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Tourism and National Parks: Issues and Implications

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Tourism and National Parks: Issues and Implications

1076 PUBLICATIONS IN REVIEW
could be more fully described and explored. A second suggestion is to com-
bine all of the works of a single author in a single collection. There is a market
for this, with many libraries subscribing to collected worksseries. A rst
volume could be the works of Martin Oppermann whose untimely death was
reported by Ryan and Faulkner (1999).
In summary, Ryan and Pages compilation of the best of Tourism Management
over the last decade is an asset to tourism research and an inspirational read.
It will be well-received and should nd its way on to the shelves of all progress-
ive tourism researchers and academics.
Ross Dowling: School of Marketing, Tourism and Leisure, Edith Cowan University,
Joondalup WA 6027, Australia. Email <r.dowling@ecu.edu.au>.
REFERENCES
Medlik, S., ed.
1991 Managing Tourism Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Ryan, C., and B. Faulkner
1999 Obituary: Martin Oppermann (19641998). Tourism Management 20:1.
Assigned 5 July 2000. Submitted 31 October 2000. Accepted 14 November 2000.
PII: S0160-7383(01)00018-4
Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 10761078, 2001
Printed in Great Britain
0160-7383/01/$20.00
Tourism and National Parks: Issues and
Implications
Edited by Richard W. Butler and Stephen W. Boyd. Wiley (Bafns Lane,
Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, United Kingdom) 2000, vii+342 pp. £50
Hbk. ISBN 0-471-98894-4
Paul F. J. Eagles
University of Waterloo, Canada
In this book, Richard Butler and Stephen Boyd, both academics at British
universities, have compiled a series of commissioned papers on a range of
park tourism issues. The papers are organized into four sections: history of
parks and tourism, settings for tourism, issues in park tourism, and the future.
The book concentrates on parks and tourism in the United States, Canada,
New Zealand, and Australia. Other countries are proled to various levels
of depth, including the United Kingdom, Nepal, Vietnam, Cambodia, India,
Ecuador, Indonesia, and Zimbabwe.
There are a number of problems with the book, beginning with the title.
The book is not just about tourism in national parks but tourism in many
types of protected areas. The volume would have been strengthened by the
1077PUBLICATIONS IN REVIEW
consistent use of the international criteria for determining when an area is a
park or a protected area. Another problem is that historical treatment is given
only for New Zealand, Australia, the United States, and Canada, as Butler and
Boyd make the unfortunate decision to merge the national park histories of
the last two countries into one paper. They used the underlying principle that
the USA lead the way and Canada followed(p. 24). This results in the Can-
adian park history being presented in an inaccurate and subservient fashion.
The editors discuss parks operated only by the federal governments, thereby
ignoring the important systems operated by states and provinces.
Michael Hall is more inclusive in his excellent coverage of the history of
parks and tourism in Australia including detailed coverage of parks operated
by the states. Kay Booth and David Simmons summarize the park history for
New Zealand. They alone discuss important tourism management issues such
as total quality management, management of concessions, and entrance
charges. The history chapters are informative, but spend more time discussing
the history of parks in general, rather than that of park tourism.
Section two presents six papers on a wide variety of tourism settings. Michael
Hall covers the role of aboriginal peoples in parks, with a strong emphasis on
the Australian experience. He highlights the Uluru National Park experience,
but with no comment on whether this is a representative example. Sanjay
Nepals comparison of park and tourism management of three areas in the
country of Nepal suggests that tourism management success depends on the
park management style and the role of local communities. Gavin Parker and
Neil Ravenscroft provide a scathing comment on the national parks in the
United Kingdom. According to them, national parks have in effect lived a
lie, both as to their eponymity and their actual ability to provide what tourists
or local people want(p. 104). David Weaver reveals the uncertain future of
parks and tourism in the ecologically vulnerable Galapagos Islands. He makes
a strong case that park management can not be separated from the larger
political and economic forces of society. John Marsh implies a minor role for
protected areas in tourism of polar regions. Robert Lilieholm and Lisa
Romenys coverage of wildlife and parks has a strong emphasis on eastern and
southern Africa. They conclude that, nature-based tourism may represent the
only viable form of economic development in many poor, remote regions of
the globe(p. 149). One aw in their paper is the incorrect statement that
viewing tourism has replaced hunting in Africa; safari hunting is thriving in
the game reserves of most of eastern and southern Africa.
Part three discusses sustainability, resource conicts, visitor management,
tourism impact mitigation, partnerships, and cooperation. Phillip Dearden
outlines the development-conservation conicts in the Bow River Valley in
Banff National Park in Canada. Jerry Vaske, Maureen Donnelly, and Doug
Whittaker, in one of the nest chapters in the book, provide an excellent
summary of the common elements found in the tourism management frame-
works developed over the last 30 years. Phillipa Sowman and Douglas Pearce
provide an interesting summary of visitor management in New Zealand parks.
Harold Goodwins paper on partnerships observed in Indonesia, India, and
Zimbabwe concludes that park managers are not equipped to maximize the
revenue available from tourism. This paper is unique in its discussion of the
nancial relationships between tourism and park management. Dallen Tim-
othy concludes that there are severe limitations to cross-border tourism in
international parks. Carolyn Cresswell and Fergus MacLaren suggest that Cam-
bodia and Vietnam will not have effective park tourism systems in the foresee-
able future. The last part of this volume, on the future of tourism and parks,
is the weakest part of the book. Gordon Nelson looks mostly into the past,
scarcely mentioning future trends. However, he is the only author that recog-
1078 PUBLICATIONS IN REVIEW
nizes that Mexico is part of North America. Butler is subdued in his prediction
of the future, generally concluding the future will hold more of the same.
Throughout the book, virtually every author discusses tourism volume. How-
ever, none comment on the reliability of estimates or critique the methods
of data collection. The book makes no call for better data, even though a
number of authors alluded to questions about tourist counts. Further, the
book ignores national historic parks and the wildlife refuge systems of most
countries. Virtually all of the authors are academics. The articles treat parks
like a black box of management, with little discussion of the relationships
between inputs and outputs. Only Harold Goodwin discusses the managerial
needs of parks. There is little or no coverage of staff numbers, qualications,
and training; staff remuneration and reward structures; the role of parks in
regional tourism facilitation; the legal determination of priorities; or park n-
ance and funding. Despite its limitations and strongly academic (as opposed
to management) orientation, the bookthe rst to discuss a wide range of
tourism issues in protected areasis a useful work and will stimulate
additional work in this important eld.
Paul Eagles: Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Water-
loo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. Email <eagles@healthy.uwaterloo.ca>.
Assigned 9 November 2000. Submitted 17 November 2000. Accepted 20 November 2000.
PII: S0160-7383(01)00019-6
Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 10781080, 2001
Printed in Great Britain
0160-7383/01/$20.00
Tourism Demand Modelling and Forecasting:
Modern Econometric Approaches
By Haiyan Song and Stephen F. Witt. Elsevier Science (The Boulevard, Langford
Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom) 2000, viii+178 pp (tables,
gures, author index, subject index, references) $75.00 Hbk. ISBN 0-08-043673-0
David A. Wilton
University of Waterloo, Canada
The authors state, [t]he purpose of this book is to introduce students,
researchers and practitioners to the recent advances in econometric method-
ology within the context of tourism demand analysis, and to illustrate these
new developments with actual tourism applicationsThe book is designed
for nal-year undergraduate, postgraduate, and research students in tourism
studies, as well as researchers and practitioners(p. vii). It is also claimed that
this book is accessible to non-specialistswho have taken an introductory
course in statistics and multiple regression analysis(p. vii) but, in fact, non-
specialists will nd this book very technical and intimidating.
The rst two chapters introduce tourism demand analysis and traditional
econometric methodology. Chapter 1 summarizes the key demand determi-
... Visitor use data from parks are often used uncritically without a discussion of the accuracy of the data or the methods used to collect the data (Eagles, 2001). It is often difficult for the user to understand the level of accuracy of the data because of a lack of information on the methods and methodology used. ...
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Full-text available
Most park agencies have a policy and standardized procedure for the collection of visitor use data, which are then used for planning and management functions. The data are collected using a wide variety of personal and non-personal systems, such as permit sales, axle counters, infrared beams, and remote sensing. The normal expectation is that those who collect the data are accurate in the collection process, tabulation, and publication of the data, as few auditing procedures are in place. This paper reports a probable case of management misrepresentation in the reporting of visitor use data from one park. The research found inflation of the axle count data in the early 1970’s of approximately 500% in Turkey Point Provincial Park. In the early 1970s, the overall public use data for Ontario Provincial Parks came from axle counts of vehicle entrances to parks, an activity not audited. In 1978 the visitor use count methods changed to permit sales, an audited activity. More stringent auditing procedures for the handling of money associated with permit sales provided fewer opportunities for field staff to purposefully manipulate data. At approximately the same time, a changeover in the park superintendent occurred in this park. This visitor use data inflation by the park manager appeared to have been caused by two factors; the use of entrant rather than visit data, and by a park manager hoping to justify requests for more funding from central government. Recommendations are made on visitor use data auditing and verification. This is the first paper to reveal managerial fraud in reporting of visitor use data in parks.
  • C Ryan
  • B Faulkner
Ryan, C., and B. Faulkner 1999 Obituary: Martin Oppermann (1964-1998). Tourism Management 20:1.
Managing Tourism Oxford
  • S Medlik
Medlik, S., ed. 1991 Managing Tourism Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.