded in binary format
and integrated in user applications thanks to API, or
open-source library provided by vendor.
Metamarkets 35 claim as being Data Science-as-
a-Service providers, helping users to get insights out
of their large datasets. They offer end-users the pos-
sibility to perform fast, ad-hoc investigations on data,
to discover new and unique anomalies, to spot trends
in data streams, based on statistical models, in an in-
tuitive, interactive and collborative way. They are fo-
32https://developers.google.com/prediction/
33https://developers.google.com/storage/
34https://eigendog.com/#home
35http://metamarkets.com/
cused on business people, less knowledgeable on statis-
tics and machine learning.
Myrrix 36 is a complete, real-time, scalable recom-
mender system built using Apache MahoutTM(see Sec-
tion 5). It can be accessed as PaaS using a RESTful
interface. It is able to incrementally update the model
once new data is available. It is organized in 2 lay-
ers – Serving (open source and free) and Computation
(Hadoop based) – that can be deployed on-premise as
well, either both of them or only one.
Prior Knowledge Veritable API 37 offers
Python and Ruby interfaces; upload data on their
servers, and build prediction model using Markov
Chain Monte Carlo samplers. They were operating
a cloud based infrastructure based on Amazon WS.
SalesForce.com acquired Prior Knowledge at the end
of 2012.
Predictobot 38 by Prediction Appliance also aims
at doing machine learning modeling easier. The user
will upload a spreadsheet of data, answer a few ques-
tions, and then download a spreadsheet with the pre-
dictive model. It is going to bring predictive modeling
to anyone with the skills to make a spreadsheet. The
business is still in stealth mode.
7.1 Text mining as SaaS
Due to explosion of social media technologies, such
as blog platforms (WordPress.com, Blogger etc), mini-
blogging (Twitter), or social networks (Facebook,
Google+), an increased interest is paid to text min-
ing and natural language processing (NLP) solutions
delivered as services to their customers. This is why
we devoted an entire subsection to group together
software/platform-as-a-service solutions for text min-
ing. Before reviewing available solutions, a short intro-
duction to NLP and text mining is helpful.
While NLP uses linguistically inspired techniques
(text is syntactically parsed using information from a
formal grammar and a lexicon, and the resulting in-
formation is then interpreted semantically and used to
extract information) to deeply analyse the document,
text mining is more recent and uses techniques devel-
oped in the fields of information retrieval, statistics,
and machine learning. Contrasting with NLP, text
mining’s aim is not to understand what is ”said” in
a text, rather to extract patterns across large number
of documents. Features of text mining include extrac-
tion of concept/entity, text clustering, summarization,
or sentiment analysis.
36http://myrrix.com
37http://priorknowledge.com
38http://predictobot.com
8
Size and number of documents that need to be pro-
cessed, plus real-time processing constrain contribute
to the development of novel, distributed toolkits able
to answer demanding users’ needs. Websites operators
are willing to offer text mining features to their visitors
with minimum investment and reduced maintenance
costs. Thus, more and more providers are offering text
mining services through RESTful web services, saving
clients from costly infrastructures and deployments.
Without aiming at providing an exhaustive survey of
text mining P(S)aaS providers, we will mention several
of them hereafter:
AlchemyAPI 39 is a cloud-based text mining SaaS
platform providing the most comprehensive set of NLP
capabilities of any text mining platform, including:
named entity extraction, sentiment analysis, concept
tagging, author extraction, relations extraction, web
page cleaning, language detection, keyword extraction,
quotations extraction, intent mining, and topic cate-
gorization. AlchemyAPI uses deep linguistic parsing,
statistical natural language processing, and machine
learning to analyze your content, extracting semantic
meta-data: information about people, places, compa-
nies, topics, languages, and more. It provides RESTful
API endpoints, SDKs in all major programming lan-
guages and responses are encoded in various formats
(XML, JSON, RDF). Organizations with specific data
security needs or regulatory constraints are offered the
possibility to install the solution on own environment.
NathanAppTM 40 is AI-one’s general purpose ma-
chine learning PaaS, also available for deployment on-
premise as NathanNodeTM . Like Topic-Mapper, it is
ideally suited to learn the meaning of any human lan-
guage by learning the context of words, only faster and
with greater deployment flexibility. NathanApp is a
RESTful API using JavaScript and JSON.
TextProcessing 41 is also a NLP API that sup-
ports stemming and lemmatization, sentiment anal-
ysis, tagging and chunk extraction, phase extraction
and named entity recognition. These services are of-
fered open and free (for limited usage) via RESTful
API endpoints, client libraries exist in Java, Python,
Ruby, PHP and Objective-C, responses are JSON en-
coded and Python NLTK demos are offered to achieve a
steep learning curve. For commercial purposes, clients
are offered monthly subscriptions via Mashape.com.
Yahoo! Content Analysis Web Service 42 de-
tects entities/concepts, categories, and relationships
39http://www.alchemyapi.com
40http://ai-one.com
41http://text-processing.com
42http://developer.yahoo.com/search/content/V2/
contentAnalysis.html
within unstructured content. It ranks those detected
entities/concepts by their overall relevance, resolves
those if possible into Wikipedia pages, and annotates
tags with relevant meta-data. The service is available
as an YQL table and response is in XML format. It is
freely available for non-commercial usage.
This section presented PaaS solutions addressing,
to some extent, machine learning problems. A spe-
cial sub-section was devoted to text mining problem
due to its spreading in the landscape of ML PaaS
landscape. We notice big players, such as Yahoo! or
Google, as well as many start-ups with million dollars
fundings. They offer Web developers the possibility
to easily integrate in their sites ML intelligence. Easy
usage prevailed over functionality offered by these ser-
vices, therefore there are only limited options of tweak-
ing algorithms behind the services. Thus, these are
good candidates for users with basic ML needs, but
are not flexible enough for addressing more advanced
problems.
8 Conclusions and future work
Our main findings are synthesized below:
(1) Existing programming paradigms for express-
ing large-scale parallelism such as MapReduce (MR)
and the Message Passing Interface (MPI) are de facto
choices for implementing ML-DM algorithms. More
and more interest has been devoted to MR due to its
ability to handle large datasets and built-in resilience
against failures.
(2) Machine Learning in distributed environments
come in different approaches, offering viable and cost
effective alternatives to traditional ML and statistical
applications, which are not focused on distributed en-
vironments [14].
(3) Existing solutions target either experienced,
skilled computer scientists, mathematicians, statisti-
cians or novice users who are happy with no (or few)
possibilities to tune the algorithms. Ens-user sup-
port and guidance is largely missing from existing dis-
tributed ML-DM solutions.
After reviewing over 30 different offers on the mar-
ket, we think that there is still room for a scalable,
easy to use and deploy solution for ML-DM in the con-
text of cloud computing paradigm, targeting end-users
with less programming or statistical experience, but
willing to run and tweak advanced scientific ML tasks,
such as researchers and practitioners from fields like
medicine, financial, telecommunications etc. To this
respect, our future plans include prototyping such a
distributed system relying on existing distributed ML-
DM frameworks, but enhancing them with usability
9
and user friendliness features.
Acknowledgments
This work was supported by EC-FP7 project FP7-
REGPOT-2011-1 284595 (HOST).
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10
Daniel Pop received his PhD degree in computer
science from West University of Timi¸soara in 2006.
He is currently a senior researcher at Department of
Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Com-
puter Science, West University of Timi¸soara. Research
interests covers high performance computing and dis-
tributed computing technologies, machine learning and
knowledge discovery and representation, and multi-
agent systems. He also has a broad experience in IT
industry (+15 years), where he applied agile software
development processes, such as SCRUM and Kanban.
11
Name Platform Licensing Language Activity
Mahout Hadoop Apache 2 Java High
GraphLab MPI / Hadoop Apache 2 C++ High
DryadLINQ Dryad Commercial .NET Low
Jubatus ZooKeeper LGPL 2 C++ Medium
NIMBLE Hadoop ? Java Low
SystemML Hadoop ? DML Low
Table 1. Distributed Frameworks for ML-DM
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In many ways, the objective of the IBM Parallel Machine Learning Toolbox (PML) is similar to that of Google's MapReduce programming model (Dean and Ghemawat, 2004) and the open source Hadoop system, which is to provide Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that enable programmers who have no prior experience in parallel and distributed systems to nevertheless implement parallel algorithms with relative ease. Like MapReduce and Hadoop, PML supports associative-commutative computations as its primary parallelization mechanism. Unlike MapReduce and Hadoop, PML fundamentally assumes that learning algorithms can be iterative in nature, requiring multiple passes over data. It also extends the associative-commutative computational model in various aspects, the most important of which are: The ability to maintain the state of each worker node between iterations, making it possible, for example, to partition and distribute data structures across workers Efficient distribution of data, including the ability for each worker to read a subset of the data, to sample the data, or to scan the entire dataset Access to both sparse and dense datasets Parallel merge operations using tree structures for efficient collection of worker results on very large clusters In order to make these extensions to the computational model and still address ease of use, PML provides an object-oriented API in which algorithms are objects that implement a predefined set of interface methods. The PML infrastructure then uses these interface methods to distribute algorithm objects and their computations across multiple compute nodes.
Conference Paper
In the last decade, advances in data collection and storage technologies have led to an increased interest in designing and implementing large-scale parallel algorithms for machine learning and data mining (ML-DM). Existing programming paradigms for expressing large-scale parallelism such as MapReduce (MR) and the Message Passing Interface (MPI) have been the de facto choices for implementing these ML-DM algorithms. The MR programming paradigm has been of particular interest as it gracefully handles large datasets and has built-in resilience against failures. However, the existing parallel programming paradigms are too low-level and ill-suited for implementing ML-DM algorithms. To address this deficiency, we present NIMBLE, a portable infrastructure that has been specifically designed to enable the rapid implementation of parallel ML-DM algorithms. The infrastructure allows one to compose parallel ML-DM algorithms using reusable (serial and parallel) building blocks that can be efficiently executed using MR and other parallel programming models; it currently runs on top of Hadoop, which is an open-source MR implementation. We show how NIMBLE can be used to realize scalable implementations of ML-DM algorithms and present a performance evaluation.
Article
This paper presents a simple parallel computing framework for the statistical programming language R. The system focuses on parallelization of familiar higher level mapping functions and emphasizes simplicity of use in order to encourage adoption by a wide range of R users. The paper describes the design and implementation of the system, outlines examples of its use, and presents some possible directions for future developments.
[3] S. Charrington – Three New Tools Bring Machine Learning Insights to the Masses
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M. Budiu, D. Fetterly, M. Isard, F. McSherry, and Y. Yu – Large-Scale Machine Learning using DryadLINQ, in R. Bekkerman, M. Bilenko and J. Langford (editors) – Scaling up Machine Learning, Cambridge University Press, 2012 [3] S. Charrington – Three New Tools Bring Machine Learning Insights to the Masses, February 2012, Read Write Web, http://www.readwriteweb.com/hack/2012/02/ three-new-tools-bring-machine.php [4] W. Eckerson – New technologies for Big Data, http://www.b-eyenetwork.com/blogs/eckerson/archives/2012/11/ new technologie.php (2012)
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S. Owen, R. Anil, T. Dunning, E. Friedman – Mahout in Action, Manning Publications, 2011, ISBN 978-1935182689
Upadhyaya – Parallel approaches to machine learning—A comprehensive survey
S. R. Upadhyaya – Parallel approaches to machine learning—A comprehensive survey, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, Volume 73, Issue 3, March 2013, Pages 284–292