Haemorrhage control in severely injured patients
National Trauma Research Institute, The Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. The Lancet
(Impact Factor: 45.22).
09/2012; 380(9847):1099–1108. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61224-0
Most surgeons have adopted damage control surgery for severely injured patients, in which the initial operation is abbreviated after control of bleeding and contamination to allow ongoing resuscitation in the intensive-care unit. Developments in early resuscitation that emphasise rapid control of bleeding, restrictive volume replacement, and prevention or early management of coagulopathy are making definitive surgery during the first operation possible for many patients. Improved topical haemostatic agents and interventional radiology are becoming increasingly useful adjuncts to surgical control of bleeding. Better understanding of trauma-induced coagulopathy is paving the way for the replacement of blind, unguided protocols for blood component therapy with systemic treatments targeting specific deficiencies in coagulation. Similarly, treatments targeting dysregulated inflammatory responses to severe injury are under investigation. As point-of-care diagnostics become more suited to emergency environments, timely targeted intervention for haemorrhage control will result in better patient outcomes and reduced demand for blood products. Our Series paper describes how our understanding of the roles of the microcirculation, inflammation, and coagulation has shaped new and emerging treatment strategies.
Available from: Zsolt Balogh
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ABSTRACT: Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common reason for operative procedures in severely injured patients and are major determinants of functional outcomes. In this paper, we summarise advances and future directions for management of multiply injured patients with major musculoskeletal trauma. Improved understanding of fracture healing has created new possibilities for management of particularly challenging problems, such as delayed union and non union of fractures and large bone defects. Optimum timing of major orthopaedic interventions is guided by increased knowledge about the immune response after injury. Individual treatment should be guided by trading off the benefits of early definitive skeletal stabilisation, and the potentially life-threatening risks of systemic complications such as fat embolism, acute lung injury, and multiple organ failure. New methods for measurement of fracture healing and function and quality of life outcomes pave the way for landmark trials that will guide the future management of musculoskeletal injuries.
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