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Personality similarity and life satisfaction in couples

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Abstract

The present study examined the association between personality similarity and life satisfaction in a large, nationally representative sample of 1608 romantic couples. Similarity effects were computed for the Big Five personality traits as well as for personality profiles with global and differentiated indices of similarity. Results showed substantial actor and partner effects, indicating that both partners’ personality traits were related to both partners’ life satisfaction. Personality similarity, however, was not related to either partner’s life satisfaction. We emphasize the importance of thoroughly controlling for each partner’s personality and for applying appropriate analytical methods for dyadic data when assessing the effect of personality similarity in couples.

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... Studies testing the associations between similarity and outcomes have provided mixed findings. When controlling for main effects of both partners' personality traits, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showed positive associations between partner similarity in broad and narrow personality traits and the outcomes of RS and LS, but effect sizes are small to negligible (e.g., Brauer & Proyer, 2018;Chopik & Lucas, 2019;Decuyper et al., 2012;Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013;Humbad et al., 2013;Proyer et al., 2019;van Scheppingen et al., 2019; see also Luo, 2017;Weidmann et al., 2016). Rammstedt and colleagues (2013) used an alternative approach to study how similarity relates to break-up, as they compared the similarity of stable and separated couples' big five traits (N total = 4,809 couples) across two assessments over a 4-year interval. ...
... The second aim of Study 2 was to test whether partner similarity in strengths robustly relates to RS and LS. The literature has shown that profile similarity indices outperform single trait absolute differences scores in terms of predictive validity (e.g., Brauer & Proyer, 2018;Furler et al., 2013; for a discussion of the disadvantages of absolute difference scores as estimates of similarity see also Edwards, 2001). Thus, we examined whether couples' similarity in the profiles of strengths is associated with RS and LS over and above actor and partner effects. ...
... We used the APIM (Cook & Kenny, 2005) to account for the partners' interdependence in predictor and outcome variables and to control for actor-and partner effects of the strengths on RS and LS. In line with the literature on associations between partner similarity and indicators of satisfaction (e.g., Brauer & Proyer, 2018;Furler et al., 2013;Humbad et al., 2013;Luo, 2017;Weidmann et al., 2016), we also expected positive associations of minor size between profile similarity and partners' satisfaction. ...
Article
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We studied the similarity among partners' character strengths (i.e., positively valued traits) across two studies. In Study 1, N = 68 couples completed the 240-item VIA Inventory of Strengths and in Study 2, N = 143 couples completed a 24-item brief-form and measures of life-and relationship satisfaction. We computed raw, normative, and distinctive profile similarities for the 24 strengths and found support for partners' similarity in both studies (normative: rs ≥ .84; raw: rs ≥.23; distinctive: rs ≥ .06). Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analyses (Study 2) provided no evidence for the notion that similarity relates to couples' satisfaction. We discuss our findings regarding prior research, assortative mating preferences, and extensions to the study of partner-and ideal partner perceptions.
... For instance, within-couple similarities in personality traits are positively associated with relationship well-being (Gonzaga et al., 2007), as well as relationship satisfaction in women, but not men (Decuyper et al., 2012). Other findings, however, have suggested that the impact of within-couple personality similarity on relationship well-being may be relatively small after accounting for personality trait levels in each partner (Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013). Together, these findings suggest inter-couple differences in within-couple personality similarities, such that partners may endorse similar personality traits, but being more similar may not be consistently associated with positive marital outcomes. ...
... (c) Finally, reviewers of the first submission of this manuscript made some insightful and thoughtful recommendations, which deviated from our original plan. Specifically, reviewers suggested accounting for the potential impact of within-couple age differences, as well as actor and partner personality effects on perceived spousal support, as studies that appropriately account for actor and partner effects seem less likely to find similarity effects (e.g., Furler et al., 2013). We believe that the exploratory analyses recommended by reviewers provide additional, more nuanced understanding of within-couple personality trait synchrony. ...
... With the exception of the trait of openness to experience, associations between personality similarity and perceived spousal support were attenuated after accounting for actor and partner effects. These findings align with more recent research showing little or no impact of personality similarity on relationship well-being (Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013). ...
Article
Objectives: Within-couple similarities in personality traits tend to be positively associated with relationship well-being. However, research in this area is typically based on cross-sectional designs, thereby limiting examination of longitudinal personality concordance. Given that life experiences shape within-person change in personality, and that partners within a couple often experience similar life events, investigation of within-couple personality synchrony and associations with marital outcomes is warranted. Method: Using data from 3,988 couples (mean age at baseline=67.0 years, SD=9.6), multilevel dyadic growth models estimated within-couple similarity in baseline levels, change, and occasion-to-occasion variability for each of the Big Five personality traits over an eight-year follow-up. Bivariate growth models examined the effect of within-couple similarity on perceived spousal support, accounting for dependency within couples. Results: Adjusting for baseline age, education, functional ability, and relationship length, analyses revealed within-couple concordance between baseline levels of all five personality traits, as well as correlated within-couple fluctuations in neuroticism, extraversion, and openness over time. Similarity in openness, agreeableness, and neuroticism trajectories predicted spousal support. Couples were most similar in openness, showing correlated intercepts, change and variability, and this longitudinal synchrony was particularly important for perceived spousal support in women. Discussion: These findings provide evidence for longitudinal personality synchrony over time within older adult couples. Further, concordance in neuroticism, extraversion and openness predicted perceived spousal support, though there may be some gender differences in personality dynamics and relationship well-being. Effects of similarity were relatively small compared to actor and partner effects of these traits.
... Indeed, these confounding factors did influence the association between similarity and satisfaction in the present study. First, the actor effects observed in this study were highly consistent with what previous research found (e.g., Dyrenforth et al. 2010;Furler et al. 2013;Luo et al. 2008). Specifically, individuals who scored higher on extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, moral identity, and spirituality, but scored lower on neuroticism, reported higher levels of satisfaction in life. ...
... Specifically, the SPSC only in agreeableness, openness, and moral identity predicted life satisfaction of both spouses; SPSC in spirituality only predicted husbands' life satisfaction. This was not fully consistent with previous findings from Western countries, suggesting that similarity on personality has limited effect in predicting life satisfaction (Dyrenforth et al. 2010;Furler et al. 2013;Humbad et al. 2013). ...
... This suggested the necessity of controlling NDC when calculating profile similarity. Indeed, investigators indicated that if NDC was removed, the positive associations between OPSC in personality and satisfaction would be largely attenuated (e.g., Becker 2013; Dyrenforth et al. 2010;Furler et al. 2013;Humbad et al. 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of couple similarity on spouses’ and children’s life satisfaction using a large representative sample of 1761 participants (587 married couples and their children). Drawing on the stimulus–value–role theory demonstrating couple similarities in different domains, similarities on personality and value (moral identity and spirituality) was investigated. Based on evolutionary perspectives and the vulnerability–stress–adaptation model of marriage, we hypothesized that couple similarities in these domains are associated with spouses’ life satisfaction. We further proposed that couple similarities may be beneficial for offspring’s well-being. The Actor–Partner Interdependence Model was used to test the independent contribution of couple similarity. The PROCESS macro Model 4 was used to test the direct and indirect effects of similarity on children’s life satisfaction. The results showed (1) Similarity on agreeableness, openness, moral identity, and spirituality contributed to spouses’ life satisfaction after controlling for actor effects, partner effects, and Normative-Desirability Confound; (2) Similarity on moral identity had indirect effect on children’s life satisfaction through fathers’ life satisfaction, and similarity on spirituality had not only a direct effect on children’s life satisfaction but also an indirect effect through fathers’ life satisfaction. These findings are consistent with evolutionary perspectives that positive assortment can enhance reproductive fitness through improved marital functioning. This study also provides support for the vulnerability–stress–adaptation model of marriage, suggesting that couple similarity may serve as enduring strengths that promote adaptive processes in marital relationships.
... While studies on the association of partners' similarity and RS yielded mixed findings (e.g., Decuyper, De Bolle, & De Fruyt, 2012;Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013;Luo & Klohnen, 2005;Weidmann, Schönbrodt, Ledermann, & Grob, 2017), there is theoretical reasoning supporting the notion that partners with similar traits tend to react and communicate similarly and, thereby, reduce disagreement and conflicts in the relationship (e.g., Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Luo, 2017). Proyer, Estoppey, and Ruch (2012) provided first evidence for partners' similarity in the three dispositions (r PHO/PHI/KAT = .28/.14/.26) ...
... We used the correlations between partners' overall and distinctive similarity as indicators of profile similarity and we operationalized trait wise similarity by computing the absolute difference between partners' PhoPhiKat-45 scores (i.e., high scores indicate dissimilarity). In line with the literature (e.g., Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013), we controlled for actor and partner effects of the three dispositions to estimate the unique effects of similarity. ...
... Associations with RS. In line with previous studies (e.g., Furler et al., 2013), we analyzed the similarity-RS associations after controlling main effects of actors and partners in the APIM (see Fig. 1b; fit tests available in Online Supplement B). As displayed in Table 6, partner's dissimilarity in fear of being laughed at was negatively related to happiness (b = À0.77, ...
Article
People differ in how they deal with ridicule and being laughed at along three individual differences variables; namely, the fear (gelotophobia) and joy (gelotophilia) of being laughed at and joy of laughing at others (katagelasticism). This study examines their associations with facets of relationship satisfaction (RS). Actor-Partner-Interdependence Model analyses of 154 heterosexual couples showed that gelotophobia was negatively associated with RS while gelotophilia (mainly in females) was positively related. Katagelasticism existed independently from RS, except for higher levels of disagreement. Further, romantic partners were robustly similar in their traits and profiles (overall and distinctive). The unique similarity-RS associations were positive but of small size. Overall, our findings support the notion that the dispositions are differentially related with facets of RS.
... This research has shown that well-being is associated with both actor and partner personality. The positive effects are most consistent for low neuroticism, high agreeableness, and high conscientiousness in both individuals and their partners, with partner effects being usually smaller in size (Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013;Malouff, Thorsteinsson, Schutte, Bhullar, & Rooke, 2010). For example, past research suggests that agreeable partners are more prone to engage in positive daily interactions, which may have a positive effect on an individual's well-being, over and above their own level of agreeableness (Donnellan, Conger, & Bryant, 2004). ...
... Not included in these meta-analyses were two more recent cross-sectional studies that used large representative samples of German, Australian, British (Dyrenforth et al., 2010), and Swiss adults (Furler et al., 2013). Including more than 11,000 couples, the total sample size of the Dyrenforth et al. (2010) study was almost 10 times larger than the total sample size of the eight samples included in the meta-analysis of Malouff et al. (2010). ...
... In addition, follow-up analyses for trait-specific personality similarity effects (e.g., similarity in conscientiousness specifically, etc.) did not show a consistent pattern of effects on well-being across the different samples. Furler et al. (2013) also studied similarity effects of personality on general well-being in 1,608 Swiss couples. Only one similarity effect was found, indicating that similarity in agreeableness was related to lower general well-being. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study aimed to conceptually replicate previous studies on the effects of actor personality, partner personality, and personality similarity on general and relational well-being by using response surface analyses and a longitudinal sample of 4,464 romantic couples. Similar to previous studies using difference scores and profile correlations, results from response surface analyses indicated that personality similarity explained a small amount of variance in well-being as compared with the amount of variance explained by linear actor and partner effects. However, response surface analyses also revealed that second-order terms (i.e., the interaction term and quadratic terms of actor and partner personality) were systematically linked to couples’ well-being for all traits except neuroticism. In particular, most response surfaces showed a complex pattern in which the effect of similarity and dissimilarity on well-being depended on the level and combination of actor and partner personality. In addition, one small but robust similarity effect was found, indicating that similarity in agreeableness was related to women’s experience of support across the eight years of the study. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for theory and research on personality similarity in romantic relationships.
... While studies on the association of partners' similarity and RS yielded mixed findings (e.g., Decuyper, De Bolle, & De Fruyt, 2012;Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013;Luo & Klohnen, 2005;Weidmann, Schönbrodt, Ledermann, & Grob, 2017), there is theoretical reasoning supporting the notion that partners with similar traits tend to react and communicate similarly and, thereby, reduce disagreement and conflicts in the relationship (e.g., Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Luo, 2017). Proyer, Estoppey, and Ruch (2012) provided first evidence for partners' similarity in the three dispositions (r PHO/PHI/KAT = .28/.14/.26) ...
... We used the correlations between partners' overall and distinctive similarity as indicators of profile similarity and we operationalized trait wise similarity by computing the absolute difference between partners' PhoPhiKat-45 scores (i.e., high scores indicate dissimilarity). In line with the literature (e.g., Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013), we controlled for actor and partner effects of the three dispositions to estimate the unique effects of similarity. ...
... Associations with RS. In line with previous studies (e.g., Furler et al., 2013), we analyzed the similarity-RS associations after controlling main effects of actors and partners in the APIM (see Fig. 1b; fit tests available in Online Supplement B). As displayed in Table 6, partner's dissimilarity in fear of being laughed at was negatively related to happiness (b = À0.77, ...
Conference Paper
Individual differences in dealing with ridicule and being laughed at can be described by three unidimensional traits; namely, gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at), gelotophilia (joy of being laughed at), and katagelasticism (joy of laughing at others). Previous research has shown that romantic partners are similar in their dispositions towards laughter and that they differently contribute to relationship satisfaction (RS). We extend the study on RS by testing effects of partners’ similarity in gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. Our findings from Actor-Partner-Interdependence-Model analyses in N = 154 heterosexual romantic couples show that partners' trait dissimilarity in gelotophobia predicts RS negatively while there were no similarity effects for remaining traits. Furthermore, analyses of profile similarity (Furr, 2008) yielded small positive effects on RS for both overall and distinctive profiles. Theoretical and practical implications regarding the role of the three dispositions towards laughter as well as partner similarity in romantic relationships are discussed.
... However, a number of studies do not confirm the assumed positive effects of similarity. In particular, controlling for the main effects of traits involved in the similarity measures tends to attenuate, if not completely absorb similarity effects (Kenny and Acitelli, 1994;Watson et al., 2004;Barelds, 2005;Montoya, 2008;Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Altmann et al., 2013;Becker, 2013;Furler et al., 2013;Tidwell et al., 2013;Wood and Furr, 2016). Adding a second predictor in a multiple regression model may increase, affect not at all or decrease the coefficient of the first one. ...
... The positivity variable covers the valence aspects of the PASK5-based global personality dimensions quite well. The Big Five have quite often proved to be valid predictors of RS, as reported by Dyrenforth et al. (2010) and Furler et al. (2013), for example. Hence, we can expect that positivity, encompassing the socially desirable aspects of the FFM dimensions, combined with distance, will also be a valid predictor in our studies of RS. ...
... Wood and Furr (2016) point to a special problem that arises with any kind of similarity measure (cf. also Furler et al., 2013). These measures would automatically be linked to RS, simply because they would be confounded with the positivity of the ratings. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of similarities in the personality traits of romantic partners on their relationship satisfaction (RS) has often been studied, albeit with mixed results. Beyond the main effects of personality traits, incremental validity was often completely missing, or at least very low. In contrast, our five studies, three cross-sectional – including one study on leader–follower dyads to secure generalizability – and two longitudinal, show that, in predicting RS, the beta-coefficients of distance (where distance is defined as the average across items of absolute differences between the two partners’ self-ratings) or positivity (where positivity is defined as the frequency of extremely positive self-ratings) increase when either the positivity of the profiles or the distance between the profiles is added as second predictor. Thus, positivity and distance seem to function as reciprocal suppressor variables that allow controlling for irrelevant components of the predictors. Consequently, when combined with positivity, distance proved to be a consistently better predictor of RS than has been reported in most previous studies. Combining profile distance with profile positivity appears to be promising well beyond research on RS, in that an individual profile of traits can be matched with a profile of a specific environment’s offers and demands when person-environment fit is the focus of interest.
... To provide an overall index of personality discrepancy, they are calculated by taking the absolute score of the difference between both partners' scores of personality traits (Dyrenforth et al., 2010). The profile correlation, such as an intraclass correlation (ICC), has also been used recently by some previous studies (Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013;Luo et al., 2008). The profile correlation represents the degree to which the overall personality profiles of the individuals in each couple have a resemblance to each other. ...
... Some studies found that there are significant associations between indices of personality similarity and marital satisfaction (e.g., Robins et al., 2000;Russell & Wells, 1991). However, other studies have not found such kinds of relationships (e.g., Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013;Humbad, Donnellan, Iacono, McGue, & Burt, 2013). Gattis, Berns, Simpson, and Christensen (2004) found that discrepancy scores on any of the Big Five traits were not associated with marital satisfaction. ...
... The present study showed the similarity effect using the discrepancy score was significant, whereas the effect using ICC was not significant. In part, this may be because a profile consists of three elements (Furler et al., 2013;Furr, 2010). First, every profile has a shape that represents the pattern of scores in a profile. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the actor, partner, and (dis)similarity effects of personality on marital satisfaction, considering the interaction with marital duration. Participants were 749 Japanese married couples. The results of an actor–partner interdependence model, which includes interaction with marital duration, showed that there was little interaction between actor and partner effects and marital duration, indicating that both one’s own and the partner’s personality have consistent effects on satisfaction throughout marital duration. In contrast, similarity effects did interact with marital duration. In shorter marital duration, similar couples were less satisfied, whereas similarity had no effect on satisfaction in longer marital duration. We discuss the possible influence of the transition from a romantic relationship to a marital relationship.
... Each trait was assessed by two items, comprising the following statements: "I see myself as someone who..."; Agreeableness: "is generally trusting, " "tends to find fault with others" (reversed), Conscientiousness: "does a thorough job, " "tends to be lazy" (reversed), Extraversion: "is outgoing, sociable, " "is reserved" (reversed), Neuroticism: "gets nervous easily, " "is relaxed, handles stress well" (reversed), Openness to experience: "has an active imagination, " "has artistic interests." As is common for short scales that attempt to reflect conceptual breadth (Cronbach, 1951), inter-item correlations were r = 0.08 (agreeableness), r = 0.26 (conscientiousness), r = 0.36 (extraversion), r = 0.36 (neuroticism), and r = 0.21 (openness to experience), which is consistent with prior published research featuring personality data from the SHP (Anusic et al., 2012;Furler et al., 2013) and-with the exception of Agreeableness-general recommendations for psychometric evaluations (Clark and Watson, 1995). Moreover, the BFI-10 has been shown to correlate highly with the original BFI-44, capturing 70% of the full BFI variance, while retaining 85% of the BFI-44's test-retest reliability with virtually unchanged discriminant and structural validity (Rammstedt and John, 2007). ...
... A single-item measure of life satisfaction, the cognitive component of subjective wellbeing (Diener et al., 2017), was administered throughout all panel waves. The respective item read: "In general, how satisfied are you with your life, if 0 means "not at all satisfied" and 10 means "completely satisfied"?" Empirical evidence has been compiled to demonstrate the robustness and scientific suitability of this measure Cheung and Lucas, 2014) and it has been often used in SHP-based research (Dorn et al., 2007;Steiner et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013;Anusic et al., 2014). ...
... Lastly, one might question the psychometric properties of some of the measures employed. Although the BFI-10 has been shown to exhibit satisfying psychometric properties (Gerlitz and Schupp, 2005;Lang, 2005;Rammstedt and John, 2007;Donnellan and Lucas, 2008;Lang et al., 2011) and has been successfully used in personality research, featuring SHP data (Anusic et al., 2012;Furler et al., 2013), inter-item correlations and reliability estimates tended to be at the lower boundaries of recommended values (Clark and Watson, 1995), leading to criticism being leveled against their use (Ryser, 2015). It should also be noted that some of the constructs in the present study were assessed with single item scales which is likely to impose further limitations on the generalizability of the present findings. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study extended traditional nation-based research on person-culture-fit to the regional level. First, we examined the geographical distribution of Big Five personality traits in Switzerland. Across the 26 Swiss cantons, unique patterns were observed for all traits. For Extraversion and Neuroticism clear language divides emerged between the French-and Italian-speaking SouthWest vs. the German-speaking NorthEast. Second, multilevel modeling demonstrated that person-environment-fit in Big Five, composed of elevation (i.e., mean differences between individual profile and cantonal profile), scatter (differences in mean variances) and shape (Pearson correlations between individual and cantonal profiles across all traits; Furr, 2008, 2010), predicted the development of subjective wellbeing (i.e., life satisfaction, satisfaction with personal relationships, positive affect, negative affect) over a period of 4 years. Unexpectedly, while the effects of shape were in line with the person-environment-fit hypothesis (better fit predicted higher subjective wellbeing), the effects of scatter showed the opposite pattern, while null findings were observed for elevation. Across a series of robustness checks, the patterns for shape and elevation were consistently replicated. While that was mostly the case for scatter as well, the effects of scatter appeared to be somewhat less robust and more sensitive to the specific way fit was modeled when predicting certain outcomes (negative affect, positive affect). Distinguishing between supplementary and complementary fit may help to reconcile these findings and future research should explore whether and if so under which conditions these concepts may be applicable to the respective facets of person-culture-fit.
... Furthermore, very few studies have considered the mechanisms and conditions through which personality traits improve an individual's perceived satisfaction with life. However, various studies indicate that there may be process variables underlying the relationship between personality traits and satisfaction with life (Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013;Heller, Watson, & Ilies, 2004;Hsieh et al., 2011), although these have been scarcely studied. To address this, Heller et al. (2004) have called for more complex theoretical models that synthesize these process variables. ...
... Although the concept of success in life has comparatively more objective criteria, such as family, good health, and a successful career, satisfaction with life is strongly tied to the individual's unique circumstances in the seven key domains of life, including family, health, social relationships, work, financial situation, one's self-worth, and leisure-time (Loewe et al., 2014). Satisfaction with life is significantly predicted by how these circumstances are perceived by the individual, which is inexplicably tied to the individual's personality traits (Furler et al., 2013;Joshanloo & Afshari, 2011;Tuce & Fako, 2014;Zhai, Willis, O'Shea, Zhai, & Yang, 2013). ...
... Even personality traits other than the Big Five have been found to have a significant influence on satisfaction with life, especially self-esteem (Joshanloo & Afshari, 2011) and optimism in the domain of job satisfaction (Lounsbury et al., 2003). Furthermore, Furler et al. (2013) found evidence that in addition to one's own personality traits, partner's personality traits also significantly influence satisfaction with life. However, in adherence to the principle of parsimony, the scope of this study is limited to the Big Five personality traits. ...
Article
There is plenty of research on personality traits that explains its impact on human behaviors in different situations. However, there is sparse research available in the literature that explains how does personality traits affect innovativeness among individuals and satisfaction with life perceptions (subjective wellbeing). The current study proposes and empirically examines a conceptual model that addresses this important gap in the body of knowledge. Famous Big-Five personality traits theory is used to explain this phenomenon in this research. Data is collected from 613 students enrolled in different executive, master and PhD level programs in different universities of Pakistan. The study found positive influence of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience on individual innovativeness and satisfaction with life perceptions. Neuroticism is found to be negatively related to individual innovativeness and satisfaction with life perceptions. Finally, the study noted a positive association between individual innovativeness and perception with life. The applications and implications of this research are discussed in details.
... While studies on the association of partners' similarity and RS yielded mixed findings (e.g., Decuyper, De Bolle, & De Fruyt, 2012;Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013;Luo & Klohnen, 2005;Weidmann, Schönbrodt, Ledermann, & Grob, 2017), there is theoretical reasoning supporting the notion that partners with similar traits tend to react and communicate similarly and, thereby, reduce disagreement and conflicts in the relationship (e.g., Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Luo, 2017). Proyer, Estoppey, and Ruch (2012) provided first evidence for partners' similarity in the three dispositions (r PHO/PHI/KAT = .28/.14/.26) ...
... We used the correlations between partners' overall and distinctive similarity as indicators of profile similarity and we operationalized trait wise similarity by computing the absolute difference between partners' PhoPhiKat-45 scores (i.e., high scores indicate dissimilarity). In line with the literature (e.g., Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013), we controlled for actor and partner effects of the three dispositions to estimate the unique effects of similarity. ...
... Associations with RS. In line with previous studies (e.g., Furler et al., 2013), we analyzed the similarity-RS associations after controlling main effects of actors and partners in the APIM (see Fig. 1b; fit tests available in Online Supplement B). As displayed in Table 6, partner's dissimilarity in fear of being laughed at was negatively related to happiness (b = À0.77, ...
Conference Paper
Individual differences in dealing with ridicule and being laughed at can be described in three basic dispositions; namely the fear of being laughed at (gelotophobia), the joy of being laughed at (gelotophilia), and the joy in laughing at others (katagelasticism). Although the literature has shown that the three dispositions are of intra- and interpersonal importance, no study to date examined its potential effects in close relationships. We aim to narrow this gap by studying their role in romantic relationships and test (1) whether there is assortative mating and (2) how they are associated with the own and the partner’s relationship satisfaction (RS). We employed the Actor-Partner-Interdependence-Model to analyze 154 adult heterosexual romantic couples (relationship duration between two months and 37.3 years; median = 3.4 years) who completed questionnaires for gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism and relationship satisfaction. Preliminary analyses revealed assortative mating for all dispositions (β = .19 - .25). Gelotophobia demonstrates negative effects on actors’ and their partners’ RS in both sexes (βs ≤ .34), while only the females’ gelotophilia has actor- and partner-effects (βs ≤ .30) on facets of RS. Contrary to our expectations, katagelasticism exists independently from RS (exception: male actor-effect on sexual satisfaction, β = -.20). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Couple studies examining the association of neuroticism and satisfaction support the literature on individual data. Specifically, a majority of these studies imply a mixed pattern suggesting that one's own and the partner's neuroticism are linked to relationship and life satisfaction (Barelds, 2005;Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013;Orth, 2013;Solomon & Jackson, 2014). Aside from the studies of Barelds (2005) and Orth (2013), all evidence originated from large panel data sets conducted in Australia, Germany, Great Britain, and Switzerland (Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013;Solomon & Jackson, 2014). ...
... Specifically, a majority of these studies imply a mixed pattern suggesting that one's own and the partner's neuroticism are linked to relationship and life satisfaction (Barelds, 2005;Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013;Orth, 2013;Solomon & Jackson, 2014). Aside from the studies of Barelds (2005) and Orth (2013), all evidence originated from large panel data sets conducted in Australia, Germany, Great Britain, and Switzerland (Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013;Solomon & Jackson, 2014). Three studies suggest either an independence or a dependence pattern: Two studies using the data from the Co-Development in Personality Ledermann, Rudaz, & Grob, in press). ...
... The majority of studies on agreeableness also showed a mixed pattern, suggesting that being trusting, altruistic, compliant, and tender-minded toward other people (John & Srivastava, 1999) was important for both partners' satisfaction (Barelds, 2005;Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013;Neyer & Voigt, 2004;Orth, 2013;Schaffhuser, Allemand, & Martin, 2014;Solomon & Jackson, 2014). Three studies contradict the tenor of most studies and suggest that agreeableness is either only found in actor effects suggesting an independence pattern (Furler et al., 2014) or that agreeableness is unrelated to the satisfaction of both partners (Slatcher & Vazire, 2009). ...
Article
Personality has been found to play an important role in predicting satisfaction in couples. This review presents dyadic research on the association between Big Five traits and both life and relationship satisfaction in couples focusing on self-reported personality, partner-perceived personality (how the partner rates one's own personality), and personality similarity. Furthermore, special attention is given to possible gender effects. The findings indicate the importance of self-reported as well as partner-perceived reported personality for the satisfaction of both partners. Specifically, the majority of studies found intrapersonal and interpersonal effects for neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness on life or relationship satisfaction. For the partner-perceived personality, intrapersonal and interpersonal effects were present for all Big Five traits. Partners' similarity in personality traits seems not to be related with their satisfaction when controlling for partners' personality.
... El divorcio se considera un acontecimiento vital negativo porque a menudo conlleva consecuencias negativas tanto para la salud como para el bienestar físico y psicológico de una persona (Gähler, 2006;Hughes y Waite, 2009;Umberson, Williams, Powers, Liu y Needham, 2006). En los últimos años, los estudios sobre las relaciones de pareja se han centrado en identifi car las variables personales y familiares que garantizan mayor satisfacción y bienestar en los cónyuges (Botha y Booysen, 2014;Furler et al., 2013;Sánchez Aragón y Díaz Loving, 2016;Vollrath, Neyer, Ystrom y Landolt, 2010;Yucel y Koydemir, 2015). ...
... Concretamente, unos han observado que las personas preferían una pareja íntima con características similares a las suyas (p.ej., Antill, 1983;Gonzaga, Campos y Bradbury, 2007;Houts, Robins y Huston, 1996;Little, Burt y Perrett, 2006), mientras que otros han apoyado la teoría de las personalidades complementarias (p.ej., Dijkstra y Barelds, 2008;Dryer y Horowitz, 1997;Schimel, Pyszczynski, Greenberg, O'Mahen y Arndt, 2000). En la actualidad, se inclinan más hacia la presunción de que "lo parecido se atrae" que a la de que "los polos opuestos se atraen", subrayando la importancia de las semejanzas que existen entre las parejas a diferentes niveles (Decuyper, De Bolle y De Fruyt, 2012;Furler et al., 2013;Shiota y Levenson, 2007). Sin embargo, en comparación con otras variables psicológicas, las semejanzas en las características de la personalidad son bajas entre los miembros de las parejas y destacan las diferencias en neuroticismo (Ben-Ari y Lavee, 2005;Löckenhoff et al., 2014;Schaff huser, Allemand y Martin, 2014). ...
... Las relaciones entre variables personales y familiares refi eren a la satisfacción con la vida que se ha utilizado como una medida general del bienestar (Bartels, 2015), compuesto por elementos cognitivos y emocionales (Diener, Satisfacción con la vida en parejas casadas 2012). La relación entre las características de la personalidad y el bienestar en las relaciones de pareja ha recibido considerable atención científi ca en los últimos años, utilizando diferentes indicadores de bienestar y combinando variables intrapersonales (actor eff ects) e interpersonales (partner eff ects; Barelds, 2005;Cundiff , Smith y Frandsen, 2012;Decuyper et al., 2012;Dyrenforth, Kashy, Donnellan y Lucas, 2010;Furler et al., 2013;Schaff huser et al., 2014). Desde el Modelo de los cinco grandes de la personalidad (Costa y McCrae, 1980) se ha observado que el neuroticismo y la extraversión se relacionan sobre todo con el bienestar emocional, al predecir afectos negativos y positivos, mientras que la amabilidad y la responsabilidad se asocian con la satisfacción con la vida. ...
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Personality traits may modulate family cohesion and adaptability in romantic relationships, as well as guarantee greater satisfaction and well-being. This study aimed to analyze personal and family variables and their influence in spouses' lives satisfaction. Participants were 182 married heterosexual couples, aged from 27 to 54. The Spanish version of the Big Five Inventory, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were used. Results showed higher levels of neuroticism and family cohesion in women. Personality traits were found to be related to life satisfaction, indicating both actor and partner effects. Furthermore, personal and family variables of both spouses predicted life satisfaction of women but not men. These findings support the interdependency approach in married couples.
... So far, no studies have examined similarity in emotion regulation; however, research assessing similarity in personality traits has found evidence of low but generally positive levels of similarity due to positive assortment (Barelds & Barelds-Dijkstra, 2007;Caspi & Herbener, 1990;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013;Gaunt, 2006;Gonzaga et al., 2007Gonzaga et al., , 2010Humbad et al., 2010;Luo & Klohnen, 2005;Russell & Wells, 1991;Watson et al., 2004). In other words, people tend to prefer partners with similar personalities, even though this tendency is generally weak. ...
... Third, the discovery of commonalities with one's partner is thought as reassuring and rewarding (Arránz Becker, 2013). Nonetheless, despite the widespread idea that similarity in personal dispositions is advantageous for relationship quality, the existing body of research examining the similarity-relationship quality link consists of largely inconsistent results, with some studies finding positive associations between personality similarity and relationship satisfaction (e.g., Gaunt, 2006;Luo & Klohnen, 2005) and other studies showing very small associations or no association at all (e.g., Barelds, 2005;Dyrenforth, Kashy, Donnellan, & Lucas, 2010;Furler et al., 2013). ...
... To determine couples' degree of similarity on a given trait, researchers have considered whether partners have similar levels of this attribute or similar response profiles (Gaunt, 2006). Level similarity is usually measured in terms of discrepancy indices (e.g., the absolute value of the difference between the partners' scores on a given trait); by contrast, profile-based similarity measures capture how similar each husband and wife are in terms of their pattern of responses (Furr, 2010;Furler et al., 2013). ...
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Although habitual use of suppression has been consistently linked to adverse consequences for overall social functioning, little is known about the implications of using this emotion regulation strategy in the context of romantic relationships. The current longitudinal study tests whether husbands’ and wives’ habitual use of suppression, as well as couple similarity in the use of this strategy, influence marital quality over the first couple of years of marriage. A total of 229 newlywed couples reported their habitual use of suppression and perceived marital quality at two time points, 5 months and 2 years after marriage. Results showed that husbands’ habitual use of suppression was the most consistent predictor of (lower) marital quality over time. Couples showed significant levels of similarity in suppression at the initial assessment, consistent with positive assortment, and this similarity was a significant predictor of higher marital quality as reported by wives regardless of overall levels of suppression use. These findings suggest that husbands’ use of suppression is more harmful for marital satisfaction than wives’ use and wives are more sensitive to their partners’ use of suppression as well as to couple similarity.
... Second, [29] and [37] examined similarities in brain activity without controlling the effect of individuals' brain activities. Some psychological studies on the relationship between personality similarities and marital happiness argue that not controlling for individual personalities leads to overestimating the effect of personality similarities [7,8,38,39]. We speculate this might hold true for similarities of brain activities. ...
... The other is the similarity of the whole profile of the BF and SBV. There are multiple metrics for the latter similarity that have been used in existing studies [38,73]. ...
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People perceive psychological characteristics (PCs), such as the personality and values of a marriage partner, as extremely important factors in partner selection. Due to its importance, considerable work has investigated the relationship between couples’ PCs and their marital satisfaction, and their findings have been adopted by matchmaking services. However, these studies and services have determined the PCs using self-report questionnaires, in which the resulting measurements have limited amount of information and various biases, and thus, have limited predictive utility for marital satisfaction. Given this, we examined the predictive utility of brain and cardiac responses, which are known to correlate with PCs, providing information that are very different in nature and quality from what a questionnaire measures and present fewer biases. We collected the EEG and ECG data of 51 married couples while they watched a set of preselected movies and examined the association between their physiological measurements and marital satisfaction. Performing regression analyses, we confirmed that the brain and cardiac responses to the movies have significant predictive utility for marital satisfaction. When we used these physiological responses to one of the movies in the models, the prediction error for male and female marital satisfaction was reduced by an average of 19.0% and 10.1% in terms of RMSE, respectively, compared to baseline models that used only the questionnaire measurements of psychological characteristics.
... This result is in confirmation with the studies conducted by Weber and Huebner (2015) and Kesavayuth, Rosenman, and Zikos (2015) who found that a high level of agreeableness was found to be positively associated with family satisfaction and health satisfaction, respectively. A number of studies also found a significant positive influence of agreeableness on overall satisfaction with life (Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013;Grevenstein & Bluemke, 2015;Weber & Huebner, 2015). ...
... Regarding the extraversion personality trait, extraverted travelers are sociable, energetic, lively, and emphasize positive emotions, such as happiness, satisfaction, and excitement (John & Srivastava, 1999). In psychology, a number of studies have found that extraversion has a strong positive influence on job satisfaction (Zhai, Willis, O'Shea, Zhai, & Yang, 2013), career satisfaction (Lounsbury et al., 2003), and life satisfaction (Furler et al., 2013;Grevenstein & Bluemke, 2015;Joshanloo & Afshari, 2011;Judge, Heller, & Mount, 2002;Suldo, Minch, & Hearon, 2014;Zhai et al., 2013). Similarly, we found that extraversion has a positive effect on traveler satisfaction. ...
Article
Air travelers' satisfaction with current airline options may have different effects on their decisions. We analyzed air passengers' demands for international round-trip flights using an Integrated Choice and Latent Variable (ICLV) model. Most research on airline choice has only included observable factors. To fill this gap, this study hypothesized that the airline choice process depends not only on a set of measurable factors but also on passenger satisfaction which, in turn, is influenced by travelers' personality traits. Structural equation modeling was used to construct the passengers' satisfaction to relate passengers' personality traits, airline characteristics, and passenger flight experiences with travelers' perceptions of air carrier services. The satisfaction was incorporated into the discrete choice (DC) model, which was used to evaluate travelers' airline choices for an international round-trip flight. Results indicated that passenger satisfaction with each airline service was associated with airlines’ utilities. Therefore, by incorporating traveler satisfaction into a DC model, air passenger choice behavior can be modeled more precisely. The average probability of correct predictions in the validation sample reflected the superior fit of the ICLV model. These findings highlighted the complex ways in which perceptions can influence airline choice and provided insight for targeted policy interventions.
... First, we computed the absolute difference score for each power measure within the couple as is common practice in dissimilarity research (e.g., Brauer & Proyer, 2018;Chopik & Lucas, 2019;Dyrenforth et al., 2010). Then, in line with previous similarity research (e.g., Furler et al., 2013), we multiplied the absolute difference variables by -1. Thus, the new variables represent similarity instead of dissimilarity. ...
... Yet, past research did not control for individuals' level of power, which is why the association between balance of power and relationship-related variables might have been overestimated (cf. Furler et al., 2013;Schröder-Abé & Schütz, 2011). This issue is also known as a "confounding of difference scores with their constituents," and this is why researchers have recommended that main (actor, partner) effects (i.e., the absolute levels of the partners' scores) be controlled for when testing for similarity (Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Griffin et al., 1999). ...
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Power dynamics have been described as being constitutive of romantic relationships and can impact outcomes such as relationship quality. Yet, in relationships nowadays, power may be less important than in the past due to changes in gender roles and society’s expectations. We analyzed four power characteristics and their effects on a multidimensional measure of relationship quality using an actor-partner interdependence model framework with 181 heterosexual couples. There was usually a balance of power in the couples with respect to a personal sense of power but an imbalance in positional power. We found actor and partner effects: Personal sense of power and satisfaction with power predicted actors’ and partners’ relationship quality. By contrast, positional power, the general power motive, and the balance of power were not associated with relationship quality. There were hardly any differences in actor or partner effects between men and women. Apparently, it is not objective, positional power but subjective, experienced power that is relevant to overall relationship quality. Furthermore, what matters most for satisfaction with the relationship is not the balance of power but rather the perceived personal level of power. Future research may extend these findings by using domain-specific power measures and behavioral power indicators.
... In a review of nine studies based on dyadic data, 14 intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of Big Five personality traits on relationship satisfaction were analyzed (Weidmann et al., 2016). The majority of these studies showed a mixed pattern suggesting that both partners' neuroticism is related to relationship satisfaction of both partners (Barelds, 2005;Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013;Orth, 2013;Solomon & Jackson, 2014). In addition, the authors found that intrapersonal and interpersonal effects do not vary by gender (Barelds, 2005;Furler et al., 2013Furler et al., , 2014Malouff et al., 2010;Schaffhuser et al., 2014;Slatcher & Vazire, 2009). ...
... The majority of these studies showed a mixed pattern suggesting that both partners' neuroticism is related to relationship satisfaction of both partners (Barelds, 2005;Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013;Orth, 2013;Solomon & Jackson, 2014). In addition, the authors found that intrapersonal and interpersonal effects do not vary by gender (Barelds, 2005;Furler et al., 2013Furler et al., , 2014Malouff et al., 2010;Schaffhuser et al., 2014;Slatcher & Vazire, 2009). ...
Article
Relationship satisfaction—the degree to which a close relationship is perceived as rewarding and satisfying by both partners—is reliably predicted by both partners’ neuroticism, but the psychological mechanisms underlying this effect are not sufficiently well understood. By analyzing several cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes simultaneously, the current longitudinal study looked at how both partners’ neuroticism affects their respective (and mutual) relationship satisfaction both on an intra- and on an interpersonal level. Dyadic data from 2090 heterosexual couples from the “Pairfam” study were analyzed with Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Models (APIMeM). Results support the assumption that neuroticism reliably predicts cognitive, emotional, and behavioral variables, which, in turn, predict both partners’ relationship satisfaction. Importantly, cognitive processes play a particularly important role both on an interpersonal as well as on an intrapersonal level. These findings help to shed light on the maladaptive cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes underlying the effect of neuroticism on relationship satisfaction.
... Most previous studies, however, tested only one of the effects and their relative contribution thus remains unclear. Moreover, most studies were conducted in just one specific population (mostly in Australia, Germany, Great Britain, Switzerland, and the USA; e.g., Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013;Solomon & Jackson, 2014). Work with more diverse samples, including populations from non-Western countries, might contribute to a better understanding of the phenomenon. ...
... Studies that work with very large samples often fail to find a significant influence of personality similarity on relationship satisfaction (Furler et al., 2013). A possible explanation of this phenomenon may be that the relation between dyadic adjustment and similarity is not necessarily linear. ...
Article
Evidence suggests that personality may influence romantic relationship quality in several ways. Quality of relationship can be affected by an individual's personality (actor effect), partner's personality (partner effect), by discrepancy between ideal and actual partners' personalities (discrepancy effect), or by similarity between partners' personalities (similarity effect). Most studies, however, focus on just one of these effects, their results are often ambiguous, and based on western populations. We tested all these effects at once in individuals from two distinct populations: Brazil and the Czech Republic. In total, 626 individuals in a long-term committed relationship completed the Ten-Item Personality Inventory for their own, actual, and ideal partner, and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Hierarchical categorical regression analyses showed that the actor and partner effect contributed significantly, although weakly, to dyadic adjustment, while the impact of discrepancy and similarity was negligible. Explained variance was around 10% for the actor effect, around 30% jointly for actor and partner effects, and around 40% jointly for actor, partner, discrepancy, and similarity effects. The overall results were similar for both studied populations. Importantly, all reported effect sizes are small, which suggests that other factors contribute to dyadic adjustment more substantially.
... Some research has shown that similarity in psychological traits between partners is related to relationship satisfaction and personal subjective well-being (Arrindell and Luteijn 2000;Díaz-Morales et al., 2009). Other studies have reported that partners' respective individual characteristics seemed to predict relationship satisfaction better than dyadic similarity measures (Arránz 2013;Furler et al. 2013). There are several partly overlapping theoretical explanations for similaritysatisfaction effect within couples (Orth et al. 2018). ...
... For instance, romantic partners have similar levels of well-being (Meyler et al. 2007), and they also converge over time in more dynamic traits, such as emotionally (Anderson et al. 2003). These issues could explain why some other studies have shown that personality similarities are not substantially related to life satisfaction in couples (Furler et al. 2013). By using a dyadic design in which the couple is the unit of analysis, some studies have found different results because couples' similarities were estimated in different types of relationships (e.g. ...
Article
Mate selection is part of a growing interest in the study of processes by which couples are established, consolidated and/or separated. Similarity in psychological traits has been related to the well-being of couples, but given the possible effect of temporal convergence, it is necessary to control for the relationship length and whether or not both members of the couple live together. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between Morningness/Eveningness (M/E) similarity and relationship satisfaction in young-dating-non-cohabiting, young-married-cohabiting and old-married-cohabiting couples. Participants included 357 heterosexual couples (357 women and 357 men) with a mean age of 38.42 years old (SD = 13.11; age range between 19 and 69) who completed M/E (Composite Scale of Morningness) and relationship satisfaction measures (Comprehensive Marital Satisfaction Scale). Similarity in M/E was positively related to greater relationship satisfaction in both young cohabiting and non-cohabiting couples. In women, their own M/E was related to their own relationship satisfaction, whereas the level of relationship satisfaction in men was related to their partner’s M/E. This relationship was observed in young-married-cohabiting couples. M/E similarity may operate differently as a function of the relationship stage.
... The question of how similarity in couples affect relationship satisfaction has received considerable attention but has for many years yielded inconsistent results across studies (Arrindell & Luteijn, 2000;Gattis, Berns, Simpson, & Christensen, 2004;Gaunt, 2006;Gonzaga, Campos, & Bradbury, 2007;Luo & Klohnen, 2005;Weidmann, Schönbrodt, Ledermann, & Grob, 2017;Zhou, Wang, Chen, Zhang, & Zhou, 2017). In the most comprehensive tests of the association between couple personality similarity and well-being (e.g., meta-analyses, studies with large numbers of couples), greater similarity is associated with higher well-being, but many of these effects are negligible in size and often not significant, particularly after the actor and partner effects of personality are controlled for (Barelds, 2005;Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013;Montoya, Horton, & Kirchner, 2008). ...
... Thus, it is possible that the lower reliability might have led to the underestimation of similarity effects on well-being. Although it is worth noting that our results mostly converged with other studies that utilized measures of varying lengths (e.g., Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013;Hudson & Fraley, 2014;Weidmann et al., 2017), additional studies examining similarity within couples using more reliable measures of personality traits are needed. ...
Article
The current study examined actor, partner, and similarity effects of personality on a variety of well-being indices, including both global and experiential measures of well-being in 2,578 heterosexual couples (N = 5,156 individuals; M age = 51.04, SD = 13.68) who completed the 2016 Wellbeing and Daily Life supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Among actor effects, those for conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, and neuroticism were the most robust predictors of well-being. Among partner effects, conscientiousness and neuroticism were the most robust predictors of well-being. Consistent with past research, similarity effects on well-being were generally small and not always significant. The results are discussed in the context of experiential conceptualizations of well-being and operationalizing similarity in relationship research.
... Another issue that might explain the inconsistency in the current literature of personality similarity and marital quality is that researchers used different methods to measure personality similarity. The two commonly used methods in the literature are trait-level similarities and profile-level similarities (Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013;Luo et al., 2008;Zhou, Wang, Chen, Zhang, & Zhou, 2017). Trait-level similarities are usually measured by absolute difference scores (ADSs) between spouses on a particular trait. ...
... A dyadic approach-the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM)-was used to capture the interdependent nature of marital relationships. In prior work using individual approaches, couples were treated as unrelated individuals, which failed to capture the interdependence within couples (Furler et al., 2013). The dyadic approach, however, takes both the actor and partner effects of spouses' characteristics into account and addresses the within-couple interdependence in relationship outcomes (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006). ...
Article
Using a modified Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, we examined associations of individuals’ personality traits (i.e., actor and partner effects) and personality similarity (i.e., trait-level differences and profile similarity between spouses) with marital quality among 2,228 older couples from the Health and Retirement Study (2010/2012). Actor and partner effects of personality traits were stronger than similarities in explaining older couples’ marital quality. Trait-level and profile-level similarities also contributed to marital quality. The effects of personality traits and personality similarity were similar for husbands and wives, although some gender differences in the partner effects were detected. Findings suggest that the effects of personality on marital quality persist into old age, indicating that being similar on personalities may be a benefit to older couples’ marriages.
... Decuyper et al., 2012;Iafrate, Bertoni, Donato, & Finkenauer, 2012). Unlike actual similarity of personality between partners -that is, the correspondence between both partners' self-ratings, which has been shown to have no effect on couples' well-being (e.g., Barelds, 2005;Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013) -perceived similarity has been linked to positive appraisals of romantic relationships. Evidence from a speed-dating context, for instance, showed that perceived, but not actual, similarity on personality characteristics predicted romantic liking after an initial face-to-face romantic encounter (Tidwell, Eastwick, & Finkel, 2013). ...
... Next, both partners' relationship satisfaction was predicted by each partner's index of self-other agreement across the Big Five traits (self-other agreement models). Perceived similarity and self-other agreement in personality were computed using the coefficient of profile agreement, r pa (McCrae, 1993(McCrae, , 2008. 1 There exist a number of other ways to operationalize agreement between two partners' scores, for instance by taking the absolute value of the difference between the corresponding scores or by using correlational approaches, such as Pearson r or the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (see e.g., Dyrenforth et al., 2010;Furler et al., 2013;Humbad, Donnellan, Iacono, McGue, & Burt, 2013). However, we believe r pa is more appropriate, as it is sensitive to both the distance between the corresponding scores (i.e., between two corresponding items of a trait) and the extremeness of their means (i.e., the average across all items of a trait; McCrae, 1993McCrae, , 2008; see also Chan et al., 2012). ...
Article
The present study investigates how perceptions of personality are related to relationship satisfaction in an age-heterogeneous sample of romantic couples. Self- and partner-perceptions as well as perceived similarity and self-other agreement were examined separately for the Big Five personality traits. Results of Actor-Partner-Interdependence Models revealed substantial effects of partner-perceived personality in all Big Five traits on both partners’ relationship satisfaction. In contrast, effects of self-perceived personality on relationship satisfaction were small. Over and above self- and partner-rated personality, perceiving one’s partner as similar to oneself made a small unique contribution to relationship satisfaction in couples. These results emphasize the importance of integrating self- and partner-perceptions of personality for relationships outcomes.
... Their personality qualities motivate them to solve the task more than self-concept, which increases the frequency of their perception of innovations. This is proven by a number of studies (Furler et al., 2013;Grevenstein & Bluemke, 2015;Suldo, Minch & Hearon, 2014). In these studies, it was determined that personality characteristics have a significant impact on the positive manifestation of feelings of satisfaction with life and well-being, and on the perception of novelty. ...
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En la presente investigación se estudiaron las cuestiones psicológicas de la percepción de las innovaciones de estudiantes de diferentes especialidades a través de diversos métodos y cuestionarios. Participaron en la investigación 162 estudiantes de diferentes universidades y con diferentes orientaciones profesionales. El estudio mostró que, si las innovaciones preferidas en educación están relacionadas con la introducción de nuevas tecnologías, este factor para la sociedad está relacionado con la presencia de salarios altos y condiciones de trabajo aceptables. Se concluyó que una serie de rasgos de personalidad —incluida la iniciativa y la practicidad— juegan un papel importante en la percepción de las innovaciones. Sin embargo, en el proceso de aceptación de la innovación, la asunción de riesgos y la preparación psicológica que permita percibir las innovaciones son los principales elementos protagónicos. El estudio mostró que existen diferencias en el proceso de percepción de la innovación entre estudiantes de alto y bajo rendimiento académico, y estas diferencias son significativas al nivel de p ≤ 0,01. Para estudiantes con altas actividades prácticas y habilidades académicas, la aceptación de la innovación se caracteriza por estilos prácticos y empresariales; y para estudiantes con altas habilidades académicas y prácticas, el aspecto de percepción líder se caracteriza por cualidades prácticas y de gestión.
... Rammstedt and John's (2007) multilingual and multicultural validation study demonstrated that the BFI-10 possesses robust psychometric properties, accounting for almost 70% of the variance of the full BFI test. Previous studies observed correlations between the two items measuring neuroticism ranging from .36 to .40 on both questionnaires (Anusic et al., 2012;Furler et al., 2013). Consistent with these findings, the correlation between the two items of the neuroticism subscale in the current sample was .52. ...
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Understanding effects of parental negative discipline is critical for promoting positive child development. Research has increasingly investigated how individual characteristics and contextual factors affect parents' negative discipline. The present study was aimed to explain the association between parental neuroticism and negative discipline by examining the mediating role of household chaos and the moderating role of parental cognitive perspective taking. In a longitudinal design, the study assessed parents' self-report of negative discipline at two time points 1 year apart. One hundred and thirty-four parents of children aged 4-7 years were recruited in Hong Kong. Data were analyzed using Bayesian estimation. The findings revealed that parent-rated household chaos mediated the association between parental neuroticism and negative discipline. Parental perspective taking alleviated the mediational pathway but not the directional association. Specifically, when parents displayed a higher level of cognitive perspective taking, the indirect association between parental neuroticism and negative discipline was no longer significant. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings for negative discipline were discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... The Big Five personality types are also important predictors of life satisfaction [24]. Lower levels of neuroticism and higher levels of extraversion were strongly related to life satisfaction [17,25]. ...
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This study aimed to examine attitude toward aging as a potential mediator of the relationship between personality factors and mental health in terms of depression and life satisfaction among older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 438 Ethiopian elderly individuals aged 60 to 69. The results of the regression-based path analysis showed that after adjusting for demographic data, the relationship between agreeableness and depression in older adults was partially mediated by attitude toward aging. Likewise, attitude toward physical change due to aging and psychological growth subscales jointly mediated the correlation between neuroticism and depression. However, a significant direct path between neuroticism and depression persisted. On the contrary, openness had no significant direct association with depression apart from an indirect through psychosocial loss. The link between life satisfaction and agreeableness as well as openness to experience were partially mediated by psychosocial loss. Therefore, a person’s attitude toward aging and personality characteristics should be taken into consideration while designing interventions for managing mental health issues among older adults.
... When looking at the relation between chronotype features and relationship satisfaction score, we observed that those chronotype features that are highly correlated within a couple (the midpoint of sleep, time of getting out of bed, and sleep onset) are also highly correlated with the relationship satisfaction score, showing that higher similarity in sleeping habits and chronotype may result in higher partnership satisfaction, as for other features [16]. This evidence was observed within the study wave but it also holds prospectively, with the child's age rising from four to five and from five to six years of age. ...
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The prospective Ulm-SPATZ study was investigated to assess the role of child sleeping quality between 4 to 6 years of age in affecting a partner's sleeping and relationship satisfaction within a couple. The study was conducted using a triadic approach in which the child was included in the Actor-Partner-Interdependence Model (APIM). Sleeping quality of the child was determined by using the German version of the children's sleep habits questionnaire, sleeping features of the parents were assessed by using the Munich chronotype questionnaire, and the partner relationship assessment was performed by employing the German version of the parenting stress index questionnaire. In 211 German triads, we observed that sleeping characteristics and partner relationship scores at different child ages are consistent for both men and women. Higher and statistically significant sleep duration, time spent in bed, the midpoint of sleep, time getting out of bed, and sleep onset in women compared to men during the working days were observed. The APIM analyses showed a significant direct effect of child sleep quality on the partner relationship satisfaction. In women, a mediated effect of child sleep quality acted through sleep duration and time spent in bed on the partner relationship satisfaction score during both free and working days. In men, low child sleep quality was found to be associated with increased sleep onset during both free and working days. Child sleep quality influences relationship satisfaction mostly in mothers, likely because of their higher involvement in childcare during working days. Distress in the couple could be counteracted by a major involvement of the fathers in child management.
... Happy marriages are characterized by emotional stability, concord with other people, trust and openness, whereas the unhappy ones -by emotional instability, criticism towards other people, being reserved and alienated, lack of trust, and being emotionally closed-off [6]. Some researchers relate marriage satisfaction to the level of neuroticism and extraversion / introversion [7], [8]. Dissatisfaction or satisfaction with marriage is related to personality features [9]. ...
... It should be noted, however, that the evidence for the association between match and mismatch with dyadic outcomes is mixed. For example, previous investigations did not find strong associations between match in personality and well-being outcomes (31,32), which suggests that future investigations would benefit from alternative mediators that might explain the results of the current study beyond relationships quality or life satisfaction. It is possible that there might be specific subtypes of couples who are "mismatched" on this study's measure of anger-coping response style but who share complementary styles that may not exhibit increased risk of early mortality compared with other "mismatched" couples when assessed on a full measure of the interpersonal circumplex (22). ...
Article
Objective: Research in psychosomatic medicine includes a long history of studying how responses to anger-provoking situations are associated with health. In the context of a marriage, spouses may differ in their anger-coping response style. Where one person may express anger in response to unfair, aggressive interpersonal interactions, his/her partner may instead suppress anger. Discordant response styles within couples may lead to increased relational conflict, which, in turn, may undermine long-term health. The current study sought to examine the association between spouses' anger-coping response styles and mortality status 32 years later. Methods: The present study used data from a subsample of married couples (N = 192) drawn from the Life Change Event Study to create an actor-partner interdependence model. Results: Neither husbands' nor wives' response styles predicted their own or their partners' mortality. Wives' anger-coping response style, however, significantly moderated the association of husbands' response style on mortality risk 32 years later, β = -0.18, -0.35 to -0.01, p = .039. Similarly, husbands' response style significantly moderated the association of wives' response style and their later mortality, β = -0.24, -0.38 to -0.10, p < .001. These effects were such that the greater the mismatch between spouses' anger-coping response style, the greater the risk of early death. Conclusions: For a three-decade follow-up, husbands and wives were at greater risk of early death when their anger-coping response styles differed. Degree of mismatch between spouses' response styles may be an important long-term predictor of spouses' early mortality risk.
... Evidence sustains Karney and Bradbury's Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (1995), indicating substantial actor (intrapersonal) and partner (interpersonal) effects of neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness on satisfaction in couples (Weidmann et al., 2017). In addition, some evidence corroborates a positive link between extraversion and openness to experience in predicting partners' life and relationship satisfaction (Dyrenforth, Kashy, Donnellan, & Lucas, 2010;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013), whereas others do not find such associations (Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2014;Slatcher & Vazire, 2009). ...
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Being with a well-matched partner seems essential for a happy relationship. However, past research on personality similarity in couples has reported inconsistent findings. The current study employs a dyadic polynomial regression approach to take into account linear and curvilinear associations between similarity and satisfaction. The concurrent results based on data of 237 couples suggest that beyond actor effects for neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness and partner effects for agreeableness, similarity plays a negligible role for relationship satisfaction. Longitudinally, two similarity effects emerged. First, if partners reported dissimilar neuroticism levels, male partner reported lower relationship satisfaction. Second, if both partners reported modest levels in openness, female partners reported higher relationship satisfaction. Implications for couples are discussed.
... Although there is research which indicates that couples who were less similar in certain domains were more satisfied in their relationship (Dyrenforth et al. 2010;Furler et al. 2013;Gattis et al. 2004), most research findings conclude that similarity can improve relationship satisfaction in couples. For instance, studies find that similarity between couples increases marital satisfaction and reduces the probability of divorce (Acitelli et al. 2001;Gonzaga et al. 2007). ...
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Across different cultures and across different times, parents exercise considerable influence over their children’s mate choices. When exercising such influence, parents are interested in finding daughters- and sons-in-law who are similar to them and to their children. In this paper, the preference for similarity was examined in China. On the basis of a sample of 534 Chinese parents, it was found that mothers and fathers preferred as daughters- and sons-in-law individuals who were similar to them and to their children, and who came from families of similar background. Comparisons were also made between the preference for similarity of Greek-Cypriot parents from previous studies and the preference for similarity of Chinese parents from the current study. The results indicated that the two groups converged considerably in their preferences. However, differences also existed, predominantly over religious and ethnic background.
... Evidence sustains Karney and Bradbury's Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (1995), indicating substantial actor (intrapersonal) and partner (interpersonal) effects of neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness on satisfaction in couples (Weidmann et al., 2017). In addition, some evidence corroborates a positive link between extraversion and openness to experience in predicting partners' life and relationship BIG FIVE TRAIT SIMILARITY AND SATISFACTION IN COUPLES 4 satisfaction (Dyrenforth, Kashy, Donnellan, & Lucas, 2010;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013), whereas others do not find such associations (Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2014;Slatcher & Vazire, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Being with a well-matched partner seems essential for a happy relationship. However, past research on personality similarity in couples has reported inconsistent findings. The current study employs a dyadic polynomial regression approach to take into account linear and curvilinear associations between similarity and satisfaction. The concurrent results based on data of 237 couples suggest that beyond actor effects for neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness and partner effects for agreeableness, similarity plays a negligible role for relationship satisfaction. Longitudinally, two similarity effects emerged. First, if partners reported dissimilar neuroticism levels, male partner reported lower relationship satisfaction. Second, if both partners reported modest levels in openness, female partners reported higher relationship satisfaction. Implications for couples are discussed.
... For instance, difference scores can be biased by the partner's individual scores when it is not controlled for the main effects in the analyses (cf. Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2013). ...
Article
The present thesis examines individual and dyadic personality development with a particular focus on the context of intimate relationships. Furthermore, it investigates inside and outside perspectives on personality such as the self-, partner-, and meta-perception and their role for relationship satisfaction. The introduction of the thesis centers on personality traits, their development across the life span and their interaction with the environment followed by methodological considerations. The introduction closes by an overview of the current work. The main part of the thesis includes the four empirical studies that are now briefly summarized. Study 1 focuses on individual development of self-evaluative personality traits in the transition to early adolescence. In doing so, it investigates the role of gender, puberty, and school transition. Study 1 is based on longitudinal data of 205 adolescent children across three annual measurement occasions. The main results of Study 1 suggest that the transition to early adolescence is a critical period for self-development. Decreasing trajectories were found with respect to both global and domain-specific self-representations. Furthermore, inter- individual differences in the decreasing trajectories could be partly explained by gender (steeper decreases for girls) and school transition, whereas puberty was unrelated to developmental trajectories, but showed concurrent associations with self-representations. Studies 2 and 3 are interested in the dyadic interplay between different perceptions of the Big Five personality traits (i.e., self-, partner-, and meta-perception) and relationship satisfaction. Whereas Study 2 focuses on the relatedness and distinction between the perceptions as well as their associations with relationship satisfaction, Study 3 examines associations between perception discrepancies and relationship satisfaction. The two studies are based on the same cross-sectional data consisting of 216 intimate couples. The findings of Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that the self-, partner-, and meta-perceptions are related, but distinct personality aspects. Furthermore, Study 2 shows that the three perspectives have similar, but also differential associations with relationship satisfaction. In addition, Study 3 indicates that not only personality level, but also the discrepancy between different perceptions is related to relationship satisfaction. Study 4 investigates whether personality traits serve as both predictors and outcomes of relationship satisfaction as well as relationship climate while focusing on neuroticism and self-esteem. It includes longitudinal data across two measurement occasions over two years consisting of 141 intimate couples. The main findings of Study 4 indicate that neuroticism is a negative predictor for relationship satisfaction on the intra-personal level (i.e., actor effect), whereas self-esteem is a positive outcome of relationship satisfaction on the inter-personal level (i.e., partner effect). Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a positive relationship climate is predictive for high self-esteem two years later. The discussion part of the thesis summarizes the main finding and gained knowledge based on the four empirical studies and discusses implications of the studies from an integrative perspective. Prior to the final conclusions, a first attempt to a theoretical model on personality development that involves the self-, other-, and meta-perception of personality is introduced called the “Trike Model of Personality Development”.
... The third condition is also well-documented and intuitive-individuals with more desirable characteristics tend to have a wide range of desirable outcomes (Ozer & Benet-Martínez, 2006). For instance, individuals who are more agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, and open tend to have more satisfying romantic and friendly relationships (Decuyper et al., 2012;Furler, Gomez, & Grob, 2014;Watson et al., 2004;Wortman & Wood, 2011). Importantly, these are main effects; that is, they concern simply the individual's level of these traits, not whether they are similar to their partner on these traits. ...
Article
Research on similarity constructs (e.g., dyadic similarity, personality stability, judgment agreement and accuracy) frequently find them to be associated with positive outcomes. However, a methodological pitfall associated with common "overall similarity" indices, which we term the normative-desirability confound (NDC), will regularly result in similarity constructs apparently having more positive effects than they do in reality. In essence, when an individual is estimated to be similar to another person by common indices, this will strongly indicate that the individual has desirable characteristics. Consequently, the correlates of overall similarity indices can often be interpreted as indicating the beneficial effects of having desirable characteristics, without needing to attribute any additional salutary effect to similarity. We show that this confound is present in overall similarity estimates for a wide range of constructs (e.g., personality traits, attitudes, emotions, behaviors, values), how it can be accounted for, and discuss larger implications for our understanding of similarity constructs. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
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Previous research has shown that personality similarity plays a negligible role in explaining the life and relationship satisfaction of couples. However, similarity in more proximally measured personality (i.e., facets) might explain additional variance in partners' well-being. The current study examined if in a sample of 1294 female-male romantic couples individual and partner personality traits and facets were associated with life and relationship satisfaction in expected ways. Similarity in personality traits and facets was not robustly associated with either life or relationship satisfaction of partners. The results are discussed in the context of the predictive validity of personality facets.
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Previous studies have shown that psychopathy, one of the Dark Triad personality traits, is associated with relationship dissatisfaction. However, the similarity of psychopathy among romantic couples remains uncertain with regard to relationship outcomes. This study examined the effect of the perceptual similarity of psychopathy on marital quality in a sample of 245 heterosexual married couples, using intraclass correlation coefficients as the method for assessing couples' similarity. This study also explored the possible mediating role of couple communication based on the Actor–Partner Interdependence model. The results reveal that husbands' self‐rating and wives' partner‐rating of psychopathy showed negative effects on marital quality, whereas wives' perceptual similarity of psychopathy exerted both actor and partner effects on marital quality via couple communication. The current study enriches the theoretical framework of personality and relationship outcomes and emphasizes the importance of communication in a close relationship.
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Low socioeconomic status has various adverse effects on health, which can be mitigated through the shift‐and‐persist (S‐P) strategy. Studies have focused on how this strategy can affect health in the face of adversity. However, that children learn this strategy from positive role models, such as parents, is an unexamined precondition of the theory. This study presents one bit of supporting evidence for this precondition by examining the similarity in S‐P among parent–child dyads using the actor‐partner interdependence model. We also examine parent and child strategies related to depressive tendencies based on mixed results in relevant research. The results from 309 parent–child pairs indicate that shifting and persisting tendencies and depressive tendencies were similar among the parent–child pairs. Furthermore, regardless of their socioeconomic status, the parents' and children's persisting scores predicted lower levels of depressive tendencies as actor effects. Although this study does not fully support S‐P theory, it provides important insights regarding similar patterns of strategic tendencies between parents and children and highlights the importance of positive role models.
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Purpose This study examines the role of the big five personality traits: conscientiousness, openness, extroversion, neuroticism and agreeableness in financial planning. Design/methodology/approach The research design is a quantitative approach. The study has used structured questionnaires to collect data from 403 business students. The hypotheses were tested through structural equation modeling using AMOS. Findings The findings revealed that extroversion of personality traits have a significant negative influence on financial planning, neuroticism and conscious personalities have a significant positive effect on financial planning. However, two personality traits, namely openness and agreeableness, have no significant influence on financial planning. The study confirmed that out of five, three personality traits have significant impact on financial planning. Research limitations/implications The results suggest that all personality traits do not influence financial planning among students. Financial planning is deemed an essential decision in life. Although some people are very conscious about their future expenditures, others are not much concerned. Based on the findings, this study recommends that policymakers may conduct workshops and arrange seminars and conferences for the promotion of financial planning and individual's financial well-being. The government needs to promote financial education that can directly and indirectly enhance the saving planning capabilities of the people. Practical implications The results suggest that not all personality traits facilitate financial planning. Financial planning is deemed as a crucial decision in life. Some students are very conscious about their future expenditures, while others are not much concerned. This study recommends that policymakers conduct workshops and arrange seminars and conferences to promote financial planning and individuals' financial well-being. The government of Pakistan needs to promote financial education that can, directly and indirectly, enhance the savings and planning capabilities of the students. Originality/value This research contributes to the personality literature, the theory of planned behavior and the life cycle theory by testing the model based on empirical evidence. The current study is the first to focus on the role of the big five personality traits in financial planning among students in Pakistan, an emerging economy.
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The couple represents the basic unit of life perpetuation. The couple is generally defined as a couple or reunion of two people based on constant bonding or due to a momentary closeness. In both cases, however, the union must function, even if this is often difficult. Couple satisfaction is defined as the individual emotional state of being satisfied with the interactions, experiences and expectations within the couple's life. Couple satisfaction is an individual emotional state of being satisfied with the interactions, experiences and expectations within the couple's life. depending on the personality of the partners, they manage to relate better and thus to be more satisfied in the couple.
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Background Scientific study of marital satisfaction attracted widespread attention decades ago. Since then, hundreds of studies have been conducted on determinants of marital satisfaction. The present study attempted to extend previous research on marital life by discussing two important correlates of marital satisfaction: personality traits and love styles. By emphasizing the similarity of personality traits and attitudes toward love in dyads, the study seeks the possible influential constituents for marital outcomes. Participants and procedure Eighty-seven (N = 174) married heterosexual couples recruited through a convenience sampling procedure participated in the study. They completed the following questionnaires: the HEXACO Personality Inventory, Love Attitudes Scale, and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). Results Husbands’ honesty/humility level was positively correlated with their own and wives’ marital satisfaction. Spouses were similar in some love styles. The discrepancy in their attitudes toward love may have negative as well as positive outcomes, depending on whether we consider husbands’ or wives’ marital satisfaction. Personality traits and love styles discrepancy scores predicted participants’ marital satisfaction. Conclusions Personality traits and love styles play a significant role in marital satisfaction for both women and men. Marital satisfaction has somewhat different correlates in the case of wives and husbands. Having a different personali-ty or love styles also has different associations with the marital satisfaction of spouses.
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This work investigates assortative mating and convergence in personality and their effect on marital satisfaction. Measures of personality were collected from a sample of married couples before they met and twice after they were married. Results showed evidence for assortative mating but not for convergence in an average couple. Similarity and convergence in personality predicted later marital satisfaction. These results indicate that similarity and convergence in psychological characteristics may benefit relationships and that while spouses may choose partners with similar personalities they do not become more like their partners in the early part of their marriage.
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The relationship between partner similarity and marital quality variables was explored by the use of a new method for the analysis of data from marital pairs. Forty-two married couples were given the Personal Assessment of Intimate Relationships inventory (M. T. Schaefer & D. H. Olson, 1981), and a method was devised for the removal of stereotype effects, that is, the tendency for partners to be similar to one another because they respond in a way that is typical of others. Similarity between wives and husbands decreased when adjusted for stereotype effects. There were no statistically significant relationships between couple similarity and measures of marital quality, with or without the adjustment for stereotype effects. However, there was evidence for both husbands and wives of an association between responding as typical husbands did and perceptions of satisfaction in the marital relationship. This result indicates that a stereotype effect may be a meaningful phenomenon rather than just a statistical artifact.
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ABSTRACT Although personality characteristics figure prominently in what people want in a mate, little is known about precisely which personality characteristics are most important, whether men and women differ in their personality preferences, whether individual women or men differ in what they want, and whether individuals actually get what they want. To explore these issues, two parallel studies were conducted, one using a sample of dating couples (N= 118) and one using a sample of married couples (N= 216). The five-factor model, operationalized in adjectival form, was used to assess personality characteristics via three data sources—self-report, partner report, and independent interviewer reports. Participants evaluated on a parallel 40-item instrument their preferences for the ideal personality characteristics of their mates. Results were consistent across both studies. Women expressed a greater preference than men for a wide array of socially desirable personality traits. Individuals differed in which characteristics they desired, preferring mates who were similar to themselves and actually obtaining mates who embodied what they desired. Finally, the personality characteristics of one's partner significantly predicted marital and sexual dissatisfaction, most notably when the partner was lower on Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect-Openness than desired.
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Development does not take place in isolation and is often interrelated with close others such as marital partners. To examine interrelations in spousal happiness across midlife and old age, we used 35-year longitudinal data from both members of 178 married couples in the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Latent growth curve models revealed sizeable spousal similarities not only in levels of happiness but also in how happiness changed over time. These spousal interrelations were considerably larger in size than those found among random pairs of women and men from the same sample. Results are in line with life-span theories emphasizing an interactive minds perspective by showing that adult happiness waxes and wanes in close association with the respective spouse. Our findings also complement previous individual-level work on age-related changes in well-being by pointing to the importance of using the couple as the unit of analysis.
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Psychologists and economists take contradictory approaches to research on what psychologists call happiness or subjective well-being, and economists call subjective utility. A direct test of the most widely accepted psychological theory, set-point theory, shows it to be flawed. Results are then given, using the economists' newer "choice approach"--an approach also favored by positive psychologists--which yields substantial payoffs in explaining long-term changes in happiness. Data come from the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984-2008), a unique 25-y prospective longitudinal survey. This dataset enables direct tests of theories explaining long-term happiness.
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Three very large, nationally representative samples of married couples were used to examine the relative importance of 3 types of personality effects on relationship and life satisfaction: actor effects, partner effects, and similarity effects. Using data sets from Australia (N = 5,278), the United Kingdom (N = 6,554), and Germany (N = 11,418) provided an opportunity to test whether effects replicated across samples. Actor effects accounted for approximately 6% of the variance in relationship satisfaction and between 10% and 15% of the variance in life satisfaction. Partner effects (which were largest for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability) accounted for between 1% and 3% of the variance in relationship satisfaction and between 1% and 2% of the variance in life satisfaction. Couple similarity consistently explained less than .5% of the variance in life and relationship satisfaction after controlling for actor and partner effects.
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Although personality characteristics figure prominently in what people want in a mate, little is known about precisely which personality characteristics are most important, whether men and women differ in their personality preferences, whether individual women or men differ in what they want, and whether individuals actually get what they want. To explore these issues, two parallel studies were conducted, one using a sample of dating couples (N = 118) and one using a sample of married couples (N = 216). The five-factor model, operationalized in adjectival form, was used to assess personality characteristics via three data sources-self--report, partner report, and independent interviewer reports. Participants evaluated on a parallel 40-item instrument their preferences for the ideal personality characteristics of their mates. Results were consistent across both studies. Women expressed a greater preference than men for a wide array of socially desirable personality traits. Individuals differed in which characteristics they desired, preferring mates who were similar to themselves and actually obtaining mates who embodied what they desired. Finally, the personality characteristics of one's partner significantly predicted marital and sexual dissatisfaction, most notably when the partner was lower on Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect-Openness than desired.
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This research tested 6 models of the independent and interactive effects of stable personality traits on each partner's reports of relationship satisfaction and quality. Both members of 360 couples (N = 720) completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire and were interviewed about their relationship. Findings show that a woman's relationship happiness is predicted by her partner's low Negative Emotionality, high Positive Emotionality, and high Constraint, whereas a man's relationship happiness is predicted only by his partner's low Negative Emotionality. Findings also show evidence of additive but not interactive effects: Each partner's personality contributed independently to relationship outcomes but not in a synergistic way. These results are discussed in relation to models that seek to integrate research on individual differences in personality traits with research on interpersonal processes in intimate relationships.
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The authors propose that people in relationships become emotionally similar over time--as this similarity would help coordinate the thoughts and behaviors of the relationship partners, increase their mutual understanding, and foster their social cohesion. Using laboratory procedures to induce and assess emotional response, the authors found that dating partners (Study 1) and college roommates (Studies 2 and 3) became more similar in their emotional responses over the course of a year. Further, relationship partners with less power made more of the change necessary for convergence to occur. Consistent with the proposed benefits of emotional similarity, relationships whose partners were more emotionally similar were more cohesive and less likely to dissolve. Discussion focuses on implications of emotional convergence and on potential mechanisms.
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The authors examined the relationship between 6 personality dimensions (Big Five personality factors and positive expressivity) and marital satisfaction in 132 distressed, treatment-seeking couples and 48 nondistressed couples. This study's focus on personality similarity in distressed couples, a population of interest to researchers and clinicians, is unique. Results suggest that higher neuroticism, lower agreeableness, lower conscientiousness, and less positive expressivity are tied to marital dissatisfaction. However, low overall levels of partner similarity were found on these variables. Furthermore, partner similarity on these variables did not independently predict relationship satisfaction. This suggests that nonpathological variations in these personality dimensions do not contribute to satisfaction, and that similarity between partners' personalities may not be closely tied to marital happiness.
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Using a couple-centered approach, the authors examined assortative mating on a broad range of variables in a large (N = 291) sample of newlyweds. Couples showed substantial similarity on attitude-related domains but little on personality-related domains. Similarity was not due to social homogamy or convergence. The authors examined linear and curvilinear effects of spouse similarity on self and observer indicators of marital quality. Results show (a) positive associations between similarity and marital quality for personality-related domains but not for attitude-related domains, (b) that similarity on attachment characteristics were most strongly predictive of satisfaction, (c) robust curvilinear effects for husbands but not for wives, (d) that profile similarity remained a significant predictor of marital quality even when spouses' self-ratings were controlled, and (e) that profile-based similarity indices were better predictors of marital quality than absolute difference scores.
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This study examined the role of couple similarity in spouses' marital satisfaction and affect. The associations between spousal similarity and relationship measures were examined in a sample of 248 married couples. As hypothesized, greater similarity between partners was associated with higher levels of marital satisfaction and lower levels of negative affect. In particular, similarity on the gendered personality and values domains was more strongly associated with relationship measures, whereas similarity on the attitudes and religiosity domains showed weaker and inconsistent patterns of associations. Finally, profile-based similarity tended to be a stronger and more consistent correlate of relationship measures than difference score-based similarity. The implications of these findings for processes underlying intimate relationships are discussed.
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The current work investigates how personality and interpersonal processes combine to predict change in relationship quality. Measures of personality and emotion similarity were collected during laboratory interactions from a cross-sectional sample of dating couples (Study 1) and a 1-year longitudinal study of newlywed married couples (Study 2). Results showed that emotion similarity mediated the association between personality similarity and relationship quality (Studies 1 and 2) and that emotion convergence mediated the association between personality convergence and relationship satisfaction (Study 2). These results indicate that similarity and convergence in personality may benefit relationships by promoting similarity and convergence in partners' shared emotional experiences. Findings also lend support to models that integrate partners' enduring traits and couples' adaptive processes as antecedents of relationship outcomes.
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Understanding subjective well-being (SWB) has historically been a core human endeavor and presently spans fields from management to mental health. Previous meta-analyses have indicated that personality traits are one of the best predictors. Still, these past results indicate only a moderate relationship, weaker than suggested by several lines of reasoning. This may be because of commensurability, where researchers have grouped together substantively disparate measures in their analyses. In this article, the authors review and address this problem directly, focusing on individual measures of personality (e.g., the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and categories of SWB (e.g., life satisfaction). In addition, the authors take a multivariate approach, assessing how much variance personality traits account for individually as well as together. Results indicate that different personality and SWB scales can be substantively different and that the relationship between the two is typically much larger (e.g., 4 times) than previous meta-analyses have indicated. Total SWB variance accounted for by personality can reach as high as 39% or 63% disattenuated. These results also speak to meta-analyses in general and the need to account for scale differences once a sufficient research base has been generated.
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General methodological difficulties are discussed, particularly; the need to discuss similarity only with respect to specified dimensions, loss of information involved when configurations are reduced to indices, the need to interpret a similarity index as a relative rather than as an absolute measure, and the general non-comparability of scale units involved in profiles. The measure D is presented. This is, for two profiles, the sum of the squared deviations of corresponding scores, and is a general expression for dissimilarity (distance in the hyperspace of k variates). 27 references.
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Identifying reliable patterns of age differences in personality can help clarify the nature of adult personality development. Previous studies have been limited because many have relied on convenience samples. In this study, we examined age differences in personality in two nationally representative samples, one from Switzerland and one from the United States. The results indicated that Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were positively associated with age, whereas Extraversion was negatively associated with age. However, the magnitude of age differences for Extraversion was much smaller than for Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Openness showed a more complex trend such that 30- to 34-year-olds scored lower on Openness than younger age groups, whereas older groups scored somewhere in between. Inconsistent age differences were observed for Neuroticism.
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The first section reviews how much and what kind of assortative mating occurs. It considers the genetic consequences of any departure from random mating, then discusses the effects of consanguinity or inbreeding on the offspring. Suffice it to say here that these effects are generally unfavorable, so that one may say that forgenetic reasons a high similarity between spouses is not favored. The next section discusses the social consequences of marital choice in terms of theories and research related to mate selection and marital adjustment. At this point, we may summarize two opposing views of what makes for a good marriage: (1) psychological similarity and (2) complementariness of needs of husband and wife. We will see that most of the evidence tends to support the first view, so we can say that for social reasons similarity between spouses is favored. Another topic touched on is whether marriage leads to an increase in similarity over time, or, in genetic terms, to a partial convergence of phenotypes, which could lead to an overestimation of the degree of genotypic similarity. Next, the theory is discussed that homogamy for socioeconomic status is responsible for the observed correlations between abilities and between beauty and brains. The final section summarizes some research on factors influencing the personal preferences for personality and physical type which govern the selection of potential mates.
Article
Difference scores have been widely used in studies of fit, similarity, and agreement. Despite their widespread use, difference scores suffer from numerous methodological problems. These problems can be mitigated or avoided with polynomial regression analysis, and this method has become increasingly prevalent during the past decade. Unfortunately, a number of potentially damaging myths have begun to spread regarding the drawbacks of difference scores and the advantages of polynomial regression. If these myths go unchecked, difference scores and the problems they create are likely to persist in studies of fit, similarity, and agreement. This article reviews 10 difference score myths and attempts to dispel these myths, focusing on studies conducted since polynomial regression was formally introduced as an alternative to difference scores.
Article
Life satisfaction is often assessed using single-item measures. However, estimating the reliability of these measures can be difficult because internal consistency coefficients cannot be calculated. Existing approaches use longitudinal data to isolate occasion-specific variance from variance that is either completely stable or variance that changes systematically over time. In these approaches, reliable occasion-specific variance is typically treated as measurement error, which would negatively bias reliability estimates. In the current studies, panel data and multivariate latent state-trait models are used to isolate reliable occasion-specific variance from random error and to estimate reliability for scores from single-item life satisfaction measures. Across four nationally representative panel studies with a combined sample size of over 68,000, reliability estimates increased by an average of 16% when the multivariate model was used instead of the more standard univariate longitudinal model.
Article
ABSTRACT The present study examined how the similarity and complementarity of gender-related attitudes, behaviors, interests, and personality traits related to partner selection and relationship adjustment in the context of serious, romantic relationships. Results revealed the important role of gender-related attitudes in relationships, indicating that study participants tended to be paired with partners who held similar attitudes, and that couples who were similar in attitudes had higher dyadic adjustment. Furthermore, the nature of the couples' attitudes affected (a) the extent to which couples were paired on the basis of complementary interests and behaviors, and (b) the relation between partner's gender-related behaviors and dyadic adjustment. Results support previous research citing the importance of attitude similarity in interpersonal attraction, and demonstrate that these findings can be generalized to ongoing, close relationships.
Article
The practice of computing correlations between “difference” or “discrepancy” scores and an outcome variable is common in many areas of social science. Relationship researchers most commonly use difference scores to index the (dis)similarity of members of two-person relationships. Using an intuitive, graphical approach—and avoiding formulas and pointing fingers—we illustrate problems with using difference score correlations in relationship research, suggest ways to ensure that difference score correlations are maximally informative, and briefly review alternatives to difference score correlations in studying similarity, accuracy, and related constructs.
Article
Two studies were conducted to examine the relations between both partners' personality and marital quality in married or cohabiting heterosexual couples. In Study 1 (N = 1380, or 690 couples), personality was assessed by means of the Dutch Personality Questionnaire, whereas in Study 2 (N = 564, or 282 couples) personality was assessed by means of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory. We expected neuroticism to relate negatively, and extraversion positively, to marital quality. Furthermore, we expected that spouses would only marginally resemble each other with regard to personality, and that differences in personality would not affect marital quality, when controlling for the individual's levels of personality. All expectations were confirmed. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Spousal similarity in terms of personality is advanced as a theoretically important factor to consider in subjective well-being (SWB). This is logically derived from four findings: (1) the consistent relationship between marital status and SWB, with married Ss having the highest SWB scores, which is attributed to good marriage quality; (2) good marriage quality is significantly correlated with high SWB; (3) marriage stability and marriage quality are predicted by similarity between partners in terms of personality; and (4) homogamy in psychological distress and SWB is the rule in (non-clinical) general population couples. The hypothesis that high similarity in personality scores of intimate partners from the general population would correlate significantly with SWB (as assessed with the Satisfaction With Life Scale or SWLS) was confirmed in both sexes. Other things (e.g., individual personality factors, marriage quality and marital intimacy) being equal, high partner/spouse personality-similarity predicted high SWB in males, but not in females. Potential explanations for this sex difference are briefly discussed, as are its clinical implications.
Article
To provide a measure of the Big Five for contexts in which participant time is severely limited, we abbreviated the Big Five Inventory (BFI-44) to a 10-item version, the BFI-10. To permit its use in cross-cultural research, the BFI-10 was developed simultaneously in several samples in both English and German. Results focus on the psychometric characteristics of the 2-item scales on the BFI-10, including their part-whole correlations with the BFI-44 scales, retest reliability, structural validity, convergent validity with the NEO-PI-R and its facets, and external validity using peer ratings. Overall, results indicate that the BFI-10 scales retain significant levels of reliability and validity. Thus, reducing the items of the BFI-44 to less than a fourth yielded effect sizes that were lower than those for the full BFI-44 but still sufficient for research settings with truly limited time constraints.
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68519/2/10.1177_014920639402000311.pdf
Article
As applied to many psychological phenomena, analysis of profile similarity has an intuitive appeal that masks complex statistical issues. Psychologists have long debated the methods of indexing similarity between 2 psychological profiles, but the double-entry intraclass correlation may be emerging as a preferred approach. Unfortunately, the double-entry intraclass correlation has not been articulated clearly in terms of fundamental facets of profiles--elevation, scatter, and shape--which prevents full understanding of its meaning. In this article, I (a) articulate these effects, (b) discuss potential limitations and confusions arising from these effects, (c) present a failure to replicate previous empirical findings regarding the double-entry intraclass correlation, and (d) present alternative recommendations for analysis of profile similarity. The conceptual, mathematical, and empirical points may enhance the insights emerging from analyses of profiles and profile similarity.
Article
Many questions in personality psychology lend themselves to the analysis of profile similarity. A profile approach to issues such as personality judgment, personality similarity, behavioral consistency, developmental stability, and person-environment fit is intuitively appealing. However, it entails conceptual and statistical challenges arising from the overlap among profile similarity and normativeness, which presents potential confounds and potential opportunities. This article describes the normativeness problem, articulating the need to evaluate profile similarity alongside normativeness and distinctiveness. It presents conceptual and psychometric foundations of a framework differentiating these elements for pairs of profiles. It derives two models from this framework, and it discusses the application of their components to a variety of research domains. Finally, it presents recommendations and implications regarding the use of these components and profile similarity more generally. This approach can reveal and manage potential confounds, and it can provide theoretical insights that might otherwise be overlooked.
Article
This review presents a comprehensive survey of the literature on mate selection and non‐random mating in man. The topics discussed include: (1) genetic aspects of non‐random mating for complex traits; (2) evidence on resemblance between spouses on a large variety of traits such as intelligence, personality, physical characteristics, and sociocultural traits; (3) a critical review of sociological and psychological theories offered to account for assortative mating, and (4) implications of assortative mating for marital satisfaction. It is suggested that the factors leading to choice of marriage partners need to be studied from the point of view of multivariate profiles rather than single traits. Such studies will require sophisticated methodologies of research design and data analysis.
Article
We conducted a comprehensive analysis of assortative mating (i.e., the similarity between wives and husbands on a given characteristic) in a newlywed sample. These newlyweds showed (a) strong similarity in age, religiousness, and political orientation; (b) moderate similarity in education and verbal intelligence; (c) modest similarity in values; and (d) little similarity in matrix reasoning, self- and spouse-rated personality, emotional experience and expression, and attachment. Further analyses established that similarity was not simply due to background variables such as age and education and reflected initial assortment (i.e., similarity at the time of marriage) rather than convergence (i.e., increasing similarity with time). Finally, marital satisfaction primarily was a function of the rater's own traits and showed little relation to spousal similarity.
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