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Assessing the walkability of pedestrian environment under the transit-oriented development

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Abstract

In recent years, considerable interests in improved walking environments have been generated to encourage non-motorized transportation modes to reduce pollution emissions and to improve public health. The transit-oriented development (TOD) model has become one of the effective priority solutions. TOD planning gives us an idea that urban design factors and a pedestrian-friendly design are positive planning factors in reducing automobile use through the reduction of automobile traffic speed and enhancing pedestrian accessibility to a transit center. To investigate the pedestrian needs and the walkability design for TOD is the aim for aiding in identifying an approach that would allow an appropriate assessment of the walking environment and justification for improvements.The purpose of this study is to improve and enhance the city design of the pedestrian space in a city. Furthermore, we hope to meet the needs of users and utilize the existing resources in order to achieve the maximum benefits. To solve this complex problem, we apply multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) technique to the specific problem. Using the top down and bottom up together technique named house of quality (HOQ) matrix combined with analytic network process (ANP), we can realize the relationships between the technical requirements and the pedestrian needs of the planning and design issues of the walkability under the transit-oriented development. In this way, we can establish an objective and effective urban pedestrian space design model. Finally, in order to illustrate the research problem more practically, we take the MRT station of Xindian in New Taipei City, Taiwan as the empirical example.

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... Thus, the country desperately needs TOD to achieve sustainable transportation that aims to minimize or eradicate environmental problems, maximizing the quality of life by enhancing social-based inclusions. Wey and Chiu (2013) conducted a study in which the benefits related to TOD were mentioned [17]. The study was conducted in Turkey, in which the sustainable tourism factor was highlighted. ...
... Sustainability 2022, 14, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 10 enhancing social-based inclusions. Wey and Chiu (2013) conducted a study in which the benefits related to TOD were mentioned [17]. The study was conducted in Turkey, in which the sustainable tourism factor was highlighted. ...
... The analysis found that social indicators include the status of human health, community-based livability, and the equity factor. The researcher revealed that TOD is helpful for the people of Turkey to obtain affordable, green, and sustainable transport that could positively increase their social well-being [17]. ...
Article
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Transit-oriented development (TOD) in Saudi Arabia is becoming a significant priority for the government and developers to create a sustainable and quality living environment. TOD is an integrated transport and urban planning method that aims to reduce car use and urban sprawl, increase the use of public transport, and enhance sustainable mobility. To meet the global goals as per the Paris Accord, Saudi Arabia’s policymakers must prioritize the integration of TOD in urban planning. This study was carried out with the main aim of identifying the environmental, social, and economic benefits of implementing TOD in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A mixed-study research method was used, and data were collected using a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 21, and qualitative data were analyzed using NVivo software. The findings of this study show that TOD in Riyadh City would positively impact economic, environmental, and social aspects. TOD would reduce travel time, allow its people to have an active lifestyle, and reduce congestion. TOD would help reduce mental health disorders and improve physical activity. TOD would positively impact the environment of Riyadh City and assist in reducing greenhouse gases. Overall, the study results provide a reliable perspective on the benefits of TOD. Most participants assumed that the implementation of TOD in Riyadh City would increase automobile mobility, provide more employment opportunities, and reduce travel time, positively impacting the environment and economy of Riyadh City.
... This means that, LOS of public transportation is not only depends on the frequency of the services and the comfort while riding it only, it should be comfortable and convenient for the rider to access the IGRSM 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 540 (2020) 012023 IOP Publishing doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/540/1/012023 2 services itself and reach their final destination commuters [2,[5][6][7]. This is what the First/Last Mile (FLM) study is all about. ...
... Walkability referred to the level of comfort of walking a pedestrian experience to travel between two points. It can be influenced by many factors including the travelling time and distance, the safety from traffic, security from any personal risk or threats while walking, accessibility to various land uses, availability of resting area and more [5,[12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
... Various walkability indices had been developed across the globe to analyse and evaluate the walkability of the existing pedestrian environment in urban area [5,14,19,20]. Each index had used different approaches in measuring walkability. ...
Article
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Rail transit services are becoming an important aspect in enhancing mobility in a city. Its level of service is influenced by the journey from the very first to the last mile of using the transit service which refers to walking to access a transit station. Many studies had emerged in an attempt to measure walkability which most of them translated pedestrian’s preferences or perception on walking or used accessibility analysis. There could be drawbacks in these studies which are (a) only few of them had include indoor walking environment in measuring walkability, (b) there could be inconsistencies in making judgement for many criteria simultaneously, and (c) walkability is never a measure of accessibility only. Therefore, this study will attempt to (a) create a spatial model representing indoor walking environment that can be applied in measuring walkability, (b) evaluate the priorities for each of the walkability criteria by using Analytical Network Process (ANP) and (c) measure walkability of pedestrian routes and the existing rail transit stations by using GIS. The main finding of this study will be the walkability index for pedestrian routes to the existing rail transit stations in KL city centre.
... The definition of TOD varies, depending on the way it is practiced in the different countries in which it is applied. According to Wey and Chiu (2013), TOD is defined as the integration of a city's land use and public transportation system, allowing the city's citizens to achieve their daily needs without having to rely on personal transportation. Its application in the development of Jabodebek LRT affords several benefits. ...
... Its application in the development of Jabodebek LRT affords several benefits. It avoids the occurrence of urban sprawl by controlling population growth (Wey & Chiu, 2013), it reduces the use of personal transportation (Wey & Chiu, 2013), it reduces carbon emissions, which is one of the main causes of air pollution, thereby supporting the sustainability of the surrounding environment (Tiwari et al., 2011), and it supports the financial sustainability of several businesses due to numerous factors, such as improved accessibility because the development is based on surrounding transportation facilities (La Greca et al., 2011), increasing the value of real estate property near a transportation facility so the facility becomes a source of potential income for the government and can be used to cover construction and operational costs (World Resources Institute Ross Centre for Sustainable Cities, 2018). ...
... Its application in the development of Jabodebek LRT affords several benefits. It avoids the occurrence of urban sprawl by controlling population growth (Wey & Chiu, 2013), it reduces the use of personal transportation (Wey & Chiu, 2013), it reduces carbon emissions, which is one of the main causes of air pollution, thereby supporting the sustainability of the surrounding environment (Tiwari et al., 2011), and it supports the financial sustainability of several businesses due to numerous factors, such as improved accessibility because the development is based on surrounding transportation facilities (La Greca et al., 2011), increasing the value of real estate property near a transportation facility so the facility becomes a source of potential income for the government and can be used to cover construction and operational costs (World Resources Institute Ross Centre for Sustainable Cities, 2018). ...
Article
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In developing countries like Indonesia, cars are still the main means of transportation. This causes several problems in metropolitan cities, such as the increase in urban population, the volume of vehicles, air pollution, and traffic congestion. The development of Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) on LRT is expected to increase public interest in using trains and reducing the numerous problems associated with the use of cars. However, LRT based on TOD development requires a huge financial investment. Therefore, a financial feasibility study is needed to determine the project was feasible or not. The initial and operation-maintenance costs were used as a case study, with the journal review utilized, where the amount needed to develop TOD in other places was analyzed. The methodology used to get the amount of revenue was the dynamic system. From this study, the initial cost of LRT and Property Development obtained were Rp28,291,200,000,000 and Rp23,617,623,459,802, while the Operation and Maintenance costs were Rp19,017,051,414,153 and Rp36,953,818,402,363 respectively. However the new revenue obtained from operating LRT stations and properties are Rp41,109,405,822,615 and Rp150,524,288,553,165, with an IRR value of 9.75%. The values below WACC of 11.01% indicate that the project is not financially feasible.
... Unfortunately, current TOD discussion in India is only debating to add more floor spaces near a transit node in Indian Metropolitan cities with already high densities, developing fear to turn TOD form into "Transit Adjacent development" (TAD) which fails the walkability test of bringing development within a 10 minutes walking distance to transit station [1]. Current land-use and transportation planning policies are limited to investigate the pedestrian needs, necessary for assessment of the pedestrian-friendly environment for TOD planning [8]. Many current transit policies fail to explore the effect of transit station on walking, bicycling and other travel modes. ...
... Most existing literature studies overestimates the effects of urban design as one effective key element to implement TOD strategies while neglecting other efficient tools directly related with the level of public transport service based on the Node-Place model analysis [5,15,16]. Application of three dimensions of TOD (density, diversity and design) managed to reduce total vehicle miles travelled only by 3-5%, which ask to focus on transit characteristics as well such as quality of transit service and facilities available at transit station to generate more local pedestrian trips in TOD area [8]. ...
Conference Paper
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Transit-oriented development (TOD), by integrating land-use planning with transit system is gaining importance in Indian Metropolitan cities as a new urbanism strategy however, lack of similar research for large satellite towns like Noida with medium to high densities is lacking. This paper attempts to assess and measure TOD based-pedestrian mobility by performing a land-usage QGIS-based 500 meters walkability buffer analysis across 6 consecutive TOD stations in Noida operational since 2009 based on identified TOD indicators characterized as urban development characteristics (density, diversity and design) and transport characteristics (destination accessibility, distance to transit station and travel demand management), combined into TOD index using Spatial multiple-criteria analysis (SMCA), which influence pedestrian movement in and around TOD station areas. Determining pedestrian accessibility to navigate and access wide range of mixed land uses falling within walkable limits from transit station using explicitly spatial types of analyses has still been lacking in smart efforts towards TOD projects. Methodology used for this study is based on quantifying TOD-ness around existing Noida Transit station areas using TOD index, calculated using SMCA to measure walkability levels with urban planning and express TOD-ness and potential development of these TOD station areas. The results show calculation done for various TOD indicators influencing pedestrian accessibility in and around metro station areas and identify on ground issues impeding TOD based local pedestrian accessibility in Noida. Conclusion assigns TOD typology to all the six metro stations based on the surrounding land-uses, activities and the role each station is performing in the transit corridor.
... Most of the TOD planning studies in the literature have adopted multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods for estimating the relative importance and weights to criteria and their corresponding indicators (Wey and Chiu, 2013;Wey, 2015;Strong et al., 2017;Singh et al., 2017;Motieyan and Mesgari, 2017). MCDM methods demonstrate the tradeoffs among the criteria/indicators which assist stakeholders in reflecting upon worthy judgments (Kolios et al., 2016). ...
... MCDM methods demonstrate the tradeoffs among the criteria/indicators which assist stakeholders in reflecting upon worthy judgments (Kolios et al., 2016). The MCDM methods applied in the TOD planning literature include classical methods such as Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) (Strong et al., 2017;Sahu, 2018) and Analytical Network Process (ANP) (Wey and Chiu, 2013), hybrid models such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with AHP (Wey, 2015) and Geographic Information System (GIS) with AHP (Motieyan and Mesgari, 2017), fuzzy models such as Fuzzy-AHP and Fuzzy-ANP (Wey et al., 2017) and spatial models using GIS (Singh et al., 2017). However, these studies considered either planners, research professionals or policymakers' decisions to assign weights to the planning criteria. ...
Article
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Developing countries like India have started focusing on Transit Oriented Development (TOD) policies for their existing cities. In the absence of a generic definition and generalized criteria in the TOD literature, context-specific planning criteria are essentially required to assess TOD suitability in any city. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques have been widely used throughout the past studies to assist multi-stakeholders’ in establishing criteria related to TOD planning. This paper presents a Multi-Criteria Multi-Stakeholder Decision Making approach based on Fuzzy-Analytical Hierarchical Process (FAHP) to establish planning criteria which can be further useful to select suitable TOD sites in Delhi, India. A series of 9 criteria and their corresponding indicators are established based on literature review and expert consultation. Three stakeholder groups (researchers, planners, and policymakers) comprising of 31 experts from different fields related to TOD issues were solicited to provide their perspectives on TOD planning in the Delhi city. The expert judgments were converted into fuzzy numbers to capture the vagueness and uncertainty that human attitudes entail when making judgments. In this study, 13 priority indicators were identified based on a balanced consensus in stakeholder groups using the FAHP method. Given that the stakeholder groups diverge in their perspectives, their judgments convergence in believing that TOD planning in Delhi can be best assessed using ‘transit service’ criterion and least assessed using ‘Demographics’ criterion. The study has drawn global weights of criterion and indicators from multi-stakeholders’ perspectives can be effective in achieving TOD planning across existing and future cities in India.
... It was also suggested that the conception of livability should be broadened to embrace the concerns associated with the sustainability (Fidler, Olson, & Bezold, 2011). To the livability and sustainability of cities, urban planning and its relevant transportation deploying have a particularly profound and (Taki, Maatouk, Qurnfulah, & Aljoufie, 2017;Wey, 2015;Wey & Chiu, 2013;Wey, Zhang, & Chang, 2016), and which also be crucial to the quality of life to urban residents at the same time. However, planning frameworks or assessment patterns that address the dynamics of urban planning and demand for transportation deploying are relatively rare. ...
... And, for achieving ultimate goal of urban sustainability and urban livability (Yigitcanlar and Teriman, 2015), we expect to formulate a more transparent and realistic urban development strategies that incorporate only few concise tools and materials, including Fuzzy Delphi method, extendible open data (i.e., big data), auto-regressive integrated moving average model and Analytic Network Process. Unlike the previous ANP or AHP studies that focus on converting qualitative information into quantitative parameters (Wey & Chiu, 2013;Chan, Wey & Chang, 2014), in this study, we firstly attempt to integrate the dynamic changes of extendible open data (big data) and ANP mechanisms to address quantitative issues directly. In other words, our main innovation not only reveals the dynamic weight changes in data-oriented ANP, but also expresses the dynamic concept of indices or alternatives that change over time. ...
Article
Urban planning and its relevant transportation deploying have a particularly profound influence on the sustainability and livability of a city, and which also be crucial to the quality of life to urban residents at the same time. It was also suggested that the conception of livability should be extended to embrace the concerns associated with the sustainability. However, planning frameworks or assessment patterns that address the dynamics of urban planning and demand for transportation deploying are relatively rare; there also few public policies in related research fields have discussed the effects of the changes in various assessment indicators over time. Furthermore, following the rising advancements in social communication and computer technologies in modern society, the data collection, storage, and processing capabilities of people have improved substantially. And, the emergence of big data or extendible open data facilitates analysis and prediction availability, and enabled people to find immediate solutions to numerous dilemmas encountered. Therefore, based on the aforementioned intention, treating the city as a dynamic process with the trying of introducing the big data or extendible open data for facilitating urban sustainability and livability is undoubtedly worth to explore in further. The present study intends to initially examine the application of big data in sustainable and livable transportation strategies in Taipei City, Taiwan. Firstly, we investigate previous research on transportation sustainability in various countries to generalize our preliminary list of transportation sustainability indices that satisfy the principles of livable cities. And, key indices were then selected through the Fuzzy Delphi Method by administering a questionnaire to six experts from industrial, governmental, and academic sectors respectively. The research results were applied to develop decision-making strategies for responding to the environmental dynamics of Taipei City's transportation infrastructure system by using the analytic network process combined with a data-mining technique. Thus, big data pertaining to urban transportation were analyzed to predict the future dynamic trends of the key indices and prioritize the sustainable transportation strategies for a livable city under dynamic temporal and spatial changes. Ultimately, the policy implications of this study can not only offer a solution for current needs related to urban planning but also serve as a more transparent decision-making or well selection basis for developing sustainable and livable urban life in near future.
... Bradshaw (1993), City of Portland (1998), Allan (2001), Ray and Bracke (2002), Moudon et al. (2002), Dannenberg (2004), Krambeck (2006), Walkscore.com (2010), Vargo et al. (2012), Sayyadi and Awasthi (2013), Gori et al. (2014), Li et al. (2016), Wey and Chiu (2013) and Moura et al. (2017). In recent years, the use and popularity of walkability indices has risen. ...
... Analytical Hierarchy Process, fuzzy set theory and Analytical Network Process) (e.g. Wey and Chiu, 2013;Mateo-Babiano, 2016;Ewing and Handy, 2009;Chiang and Lei, 2016;Park et al., 2014). However, these studies present different characteristics and still there is not a consensus about the method to aggregate the several dimensions and the importance of indicators. ...
... On the other hand, anti-environment behaviours (e.g., irresponsible dumping of waste, consumption of products packed in single-use plastics) can make highly walkable neighbourhoods provided by governments less walkable as these plastics litter the community and, therefore, reduce the attractiveness of the neighbourhood, regardless of whether it is highly walkable. Services, which are a core part of walkability , are unlikely to be patronised or provided in communities where sanitation is low and other walkability factors (e.g., lorry parks, streets) are inaccessible (Wey and Chiu, 2013;Opuni et al., 2022). Therefore, walkability would be higher in communities where more people perform environment-friendly behaviours that provide or maintain factors (e.g., sanitation, greenery) that are inherent of walkability or encourage the creation or provision of services (a component of walkability) (Opuni et al., 2022). ...
Article
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Background – several studies have confirmed the potential influence of walkability on social activity, but whether this relationship can be modified by pro-environment behaviours has not been evaluated. This study aimed to assess the association between perceived (self-reported) walkability and social activity and to ascertain whether this potential relationship is moderated by pro-environment behaviour (PEB) and socially responsible consumption (SRC). Methods – This study adopted a cross-sectional design with a sensitivity analysis and techniques against common methods bias. The study population was residents in Ablekuma North Municipality, Ghana. Participants were 792 residents who met some inclusion criteria. The G*Power 3.1.9.4 software was employed to determine a minimum sample for the study. Hierarchical linear regression (HLR) analysis was used to present the findings. Results – The study found a positive association between neighborhood walkability and social activity, which suggests that residents who lived in more walkable neigbourhoods reported higher social activity. SRC and PEB positively moderated the foregoing relationship between neighborhood walkability and social activity. Conclusions – Residents who lived in more walkable neighbourhoods reported higher social activity, and the positive relationship between walkability and social activity is strengthened by SRC and PEB. It can be concluded that walkability better supports social activity among residents with higher pro-environment behaviours.
... Some policies are generated for the continuous development of occupational health and safety in the construction industry. On the other hand, Wey and Chiu [47] assess the effects of pedestrian environment to analyse non-motorized transportation modes that lead to emission reduction and improve public health. Analysis results show that transit-oriented planning could positively affect traffic speed and pedestrian accessibility in the context of the development of public health. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to analyze new service development competencies based on house of quality (HoQ) in the healthcare industry by using a hybrid interval-valued intuitionistic decision-making approach with fuzzy linguistic information modelled by hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTSs) and linguistic 2-tuples. The novelty of the manuscript is to identify a list of criteria, dimensions, and alternatives for HoQ-based new service development used for the investment decisions in healthcare industry. Thus, a hybrid model with HFLTSs has been proposed, considering 2-tuple linguistic information, Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets (IVIFSs) and a defuzzification process with an attitudinal expected score function. Hence, a DEMATEL extension dealing with HFLTSs, linguistic 2-tuple and IVIFS has been developed and used to weigh the criteria and dimensions of customer needs. Similarly, a TOPSIS extension dealing with the same type of information is introduced and applied in order to rank the technical requirements, the so-called “new service development competencies in healthcare industry”. The results show which are the most and least important dimensions for patients’ needs, and also point out which dimensions can be applied more effectively to satisfy the needs of service demanders. The findings obtained could be generalized to a country level analysis, and other extensions of multi-criteria decision-making methods could be applied to future studies.
... The urban growth management policies and strategies in many New World cities in New Zealand, Australia, and the Pacific Northwest have been developed to prioritise intensification, primarily in an attempt to avoid further sprawl. These intensification models include approaches such as smart growth (Ingram 2009), new urbanism (Gordon and Richardson 2007), and transit-oriented development (Searle, Darchen, and Huston 2014) which seek to concentrate growth in compact walkable neighbourhoods that are networked by high frequency transit (Sepe 2009, Wey andChiu 2013). ...
Thesis
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Many New World cities in New Zealand, Australia, and the Pacific Northwest have urban growth management policies and strategies in place to promote intensification as a way to avoid sprawl while continuing to absorb population growth. Enhancing the quality of urban life of residents has also become a fundamental component in the urban growth management strategies of many cities seeking to prioritise intensification. In spatial terms, fulfilling a directive for a compact city will require the intensification of town centres and existing neighbourhoods by increasing the availability of a variety of multi-unit, multi-use, and multi-storey attached housing typologies. It will also require social changes in terms of the lifestyle expectations and aspirations of residents. In order to understand the impetus for residents to buy into this mandate for intensification, it will be important to research the housing choices and aspirations of residents who are living in attached forms of housing and to investigate the role of the neighbourhood in their perceived quality of urban life. This thesis makes a contribution to housing and urban intensification research. The findings provide insights into two critical areas: firstly, higher density housing choices and the trade-offs residents make when deciding where to live; secondly, the significance of neighbourhood amenities in relation to neighbourhood satisfaction. In order to address the aims of this research, fifty-seven-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with residents who currently live in attached typologies across four established neighbourhoods in the case study city of Auckland, New Zealand. The interviewees were asked to define their neighbourhood, express what ‘quality of life’ and ‘quality of urban life’ meant to them, and to discuss their housing experiences, housing choices, and housing aspirations. Data was also gathered about their perceptions of density and intensification. They were asked to identify which neighbourhood amenities they used, how often, how they accessed them, and the role these amenities played in their neighbourhood satisfaction. Following a Constructivist Grounded Theory approach, the data was evaluated using Substantive Coding methods, conducted both manually and through NVivo, the qualitative data analysis software. The research concludes that if higher density living is to be embraced in established neighbourhoods, what must be understood is the role of urban amenities both within the neighbourhood, and within the wider city, in meeting the quality of urban life expectations of residents. The apparent risk of not considering urban amenities in this way is to misunderstand the nature of contemporary urban life and the effects of changing demographics and household structures on housing choices.
... Dans ce cadre, [Wey et Chiu, 2013] ont affirmé que le processus d'analyse QFD peut être formulé comme un modèle ANP. Ils ont proposé une approche qui combine le QFD et l'ANP pour comprendre les besoins des piétons et déterminer les exigences techniques alternatives (ATR) pour le développement axé sur les besoins des citoyens urbains afin d'améliorer la conception de l'environnement de la marche. ...
Conference Paper
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Résumé : Depuis l'introduction du Déploiement des Fonctions Qualité (QFD) dans les industries, il a montré de nombreux avantages. Son utilisation permet d'élargir la chance de succès, de fournir des produits de meilleure qualité et de réduire le coût et le temps de développement. Malheureusement, cela ne veut pas dire qu'il n'y a pas beaucoup de difficultés rencontrées lors de son application. Par ailleurs, afin de réduire et traiter les lacunes du QFD, de nombreuses recherches l'ont intégré avec d'autres méthodes analytiques dans le but d'améliorer son déploiement et le rendre plus applicable. Ces intégrations ont entraîné plusieurs extensions et modification du QFD. Dans ce contexte, cet article décrit comment des techniques telles que l'aide à la décision multicritère (MCDM), la logique floue et d'autres méthodes ont pu être combinées avec QFD pour résoudre certains de ses inconvénients. Abstract-Since the introduction of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) in industries, it has shown many advantages, its use would widen the chance of success, provide better quality products and reduce the cost and development time. But this does not prevent it from being free from difficulties while applying it. So, in order to reduce and address the shortcomings of QFD, a lot of research has integrated it with other analytical methods to improve it and make it more applicable, which led to several extensions and modifications of QFD. In this context, this article describes how techniques such as multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDM), fuzzy logic and others which can be combined with QFD to solve some of its drawbacks.
... Although the above literature studied the built environment elements related to walking respectively and reached some conclusions, other scholars suggested measuring the walkability and its combined impact on physical activity and health would be more insightful and academically valuable (van Cauwenber, Van Holle, De Bourdeaudhuij, Van Dyck, & Deforche, 2016;Watson et al., 2020;Wey & Chiu, 2013). Frank, Kerr, Sallis, Miles, and Chapman (2008) revealed that people who lived in walkable neighborhoods were more likely to walk, and the association of walkability with physical activities and BMI was different by sociodemographic subgroups. ...
Article
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The walkability of a neighborhood is closely related to residents’ travel behavior and daily life and, ultimately, their health and wellbeing. Although existing studies in this area have reached some enlightening conclusions, few of them have considered residents’ travel attitudes and preferences, or the mediating role of commute mode. Do travel attitudes and preferences matter in the relationship between neighborhood walkability and residents being obese? How does commute mode work as a mediator? To answer these questions, based on the 2019 travel survey data in Guangzhou, this paper uses the Multilevel Linear Model (MLM) to examine the association between neighborhood walkability and residents’ body mass index (BMI). Furthermore, the Mediation Model is used to identify the mediating role of commute mode in the relationship between walkability and BMI. The results show that (1) travel attitudes and preferences do affect the individual’s BMI through the mediator of commute mode. (2) After controlling the individual socio-demographics and travel attitudes and preferences, neighborhood walkability has a significant negative effect on BMI. Meanwhile, walkability has a significant positive effect on the use of non-private motorized commute modes. Non-private motorized commute modes have a significant negative effect on BMI. (3) The mediating effect of commute mode in the relationship of neighborhood walkability with the individual’s BMI is significant. The proportion of mediation is 32.90%. Insights into the relationship between neighborhood walkability, commute mode, and individual BMI highlight the importance of walkable neighborhoods that encourage people to use healthy commute modes.
... On the basis of the scientific literature, the most significant variables have been identified following multivariate statistical analysis (Moon et al., 2016;Wey & Chiu, 2013). In addition, other variables relevant to the research objectives have been introduced with respect to these studies. ...
Article
Relationships between the organisation of the pedestrian network and the location and distribution of activities represent an important element in improving accessibility to urban services of interest to the elderly. This paper proposes a methodology aimed at defining a new measure of pedestrian accessibility for elderly. We first identify characteristics of the pedestrian network and built environment that may impact upon accessibility to elderly, and weight each feature using an AHP analysis. Walking behaviours are considered in terms of walking speed and travel times for elderly. Accessibility levels are derived referring to the system defined by the relationship between the characteristics of the pedestrian network, the offer of urban services and behaviours of elderly. This methodology has been tested in the urban contexts of Naples and Aberdeen. The results provide useful suggestions to decision makers in prioritising interventions to be implemented at the neighbourhood scale to improve the accessibility to urban services.
... These design concepts are hypothesized to be able to generate more pedestrian and public transit trips (Cervero and Gorham, 1995). Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is an urban planning concept that aims to reduce the use of motor vehicles, while promoting the use of public transits by introducing high density, mixed use land, and environmentalfriendly development around the transit centres (Wey and Chiu, 2013;Cervero, 2006). On the contrary, with all the development concepts applied to ensure railway transit stations are strategically located, it is observed that residents and commuters in the neighbourhood are still travelling to railway transits by their privately owned vehicles and buses instead of walking. ...
Chapter
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Light Rail Transit (LRT) is one of the sustainable transports which is highly promoted by Malaysian government with the intention to ease traffic congestion. However, it is observed that a few of LRT stations in Klang Valley are underutilised and have lesser amount of user. Location of the stations should not be a reason for this as they are usually strategically located and designed to encourage their surrounding residents to commute by walking. Instead, inadequacy of proper pedestrian infrastructure and facility is considered as one of the main factors that affects the commuters’ choice when choosing their mode of transport. The infrastructure design and facility can be measured and evaluated with the Pedestrian Walkability Index. This paper introduces the concept of Pedestrian Walkability Index as a measurement tool for pedestrians’ mode of choice. A new assessment form was created and customised for this purpose by adopting the Krambeck’s Global Walkability Index. Subsequently, three LRT stations were reviewed based on this assessment form and the results for each LRT station were presented. Results showed that Station Asia Jaya has the highest Walkability Index (3.36), followed by Station Sri Rampai (3.15) and Station Miharja (3.08). Results also showed that as the Walkability Index increases, the amount of pedestrian increases as well. The equation for the Pedestrian Conversion factor was found to be y = 9266.5x − 28,014. This can be used as a guide for future LRT station refurbishment project as well as new train station development projects.
... Sustainable transportation is therefore not possible without non-motorised transport. The critical role of non-motorised transit has been documented (Banister, 2000;Mohan & Tiwari, 1999;Wey & Chiu, 2013;Yazid, Ismail, & Atiq, 2011). Consequently, the need for the supporting infrastructure for these modes of travel, the perception of users and potential for use is even more challenging. ...
Article
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Segment videos were produced at different peaks to reflect different sampling criteria like land use characteristics, trails, Ciclocarrils and Ciclovia. Each segment was filmed for 20–40 seconds during bicycle rides at a speed of about 5km/h with a camera strapped, at an angle of 45 degrees, on the head. Curb lane variables such as bicycle pathway widths, curb lane motorised volume (veh/h) and vehicle speed (km/h), bicycle volume on segment, and median width were recorded in addition to secondary data. About 1,360 ratings were acquired from study participants and used in the estimation process. Ordered probability models were used to estimate random parameters of cyclists LOS perception to account for unobserved heterogeneity for all respondents. The deviance (1.085) and Pearson Chi-Square (2.309) with 1,635 degree of freedom at 0.05 level of significance shows that our model provides a better fit of the data. The study observed that BLOS was strongly influenced by side path separation, vehicle speed, motorised traffic volume and conflicts with pedestrians. However, many other factors were found to have high probabilities to influence level of service with unit change. They include bicycle lane width, wide outside lane, pavement conditions, trees and benches, daylight, gender and experience of cyclist. The impact of the variety of observed factors affecting bicyclists reveal the nature and character of urban transportation in Bogota which suggests a range of important trade-offs in further planning and management of the Cicloruta bicycle paths.
... The use of non-motorized modes is to reduce pollution emissions and to improve public health. [2]. It is known that transportation activities in Indonesia contribute 23% CO2 emissions with the largest energy consumption are on the road as much as 90.7%. ...
... Even though the TOD concepts contribute great innovations to our next-generation metropolises, their means and focus are primarily on the sustainable transportation dimension, for example, high-density land use, diversified mix land use, transit-supportive land uses, as well as friendly street network designs for bicycles and pedestrians [7][8][9][10]. However, it is debatable that the development mode advocated by TOD seems to lack relative considerations of both the ecological and environmental dimensions. ...
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Even though the TOD (Transit-Oriented Development) concepts contribute great innovations to our next-generation metropolis, their means and focusing are primarily on the sustainable transportation dimension. It is debatable that the development mode advocated by TOD seems to lack relative considerations of both the ecological and environmental dimensions. Consequently, to achieve a better urban life, our urban planning and design should incorporate the consideration of peripheral areas that have not been further valued in the past, such as ecology diversity, natural energy recycling or reuse, and livable habitat, rather than just focusing on the sustainable transportation dimension of conventional TOD. This study thus explores and summarizes the design criteria of Green TOD through literature review and obtains the evaluation criteria via experts. Furthermore, through the FDT (fuzzy Delphi technique) method, the evaluation criteria from the expert questionnaire are screened. In turn, more important evaluation criteria are obtained objectively. Based on the screening results of FDT, we adopt the HOQ (house of quality) model integrated by FANP (fuzzy analytic network process) and QFD (quality function deployment) to allocate the weighting for each criterion scientifically. Finally, the evaluation results and hybrid decision model provided in this study can be used as an initial reference for improving the planning and design of today’s built environment. We believe that these pioneered attempts will help us in attaining our ultimate pursuit of urban sustainability and livability.
... It is a common approach to conduct a focus group of relevant stakeholders to evaluate the relationships [28,69] . Conducting a questionnaire survey is another experience-based approach [53,71] . When rich data about CIS construction and operation are available, data mining can be an alternative approach to evaluating the relationships. ...
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Critical infrastructure systems (CISs), increasingly suffering from various hazards in recent decades, are in urgent need of improving their resilience. So far few approaches for CISs resilience improvement have recognized that different resilience improvement efforts could have synergetic or conflicting correlations between them. There lack systemic approaches for transforming resilience improvement requirements into coordinated and implementable measures. To address this gap, the current study proposes a quality function deployment (QFD)-based framework for strengthening the resilience of CISs. The proposed framework involves different stages of the CISs lifecycle, and takes into consideration the correlations between resilience improvement efforts at these stages. It can transform resilience criteria into system properties, component characteristics, implementation processes and controlling factors successively, which is facilitated with a series of houses of quality (HoQs). Using a case study of electric power system, we demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed framework with detailed explanations of the design and implementation of the first HoQ. The results of the case study showed that the proposed framework could identify the trade-offs between resilience improvement efforts at different stages of the CISs lifecycle, and take into account their relationships with resilience criteria and the correlations among them to work out optimized solutions for improved CISs resilience.
... The sidewalks enable pedestrians to travel around the city, a factor that has a positive impact on people's quality of life, urban planning, air quality and urban mobility (Wey and Chiu, 2013;Tsiompras and Photis, 2016;Sousa, 2017). ...
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The sidewalk is the structuring element of walking on foot in the urban environment. For this, it is necessary that the sidewalks offer moving conditions to all pedestrians. The movement of people on foot in urban space increases the quality of life in the cities. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the quality index of sidewalks in a medium-size Brazilian city, through the pedestrians' perception and technical evaluation. The methodology evaluated the Sidewalk Quality Index (SQI) in Passo Fundo, a medium-sized city in the South of Brazil. The results show that, like the great majority of Brazilian cities, the sidewalks in Passo Fundo have a performance index equivalent to 1.9 points which corresponds to the "G" classification - very bad - in the final evaluation. The improvement of the SQI in the study area should be made possible by the awareness of their importance for mobility, urban planning and the quality of life of people in the cities. Presenting a good SQI provides a number of benefits to cities, among which the following stand out: increased life quality and urban mobility, which, in turn, impacts positively on a number of other urban indicators.
... Accumulated research and experience from around the world indicates that a railway station has the potential to have a profound impact on development within its precinct (Cervero 2007). There is now a general consensus that the influence of commuter rail stations on property and on train ridership is most marked within a 400-m walking distance, remains strong to 800 m and can extend to beyond 1 km (Wey and Chiu 2013). These dimensions define the transport station catchment area for walk-on ridership and provide the evidences for urban design. ...
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The suburbanisation of modern cities has forced many people in locations that are far less accessible than their prior residences, requiring motorised massive transport. Sustainable suburban development characteristics proposed to be relevant to transit-oriented development (TOD) are defined, including walking and cycling, population density, employment opportunities, urban form, open space and mixed-use land. In the study, an urban design proposal of Reedy Creek Town Centre is intended to guide the sustainable development of the outlying community as an integrated and dense urban centre based around the new rail station. Moreover, a range of residential development choices and commercial office uses supported by convenience retailing and associated services are providing for a diverse range of people having varying incomes and social interests who live and work in suburban area. This paper, which builds on the work of transit-oriented community proposal by dissecting the principles and approaches of TOD, establishes an urban design framework for suburban development to reveal the key sustainability strategies. The result concludes that transit-oriented development holds considerable promise for placing rapidly suburbanising cities on more comprehensive sustainable strategies, which give a basis to guide appropriate growth, change and development, and to prevent development inconsistency.
... (1) Regression models Landis et al. 2001;Dandan et al. 2007;Dowling et al. 2008;Elias 2011;Kim et al. 2013;Kubat et al. 2013;Park et al. 2014;Daniel et al. 2016); (2) Discrete choice models Jensen 2007;Kelly et al. 2011); Craig et al. (2002), Cervero and Duncan (2003), Alfonzo (2005) (2013), Larranaga et al. 2014, Singleton andWang (2014), Kim et al. (2014), Moura et al. (2017), Tribby et al. (2016) Convenience and attractiveness Urban form Street connectivity Cervero and Kockelman (1997), Shriver (1997), Handy and Clifton (2001), Greenwald and Boarnet (2001), Cervero and Duncan (2003), Leslie et al. (2005), Frank et al. (2007), Wells and Yang (2008), Van Dyck et al. (2010), Kelly et al. (2011), Sehatzadeh et al. (2011Kim et al. (2014), Sung and Lee (2015), Moura et al. (2017) Destinations proximity/mix of uses Shriver (1997), Handy and Clifton (2001), Giles-Corti and Donovan (2002), Pikora et al. (2003), , , Cao et al. (2006 (3) Multi-criteria analysis (Sharma et al. 2008;Kim et al. 2009;Ha et al. 2011;Sayyadi and Awasthi 2013;Lee et al. 2013;Wey and Chiu 2013;Blecic et al. 2015;Beiler and Phillips 2016;Moura et al. 2017;Ruiz-Padillo et al. 2018); (4) Multivariate analysis (Muraleetharan et al. 2004;Moudon et al. 2006;Muraleetharan and Hagiwara 2007;Glazier et al. 2008;Frackelton et al. 2013); (5) Spatial analysis (Iacono et al. 2010;Tribby et al. 2016); (6) Average or sum of the values of each attribute (Dixon 1996;Jaskiewicz 2000;Gallin 2001;Guttenplan et al. 2003;Frank et al. 2005Frank et al. , 2006Mantri 2008;Hall 2010;Christopoulou and Pitsiava-Latinopoulou 2012;Dobesova and Krivka 2012;Loo and Lam 2012;Vargo et al. 2012;Asadi-Shekari et al. 2013;Park et al. 2014;Peiravian et al. 2014;Asadi-Shekari et al. 2015; Talavera-Garcia and Soria-Lara 2015); (7) Simulation (Badland et al. 2013;Yin 2013) and (8) Simple accessibility index (Matley et al. 2000;Emery et al. 2003;Swords et al. 2004;Mehta 2008;Tal and Handy 2012;Ellis et al. 2016;Gori et al. 2014;Woldeamanuel and Kent 2015). ...
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This paper pursues three goals: (1) determining the relative importance of built environment barriers limiting walkability, (2) analyzing the existence of an asymmetry in the way people evaluate positive and negative built environment characteristics, and (3) identifying solutions to tackle the main barriers and quantify their impact in walkability. A best–worst scaling survey was developed to compare the importance of eight different attributes of the built environment regarding walkability. Model results show an asymmetry negative–positive in the judgment and choice of built environment characteristics that promote and impede walkability. The most important barriers, obtained from worst responses, are connectivity, topography, sidewalk surface and absence of policemen. Walkability scores were computed for different neighbourhoods and different policy scenarios were forecasted. Simulation results from the worst responses indicate that improvements in sidewalk quality, along with an increase in the number of police officers, lead to an 85% increase in the walkability score for the lower income neighbourhoods.
... Furthermore, the use of nonmotorized vehicles must be considered in sustainable transportation planning. Wey and Chiu (2012) found that urban development has abandoned auto-oriented development patterns in recent years. In response to the smart growth principle, the TOD concept has been introduced and has led to plans for improving pedestrian environments and increasing the use of nonmotorized vehicles to reduce pollution emissions and enhance public health. ...
... The first of Jacobs' conditions for an urban area to be vital is what she called "a sufficient mix of primary uses, and preferably more than two" (Jacobs, 1961, p. 152): residences, offices, little shops and warehouses, among other functions, are equally necessary. This is in line with traditional research on built environment, which has proposed land-use diversity as one of the main drivers for street vibrancy, mainly through walking activity (Kang, 2016;Kockelman, 1997;Wey and Chiu, 2013).This is not only referred to the district scale, but also is to be applied to its internal parts: neighborhoods and streets. As a result, people will be there for many different purposes and at different times throughout the day. ...
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Accessibility is a prime concern faced by urban planners to design pedestrian-friendly cities that are healthy, walkable and sustainable. Walkability has mainly been evaluated and measured using urban design principles; however, no such study has been done in India to measure pedestrian accessibility for all at the transit station or corridor level. This study looks forward to identifying typical pedestrian barriers that impede pedestrian accessibility for all in Noida. Thereafter, developing a brownfield pedestrian-oriented transit-oriented development (TOD) index using the innovative method of spatial multiple-criteria analysis (SMCA) to assign TOD station values to 12 elevated consecutive metro stations in Noida based on identified TOD dimensions that influence pedestrian accessibility. The chi-square test has been used to identify which transportation and socio-demographic characteristics have a positive association with walking to the metro stations in Noida. Only three TOD dimensions namely distance to the metro station, time to reach Metro station by different travel modes and parking facility at the metro station were found suitable to influence pedestrian accessibility to easily access metro stations in Noida.
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The sidewalk environment directly influences pedestrians’ willingness to walk in a neighborhood. However, the existing audit tools have mixed sidewalk-level features with neighborhood-level features when assessing sidewalk walkability and do not sufficiently consider pedestrian-related contextual and dynamic features. This study proposes a Sidewalk Walkability Assessment of Urban Roads (SWAUR) approach to separate the influences of neighborhood-level and sidewalk-level features on sidewalk walkability, and we highlight the context-based features of sidewalks, including static and dynamic features, as influential factors through observational audit surveys and attitudinal surveys of local pedestrians. These influential factors are quantified by objective and subjective measures to examine their differences in terms of sidewalk quality. Finally, sidewalk quality is integrated with neighborhood walkability to assess sidewalk walkability. A case study of the Daxin area in Shenzhen, China, demonstrates that this approach reveals the actual features influencing sidewalk walkability based on pedestrians’ perceptions or physical qualities. These results can help urban designers and engineers understand the determinant factors discouraging people from walking daily for transport and take appropriate strategies to make specific neighborhoods and sidewalks more walkable.
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In terms of residual physical activities suitable for most elderly individuals, walking is also the favoured form of mobility in this group, in particular for those aged 75 and over. For this segment of the population, walking represents the main means of accessing urban services and actively participating in community life. It is thus essential to improve both the physical and functional organization of urban areas to develop comfortable and safe walking paths for the elderly and the other weak segments of population. Therefore, this study provides a methodology for classifying a neighbourhood as more or less accessible for the elderly to reach urban services on the basis of its favourable characteristics. Based on the results of a literature review and Delphi analysis, the fuzzy technique was applied to evaluate the security and urban context characteristics, both in terms of the pedestrian network and built environment. The obtained weights, validated by a sensitivity analysis, were then used to calculate a walking attractiveness index for the elderly using a GIS tool. The methodology was then tested in two neighbourhoods of Naples; the outputs show the areas that local decision-makers should prioritise to improve the safety and attractiveness of routes to access urban services.
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Chapter
Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a popular planning concept both in policy circles and in academia. The field has grown over the last 30 years with hundreds of research articles. However, a comprehensive review of the field in its entirety is missing in the literature. This chapter uses bibliometric analysis techniques and examines bibliographic data of 677 research outputs on TODs to explore: (a) the knowledge structure in TOD research in terms of its thematic evolution over time; (b) the various entities (author, journal, country) that are driving the field with greater productivity and influence; and (c) if a concerted effort has been made by the various entities to progress the field of research. Findings show that nine thematic research foci evolve in the TOD literature (e.g., various contextual effects of TODs, TOD design and behavioral outcomes, TOD typology and accessibility) with differential impacts on the field. The various factors that have a greater influence in the field include an overall productivity of authors, their capability to generate high quality publications, and the strength of their broader collaborative networks. However, evidence shows that most of the researchers have been working in silos and lack effective collaboration. The findings of this chapter provide a bird's eye view of the field for researchers interested in TOD.
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The purpose of this study is to reveal usages and problems of The Taipei MRT system (Taipei Metro) in Taipei metropolitan area through residences, their determiners and commuting mode of Japanese people. The Taipei MRT system is required to be developed because its improvement will be surely able to reduce traffic congestion, accidents and air pollution, which are caused by a lot of motorcycles. Commuting plays an important role in traffic in urban areas. And these days, more and more Japanese people live in Taipei metropolitan area. Therefore, it is possible to reveal problems of the Taipei MRT, which should be further developed, based on analyzing residences, their determiners and commuting mode of Japanese people. This paper gives some conclusions on The Taipei MRT system and suggestions for Japan from the hearing surveys and the questionnaire surveys.
Conference Paper
Walking is an important connection in Transportation Oriented Development (TOD). An evaluation of Walking-Friendliness of a Subway Station is constructed from safety, comfort and convenience. Based on Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the specific meaning, calculation method and weight of each index are given. Then, the standards are put forward for classification of Walking-Friendliness and construct of the AHP-TOPSIS mode. A quartile graph is constructed combining the importance and evaluation score of nine indicators. 66 roads within an 800-meter-area of Dawanglu Station are analyzed, and the results show that AHP-TOPSIS method can meet the actual needs of the Walking-Friendliness evaluation of a Subway Station where it overcomes the shortcomings of single-perspective researches from three aspects of nine indicators, and can provide targeted improvement measures to enhance walking-friendliness, and has a certain reference value for guiding the development of TOD.
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With the large-scale construction of high-speed railways and the continuous increase in population flows, railway hubs are becoming the most dynamic places in cities. As a key node of intercity traffic and an important part of urban development, railway hub stations are the main carriers for the implementation of the Integrated Station-City Development (ISCD) strategy. A comprehensive evaluation of the space use of railway hub station areas can provide a basic understanding of the intensive utilization and optimization of urban space. However, existing relevant studies lack a comprehensive assessment of the compound structures and functions within large railway hub station areas at the icroscopic level. Therefore, this paper was guided by integrated station-city development, relying on Geographic Information Science (GIS)technology, and big data such as Points of Interest (POI) and real-time traffic, focusing on walking accessibility, facility convenience, function compound, and land development intensity used around railway hub station areas. The uses of the station areas in four large railway hubs in Beijing were analyzed. Based on this, we built an ISCD index, combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and assessed the degree of ISCD in the four railway hubs. The study showed that among the four large railway hubs in Beijing, the Beijing North railway station offers the best walking accessibility. The Beijing railway station features the largest facility convenience, function compound, and land development intensity. In general, the levels of ISCD of the Beijing and Beijing North Railway Stations were significantly higher than those of the Beijing West and Beijing South Railway Stations.
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This study aimed to evaluate how built environments, especially land use, affect time-of-day transit demands, using data collected from neighborhoods around subway stations in Seoul, South Korea. The stations were first clustered by their boarding and alighting ridership sequences across times. The outcomes showed that the geographical distribution of clustered stations coincides with land use divisions. For each cluster, we estimated latent growth curve models to examine how land use determines time-of-day ridership patterns. The modeling outcomes showed that the same land use pattern and intensity differently affect ridership volumes across times and locations. The findings in this study indicated that uniform land use in areas is a dominant factor for asymmetric ridership patterns—passengers are inevitably concentrated in peak hours if a certain land use is predominant—and these asymmetric ridership patterns can be mitigated when neighborhood commercial land use is included in the areas.
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This paper aims to pursue and to strengthen a paradigm shift in transport. It offers a fresh perspective on how the vehicle-oriented paradigm has been translated into specific biased practices and priorities in transport policy and research that jeopardized walkability. Then, it examines the transformational role of walking in the sustainable urban mobility transition. By considering walking as an experience, the paper shares a people-oriented and place-based framework for measuring and promoting walkable cities based on the local context of Hong Kong. On the way forward, it highlights the irreplaceable and leading role of governments in promoting walkability. Finally, it suggests two strategic directions of quantifying and fully integrating walking-related variables in transport design manuals, and ensuring a seamless transport experience for people using sustainable transport modes.
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Since the enhancement of pedestrian rights, various pedestrian-related laws and policies have been implemented to enhance walkability. However, although laws and policies have been implemented to improve walkability, the quantitative measurement of walkability was insufficient in previous studies. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the walkability of three experimental sites with different built periods using a wearable sensor. This study aims to overcome the limitations of previous studies and to confirm the applicability of pedestrian-related laws and policies. Accordingly, 30 subjects were recruited to participate in the experiment. Gait data were collected using the inertial measurement unit sensor of a smartphone. Based on the collected data, a similarity index was calculated by comparing the reference gait with the gait at each experimental site using dynamic time warping. The closer the calculated result is to 0, the higher is the similarity, that is, the walkability is high. The results of this study can be used as both a monitoring tool for pedestrian policy and an actual condition survey tool. Moreover, these results are expected to contribute to a pedestrian evaluation system using citizen sensing in smart cities in the future.
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Walking has become one of the important transportation modes together with the increasing importance of sustainability in urban life, thereby, necessitating the design of and planning for safe, accessible, and well-connected pedestrian routes in developing cities. Sidewalks, which are urban furniture, provide pedestrian access in urban transportation; however, insufficient sidewalks in terms of physical characteristics including width, slope, aspect, material, lighting, security, etc. prevent the users ofdifferent ages, genders, and abilities, equally enjoying from public spaces. The cultural and climatic characteristics of the pedestrian route (pedestrian route aspect, azimuth angle, the prevailing wind, shading etc.) should also be considered in the design and planning process. Otherwise, pedestrian routes cannot provide comfortable and preferable routes for individuals. This study aims to determine comfortable pedestrian routes in terms of environmental and climatic features. The study method comprises of the following four steps: (1) The criteria used for designing the comfortable pedestrian routes for the individuals with different abilities, ages, and genders were determined by the review of national and international literature published in the last twenty years and emerging fifteen criteria subsumed under five factors (circulation and accessibility, physical characteristics, security, vegetation, and climatic features) were used to evaluate pedestrian route comfort. (2) The pedestrian routes' suitability has been determined through the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) based multi-criteria analysis method (MCA). This method has helped to integrate multiple criteria in the decision making process. In the CBS analysis, the data were standardized, the characteristics of pedestrian routes were determined by survey studies and their suitability was ranked between 0 (least suitable) - 3 (most suitable) according to the determined criteria and the data layers were overlapped before the classification of comfortable pedestrian routes as five conformity groups, including the lowest, low, medium, high, and the highest suitable. (3) Pedestrian routes have been mapped according to their suitability in terms of environmental and climatic characteristics. (4) Plans, policies, and strategies were developed to guide decision-makers to create comfortable routes. The rapidly developing and urbanizing city of Adana, whose streets and avenues are essential for the public, was selected as the study area to determine the existing pedestrian routes suitability. However, this area was limited due to the comprehensive nature of the study method. The routes within 15 minutes walking distance, which equal to 800 meters, of Hayal Park, a well equipped and big size district park located at the point where many neighborhood boundaries intersect, were selected to evaluate routes' suitability. The study results show that there are similar characteristics in all suitability classes. The surface materials are the same as concrete pavements and suitable for night use on all routes; however, the slope varies between 0-6 % to 6-12%, and the aspect ratio negatively affects the pedestrian comfort. The common vegetation types are wide-crowned tree species in the refuges, the combination of bushes and trees in the building garden adjacent to the road, and narrow and wide-crowned trees on the sidewalk. There is no pavement or sidewalk for pedestrians in the lowest conformity class routes and pedestrians use the vehicle road. In the routes where the sidewalk is located, the sidewalks are on one side of the vehicle road or directly adjacent to the building on both sides and are very narrow (1 meter). Urban furniture on the sidewalks is positioned to prevent pedestrian access. The sidewalks adjacent to the building's side and front gardens are 5 meters wide in the low suitable class. These routes are unsuitable for pedestrians because sidewalks are used as car parking areas. In the study area, the sidewalks are generally identified as medium suitability classes. Unlike the low suitability class, there are 1.5-2 m wide sidewalks reserved for pedestrians after the parking areas located in the front garden distances of some buildings, and vegetation is conveniently positioned to provide shade to pedestrians. However, some urban furniture such as lighting elements, waste bins, electrical panels, etc. prevent pedestrian transition. The highest conformity routes are located on the adjacent to main streets where the pedestrian circulation is high due to the commercial use of the building ground floor, large width sidewalks, and conveniently located plant and urban furniture. Based on the results of the study, the following suggestions are offered o increase the conformity of both existed and planned pedestrian routes: (1) The sidewalk width is one of the difficult criteria to change in the developed urban area; therefore, sidewalk width should be designed and planned according to the intensity of future use. (2) Urban furniture should be in an appropriate position and height on both narrow and wide-width pavements. (3) An urban pedestrian access system in which current practices are integrated should be developed to ensure regular maintenance of sidewalks and to eliminate problems in the shortest time possible. Thus, both physically and climatically comfortable pedestrian routes can be created by developing a GIS-based access system by which data flow is provided by public institutions. In this study, the evaluation criteria for designing the comfortable pedestrian routes were determined by the review of national and international literature published in the last 20 years. The methodology of the study is of practical value since it ucan be applied to the identification of pedestrian comfort route in different urban areas. Moreover, this study may serve as a guide for decision-makers in future urban design and planning. with the concrete data obtained by the integration of GIS.
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Building circulation is one of the crucial design factors associated with spatial planning, especially in the early phases of building design and has a significant impact on the overall design quality. In this paper, we describe the development of an evaluation framework for design analysis that focuses on the Walkability of building circulation in a Building Information Modeling (BIM) environment as a consideration for simplifying complex design problems. The evaluation framework emphasizes a quantitative, explicit approach utilizing the Indoor Walkability Index (IWI), which is a measure of indoor circulation performance that includes criteria such as distance, simplicity, accessibility, and pedestrian-friendly circulation. Contrary to explicitly defined building standards such as ‘shorter than 20 meters walking distances’, other aspects of building circulation are frequently illustrated as implicit factors, such as ‘convenient access’, which seem to require domain-specific knowledge, rather than a simple calculation. The IWI defined in this paper has an open objective to address these types of circulation issues by using computational and quantitative data derived from given BIM models. In the long method of handling design knowledge issues by computation, the IWI employs rich building information to analyze and find better design alternatives as a decision-support tool. This paper illustrates an overall approach to such building circulation issues with a software demonstration and open-ended sub-algorithms, along with a growing number of BIM applications. To demonstrate the utility of the IWI, an actual building remodeling project was used as a test model, and IWI analysis was performed for various design alternatives. Directions for further improvement of the framework are also discussed.
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Transit oriented development (TOD) has quickly developed as a well-known urban developing approach all around the world to achieve a spatial economic transport interaction. TOD does not only relate to mass transit, but it is a strategy to decongest nodal, major points, arteries of the city by making people walk, use public transport, in order to make city environmentally sustainable. Indian cities are fronting major predicament under the sphere of mobility in urban development for which smart cities concept TOD in developing and big countries like India. Hence, this paper will be majorly focusing on presentation of a methodical literature assessment. Though, TOD as a policy is envisaged to have a significant positive impact in mitigating issues at urban scale but there are variety of attributes and indicators that impact the applicability of (SLR) that targets the consolidated knowledge on Transit Oriented Development, analyze the parameters for the successful TOD's all over the world and provide steps for further exploration in Indian context. The corpus analysis of 102 articles and reports leading to the most significant research offerings on TOD acting as the essential pillar in the development is researched such that these results could be utilized for further research.
Book
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Planning for Greying Cities: Age-Friendly City Planning and Design Research and Practice highlights how modern town planning and design act as a positive force for population ageing, taking on these challenges from a user-oriented perspective. Although often related to 'healthy city' concepts, the contexts of age-friendly cities and communities (AFCC) were not emphasized until the early 2000s. Planning for Greying Cities is the first book to bring together fundamental and cutting-edge research exploring dimensions of age-friendly cities in different spatial scales. Chapters examine the ageing circumstances and challenges in cities, communities, and rural areas in terms of land use planning, urban design, transport planning, housing, disaster resilience, and governance and empowerment, with international case studies and empirical research results of age-friendly environment studies. It is essential reading for academics and practicians in urban planning, gerontol-ogy, transport planning, and environmental design.
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Transit development area in Jakarta which supported by the development of mixed-use spatial to encourage the population to use public transit transportation, often more focused on spatial arrangement and development. While the transportation utility such as pedestrian path not developed as well as spatial planning. Even though walking is a form of basic transportation and the only way to change the mode of transportation in the transit area. Also, connected by walking distance is one parameter to a successful transit-oriented development area. The objective of the research is to analyze the connection between pedestrian path components and public transit transportation usage. The area of this research is pedestrian paths that connect Duren Kalibata Train Station and Kalibata City Apartment. Based on the literature study, this research is using trip distance, sidewalk width, obstacles, and path discontinuity as components of the pedestrian path that influences transit transportation usage. Surveys, observations, and measurements were used to collect data. These data analyzed using multiple linear regression. Components from the pedestrian path from the literature study used as an independent variable: trip distance (X1), sidewalk width (X2), obstacles (X3), and path discontinuity (X4). Equation model Y=-0.575-0.021(X1)+4.825(X2)-0.164(X3)+2.154(X4) is a result of data analysis for public transit transportation rate of use at Duren Kalibata Train Station. From the ANOVA regression test, this equation model has variables with low significance. And from the t-stat value test, it shows that only trip distance that has a big influence on public transit transportation rate of use at Duren Kalibata Train Station. To formulate a better model that represents the condition on how pedestrian path influences the usage rate of transit transportation, trip distance can be used and combined with other pedestrian path components that will need to be identified.
Chapter
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Quality function deployment (QFD) is a planning methodology for translating customer needs into appropriate product features. In QFD operation, relationship matrices are used to describe the relations between different customer needs, between different design requirements and between customer need and design requirement. These relations are expressed using linguistic or crisp variables. Linguistic variables are characterized by ambiguity and multiplicity of meaning. Current research in QFD focuses on two areas: simplification of the documentation process and computerization of QFD. Effort to address the semantic in the linguistic variables, however, has been neglected. To fully automate the laborious manual QFD operation, the ability to interpret the semantic of the linguistic variables has become necessary. In this work, an approach centred on the application of possibility theory and fuzzy arithmetic has been developed to address the ambiguity. Details of the approach and the framework of a fuzzy quality function deployment (FQFD) system will be presented. In this work, an example is used to illustrate the approach developed.
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The potential to moderate travel demand through changes in the built environment is the subject of more than 50 recent empirical studies. The majority of recent studies are summarized. Elasticities of travel demand with respect to density, diversity, design, and regional accessibility are then derived from selected studies. These elasticity values may be useful in travel forecasting and sketch planning and have already been incorporated into one sketch planning tool, the Environmental Protection Agency's Smart Growth Index model. In weighing the evidence, what can be said, with a degree of certainty, about the effects of built environments on key transportation "outcome" variables: trip frequency, trip length, mode choice, and composite measures of travel demand, vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and vehicle hours traveled (VHT)? Trip frequencies have attracted considerable academic interest of late. They appear to be primarily a function of socioeconomic characteristics of travelers and secondarily a function of the built environment. Trip lengths have received relatively little attention, which may account for the various degrees of importance attributed to the built environment in recent studies. Trip lengths are primarily a function of the built environment and secondarily a function of socioeconomic characteristics. Mode choices have received the most intensive study over the decades. Mode choices depend on both the built environment and socioeconomics (although they probably depend more on the latter). Studies of overall VMT or VHT find the built environment to be much more significant, a product of the differential trip lengths that factor into calculations of VMT and VHT.
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In recent years, there has been a chorus of calls to redesign America's suburbs so chat they are less dependent on automobile access and more conducive to transit riding, walking, and bicycling. This article compares commuting characteristics of transit-oriented and auto-oriented suburban neighborhoods, in the San Francisco Bay Area and in Southern California. Transit neighborhoods averaged higher densities and had more gridded street patterns compared to their nearby counterparts with auto-oriented physical designs. Neighbor hoods were matched in terms of median incomes and, to the extent possible, transit service levels, to control for these effects. For both metropolitan areas, pedestrian modal shares and trip generation rates tended to be considerably higher in transit than in auto-oriented neighborhoods. Transit neighborhoods had decidedly higher rates of bus commuting only in the Bay Area. Islands of transit-oriented neighborhoods in a sea of freeway-oriented suburbs seem to have negligible effects on transit commuting.
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This article presents an analytical method for quantifying Heskett’s “Strategic service vision”. The model, which is based on quality function deployment (QFD), and benchmarking, starts with two matrices in series to relate market segments, service concepts, and various processes, as rows and columns of interconnected QFD matrices. In addition, analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a decision-making tool, is used to determine the intensity of the relationship between the row and column variables of each matrix, while analytic network process (ANP), an extension of AHP, is used to determine the intensity of synergy effects among column variables. Finally, benchmarking is used to suggest potential breakthroughs in service delivery. Ultimately, the goal of these matrices and benchmarking is to add fine-tuning and precision to an otherwise qualitative strategic decision making process. To demonstrate the applicability of our proposed model to service organizations we develop its basic concepts within the framework of a specific example serving as a background.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to promote successful application of quality function deployment (QFD) combined with quantitative techniques in service organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The paper assesses advantages and disadvantages of implementing the QFD method in service organizations. It discusses the integration of quantitative techniques with QFD in order to overcome some of the problems that organizations face in its application. The implementation of QFD along with AHP and ANP is studied within the bank sector. With the intention of completing the first House of Quality and thus prioritizing customers' bank selection criteria, a field survey was carried out with customers of a bank. Also, information from interviews with the bank's managers was utilized. Findings – The real world illustration confirms the compatibility between QFD, AHP and ANP and demonstrates the applicability and ease of use of the proposed model. Originality/value – A procedure is presented to help practitioners of this improved QFD framework deal with the challenges of quick response to dynamic shifts in customer needs by automating the House of Quality (HOQ). The paper could be useful to academics and practitioners in developing the integrated QFD‐AHP‐ANP method to design high quality services in various services.
Since Quality Function Deployment (QFD) has been applied all over the world, a number of surveys have been conducted in various nations in order to evaluate the extent to which the method is applied as well as its main difficulties and benefits. Reports on the design, development and findings of a survey carried out in Brazil, where QFD is completing ten years of application. The companies reported the QFD experienced difficulties, driven data sources, perceived benefits and other relevant aspects of its implementation. The principal difficulties are relative to the size of the matrices, commitment of group members and lack of experience. Companies are more likely to report qualitative benefits associated with improved cross-functional communication and teamwork. The final picture shows that companies that applied QFD are restricted to a limited population. Reveals a considerable lack of knowledge about the method expressed by many survey respondents. However, identifies five companies with a high level of QFD application.
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Construction of housing in the United States is highly decentralized. There is an increasing use of manufactured components and modules constructed off-site at a manufacturing facility and assembled at the building site. However, there has been little use of modern manufacturing processes and controls. In an effort to develop energy efficient, affordable industrialized housing, a total engineering design approach is needed. This study uses a concurrent engineering approach to examine the production of an essential component in industrialized housing, a manufactured exterior structural wall panel. In particular, we apply Quality Function Deployment to fully integrate the customer's requirements. This paper focuses on the identification and prioritization of those customer requirements. We integrate the Analytic Hierarchy process with QFD to establish a framework for prioritizing customer requirements.
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Analytic network process (ANP) is a new tool for multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) but can also be applied in academic research to prioritize factors or criteria. It enhances the function of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to develop a complete model that can incorporate interdependent relationships between elements from different levels or within levels, which are assumed to be uncorrelated in AHP. Although ANP has recently been applied in the construction field, it cannot be applied easily to process models. This is because its concept does not consider the impacts of an element on another element occurring at different periods in a process, such as stages, phases, etc. This paper uses the strategic partnering model as an example to present a method that helps to form the super-matrix for process models. The procedure of ANP is also highlighted in this paper.
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The built environment is thought to influence travel demand along three principal dimensions —density, diversity, and design. This paper tests this proposition by examining how the ‘3Ds’ affect trip rates and mode choice of residents in the San Francisco Bay Area. Using 1990 travel diary data and land-use records obtained from the U.S. census, regional inventories, and field surveys, models are estimated that relate features of the built environment to variations in vehicle miles traveled per household and mode choice, mainly for non-work trips. Factor analysis is used to linearly combine variables into the density and design dimensions of the built environment. The research finds that density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs generally reduce trip rates and encourage non-auto travel in statistically significant ways, though their influences appear to be fairly marginal. Elasticities between variables and factors that capture the 3Ds and various measures of travel demand are generally in the 0.06 to 0.18 range, expressed in absolute terms. Compact development was found to exert the strongest influence on personal business trips. Within-neighborhood retail shops, on the other hand, were most strongly associated with mode choice for work trips. And while a factor capturing ‘walking quality’ was only moderately related to mode choice for non-work trips, those living in neighborhoods with grid-iron street designs and restricted commercial parking were nonetheless found to average significantly less vehicle miles of travel and rely less on single-occupant vehicles for non-work trips. Overall, this research shows that the elasticities between each dimension of the built environment and travel demand are modest to moderate, though certainly not inconsequential. Thus it supports the contention of new urbanists and others that creating more compact, diverse, and pedestrian-orientated neighborhoods, in combination, can meaningfully influence how Americans travel.
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In a competitive and global business environment, it is certainly a distinct advantage to capture the genuine and major customer's requirements effectively. To take advantage of this, the unique way is to analyze customer's requirements systematically and to transform them into the appropriate product features properly. Quality function deployment (QFD) is a well-known planning methodology for translating customer needs (CNs) into relevant design requirements (DRs). The intent of applying QFD is to consolidate the customers’ preferences to the various phases of the product development cycle for a new product, or a new version of an existing product. However, it is more difficult to assess the performance of this process with accurate quantitative evaluation due to its uncertain nature. Moreover, people tend to give information about their personal preferences in many different ways, numerically or linguistically, depending on their background and value systems. In this study, a new fuzzy group decision-making approach is presented to fuse multiple preference styles to respond CNs in product development with QFD in a better way. The approach is illustrated with a numerical example concerning the development of the hatch door of a car.
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This paper presents a strategic solution to the facility location problem which incorporates both external and internal criteria in the decision-making process. The external components of the model are customers and their wants, competitors, and the characteristics of various locations. The internal components of the model are the critical processes in the manufacturing organization. The framework presented uses quality function deployment (QFD), analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and analytic network process (ANP). QFD matrices with interconnected rows and columns relate market segments, competitive priorities, critical processes, location attributes and various locations. AHP determines the intensity of the relationship between the row and column variables of each matrix. Finally, ANP determines the intensity of synergistic effects among column variables. The model fine-tunes and adds precision to an otherwise qualitative strategic decision process. The applicability of our proposed model is demonstrated with a case study that summarizes an intervention in which the model's framework and basic concepts were applied.
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Quality Function Deployment (QFD) has been used to translate customer needs and wants into technical design requirements in order to increase customer satisfaction. QFD utilizes the house of quality (HOQ), which is a matrix providing a conceptual map for the design process, as a construct for understanding Customer Requirements (CRs) and establishing priorities of Design Requirements (DRs) to satisfy them. Some methodological issues occurring in the conventional HOQ are discussed, and then a new integrative decision model for selecting an optimal set of DRs is presented using a modified HOQ model. The modified HOQ prioritization procedure employs a multi-attribute decision method for assigning relationship ratings between CRs and DRs instead of a conventional relationship rating scale, such as 1–3–9. The proposed decision model has been applied to an indoor air quality improvement problem as an illustrative example.
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We discuss and develop an imbalance-crisis turning point model to forecast the likelihood of a financial crisis based on an Analytic Network Process framework. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) is a general theory of relative measurement used to derive composite-priority-ratio scales from individual-ratio scales that represent relative influence of factors that interact with respect to control criteria. Through its supermatrix, which is composed of matrices of column priorities, the ANP framework captures the outcome of dependence and feedback within and between clusters of explanatory factors. We argue that our framework is more flexible and is more comprehensive than traditional methods and previous models. We illustrate how the ANP model would be implemented for forecasting the probability of crises.
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The New Urbanism movement calls for redesigning American neighborhoods so that they are less oriented toward automobile travel and more conducive to walking, bicycling and transit riding, especially for non-work trips. New Urbanism calls for a return to compact neighborhoods with grid-like street patterns, mixed land uses and pedestrian amenities. This paper investigates the effects of New Urbanism design principles on both non-work and commuting travel by comparing modal splits between two distinctly different neighborhoods in the San Francisco Bay Area. The neo-traditional neighborhood, Rockridge, and the nearby conventional suburban community, Lafayette, were chosen as case sites because they have similar income profiles, freeway and transit service levels, and geographical locations. Rockridge residents averaged around a 10 percentage point higher share of non-work trips by non-automobile modes than did residents of Lafayette, controlling for relevant factors like income and transit service levels. The greatest differences were for shop trips under one mile. Rockridge residents also averaged substantially higher rates of non-work walk trips per day, matched by lower rates of daily auto travel, suggesting that walking substitutes for motorized travel, at the margin. Modal splits were more similar for work trips, confirming the proposition that neighborhood design practices exert their greatest influence on local shopping trips and other non-work purposes. For work trips, compact, mixed-use, and pedestrian-oriented development appears to have the strongest effect on access trips to rail stations, in particular inducing higher shares of access trips by foot and bicycle.
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The drawbacks of the standard Hough transform (SHT) are the large computation and the large storage requirement. Moreover, the voting method of SHT plays an important role to affect the pattern detection accuracy. In this paper, a new voting method is proposed to reduce the computation and the storage requirements of SHT for circle detection. This method improves the efficiency of circle detection by letting each pixel only belong to one candidate of circle parameters. Synthetic images and real images are used to show the capability of the proposed method.
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Most decisions need to be free from assumptions of independence to be faithful to the complex problems in which they arise. This paper illustrates how to generate priorities for decisions involving general types of dependence of criteria on alternatives, criteria on criteria and alternatives on alternatives. It is based on the feedback system framework of the Analytic Hierarchy Process of which a hierarchy is a special case.
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This paper presents a review, analysis, classification and codification of the literature on quality function deployment (QFD) produced between 2002 and 2006. The publications were classified into two main groups: conceptual research and empirical research. The studies focused more on quality matrix problem solving and the main difficulties are reported. However, few studies have been done on solutions for other important aspects. Further research is needed on how to reduce the difficulties of using QFD.
Article
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a statistical tool for constructing a low-dimensional configuration to represent the relationships between the objects. Although MDS has been widely used in various fields, it is difficult to evaluate similarity/ dissimilarity between the complex systems by human judgment. Even though we can divide a complex system into subsystems, which can be more easily evaluated, the relative weights of the subsystems are also a crucial problem. Because of these subsystems usually exist interdependence and feedback, the weights of the subsystems are hard to obtain. This paper proposes a method which combines the methods of the interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and the analytic network process (ANP) procedures to deal with the problem of the subsystems’ interdependence and feedback. In addition, we also provide a numerical example to illustrate the proposed method.
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This paper proposes an application of the analytic network process (ANP) for the selection of product mix for efficient manufacturing in a semiconductor fabricator. In order to evaluate different product mixes, a hierarchical network model based on various factors and the interactions of factors is presented. By incorporating experts’ opinion, a priority index can be calculated for each product mix studied, and a performance ranking of product mixes can be generated. The results provide guidance to a fab regarding strategies for accepting orders to maximize the manufacturing efficiency in considering the aspects of product, equipment efficiency and finance. The model can be easily understood and followed by administrators to determine the most efficient product mix for a fab.
Article
In both the quality improvement and the design of a product, the engineering characteristics affecting product performance are primarily identified and improved to optimize customer needs (CNs). Especially, the limited resources and increased market competition and product complexity require a customer-driven quality management and product development system achieving higher customer satisfaction. Quality function deployment (QFD) is used as a powerful tool for improving product design and quality, and procuring a customer-driven quality system. In this paper, an integrated framework based on fuzzy-QFD and a fuzzy optimization model is proposed to determine the product technical requirements (PTRs) to be considered in designing a product. The coefficients of the objective function are obtained from a fuzzy analytic network process (ANP) approach. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is also used in the proposed framework. An application in a Turkish Company producing PVC window and door systems is presented to illustrate the proposed framework.
Article
Recognizing the need for consistent, reliable, and efficient methods to collect information about the walking environment, the authors have developed and tested a complete environmental audit methodology—the Pedestrian Environmental Data Scan (PEDS). In this paper, the development of the audit methodology is presented, including the design of the instrument, the creation of training and supporting materials, administration, and integration with handheld technology. Various tests of inter- and intra-rater reliability of our instrument have been conducted, including individual audit measures and various approaches to administering the audit. The results indicate high reliability for most measures and confirmed administration procedures. The PEDS audit methodology provides a comprehensive method to evaluate pedestrian environments for academics involved with transportation and physical activity research as well as practitioners seeking to an assessment tool for prioritizing investments.
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Information system (IS) project selection problems are multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. Existing methods for IS project selection does not reflect interdependencies among criteria and candidate projects, Considering these interdependencies among criteria provides valuable cost savings and greater benefits to organizations. When we evaluate project problems, we need to collect a group opinion because to know the interdependence relationship among criteria and criteria in considered project problems is very important. In order to collect group opinion for interdependent project problem, we use expert interview. In this paper, we suggest an improved IS project selection methodology which reflect interdependencies among evaluation criteria and candidate projects using analytic network process (ANP) within a zero-one goal programming (ZOGP) model.
Article
Quality function deployment (QFD) is a customer-oriented design tool with cross-functional team members reaching a consensus in developing a new or improved product to increase customer satisfaction. QFD starts with the house of quality (HOQ), which is a planning matrix translating the customer needs into measurable product technical requirements (PTRs). A robust evaluation method should consider the interrelationships among customer needs and PTRs while determining the importance levels of PTRs in the HOQ. This paper employs the analytic network process (ANP) to fulfill this requirement. Furthermore, the proposed analytic procedure should take into account the multi-objective nature of the problem, and thus, incorporate other goals such as cost, extendibility and manufacturability of PTRs. This paper presents a zero–one goal programming methodology that includes importance levels of PTRs derived using the ANP, cost budget, extendibility level and manufacturability level goals to determine the PTRs to be considered in designing the product. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the application of the decision approach.