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Abstract

Cities play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They produce a large proportion of CO2 emissions, but they also sequester and store carbon in urban forests and green space. However, sequestration by urban green space is difficult to quantify and also involves emissions. The carbon footprint analysis is an established method for systematically quantifying carbon sinks and sources throughout the lifetime of goods and services. We applied this method to an urban green space project in Leipzig, Germany. To the best of our knowledge it is the first application in this field. We simulated carbon sequestration by growing trees and contrasted it with all related carbon sources, from construction and maintenance over the lifetime of 50 years. In addition, we explored alternative design and maintenance scenarios. Total net sequestration was predicted to be between 137 and 162 MgCO2 ha−1. Park-like design and maintenance is less effective than forest-like design and maintenance. Much uncertainty is linked to tree growth and tree mortality. Increasing annual tree mortality from 0.5 to 4% reduces sequestration by over 70%. In conclusion, urban green space can act as a carbon sink and the design and maintenance have a strong influence on the carbon footprint. The carbon footprint analysis is a valuable tool for estimating the long-term environmental performance of urban green space projects. Compared to emissions from people, the overall potential for carbon mitigation is limited, even in cities such as Leipzig with widely available space for new urban green space.

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... The challenge here is that the ecological processes of carbon sequestration in soils are complex and poorly understood. This results in high uncertainty in a process that can largely influence the LCA results (Mclaren, 2010;Strohbach et al., 2012;Tidåker et al., 2017). Soil carbon models are available, but are usually highly time and data intensive, and are poorly adapted to UA with its potentially unique substrate and high compost amendments (Dorr et al., 2017). ...
... Many agriculture LCAs explicitly omit carbon sequestration from compost because of high uncertainty (Christensen et al., 2018;Seufert and Ramankutty, 2017), while some include it (Rothwell et al., 2016), and some present impacts with and without carbon sequestration (Dorr et al., 2021b) (Chapter 4.2). LCAs of other urban green infrastructure, such as parks and golf courses, usually include carbon sequestration, and it often largely affects the results, even resulting in the entire system acting as a carbon sink (Bartlett and James, 2011;Nicese et al., 2021;Strohbach et al., 2012). ...
... In this case, UA may be more comparable to a park or other social/recreational activity than it is to rural agriculture. There is a wealth of literature on environmental assessments of green roofs (Kim et al., 2018), urban parks and forests (Strohbach et al., 2012), golf courses (Tidåker et al., 2017), urban wetlands (Duan et al., 2011), grassy areas (Smetana and Crittenden, 2014), and other green infrastructure (Nicese et al., 2021), and it would be useful for UA LCA practitioners to relate UA to these land uses. It could provide meaningful comparisons to similar systems, and illuminate shortcomings in UA LCAs that have not emerged due to the so-far limited productbased perspective. ...
Thesis
The global food system causes massive environmental impacts, and faces the challenge of feeding an even larger, more urbanized population in the coming decades. Urban agriculture (UA) is a type of alternative agriculture, which may have environmental and social benefits, and comes in a large diversity of forms. These environmental benefits and impacts can be modeled with life cycle assessment (LCA). Application of LCA to UA is relatively recent, and has not undergone the same methodological reflections and adaptations that LCA of other sectors has. In this thesis project, I investigated 1) what LCA tells us about the environmental performance of UA, and 2) how best to apply LCA to UA. I performed a review and meta-analysis of UA LCAs, and reviewed literature on the development of LCA for agriculture in general. I did LCAs of nine urban farms and gardens in Paris, France and the Bay Area, California, USA, and (with the FEW-meter project) analyzed resource use and food production at 72 UA case studies. I summarized and generated knowledge on the environmental performance of UA, and created a methodological framework to improve consistency and completeness in UA LCAs.
... As the role of urban greenspaces as carbon uptake sources has become more important, numerous studies [8,[11][12][13][14][15][16][17] have been conducted to estimate their carbon reduction effects worldwide. However, most of these studies only consider carbon uptake by trees, and due to the difficulty of data collection and the complexity of space, there are only a few studies that have perceived the carbon budget through the life cycle assessment of urban greenspaces as follows [18][19][20][21]. Strohbach et al. (2012) quantified the net cumulative carbon uptake of some urban greenspaces in Leipzig, Germany, and analyzed the carbon budget by comparing them according to four designs and management scenarios [18]. ...
... However, most of these studies only consider carbon uptake by trees, and due to the difficulty of data collection and the complexity of space, there are only a few studies that have perceived the carbon budget through the life cycle assessment of urban greenspaces as follows [18][19][20][21]. Strohbach et al. (2012) quantified the net cumulative carbon uptake of some urban greenspaces in Leipzig, Germany, and analyzed the carbon budget by comparing them according to four designs and management scenarios [18]. The net cumulative carbon uptake per unit area over the life cycle of urban greenspace was 37.4-44.2 ...
... However, most of these studies only consider carbon uptake by trees, and due to the difficulty of data collection and the complexity of space, there are only a few studies that have perceived the carbon budget through the life cycle assessment of urban greenspaces as follows [18][19][20][21]. Strohbach et al. (2012) quantified the net cumulative carbon uptake of some urban greenspaces in Leipzig, Germany, and analyzed the carbon budget by comparing them according to four designs and management scenarios [18]. The net cumulative carbon uptake per unit area over the life cycle of urban greenspace was 37.4-44.2 ...
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Although urban parks sequester carbon by vegetation growth, they emit carbon due to materials production, transport, construction, management, demolition, and disposal throughout their life cycle. This study estimated the carbon budget of urban parks over their life cycle according to land cover type and explored ecological design and construction strategies to maximize carbon reduction. After setting up the scope of the life cycle, the energy and material used for each stage were analyzed on the basis of field survey, design and construction details, and literature review of 30 study parks. The net carbon uptake per unit of park area averaged 8.51 kg/m2, with urban parks playing an important role as a source of carbon uptake to mitigate the climate change. This study suggested ecological design and construction strategies including the expansion of tree planting spaces through the minimization of grass and impervious areas, the minimization of changes to existing topography, and the utilization of local materials. As a result of applying these strategies to study parks, the net carbon uptake increased approximately 9.2 times. These study results are expected to be useful as information for the implementation of carbon-neutral policies and greenspace establishment projects.
... Nowak et al. [3] discussed how the management practices of trees can result in the trees being net emitters of carbon over the course of its lifecycle. Maintenance practices are important for ensuring survival [32]. Disposal of removed trees tends to be the largest contributor to C emissions from urban trees [32]. ...
... Maintenance practices are important for ensuring survival [32]. Disposal of removed trees tends to be the largest contributor to C emissions from urban trees [32]. The C emissions of a tree largely depend on the practice used to dispose of the tree. ...
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The presence of urban plants in an ecosystem are vital for processes including carbon sequestration and the type of urban plants included in urban settings affect the amount of carbon sequestered. The objective of this study is to assess the ability of urban plants to sequester carbon under a number of available management practices through the development and refinement of an accessible carbon calculator. Available urban plant data were analyzed using the calculator developed using available literature regarding carbon sequestration to determine differences between different types of plants, when hidden carbon costs (HCC) were considered. Carbon sequestration including HCC for turfgrasses could be calculated but there was a lack of information regarding HCC of urban trees and shrubs. The calculator was shown to be an effective tool for homeowners to determine viable management practices to maintain or increase carbon sequestration.
... Referring to the basic information on carbon sources, sinks and costs provided by the Athena Sustainable Materials Institute of Canada, the U.S. Forest Service and the U.S. Conservation Service, it can be concluded that 80 different materials used in landscaping projects, which are extracted, manufactured, transported, installed, used, maintained and replaced in paving, walls, fences, etc., generate carbon emissions associated with the process; trees, shrubs and grasses absorb CO2 from the atmosphere and fix it into the soil; and emissions from pruning trees and shrubs occur periodically over the life of the project and are often referred to as "carbon from operations. (1) Research scope: 50 years as a lifecycle research threshold [19]; ...
... (1) Research scope: 50 years as a lifecycle research threshold [19]; ...
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Objectives: In the “dual evaluation” of land space, the evaluation of the importance of ecosystem service functions and residential areas is important, playing a significant role in plants acting as carbon sinks and thereby achieving the transformation of low-carbon settlements. Methods: The paper compares and analyzes five models for quantifying carbon sink benefits and focuses on the national tree benefit calculator (NTBC) model, which is suitable for the carbon sequestration benefits of plants in residential areas, to (i) estimate and compare the economic benefits brought by trees and shrubs in residential areas, (ii) analyze the reasons for the differences between the current data and data for the next 20 years, and (iii) comprehensively evaluate the technical points related to the plant landscape in residential areas to assess whether they comply with the “Green Settlement Standard.” The index system was scored according to the standard. Result: The current data collected for existing trees and shrubs include the following: When the trees are in good condition, the order of the trees according to their economic benefits in the current year is Zelkova serrata > Cedrus deodara > Sapindus saponaria > Sophora japonica > Cinnamomum camphora > Prunus cerasifera > Magnolia grandiflora > Ulmus pumila > Acer L. > Lagerstroemia indica L. > Sapium sebiferum > Sabina > Punica granatum L. > Acer palmatum > Sapium sebiferum > Celtis sinensis Pers > Bambusa multiplex > Cycas > Melia azedarach L. > Pinus parviflora, and that of the trees in the next 20 years is Zelkova serrata > Cinnamomum camphora > Sophora japonica > Sapindus saponaria > Ulmus pumila > Cedrus deodara > Prunus cerasifera > Magnolia grandiflora > Acer L. > Sapium sebiferum > Cycas > Punica granatum L. > Lagerstroemia indica L. > Acer palmatum Thunb > Sabina > Bambusa multiplex > Broussonetia papyrifera > Celtis sinensis Pers > Melia azedarach L. > Pinus parviflora. The order of shrubs according to their economic gain in the current year is Photinia beauverdiana > Pittosporum tobira > Ligustrum lucidum > Viburnum odoratissimum > Buxus cephalantha, and that of the shrubs in the next 20 years is Ligustrum lucidum > Photinia beauverdiana > Pittosporum tobira > Buxus cephalantha > Viburnum odoratissimum. Conclusion: Using plants, the construction ideas, community structure and landscape maintenance of the carbon sink estimation system of residential areas should be updated according to three aspects to promote the quantification of the carbon sink benefits of green areas in urban settlements and the development of low-carbon settlements in China.
... Thus, unsustainable harvesting of wood for fuel usually represents a trade-off against other benefit flows; with carbon sequestration being of interest in our study. In contrast, sustainable use can provide energy to the poor with zero or low net emissions to the atmosphere [28][29][30]. Consequently, there is a need for careful monitoring and management of urban biomass that might be used for fuelwood purposes. ...
... Thus, there is a trade-off and which of these two ecosystem services is deemed the most important for local people needs to be considered in future green space planning and management in Bulawayo. The use of fuelwood is regarded to be more or less carbon neutral in terms of emissions contributing to climate change [28][29][30]. However, Holtsmark [68] argues that such an assumption is too simplistic, and further consideration is required in terms of the regrowth rates of the harvested biomass and how harvesting effects soil carbon dynamics. ...
Article
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Trees in public urban green spaces provide a variety of ecosystem goods and services that are greatly appreciated by urban residents. A commonly used good, especially in Global South regions, is that of fuelwood for household energy needs. Yet the production potential of fuelwood from public urban green spaces has rarely been examined. This study quantifies the fuelwood production and allied carbon sequestration potential of 12 public urban green spaces in Bulawayo (Zimbabwe) stratified across neighborhoods of different housing densities. We estimated tree density in the green spaces by means of line transects, and annual production through estimates of the mean annual increment of a sample of marked trees. We found that Bulawayo’s public green spaces produce 1.9 t/ha/yr of fuelwood with a value of $340 to $490/ha/yr, and that production varied across spaces and housing density neighborhoods. This production is much lower than the documented demand but it is likely to be significant for fuelwood-dependent households. In contrast, the amount (1010 ± 160 kg/ha/yr) and value (US$4.04/ha/yr) of carbon sequestration were lower. Formal public green spaces produced more fuelwood as compared to informal green spaces and no difference was evident in tree growth rates between exotic and indigenous tree species. This is one of the first studies to show the value of the fuelwood production and carbon sequestration potential of public green spaces in the region and continent and requires that they are integrated into public urban green space policies, planning, and management in the city.
... The benefits of GI were found to be influenced by GI types (e.g. species, canopy size, and yield potential) (Pappalardo et al., 2017;Smetana & Crittenden, 2014), GI establishment quantities (Davis et al., 2017;Kong et al., 2016), GI mortalities influenced by management measures and external disturbance (Nyelele et al., 2019;Strohbach et al., 2012;Widney et al., 2016), GI spatial locations , climate factors (Zölch et al., 2016), and others (e.g., technology). Although there are no best scenarios or combinations of drivers that are favorable for UES under all conditions, the benefits of implementing GI can generally be improved when implementing large quantities of GI (Zölch et al., 2017) with low mortalities (Nyelele et al., 2019) in high service-demanding regions (Davis et al., 2017;Wu et al., 2019;Zölch et al., 2016). ...
... In addition to the uncertain benefits provided by GI, several studies found that the provided UES are relatively limited compared with UES demands (Parsa et al., 2019a;Strohbach et al., 2012). For example, Parsa et al. (2019a) found that the contribution of urban trees to climate change mitigation in the future accounted for only about 0.2-0.6% of the overall GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. ...
Article
Scenario analysis (SA) provides a useful tool to envision the future conditions of urban ecosystem services (UES), but our understanding of how SA has been used in UES research is rather limited. Thus, this study was intended to (1) review scenario analysis-based urban ecosystem services (SA-UES) studies; and (2) synthesize the main findings that can help improving urban planning and management. By adopting a systematic review procedure, we identified and analyzed 103 relevant articles from Web of Science. We found that SA-UES research comprises primarily studies geared towards urban landscape planning/management (Type I) and green infrastructure (GI) planning/management (Type II), with the former exploring the impacts of multiple land use/cover types on UES and the latter evaluating the potential of GI to provide UES. About 93% of the examined cities were located in Asia, Americas, and Europe, with Type I research accounting for 80%, 46%, and 41% of the total number of publications in each continent, respectively. SA-UES research pursued mainly city-scale, spatially-explicit, and exploratory scenarios, with regulating services mostly considered. The most often considered scenario drivers were urban land demand and natural land protection in Type I research, and GI quantity and spatial location in Type II research. UES scenarios were mainly represented quantitively using five types of approaches: adapting existing scenarios, GIS-based mapping, land use/cover change model, tree growth model, and optimization method. UES were most often evaluated by adopting biophysical approaches (64%), followed by monetary approaches (22%). SA-UES studies have shown that the same drivers may have contrasting impacts on UES in different contexts. Thus, sustaining UES requires context-specific solutions, which can be facilitated by the use of SA. To move forward, SA-UES research should further promote the holistic landscape approach that integrates both green and non-green infrastructures, with more emphasis on climate change, policy intervention and stakeholders-participatory scenarios, and cultural services.
... The authors find that parks, street trees, lawns, and urban forests have received less attention than other green infrastructure types (e.g., nature-based water infrastructure) in terms of carbon sequestration. In a study by Strohbach et al. (2012), the authors show that approximately 10 trees per hectare in urban parks would potentially offset the emissions from construction and maintenance of the park after 50 years. Similarly, show that 3-10 trees, and up to 6116 trees, are required to offset the remaining greenhouse gas emissions of a net zero operational energy villa (including user mobility) and a standard villa in Abu Dhabi, respectively. ...
... Carbon sequestration in vegetation and green infrastructure is taken into account to ensure that the capacity of green infrastructures to act as carbon sinks (or potential emitters) in the built environment is considered when designing a neighborhood (Strohbach et al., 2012). This is calculated based on the tree species, age, and the climate, using the method developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (1998) as well as the soil type. ...
Article
Cities are complex sociotechnical systems, of which buildings and infrastructure assets (built stocks) constitute a critical part. As the main global users of primary energy and emitters of associated greenhouse gases, there is a need for the introduction of measures capable of enhancing the environmental performance of built stocks in cities and mitigating negative externalities such as pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. To date, most environmental modeling and assessment approaches are often fragmented across disciplines and limited in scope, failing to provide a comprehensive evaluation. These approaches tend to focus either on one scale relevant to a discipline (e.g., buildings, roads, parks) or particular environmental flows (e.g., energy, greenhouse emissions). Here, we present a framework aimed at overcoming many of these limitations. By combining life cycle assessment and dynamic modeling using a nested systems theory, this framework provides a more holistic and integrated approach for modeling and improving the environmental performance of built stocks and their occupants, including material stocks and flows, embodied, operational, and mobility‐related environmental flows, as well as cost, and carbon sequestration in materials and green infrastructure. This comprehensive approach enables a very detailed parametrization that supports testing different policy scenarios at a material, element, building, and neighborhood level, and across different environmental flows. We test parts of our modeling framework on a proof‐of‐concept case study neighborhood in Melbourne, Australia, demonstrating its breadth. The proposed modeling framework can enable an advanced assessment of built stocks that enhances our capacity to improve the life cycle environmental performance of cities.
... The ecosystem service function provided by urban green spaces is to remove CO 2 from the atmosphere and store carbon in vegetation and soil (Linden et al. 2020). However, plants absorb, store, and emit CO 2 , making it difficult to quantify the carbon footprint of urban green spaces (Strohbach et al. 2012). Urban green landscapes must be maintained to retain viability over the long term. ...
... There is also a trade-off in the relationship between maintenance and carbon emissions, as maintenance inevitably generates carbon emissions, and different vegetation types and community structures have different carbon emission rates in the maintenance process (Liu and Yang 2019). Therefore, reducing the amount of necessary maintenance for urban green spaces is an effective pathway to reducing emissions (Strohbach et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Urban ecosystems are complex systems with anthropogenic features that generate considerable CO2 emissions that contributes to global climate change. Quantitative estimates of the carbon footprint of urban ecosystems are crucial for developing low-carbon development policies to mitigate climate change. Here, we reviewed over 195 urban carbon footprint and carbon footprint-related studies, collated the recent progress in carbon footprint calculation methods and research applications of the urban ecosystem carbon footprint, analyzed the research applications of the carbon footprint of different cities, and focused on the need to study the urban ecosystem carbon footprint from a holistic perspective. Specifically, we aimed to: (1) compare the strengths and weaknesses of five existing carbon footprint calculation methods (life cycle assessment, input–output analysis, hybrid life cycle assessment, carbon footprint calculator, and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)); (2) analyze the status of current research on the carbon footprint of different urban sub-regions based on different features; and (3) highlight new methods and areas of research on the carbon footprint of future urban ecosystems. Not all carbon footprint accounting methods are applicable to the carbon footprint determination of urban ecosystems; although the IPCC method is more widely used than the others, the hybrid life cycle assessment method is more accurate. With the emergence of new science and technology, quantitative methods to calculate the carbon footprint of urban ecosystems have evolved, becoming more accurate. Further development of new technologies, such as big data and artificial intelligence, to assess the carbon footprint of urban ecosystems is anticipated to help address the emerging challenges in urban ecosystem research effectively to achieve carbon neutrality and urban sustainability under global change.
... Natural carbon sink refers to the absorption and transformation of carbon by green space systems such as cropland, woodland, garden, grassland, wetland, green roof and three-dimensional greenery [17,18]. However, the study of urban carbon sink measures is a unique study of plants and green space types, which is mainly conducted by actual local measurements and lacks sure accuracy and ease of implementation [17,[19][20][21][22]. Carbon assessment software has improved the versatility of quantitative calculations and CO2 assessment methods for urban design scenarios compared to traditional formula calculations, such as the City Energy Analyst (CEA) architecture evaluation system developed by ETH Zurich. ...
Article
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Much of the research on climate change has focused on carbon reduction in cities or countries. However, more attention needs to be paid to how to achieve carbon neutrality in the urban design and planning stage, and the lack of quantitative analysis of carbon related to urban space makes it difficult to locate urban space and provide direct guidance for urban planning and design. This study proposed three optimization paths to achieve carbon neutrality in multi-scale urban building clusters. Firstly, we reconstructed the quantitative calculation system of urban building communities with the goal of carbon neutrality; secondly, we screened the carbon source reduction and carbon sink interventions that are suitable for multi-scale urban building communities; finally, we constructed a carbon emission and carbon sink calculation system of planning and design schemes based on the layout of relevant elements of planning and design schemes with a grid cell of 100 × 100 m. In practice, there was a gap of about 115,000 tons of CO2 from the carbon-neutral target and 26% of carbon emission was distributed in the Xiajiabian Station TOD. In this study, nine types of carbon reduction measures were adopted to achieve carbon neutrality in the region, among which the highest carbon reduction was achieved by biomass energy measures, accounting for 29% of the total carbon reduction of 33,745.27 T. The objective of this study is to accurately and quantitatively assess the carbon targets of urban spaces at different scales and adopt effective measures to achieve carbon neutrality.
... Urban forests improve the microclimate and air quality. Urban forests are increasingly important due to their role in sequestrating and storing carbon and thus helping to meet climate mitigation goals (Strohbach, Arnold, & Haase, 2012). Social benefits of forests include health, employment, education and recreation, community building and property value improvement (Kuchelmeister, 2000). ...
Article
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Urban forests improve the microclimate and air quality. The objective of this review was to appraise research findings and to summarize the most important literatures on the role of urban forests for carbon emission reduction in Addis Ababa. Total number of identified papers were 11 that studied carbon sequestration potential of urban forests in Addis Ababa and of this church forests (three), public parks (four), botanical garden (one), Mountain forest (Three) and KMU compound included in the review of this paper. The selected research papers used similar allometric equations to calculate carbon stock of the different carbon pools. The mean carbon in the above ground and below ground biomass were 110.84 ± 46.33 t ha-1 and 21.68 ± 9.31 t ha-1 respectively. The mean carbon in dead litter and soil carbon were 6.33±5.72 t ha-1 and 121.02 ± 48 t ha-1 respectively. The variations observed in carbon stocks in the different urban forest types relate to area, density and size of trees available in each site. Urban trees reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through sequestration which is important for climate change mitigation, they are also important for recreational, medicinal value and aesthetic and biodiversity conservation.
... The Allometric equation used in all selected research papers is similar. The equation used (Table 1) is applied for dry tropical forests where mean annual rainfall is below 1500mm [5]. Annual rainfall in Addis Ababa ranges from 900 to 1500 mm. ...
... There are very few tools that can be used to evaluate the emissions draw-down of landscapes. The most common method adapted for green infrastructure and nature-based solutions is carbon footprint analysis, which is an established method for systematically quantifying carbon sinks and sources throughout the lifetime of goods and services (Strohbach et al., 2012a;Romanovska, 2019). There is a need to advance capacity in landscape architecture to consider environmental footprints of design interventions throughout their life cycle, and this calls for tailored methodologies and tools that can be used and adopted by landscape architects. ...
Conference Paper
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The global sustainability movement has developed a variety of new design and building methodologies. Regenerative Design (RD) focuses on understanding the dynamic relationship between people, a place and ecosystems. By weaving together the natural and social systems, RD maximises humans' and nature's creativeness and abundance. Projects are not seen as an end product but rather as the beginning of a process that will continue to evolve long after completion. RD approaches to building are receiving increased attention in industry and academia. In this context, developing a clear shared understanding and evaluating the practical implications of this new approach remains an open issue. This critical review attempts to fill this gap by reviewing the concept, its aims, the existence of any performance measurement criteria, design methods and the expected outcomes of the RD approach to design and building. A summary process workflow diagram and an Assessment Methodology (AM) for evaluating RD project progress are proposed. The AM is presented as a series of questions to be answered qualitatively and quantitatively to aid track progress through time. Both diagram and AM may become valuable tools for further discussion about the methodological implications of RD project delivery for the architecture profession and for upgrading architectural education accordingly.
... Green space is an important part of ecological space and contributes to urban growth and carbon emissions. The urban greening rate affects land use intensity and changes the carbon sink and carbon cycle process of urban agglomerations (Ali et al. 2018;Michael et al. 2012). Therefore, we advance the following three hypotheses. ...
Article
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Improving carbon emission efficiency is the most direct and effective way to reduce pollution. Leading the construction of a resource-saving and environment-friendly society is an important goal of the coordinated development of urban agglomerations in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. However, there is no systematic evidence to prove whether this policy can improve carbon emission efficiency. Taking 31 cities in the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River as the research area, we aimed to use the index decomposition method, the super-efficiency slack-based model, and the difference-in-difference model to examine the effect of policies on improving carbon efficiency. The results show that (1) regional coordinated development policies have a significant effect on improving the carbon emission efficiency of urban agglomerations, and there is an obvious imbalance in carbon emission efficiency among cities. (2) The impact of regional coordinated development policies on urban carbon emission efficiency is heterogeneous. We have grouped 31 cities according to their centrality, industrial transfer characteristics, and urban cluster characteristics. Policies have heterogeneous effects on cities with different functions and positioning. (3) Policy effects have opposite effects on urban carbon emission efficiency through urbanization rate and population density, while the effect of urban greening rate is not significant. The research results can provide a reference for China’s urban agglomeration to achieve sustainable development and promote the construction of low-carbon cities.
... To better understand the environmental impact of different farming systems, a balance considering carbon sink and sources can be taken into account [36,37]. However, calculation of GHG and carbon sequestration was mainly conducted in traditional farming and forest systems [35,38], but only a few works analyzed the contribution of crop industry such as ornamental horticulture [29,31,39]. ...
Article
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In this study, conventional and organic olive tree nurseries were compared through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis to identify processes that have a greater environmental impact and which of the two systems leads to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Carbon sequestration in the woody biomass of the plants grown with both management systems was also considered. The research was carried out on six olive tree nurseries, four conventional and two managed also with an organic system, located in the nursery district of Pescia (Tuscany, Italy). The functional unit considered was two-year-old pot-grown plants (pot 15 cm Ø) and the results were expressed in terms of kg of CO2 equivalent (CO2eq). In all the nurseries analyzed, LCA showed that pots were the highest CO2eq emission source (45–63%), followed by potting mix (22.6–32.1%). This was due to the use of plastic in pots and peat for the growing media. Organic management was found to have a definite positive influence on the decrease of GHG, reducing the emissions up to 13% compared with conventional nurseries. Considering carbon stocked in the woody tissues of seedlings, the reduction of emissions attained 15.7% though a slightly lower (−6.7%) amount of CO2 incorporated into biomass was detected in the olive plants grown in organic nurseries. In light of our results, conversion of the nursery industry from conventional to organic management has the potential to reduce its carbon footprint.
... Die öffentlichen verwalteten Stadtbäume der Stadt Straßburg schaffen es dabei jährlich etwa 88 Tonnen Schadpartikel aus der Luft zu filtern(Selmi et al. 2016). Zusätzlich sind Bäume in urbanen Parks in der Lage das für ihre Erbauung und Erhaltung emittiertes CO2 innerhalb weniger Jahre zu wieder in sich selbst aufzunehmen und fungieren ab dann während ihres Lebenszyklus als Kohlenstoffsenke(Strohbach et al. 2012). Dadurch leisten sie einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Reduktion klima-und gesundheitsschädlicher Gase. ...
Thesis
In Zeiten zunehmender Urbanisierung werden Städte immer dichter, bevölkerungsreicher und breiten sich weit ins Umland aus. Um der städtischen Bevölkerung nachhaltige Lebensgrundlagen zu bieten, werden urbane Grünflächen zur Erholung geschaffen. Im Rahmen dieser Masterarbeit wird das Thema Urban Green in europäischen Städten analysiert, und die Grünflächenverfügbarkeit und Grünflächenerreichbarkeit der Stadtbevölkerung ermittelt. In besonderem Fokus stehen dabei internationale Ungleichheiten, sowie Unterschiede zwischen Klein- und Großstädten. Konkret wird dabei die Frage beantwortet ob kleine oder große Städte eines Landes grüner sind. Dafür werden Bevölkerungsdaten und Landnutzungs- sowie Landbedeckungsdaten verwendet. Die Stadtabgrenzung erfolgt nicht nach administrativen Einheiten, sondern nach einer auf Bevölkerungsdichte und Stadtgröße basierender Methodik. Daraus können statistische Kennzahlen, wie Grünflächenanteil innerhalb des Stadtgebietes und Grünflächenverteilung abgeleitet werden. Außerdem werden Distanzanalysen durchgeführt, um Grünflächenerreichbarkeitswerte abzuleiten. Die weitere Auswertung erfolgt mithilfe der Verwendung von Scaling-Laws, aus denen sich Dynamiken zwischen großen und kleinen Organismen identifizieren lassen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in größeren europäischen Städten der Bevölkerung grundsätzlich weniger urbanes Grün zu Verfügung steht, jedoch überproportional mehr Menschen davon profitieren. Dieser Zusammenhang wird mit sublinearen Verfügbarkeitsskalierungen und superlinearen Erreichbarkeitsskalierungen belegt. Regionale Vergleiche zeigen, dass in Schweden die Stadtbevölkerung am leichtesten Zugang zu städtischen Grünflächen hat, während in Italien am wenigsten Menschen unmittelbar in der Nähe einer Grünfläche wohnen. Mögliche Ursachen können dafür klimatologische Bedingungen, die nationale Stadtstruktur und -planung oder auch historische Einflussfaktoren sein. Zusätzlich wurden systematische Zusammenhänge zwischen den Parametern Grünflächenmindestgröße und Maximalgehdistanz und den daraus resultierenden Auswirkungen auf das Skalenregime belegt. Eine Vergrößerung der Mindestfläche führt demnach zu einem Anstieg des Skalenkoeffizienten. Ein Anstieg der Gehdistanz nähert den Koeffizienten in Richtung zur Linearität.
... Urban green space plant communities mostly comprise artificial plant communities that support important ecological functions in cities [16][17][18]. Zhang et al. [19] studied the quantitative relationship between carbon sources and carbon sinks between plants during the landscape operation and maintenance phases, which directly reflects the positive ecological benefits of plants. They provided relevant measures to reduce carbon sources and to increase carbon sinks, providing strong evidence supporting the creation of low-carbon landscapes. ...
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In the context of carbon neutrality, it is increasingly important to reduce carbon and increase sinks, and urban green spaces play an important role in carbon sinks. In this paper, we used virtual reality (VR) and photoplethysmographic (PPG) technology to evaluate subject satisfaction regarding urban green space plant community landscape scenes using physiological eye movement and heart rate variability (HRV) data and psychological data obtained according to positive and negative emotional adjectives (PANA). The results of the study showed the following. (1) The physiological data showed the highest visual interest in single-layer grassland. The compound layer of tree-shrub-grass composite woodland communities resulted in the strongest comfort level. (2) The psychological subjective satisfaction evaluation scores were, in descending order: tree-shrub-grass composite woodland (T-S-G) > single-layer grassland (G) > tree-grass composite woodland (T-G) > single-layer woodland (T). (3) The correlation between interest, comfort, and subjective satisfaction was significant, which verified the feasibility of the model of “interest + comfort + subjective evaluation = comprehensive satisfaction”. The results of the study provide theoretical guidance for landscape design based on human perception preferences in the context of carbon neutrality as well as for the implementation of sustainable landscapes to achieve a win–win situation in which carbon sequestration and oxygen release benefits and aesthetics can coexist. The combined physiological and psychological evaluation model can also be applied to other landscapes.
... Although these avenue plantations contribute a significant proportion towards sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, their role in the global carbon cycle has been undermined and even neglected. One of the reasons behind this negligence is the lack of proper documentation of their potential for the same (Strohbach et al., 2012;. The quantification of carbon sequestration by these avenue plant species has great significance in terms of assessment of the actual and potential role of trees planted outside forests in reducing the atmospheric CO 2 (Nowak and Crane, 2002). ...
Chapter
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are major contributors to global warming and climate change. These gases modulate the atmospheric radiative forcing and play an important role in Earth's albedo. The emission level, global warming potential and the persistence of a GHG define its accumulation in the atmosphere and relative potential to change radiative forcing. The major anthropogenic GHGs include methane, nitric oxide, ozone, hydrochloroflourocarbons, chloroflourocarbons, sulfur hexaflouride and nitrogen triflouride. Besides these, some gases indirectly act as GHGs like carbon monoxide, non-methane hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides. Many scientists have already warned regarding elevated emission trends after the industrial revolution. From last decades the emission of GHGs has tremendously increased in the atmosphere and the natural sinks of GHGs have contracted over time. Generally, fossil fuel burning and change in land use are major sources of GHGs while major sinks include soil, ocean and atmosphere. Interestingly the emission trends of greenhouse gases from different sources as well as the contribution of various countries to global greenhouse gasses budget have changed. Thus previous footprints, trends and projections regarding GHGs are needed to be reevaluated. Specific precautions and strategies are compatible to reduce GHGs emissions while further may help to obtain global temperature to above pre-industrial ambient temperature level by reducing 2°C in current temperature.
... The carbon sequestration capacity of the NBS considered in the studies analysed is presented in Table 3. Carbon sequestration for NBS on the ground ranged between 0.08 and 290 kg CO 2 /m 2 /year. Two publications show a higher carbon sequestration compared to other systems: Strohbach et al. [51] (carbon storage in tree above-ground biomass) and Tidåker et al. [52] (carbon storage in turf of golf courses). If we exclude these two outliers, all carbon sequestrations were lower than 3.4 kg CO 2 /m 2 /year. ...
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The use of life cycle assessment (LCA) allows work to go beyond the traditional scope of urban nature-based solutions (NBS), in which ecosystem services are provided to citizens, to include environmental impacts generated over the entire life cycle of the NBS, i.e., from raw material extraction, through materials processing, production, distribution, and use stages, to end-of-life management. In this work, we explored how LCA has been applied in the context of NBS through a critical analysis of the literature. Systems under review were not restricted to one typology of NBS or another, but were meant to cover a broad range of NBS, from NBS on the ground, water-related NBS, building NBS, to NBS strategies. In total, 130 LCA studies of NBS were analysed according to several criteria derived from the LCA methodology or from specific challenges associated with NBS. Results show that studies were based on different scopes, resulting in the selection of different functional units and system boundaries. Accordingly, we propose an innovative approach based on the ecosystem services (ES) concept to classify and quantify these functional units. We also identify and discuss two recent and promising approaches to solve multifunctionality that could be adapted for LCA of NBS.
... Among the potential mitigation strategies at city level, urban greening is proved to be effective with additional social and economic benefits. Many studies have confirmed the feasibility of urban greenery in heat (Song & Wang, 2015;Wang, Wang, Wang, & Myint, 2019;Wang, Wang, & Yang, 2018;Wang, Zhao, Yang, & Song, 2016;Wong, Tan, Kolokotsa, & Takebayashi, 2021) and carbon emissions (Chen, 2015;Escobedo, Varela, Zhao, Wagner, & Zipperer, 2010;Strohbach, Arnold, & Haase, 2012) via various approaches, though most conclusions were drawn from location-based observation, statistically analysis, and empirical equations (Weissert, Salmond, & Schwendenmann, 2014). Comprehensive or comparative modeling of the impact from urban greenery on heat and carbon emissions remains scarce. ...
Article
The efficacy of urban mitigation strategies for heat and carbon emissions relies heavily on local urban characteristics. The continuous development and improvement of urban land surface models enable rather accurate assessment of the environmental impact on urban development strategies, whereas physically-based simulations remain computationally costly and time consuming, as a consequence of the increasing complexity of urban system dynamics. Hence it is imperative to develop fast, efficient, and economic operational toolkits for urban planners to foster the design, implementation, and evaluation of urban mitigation strategies, while retaining the accuracy and robustness of physical models. In this study, we adopt a machine learning (ML) algorithm, viz. Gaussian Process Regression, to emulate the physics of heat and biogenic carbon exchange in the built environment. The ML surrogate is trained and validated on the simulation results generated by a state-of-the-art single-layer urban canopy model over a wide range of urban characteristics, showing high accuracy in capturing heat and carbon dynamics. Using the validated surrogate model, we then conduct multi-objective optimization using the genetic algorithm to optimize urban design scenarios for desirable urban mitigation effects. While the use of urban greenery is found effective in mitigating both urban heat and carbon emissions, there is manifest trade-offs among ameliorating diverse urban environmental indicators.
... Since 2012, China started including 'ecological civilization' 29 into national plans and its constitution 30 and urban greening is an essential component of sustainable city planning 31,32 . All residential areas require a certain percentage of green space, most of them dominated by trees and shrubs, having a relatively high biomass 33 . While our results show that urban expansion can lead to a slight increase in aboveground biomass, the overall amount of sequestered carbon is small at national level and the future of this carbon sink is highly uncertain. ...
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China has experienced unprecedented urbanization and associated rural depopulation during recent decades alongside a massive increase in the total population. By using satellite and demographical datasets, we here test the hypothesis that urbanization and carbon neutrality are not mutually exclusive and that sustainably managed urbanization may even be an integral part of the pathway to reduce atmospheric CO2. We show that, although urban expansion caused an initial aboveground carbon loss of −0.02 PgC during 2002–2010, urban greening compensates these original losses with an overall balance of +0.03 PgC in urban areas during 2002–2019. We further show that a maximum increase in aboveground carbon stocks was observed at intermediate distances to rural settlements (2–4 km), reflecting the decreased pressure on natural resources. Consequently, rural areas experiencing depopulation (−14 million people yr−1) coincided with an extensive aboveground carbon sink of 0.28 ± 0.05 PgC yr−1 during 2002–2019, while at the same time only a slight decline in cropland areas (4%) was observed. However, tree cover growth saturation limits the carbon removal capacity of forests and only a decrease in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning will make the aim of carbon neutrality achievable. China has pledged to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060 but policies favouring urbanization could slow down progress. This study tests the hypothesis that urbanization and carbon neutrality are not mutually exclusive and that sustainably managed urbanization could increase carbon sequestration, especially in rural areas.
... Traditional carbon sink estimation methods at the regional scale mainly include sample plot inventory, biomass model, micrometeorology method, and flux observation (Miller et al. 2004;Fang et al. 2007;Gao et al. 2015;Zeng 2015). Strohbach et al. (2012) used the carbon footprint method to statistically analyze the carbon sink capacity of the newly built green space in Leipzig, Germany. Pan et al. (2011) carried out a large and persistent carbon sink in the world's forests through forest inventory data and long-term ecosystem carbon studies. ...
Article
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Carbon neutrality is a strategic choice for the sustainable development of global cities. Quantitatively assessing the spatio-temporal patterns of urban vegetation carbon sink and the impact of human activities has become an essential basis for adjusting urban carbon balance. We used Huaibei, a typical city with vigorous human coal resource mining activities, as the case study area. We regarded the net ecosystem productivity (NEP) as an indicator parameter of vegetation carbon sink and calculated it based on the improved Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA). We then revealed the spatial–temporal evolution of vegetation carbon sink through trend analysis, coefficient of variation, and standard direction. Finally, we used geographic detectors to evaluate the impact of human activities on NEP. We found that net primary productivity (NPP) accuracy was good, and the R2 value was 0.755 compared with MODIS NPP products. NEP was characterized by the first decrease and then increase, showing a slow increase overall, with an average trend coefficient of 0.15 gC·m−2·a−1. The average value in 2010 was the lowest at 18.30 gC·m−2·a−1. In terms of spatial characteristics, NEP showed a gradual decrease from north to south. High and severe fluctuations were distributed along the southeast, mainly concentrated in Duji District, Xiangshan District, and Lieshan District. The driving factors with reliable explanatory power for NEP were population density, GDP, and road density, while land use type, soil erosion intensity, and mining and collapse area had weak explanatory power. Meanwhile, factors of cooperative interaction enhanced the explanatory power of the results.
... For example, Akbari et al. [112] reported that atmospheric temperature reduction by vegetation in cities has an equivalent effect of 7 kg of total CO 2 emission reduction. Urban areas can contribute to long-term carbon storage for carbon emission mitigation through absorbing CO 2 with urban trees and forest resources through alternative methods such as chemical carbon substitution [2,43,113]. Forests are non-artificial terrestrial carbon sinks that account for approximately 45% of global land surface [114,115]. ...
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In New Zealand, over 87% of the population currently resides in cities. Urban trees can face a myriad of complex challenges including loss of green space, public health issues, and harm to the existence of urban dwellers and trees, along with domestic greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions. Despite New Zealand being a biodiversity hotspot in terms of natural environments, there is a lack of knowledge about native tree species’ regulating service (i.e., tree development and eco-physiological responses to low air quality, GHG, rising air temperatures, and drought) and how they grow in built-up environments such as cities. Therefore, we argue for the value of these native species in terms of ecosystem services and insist that they need to be viewed in relation to how they will respond to urban abiotic extremes and climate change. We propose to diversify planted forests for several reasons: (1) to improve awareness of the benefits of diverse planted urban forests; (2) to foster native tree research in urban environments, finding new keystone species; and (3) to improve the evidence of urban ecosystem resilience based on New Zealand native trees’ regulating services. This article aims to re-evaluate our understanding of whether New Zealand’s native trees can deal with environmental stress conditions similarly to more commonly planted alien species.
... Satellite image analysis with Remote Sensing (RS) techniques helps to accurately detect and control these changes. There are several reports examining land use change using satellite data, some of which will be mentioned [8,9]. Five techniques include: addition, subtraction, segmentation, policy module, and taxonomic analysis to identify landscape changes [10]. ...
... Researchers have recognized that greenbelts are a form of green infrastructure, are currently contributing to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, and have the potential to offset more emissions (Amati and Taylor, 2010;Daniels, 1991;European Commission DG, 2012;Hazarin et al., 2019;Land Trust Alliance, 2017;Strohbach et al., 2012). California created a forest carbon offset program as part of its successful cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gases (Kim and Daniels, 2019). ...
Article
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Greenbelts are large areas of open land close to cities and suburbs and are found in several countries, including the US. The basic purposes of a greenbelt are to limit the extension of urban growth into the countryside as well as to protect and preserve farmland, forestland, and natural areas. Recently, the value of greenbelts has been recognized for providing carbon sinks to store and sequester carbon. We analyze the performance of six greenbelt counties in limiting sprawl and retaining open land. We then compare six counties with greenbelts to 19 adjacent counties without greenbelts to show that greenbelt counties experienced less land conversion from 2006 to 2016. Next, we calculate the conversion of the land by four land cover types in the six greenbelt counties. Finally, we analyze the conversion of land cover types by their carbon storage and sequestration capacity to indicate which land cover types different counties should prioritize for protection and preservation in their greenbelts.
... The balance of an ecosystem must, of course, be maintained sustainably by maintaining and increasing property values due to aesthetic and functional characteristics [5]. When this green space is maintained, positive environmental benefits will emerge [5,6]. An example is counteracting the effects of urban heat to reduce air conditioning energy costs. ...
Article
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The spatial planning document is planning guidance intended to regulate an area’s spatial use and development planning. This document contains the component that regulates the composition of green space. This composition is designed to maintain the stability of the existing ecosystem quality. Pekalongan is one of the Regency in Central Java Province with environmental problems related to lack of green space area. The existence of ecological degradation makes environmental quality in Pekalongan one that needs to be considered. This study aims to determine the effect of changes in the composition and intensity of green space on surface temperature from these problems. This study will use time-series data during the initial implementation of spatial planning documents (2013) to the current year (2021) to see how changes in the composition and intensity of green space in each sub-district in Pekalongan Regency. The method used is descriptive quantitative with a GIS approach. The result of this study can be a consideration to make policies related to green space.
... Fragmented landscapes, consisting of patches of vegetation surrounded by impervious surfaces, show differences in biomass accumulation and temperature stress along edge-to-interior gradients in urban and non-urban forests (Reinmann et al., 2020). Urban green space experiments that mimic urban forests show potentially significant influence on carbon sequestration over multiple decades (Strohbach et al., 2012). Despite these important influences, variability in land cover, land use, and fragmentation across the urban matrix presents a formidable challenge for disentangling fossil vs biological influences on urban carbon budgets. ...
Article
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A fundamental challenge in verifying urban CO2 emissions reductions is estimating the biological influence that can confound emission source attribution across heterogeneous and diverse landscapes. Recent work using atmospheric radiocarbon revealed a substantial seasonal influence of the managed urban biosphere on regional carbon budgets in the Los Angeles megacity, but lacked spatially explicit attribution of the diverse biological influences needed for flux quantification and decision making. New high-resolution maps of land cover (0.6 m) and irrigation (30 m) derived from optical and thermal sensors can simultaneously resolve landscape influences related to vegetation type (tree, grass, shrub), land use, and fragmentation needed to accurately quantify biological influences on CO2 exchange in complex urban environments. We integrate these maps with the Urban Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (UrbanVPRM) to quantify spatial and seasonal variability in gross primary production (GPP) across urban and non-urban regions of Southern California Air Basin (SoCAB). Results show that land use and landscape fragmentation have a significant influence on urban GPP and canopy temperature within the water-limited Mediterranean SoCAB climate. Irrigated vegetation accounts for 31% of urban GPP, driven by turfgrass, and is more productive (1.7 vs 0.9 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹) and cooler (2.2 ± 0.5 K) than non-irrigated vegetation during hot dry summer months. Fragmented landscapes, representing mostly vegetated urban greenspaces, account for 50% of urban GPP. Cooling from irrigation alleviates strong warming along greenspace edges within 100 m of impervious surfaces, and increases GPP by a factor of two, compared to non-irrigated edges. Finally, we note that non-irrigated shrubs are typically more productive than non-irrigated trees and grass, and equally productive as irrigated vegetation. These results imply a potential water savings benefit of urban shrubs, but more work is needed to understand carbon vs water usage tradeoffs of managed vs unmanaged vegetation.
... Urban green space is an indispensable element in the urban ecosystem which is always considered to be an important component to improve the quality of the urban ecological environment [6]. It provides protection for the sustainable development of the city in various aspects of ecological service functions, such as reducing greenhouse gases, regulation of urban climate, reduction of energy consumption, maintenance of ecological security, etc. [7][8][9][10]. However, with the rapid development of urbanization, urban built-up areas continue to expand, and green spaces are severely damaged, affecting the quality of life of residents. ...
Article
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Urban green space is generally considered a significant component of the urban ecological environment system, which serves to improve the quality of the urban environment and provides various guarantees for the sustainable development of the city. Remote sensing provides an effective method for real-time mapping and monitoring of urban green space changes in a large area. However, with the continuous improvement of the spatial resolution of remote sensing images, traditional classification methods cannot accurately obtain the spectral and spatial information of urban green spaces. Due to complex urban background and numerous shadows, there are mixed classifications for the extraction of cultivated land, grassland and other ground features, implying that limitations exist in traditional methods. At present, deep learning methods have shown great potential to tackle this challenge. In this research, we proposed a novel model called Concatenated Residual Attention UNet (CRAUNet), which combines the residual structure and channel attention mechanism, and applied it to the data source composed of GaoFen-1 remote sensing images in the Shenzhen City. Firstly, the improved residual structure is used to make it retain more feature information of the original image during the feature extraction process, then the Convolutional Block Channel Attention (CBCA) module is applied to enhance the extraction of deep convolution features by strengthening the effective green space features and suppressing invalid features through the interdependence of modeling channels.-Finally, the high-resolution feature map is restored through upsampling operation by the decoder. The experimental results show that compared with other methods, CRAUNet achieves the best performance. Especially, our method is less susceptible to the noise and preserves more complete segmented edge details. The pixel accuracy (PA) and mean intersection over union (MIoU) of our approach have reached 97.34% and 94.77%, which shows great applicability in regional large-scale mapping.
... Although some atmospheric CO 2 can dissolve directly into soils (Kindler et al., 2011), this mechanism is relatively less important than that of autotrophic or plant-based C fixation. This fact verifies the importance of planted ecosystem (Paul et al., 2002;Zhiyanski et al., 2016), urban green space (Strohbach et al., 2012), and urban parks (Bae and Ryu, 2015) to store C and mitigate the impacts of global climate change. ...
Article
Increasingly, the human existence in urban environments is growing. In addition, anthropogenic activity has altered the global carbon (C) cycle and triggered climate change. Soil is the largest pool of organic C in terrestrial ecosystems, but its ability to retain and store C varies. As humans move forward to mitigate climate change, there is a growing need to understand the C storing capacity of soils and their interactions with factors like climate, vegetation or a footprint of human activity. Here, we constructed a meta-analysis which focused on 30 cm soil depth by collecting data from over 191 studies measuring soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across natural, urban green space, and urban intensive habitats. We then compared the SOC data between different climatic zones, vegetation types, and anthropogenic influences with the human footprint index. The results indicate that SOC stocks in natural habitats (98.22 ± 49.10 Mg ha⁻¹) are significantly higher than those of urban green spaces (54.61 ± 22.02 Mg ha⁻¹) and urban intensive habitats (65.88 ± 35.27 Mg ha⁻¹). We find a significant and negative relationship between the human footprint and SOC stocks of natural habitats but not between the human footprint and either of the urban habitats. Urban intensive and urban green space habitat soils store less C than natural ones. However, when compared across climatic zones or vegetation types, the capacity of natural soils to store C is variable and vulnerable to human activity. Carbon storage in urban soils is likely limited by persistent and stable anthropogenic influences keeping variability low. This is most pronounced in urban green spaces where human management is high (i.e. a golf course) and SOC is low. A comprehensive understanding of C storage in soils is essential to land management and climate mitigation measures.
... The historical view of green space as the "lungs of the city, " which provided a restorative tonic for the health of urbanites, has been well documented by Jones (2018) and in general the environmental and societal benefits of urban green space have long been recognized (Sanders 1986;Marsh 1991;McPherson 1992;Swanwick et al. 2003;Chiesura 2004;De Ridder et al. 2004;Sherer 2006;Fuller et al. 2007;Millward and Sabir 2011;Strohbach et al. 2012;Wolch et al. 2014;Ng 2015;Loc et al. 2018a;2018b). ...
Article
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Using a case study approach from past projects in Singapore, Australia, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam, we examine the benefits, but also some of the challenges, to implementing green space in urban design. Green space can have multiple physical and psychological wellbeing benefits, as well as environmental benefits, including urban runoff quantity and quality management, urban heat island abatement, air quality improvement, and noise reduction. Water sensitive urban design (WSUD) can be an important element of green space design and here we explore how modeling of ecosystem services and dynamic modeling of WSUD can help to facilitate sound planning and management decision making in support of green space implementation. As we illustrate with examples for Australia, Singapore and Cambodia, we believe that application of an urban ecosystem services modeling approach can elucidate environmental benefits of urban green space that otherwise may not be considered. Engineers may include dynamic modeling of WSUD in support of an urban master plan, or urban redevelopment, but generally urban planners are less conversant in applying models. We discuss some of the challenges to integrating multidisciplinary visioning and modeling of green space design and performance evaluation through our experience with a stormwater and wastewater design study for Cha Am, Thailand, that included landscape architecture and engineering classes at Thammasat University, Mahidol University, and AIT. Through a case study of Phnom Penh, we illustrate how modeling and 3D visualization can be used to effectively explore the benefits of green space. We conclude that a user-friendly decision support system is needed to integrate modeling and visualization tools and thereby bridge the gap between form and function in urban green space design.
... In relation to both categories of climate risk, however, it is appropriate to highlight the additional benefits linked to some types of adaptation measures, in particular Nature-Based Solutions such as green roofs, bioswales, trees, or urban green areas, which contribute to carbon sequestration and climate mitigation, in terms of local contribution to the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions (Strohbach et al., 2012). The CLARITY focus on climate adaptation brought to the choice of including the climate change mitigation potential of some measures in terms of environmental cobenefits. ...
Article
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Climate services are emerging worldwide as an essential tool to bridge the advancement in climate science and meteo/earth observations with a variety of operational fields in the domains of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA). It is multidisciplinary study area with promising applications in the field of urban microclimate simulations, supporting climate-resilient redevelopment actions at both the city and neighborhood levels. The CLARITY CSIS (Climate Services Information System, available at https://csis.myclimateservice.eu/), developed within the H2020 CLARITY project, is an innovative hazard/impact modeling tool that takes into account short- to long-term climate change scenarios and urban microclimate variability. Disaster risks associated with climate change, such as heat waves and floods, are concentrated in limited periods of the year and therefore not adequately represented by annually averaged values. To this aim, new datasets have been extracted from Regional Climate Models to estimate the frequency of extreme temperatures and precipitation events until 2100, and a novel modeling methodology has been developed to capture the effect on the urban microclimate due to specific built environment features. The wide amount of data generated by satellite earth observations and made available at pan-European level through the Copernicus datasets (e.g., Urban Atlas, European Settlement Map, etc.) has been processed through specific algorithms and GIS spatial analysis tools to extract detailed information related to key parameters linked to urban morphology and surface types. In addition to the “screening service” available at the pan-European level through the CLARITY CSIS, an “expert service” workflow allows increasing the resolution of hazard and impact simulations at 250 m, by exploiting detailed land use datasets provided by local end-users and assessing the DRR/CCA potential of city-wide adaptation plans, as well as of specific district redevelopment projects. This paper will present the features of CLARITY CSIS and the results of Expert Services implemented for the City of Naples, focusing on the methods adopted to implement hazard/impact assessments and how information from climate services is tailored to support the integration of different DRR/CCA strategies within urban plans and projects.
... They provide a great ecological, aesthetic and recreational value to cities and also act as bioclimatic regulators on humidity and temperature that makes them a key urban infrastructure in promoting quality of life and public health for the citizenship (Siragusa et al., 2020). In addition, lignocellulosic material of urban green areas acts as a carbon sink by storing atmospheric CO 2 during photosynthesis (Strohbach et al., 2012). Therefore, it is necessary to appropriately manage and protect these spaces and ensure the access of the population to these islands of tranquillity within the urban hustle and bustle of cities (Watts et al. 2013). ...
Article
The Agenda for Sustainable Development 2030 of United Nations is made up of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that humanity will have to meet by 2030. In achieving the SDGs, green urban areas (GUA) play a fundamental role at the local level as they provide recreational and bioclimatic regulatory functions and act as a carbon sink, as well. Specifically, the GUAs contribute directly to three SDGs: SDG 11 Sustainable cities and communities, SDG 13 Climate Action and SDG 15 Life on land. This paper evaluates direct contribution of GUA to this SDGs with high spatial resolution in the case study of the city of Valencia (Spain). The evaluation carried out has made it possible to make a diagnosis of the quantity and accessibility of GUA at sub-neighbourhood level. The results for SDG 11 show that only 9.23% of the population do not have desirable access to GUA and 2.73% live in areas without easy walking distance access to GUA. On the other hand, the evaluation of SDG 15 shows that each inhabitant has at their disposal 10 m² of GUA, below the average of cities of more than 250,000 inhabitants in Spain. The high spatial resolution of the evaluation has also made it possible to identify the city areas with the worst access to GUA and the least amount of GUA per inhabitant. In consequence, the results allow determining zones with high potential to improve. Additionally, the quantification of the CO2 fixed by the GUA carried out for the evaluation of SDG 13, shows that the fixed carbon is equivalent to 0.04% of total gross GHG emissions of the city and is 36% higher than the total GHG emissions of the annual fuel consumption of the total fleet in the city. Finally, the monitoring of the indicators applied allows evaluating the evolution of the GUA to improve the sustainable development of the city.
... At the neighborhood to metropolitan scales, green infrastructure can potentially provide multiple types of empirically-documented benefits to communities. Related to climate change mitigation, forests-a component of many types of green infrastructure-can play an important role in carbon sequestration (Hutyra et al., 2011;McPhearson, Kremer, and Hamstead , 2013;Nowak et al., 2013;Strohbach et al., 2012), as well as provide various direct and indirect benefits. Urban forests moderate temperatures in local microclimates, resulting in energy savings (Sawka et al., 2013) and improved air quality in adjacent neighborhoods (Nowak et al., 2006;Saebø et al., 2012). ...
Article
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There is a growing interest in planning for green infrastructure, as well as a growing recognition of the multifunctional nature of green infrastructure, since it provides many social and environmental benefits to cities and regions. However, there is a lack of appropriate methods for prioritizing the locations for green infrastructure interventions. In response, this article proposes a spatial multi-criteria analysis for green infrastructure. We demonstrate the method at the regional scale for Southeast Michigan, as well as through two embedded case studies within this region. We show how the method can be adapted for rural parks and conservation planning, as well as for urban green infrastructure planning within the City of Detroit. Although lacking the analytical structure needed for some planning questions, and limited by data and access to appropriate technical skills, we argue the spatial planning approach strikes an appropriate balance between technical rigor and transparency required for collaborative planning practice. The described GIS-based analysis technique can be used as part of a planning process to identify locations for green infrastructure expansion or improvement in a way that acknowledges and balances their social and environmental benefits.
... Lo and Jim explain that they are located in built-up areas, entailing natural and planted trees, grass, shrubs, and flowers [33]. Strohbach and colleagues offer a broader explanation of UGS as being the sum of all vegetation in and around dense human settlements [34]. Similarly, Chen and Hu assert that 'all land covered by vegetation within the urban environment' qualify as UGS [35]. ...
Article
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Urbanization has placed considerable constraints on the preservation and maintenance of formal green spaces in African cities. This situation has given attention to the potentials of informal green spaces (IGS). While studies on IGS in African cities is only emerging, scholarly and policy attention to children’s perceptions and use of IGS within Africa’s spatially expansive urbanism is limited. This study explores children’s perceptions, use, barriers, willingness, and suggestions for improving IGS in the peri‐urban area of Funda in Luanda. Based on semi‐structured interviews and focused‐group discussions, the study revealed that, while IGS offered different ecosystem services, not all IGS were accessible to children, due to safety concerns, maintenance conditions, and parental restrictions. Children’s interest in maintenance activities and suggestions for improving IGS reflected their independent identities, sense of place, and cognitive capacity to contribute to planning their community. The paper submits that the potential role of IGS in Africa’s peri‐urban areas can be improved by taking into account children’s agency and experiential knowledge of community spaces. For this reason, there is a need to recognize and engage children as co‐producers of community knowledge and interventions.
... The issue of the quality and quantity of urban greenery is crucial in the context of sustainability and in increasing the resilience of cities to climate change that have become increasingly an emergency issue [132][133][134][135]. ...
Article
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Our cities are often characterised by a complex, ungrammatical articulation of spaces, volumes, intended uses, and values. The residual green urban areas are representative of a low level or absence of order, but above all, of functions and values. The study proposes a new methodological and operational approach to the rehabilitation of green residual urban areas, participatory type that can generate a new order between values, functions and actors, to mediate private and public needs, to promote new forms of responsibility and thus to implement some of the priority objectives set out in the 2030 Agenda. The operational tools supporting the approach are the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), public and private partnership (PPP) and crowdfunding. This approach supported the selection of the project and the creation of a budget with public and private funding to support the participatory rehabilitation of a residual green urban area in the municipality of Acireale. The amount of funding identified largely covers rehabilitation costs. The issue of the quality and quantity of urban greenery is crucial for the sustainability and resilience of cities to climate change. Rehabilitation of remaining urban green areas is an opportunity to meet the new needs of green areas, supporting communities in this new challenge.
Article
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We present the concept of «Standard for the comprehensive improvement of embankments, parks, squares, boulevards in Ekaterinburg». It provides for the introduction of an ecological approach in the development of projects for the reconstruction of existing and future green spaces in Ekaterinburg. We have identified 11 landscape-ecological clusters on the territory of Ekaterinburg. The structural elements of clusters are described — the core, the stabilization zone and the central highly urbanized zone. The core of the cluster is formed by natural ecosystems, which are considered as models for the creation of urban green spaces. Information about the method for calculating the size of the stabilization zone is given. It is proposed to create a special functional zone of natural diversity in parks, squares, boulevards and embankments located within its boundaries. We noted the need to design ecological corridors between scattered green spaces of the city. In our opinion, the presented concept reflects the importance of biological diversity in the urban environment, is aimed at its conservation and restoration, and also contributes to the formation of an identical image of the urban environment of Ekaterinburg.
Chapter
Urban trees provide a wide range of ecosystem services that can address climate change mitigation and adaptation. In this study, we estimated for the first time the carbon storage potential of 2,245 trees, covering 19 different families and 41 species, planted in parks and roadsides in two cities in southern Peninsular Malaysia. The aboveground, leaf and root biomass of the trees were estimated using allometric equations. The carbon sequestration was obtained using the estimation of trees’ radial growth increments. Results show that the highest carbon storage for trees in parks is by Khaya senegalensis (2,289 kg C tree−1) and for roadside trees is Melaleuca cajuputi (3,644 kg C tree−1). For species with similar sizes, Mimusop elengi, Syzygium grande (parks), Cassia fistula, Pterocarpus indicus and Syzygium grande (roadside) store more carbon than other species. Trees were also compared for their potential capacity to sequester carbon in year x to year x + 1. For park tree species, Pterocarpus indicus sequesters more carbon (249.77 kg tree−1 year−1) between age 50 and 51 compared to other tree species in the same age group. Results of this study can guide local landscape authorities in planting suitable tree species in urban landscapes to mitigate climate change impacts.
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The purpose of study was to analyze the various literatures on urban green area planning and spatial analyses, and defining the possible interested subject in the future. Urban green area term, green area classification, urban planning and GIS, green area planning and spatial analyses, green area planning using GIS, trend in national and world literatures on these subjects were investigated. It was detected that studies on autonomous system development on green area planning and intelligent cities, qualified planning approaches focused on spatial accessibility, environmental biology, soil and rehabilitation using GIS in urban scale were not enough in the literature. When the top 10 journals with the publication counts on the subject were examined, it has been determined that most of the journals were in the WOS Q1 category, and similar subjects were popular in high quality journals. The highest effect based on countries was detected in Finland according to the scientific contribution.
Technical Report
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Aufgrund der hohen Konzentration von Bevölkerung, ökonomischen Werten und Infrastrukturen können Städte stark von extremen Wetterereignissen getroffen werden. Insbesondere Hitzewellen und Überflutungen in Folge von Starkregen verursachen in Städten immense gesundheitliche und finanzielle Schäden. Um Schäden zu verringern oder gar zu vermeiden, ist es notwendig, entsprechende Vorsorge- und Klimaanpassungsmaßnahmen zu implementieren. Im Projekt „Urbane Resilienz gegenüber extremen Wetterereignissen – Typologien und Transfer von Anpassungsstrategien in kleinen Großstädten und Mittelstädten” (ExTrass) lag der Fokus auf den beiden extremen Wetterereignissen Hitze und Starkregen sowie auf kleineren Großstädten (100.000 bis 500.000 Einwohner:innen) und kreisfreien Mittelstädten mit mehr als 50.000 Einwohner:innen. Im Projekt wurde die Stärkung der Klimaresilienz als Verbesserung der Fähigkeiten von Städten, aus vergangenen Ereignissen zu lernen sowie sich an antizipierte Gefahren anzupassen, verstanden. Klimaanpassung wurde demnach als ein Prozess aufgefasst, der durch die Umsetzung von potenziell schadensreduzierenden Maßnahmen beschreib- und operationalisierbar wird. Das Projekt hatte zwei Ziele: Erstens sollte die Klimaresilienz in den drei Fallstudienstädten Potsdam, Remscheid und Würzburg messbar gestärkt werden. Zweitens sollten Transferpotenziale zwischen Groß- und Mittelstädten in Deutschland identifiziert und besser nutzbar gemacht werden, damit die Wirkung von Pilotvorhaben über die direkt involvierten Städte hinausgehen kann. Im Projekt standen folgende vier Leitfragen im Fokus: • Wie verbreitet sind Klimaanpassungsaktivitäten in Großstädten und größeren kreisfreien Mittelstädten in Deutschland? • Welche hemmenden und begünstigenden Faktoren beeinflussen die Klimaanpassung? • Welche Maßnahmen der Klimaanpassung werden tatsächlich umgesetzt, und wie kann die Umsetzung verbessert werden? Was behindert? • Inwiefern lassen sich Beispiele guter Praxis auf andere Städte übertragen, adaptieren oder weiterentwickeln? Die Hauptergebnisse zu diesen Fragestellungen sind im vorliegenden Bericht zusammengefasst.
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The integrated urban drainage system has complicated sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, which is one of contribute to climate change. As a new model of low-carbon ecological city development in China, sponge city has great potential of carbon emission reduction. However, limited by the lack of awareness of the importance of carbon emissions from integrated urban drainage system, few studies have focused on the impact of sponge city construction on the carbon emissions from integrated urban drainage system. This study proposed an accounting framework for carbon emissions from integrated urban drainage system. The emission factor method was used to calculate carbon emissions. A case study was conducted in Xiamen, China, the carbon emission level of integrated urban drainage system and the carbon emission reduction effect of sponge city construction were discussed. The results show that the carbon emission from traditional city drainage system and sponge city drainage system accounts for about 3.4% and 1.7% of the city's carbon emission, respectively. Wastewater treatment and Sludge Treatment and Disposal are the main contributors to the carbon emissions from integrated urban drainage system. Electricity consumption is the main contributors to the indirect carbon emissions. Adjusting the sludge disposal method has the best carbon emission reduction effect, raising the standard of wastewater treatment plant tail water will lead to an increase in carbon emissions. Compared with the traditional city drainage system, the sponge city drainage system can reduce carbon emissions from integrated urban drainage system by an average of 49%, and the corresponding economic benefit was approximately 91–297 CNY/10⁴ m³ wastewater. This study plays a positive role in understanding the carbon emission level of integrated urban drainage system and planning the low-carbon development of the city in the future.
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Vegetation sequester and store carbon in their tissue, at the same time, vegetation plantation and maintenance practice release carbon back to the atmosphere based on energy-resource consumption and labors input. However, existing studies have not yet provided an exhaustive calculation of carbon balance for China from vegetation type. Thus, accounting and understanding carbon balance of urban green space (UGS) are of great important especially in China which is facing rapid industrialization and urbanization as the biggest developing country in the world. This study seeks to determine whether UGS is a carbon sink or a carbon source. Using field surveys, interviews and model simulation over a 50-year time period, carbon sequestration and emissions of four green space in China were evaluated to determine how factors influence the carbon balance. Management practices to maximize the net carbon sequestration are discussed. The main results are as follows: 1) trees and shrubs were carbon sinks with 11,972.08 and 5758.07 MgCO2e ha⁻¹ and the lawns were carbon sources with 149.15 MgCO2e ha⁻¹ in life cycle. 2) Populus tomentosa, Fraxinus chinensis and Lonicera maackii had the most net carbon sequestration. 3) the main contributions of carbon emissions in parks were irrigation and pesticide use.
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Climate change adaptation is essential to mitigate risks, such as extreme weather events triggered by global warming and amplified in dense urban environments. Ecosystem-based adaptation measures, such as urban greening, are promoted in cities because of their flexibility and their positive side effects, such as human health benefits, ecological effects, climate mitigation and a range of social benefits. While individual co-benefits of greening measures are well studied, often in public green spaces, few studies quantify co-benefits comprehensively, leaving social benefits particularly understudied. In this study, we perform biophysical and socio-cultural assessments of co-benefits provided by semi-public, residential greening in four courtyards with varying green structures. We quantify effects on thermal comfort, biodiversity, carbon storage and social interaction. We further assess the importance of these co-benefits to people in the neighbourhood. Subsequently, we weight the results from the biophysical assessments with the socio-cultural values to evaluate how even small differences in green structures result in differences in the provision of co-benefits. Results show that, despite relatively small differences in green structures, the residential courtyards with a higher green volume clearly generate more co-benefits than the residential yards with less green, particularly for thermal comfort. Despite differences in the valuation of co-benefits in the neighbourhood, socio-cultural weights did not change the outcome of the comparative assessment. Our results highlight that a deliberate management strategy, possibly on neighbourhood-scale, could enhance co-benefits and contribute to a more sustainable urban development.
Thesis
Face au 6ème phénomène d’extinction de masse, la préservation de la biodiversité a été placée au même rang que le changement climatique dans les priorités des politiques publiques (par ex. Plan Biodiversité adopté en 2018). À l’instar de la nécessité d’évaluer l’empreinte carbone des projets de construction (par ex. future Réglementation Environnementale pour les bâtiments neufs RE 2020), il apparait aujourd’hui nécessaire de se munir d’outils capables de mesurer l’empreinte biodiversité du cadre bâti. Cinq grandes pressions s’exercent sur la biodiversité : la perte d’habitats, le réchauffement climatique, les pollutions, la surexploitation des ressources et l’introduction d’espèces invasives. Ces pressions s’exercent sur la biodiversité, au niveau local (sur le site d’un projet de construction) et global (planétaire). Qu’elle soit considérée comme ordinaire ou reconnue comme menacée, la biodiversité dans son ensemble est affectée par ces pressions. Dans ce contexte, l’objectif scientifique de la thèse est de développer une méthodologie fiable et robuste d’évaluation des interactions entre les systèmes urbains et la biodiversité. L’objectif opérationnel est d’aboutir à des outils d’aide à la décision, qui permettent d’identifier les scénarios de construction les plus favorables à la biodiversité. Une méthodologie d’évaluation Hybride des Interactions BiOdiversité / système Urbain est proposée (méthodologie d’évaluation HIBOU). Elle est basée sur la synergie entre l’écologie, l’Analyse de Cycle de Vie (ACV) et la data science. Elle permet de prendre en compte les interactions entre les systèmes urbains et la biodiversité in-situ (locale) et ex-situ (globale), ainsi que les cinq pressions qui s’exercent sur la biodiversité. Le jeu d’échelle sous-jacent à la stratégie implique un développement de type gigogne des travaux (composant, bâtiment, parcelle, quartier, territoire). Les principaux développements méthodologiques concernent :- La prise en compte du cycle de vie des végétaux urbains dans l’évaluation : trois bases de données ont été structurées selon les critères nécessaires à la méthode hybride proposée : 1) Végétaux utilisés en ville, 2) Richesse Spécifique Floristique des Habitats en Ile de France, 3) Données environnementales pour les végétaux urbains ;- La prise en compte des spécificités du site d’implantation du projet : un modèle, une base de données et un outil de programmation permettent le calcul d’un indicateur d’utilisation des sols spécifique à l’Ile de France avec près de 900 combinaisons possibles de transformation des sols ;- La compatibilité de la méthode hybride avec les méthodes et outils promus par la réglementation : des modèles de régression linéaire et un outil de programmation permettent le calcul des impacts sur la biodiversité ex-situ à partir des sorties d’un logiciel d’évaluation environnementale conforme à la RE2020 (i.e. ÉLODIE)L’opérationnalité de la méthode pour l’identification des leviers d’action a été testée par application sur un cas d’étude réel, à l’échelle bâtiment, en Ile de France (projet EPA Marne). Des développements pour application de la méthode hybride aux échelles supérieures sont proposés à partir des outils traitant ces échelles comme le BIM/CIM (Building/City Information Modeling) et un logiciel d’évaluation à l’échelle du quartier basé sur la même approche que la RE2020 (i.e. UrbanPrint).
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Lawns are highly recognized and indispensable elements in the urban landscape. Due to water-saving, low maintenance cost, and avoided health-environmental impacts of agrochemical usage, artificial turf (AT) has increasingly replaced some natural turf (NT) sports fields and recreational lawns. It remains controversial whether AT is a healthy alternative to NT. We asked the research question, “Where and for whom the AT is (or isn't) suitable regarding user thermal sensation partaking various activities?” We established a field experiment at adjoining AT and NT fields in humid-tropical Hong Kong. Detailed microclimatic data were recorded under sunny, cloudy and overcast weather conditions to calculate the modified physiological equivalent temperature (mPET) as a thermal comfort index. Activities covering a range of metabolic rates were selected to evaluate user thermal sensation. AT experienced considerably raised ground surface temperatures on sunny days with a consequential increase in near-ground ambient air temperatures and the environs. The inter-turf temperature difference was somewhat subdued under cloudy and overcast weather. A regression model allowed the successful development of a nine-point thermal suitability index (TSI) to assess AT applications and provide a simple rule-of-thumb for design practice. To avoid undue heat stress, AT use can only be recommended for certain site-weather and user-activity scenarios. The TSI can be applied to other climatic zones by gleaning on-site microclimatic data and enlisting the proposed regression-modelling method. A comprehensive AT assessment scheme can be developed by incorporating the TSI to inform future AT installation and use decisions.
Chapter
This chapter looks at ecosystems and the services they provide for the well-being of people in cities, so-called ecosystem services, but also at the biophysical processes, structures and functions that contribute significantly to the creation of ecosystem services and their maintenance. For this purpose, selected methods for measuring, monitoring, statistics, modelling and evaluating these structures, processes and functions are presented for these individual components—climate, water, vegetation, and soil. In addition, basic methods for the assessment and valorization of ecosystem services are presented. Using information boxes, case study and excursus, current approaches to the analysis and investigation of components of urban ecosystems and urban ecosystem services will be illustrated.
Chapter
This chapter analyses the residential sector from a well-being perspective and proposes a number of policy priorities that are consistent with wider well-being and sustainability goals. It explores several indicators that can improve policy makers’ ability to monitor progress in delivering these priorities in the sector, as well as guide decisions to capture the benefits of a two-way alignment between climate and wider well-being goals, while also managing trade-offs. The chapter examines the relationship between the proposed indicators and the indicators used by the Sustainable Development Goals and the OECD Framework for Measuring Well-being and Progress.
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Trees sequester and store carbon in their tissue at differing rates and amounts based on such factors as tree size at maturity, life span, and growth rate. Concurrently, tree care practices release carbon back to the atmosphere based on fossil-fuel emissions from maintenance equipment (e.g., chain saws, trucks, chippers). Management choices such as tree locations for energy conservation and tree disposal methods after removal also affect the net carbon effect of the urban forest. Different species, decomposition, energy conservation, and maintenance scenarios were evaluated to determine how these factors influence the net carbon impact of urban forests and their management. If carbon (via fossil-fuel combustion) is used to maintain vegetation structure and health, urban forest ecosystems eventually will become net emitters of carbon unless secondary carbon reductions (e.g., energy conservation) or limiting decomposition via long-term carbon storage (e.g., wood products, landfills) can be accomplished to offset the maintenance carbon emissions. Management practices to maximize the net benefits of urban forests on atmospheric carbon dioxide are discussed.
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Urban land in the United States currently occupies about 69 million acres with an estimated average crown cover of 28% and an estimated tree biomass of about 27 tons/acre. This structure suggests that the current total urban forest carbon storage in the United States is approximately 800 million tons with an estimated annual net carbon storage of around 6.5 million tons. Besides directly storing carbon, urban trees also reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by cooling ambient air and allowing residents to minimize annual heating and cooling. A method is provided for organizations to calculate the number of trees necessary to offset the CO2 emissions associated with the energy used in their office buildings. Tables are also provided to show how many trees an American could steward or plant to offset his or her per capita carbon emissions (2.3 tons/year). -from Authors
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Based on field data from 10 USA cities and national urban tree cover data, it is estimated that urban trees in the coterminous USA currently store 700 million tonnes of carbon ($14,300 million value) with a gross carbon sequestration rate of 22.8 million tC/yr ($460 million/year). Carbon storage within cities ranges from 1.2 million tC in New York, NY, to 19,300 tC in Jersey City, NJ. Regions with the greatest proportion of urban land are the Northeast (8.5%) and the southeast (7.1%). Urban forests in the north central, northeast, south central and southeast regions of the USA store and sequester the most carbon, with average carbon storage per hectare greatest in southeast, north central, northeast and Pacific northwest regions, respectively. The national average urban forest carbon storage density is 25.1 tC/ha, compared with 53.5 tC/ha in forest stands. These data can be used to help assess the actual and potential role of urban forests in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a dominant greenhouse gas.
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Much attention has been paid to preserving land at the urban fringe, and to the negative effects of sprawl and its costs. There is increasing recognition that enhancing green, public open spaces in cities provides a strategy to make those cities more sustainable, more livable, and more equitable. This involves a new approach to public spaces that integrates infra- structure needs, takes equity into account, and reexamines the range of uses public spaces offer. We consider the potential for urban greening through a case study in the dense inner core of Los Angeles that probed local resident attitudes and values toward a more inclusive strategy, and that measured the potential value of nature's services in the urban fabric using a GIS program. (Key words: Los Angeles, public urban open space, sustainability, regreening, GIS.)
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The term 'carbon footprint' has become tremendously popular over the last few years and is now in widespread use across the media – at least in the United Kingdom. With climate change high up on the political and corporate agenda, carbon footprint calculations are in demand. Numerous approaches have been proposed to provide estimates, ranging from basic online calculators to sophisticated life-cycle-analysis or input-output based methods and tools. Despite its ubiquitous use however, there is an apparent lack of academic definitions of what exactly a 'carbon footprint' is meant to be. The scientific literature is surprisingly void of clarifications, despite the fact that countless studies in energy and ecological economics that could have claimed to measure a 'carbon footprint' have been published over decades. This commentary explores the apparent discrepancy between public and academic use of the term 'carbon footprint' and suggests a scientific definition based on commonly accepted accounting principles and modelling approaches. It addresses methodological questions such as system boundaries, completeness, comprehensiveness, units, and robustness of the indicator.
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Urban green space is purported to offset greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, remove air and water pollutants, cool local climate, and improve public health. To use these services, municipalities have focused efforts on designing and implementing ecosystem-services-based "green infrastructure" in urban environments. In some cases the environmental benefits of this infrastructure have been well documented, but they are often unclear, unquantified, and/or outweighed by potential costs. Quantifying biogeochemical processes in urban green infrastructure can improve our understanding of urban ecosystem services and disservices (negative or unintended consequences) resulting from designed urban green spaces. Here we propose a framework to integrate biogeochemical processes into designing, implementing, and evaluating the net effectiveness of green infrastructure, and provide examples for GHG mitigation, stormwater runoff mitigation, and improvements in air quality and health.
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Knowledge of carbon exchange between the atmosphere, land and the oceans is important, given that the terrestrial and marine environments are currently absorbing about half of the carbon dioxide that is emitted by fossil-fuel combustion. This carbon uptake is therefore limiting the extent of atmospheric and climatic change, but its long-term nature remains uncertain. Here we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of global and regional patterns of carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen data confirm that the terrestrial biosphere was largely neutral with respect to net carbon exchange during the 1980s, but became a net carbon sink in the 1990s. This recent sink can be largely attributed to northern extratropical areas, and is roughly split between North America and Eurasia. Tropical land areas, however, were approximately in balance with respect to carbon exchange, implying a carbon sink that offset emissions due to tropical deforestation. The evolution of the terrestrial carbon sink is largely the result of changes in land use over time, such as regrowth on abandoned agricultural land and fire prevention, in addition to responses to environmental changes, such as longer growing seasons, and fertilization by carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Nevertheless, there remain considerable uncertainties as to the magnitude of the sink in different regions and the contribution of different processes.
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A review of stem volume and biomass equations for tree species growing in Europe is presented. The mathematical forms of the empirical models, the associated statistical parameters and information about the size of the trees and the country of origin were col - lated from scientific articles and from technical reports. The total number of the compiled equations for biomass estimation was 607 and for stem volume prediction it was �30. The analysis indicated that most of the biomass equations were developed for aboveground tree components. A relatively small number of equations were developed for southern Europe. Most of the biomass equations were based on a few sampled sites with a very limited number of sampled trees. The volume equations were, in general, based on more representative data covering larger geographical regions. The volume equations were available for major tree species in Europe. The collected information provides a basic tool for estimation of carbon stocks and nutrient balance of forest ecosystems across Europe as well as for validation of theoretical models of biomass allocation.
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Most of our global population and its CO2 emissions can be attributed to urban areas. The process of urbanization changes terrestrial carbon stocks and fluxes, which, in turn, impact ecosystem functions and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Using the Seattle, WA, region as a case study, this paper explores the relationships between aboveground carbon stocks and land cover within an urbanizing area. The major objectives were to estimate aboveground live and dead terrestrial carbon stocks across multiple land cover classes and quantify the relationships between urban cover and vegetation across a gradient of urbanization. We established 154 sample plots in the Seattle region to assess carbon stocks as a function of distance from the urban core and land cover [urban (heavy, medium, and low), mixed forest, and conifer forest land covers]. The mean (and 95% CI) aboveground live biomass for the region was 89±22 Mg C ha−1 with an additional 11.8±4 Mg C ha−1 of coarse woody debris biomass. The average live biomass stored within forested and urban land covers was 140±40 and 18±14 Mg C ha−1, respectively, with a 57% mean vegetated canopy cover regionally. Both the total carbon stocks and mean vegetated canopy cover were surprisingly high, even within the heavily urbanized areas, well exceeding observations within other urbanizing areas and the average US forested carbon stocks. As urban land covers and populations continue to rapidly increase across the globe, these results highlight the importance of considering vegetation in urbanizing areas within the terrestrial carbon cycle.
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Many studies have analyzed the benefits, costs, and carbon storage capacity associated with urban trees. These studies have been limited by a lack of research on urban tree biomass, such that estimates of carbon storage in urban systems have relied upon allometric relationships developed in traditional forests. As urbanization increases globally, it is becoming important to more accurately evaluate carbon dynamics in these systems. Our goal was to understand the variability and range of potential error associated with using allometric relationships developed outside of urban environments. We compared biomass predictions from allometric relationships developed for urban trees in Fort Collins, Colorado to predictions from allometric equations from traditional forests, at both the individual species level and entire communities. A few of the equations from the literature predicted similar biomass to the urban-based predictions, but the range in variability for individual trees was over 300%. This variability declined at increasingly coarse scales, reaching as low as 60% for a street tree community containing 11 tree species and 10, 551 trees. When comparing biomass estimates between cities that implement various allometric relationships, we found that differences could be a function of variability rather than urban forest structure and function. Standardizing the methodology and implementing averaged equations across cities could be one potential solution to reducing variability; however, more accurate quantification of biomass and carbon storage in urban forests may depend on development of allometric relationships specifically for urban trees.
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Ecosystem services are vital for humans in urban regions. However, urban development poses a great risk for the ability of ecosystems to provide these services. In this paper we first address the most important ecosystem services in functional urban regions in Finland. Well accessible and good quality recreational ecosystem services, for example, provided by urban nature, are an important part of a high-quality living environment and important for public health. Vegetation of urban regions can have a role in carbon dioxide sequestration and thus in climate change mitigation. For instance, estimates of carbon sinks can be compared to total CO2 emissions of an urban region, and the municipality can aim at both increasing carbon sinks and decreasing CO2 emissions with proper land-use planning. Large and contiguous core nature areas, smaller green areas and ecological connections between them are the essence of regional ecological networks and are essential for maintaining interconnected habitats for species and thus biological diversity. Thus, both local and regional level ecological networks are vital for maintaining ecosystem services in urban regions. The impacts of climate change coupled with land-use and land cover change will bring serious challenges for maintaining ecosystem services in urban areas. Although not yet widely used in planning practices, the ecosystem services approach can provide an opportunity for land-use planning to develop ecologically sustainable urban regions. Currently, information on ecosystem services of urban regions is lacking and there is a need to improve the knowledge base for land-use planning. KeywordsEcosystem services-Finland-Land-use planning-Recreation-Urban green areas-Urban region
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There is general agreement that terrestrial systems in the Northern Hemisphere provide a significant sink for atmospheric CO2; however, estimates of the magnitude and distribution of this sink vary greatly. National forest inventories provide strong, measuretment-based constraints on the magnitude of net forest carbon uptake. We brought together forest sector C budgets for Canada, the United States, Europe, Russia, and China that were derived from forest inventory information, allometric relationships, and supplementary data sets and models. Together, these suggest that northern forests and woodlands provided a total sink for 0.6-0.7 Pg of C per year (1 Pg = 10(15) g) during the early 1990s, consisting of 0.21 Pg C/yr in living biomass, 0.08 Pg C/yrin forest products, 0.15 Pg C/yr in dead wood, and 0.13 Pg C/yr in the forest floor and soil organic matter. Estimates of changes in soil C pools have improved but remain the least certain terms of the budgets. Over 80% of the estimated sink occurred in one-third of the forest area, in temperate regions affected by fire suppression, agricultural abandonment, and plantation forestry. Growth in boreal regions was offset by fire and other disturbances that vary considerably from year to year. Comparison with atmospheric inversions suggests significant land C sinks may occur outside the forest sector.
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