Isolation and Analysis of Rare Cells in the Blood of Cancer Patients Using a Negative Depletion Methodology

William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
Methods (Impact Factor: 3.65). 09/2013; 64(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2013.09.006
Source: PubMed


A variety of enrichment/isolation technologies exist for the characterization of rare cells in the blood of cancer patients. In this article, a negative depletion process is presented and discussed which consists of red blood cell (RBC) lysis and the subsequent removal of CD45 expressing cells through immunomagnetic depletion. Using this optimized assembly on 120 whole blood specimens, from 71 metastatic breast cancer patients, after RBC lysis, the average nucleated cell log depletion of 2.56 with a 77 percent recovery of the nucleated cells. The necessity of exploring different anti-CD45 antibody clones to label CD45 expressing cells in this enrichment scheme is also presented and discussed. An optimized, four-color immunofluorescence staining is conducted on the cells retained after the CD45-based immunomagnetic depletion process. Different types of rare non-hematopoietic cells are found in these enriched peripheral blood samples and a wide range of external and internal markers have been characterized, which demonstrates the range and heterogeneity of the rare cells.

Download full-text


Available from: Jeffrey J Chalmers, May 08, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in carcinoma. In some cases, including in colorectal cancer, it is used as a therapeutic target. Bio-Ferrography is a non-destructive method for isolating magnetized cells and tissues from a fluid onto a glass slide based on their interaction with an external, strong and focused magnetic field.Methods: Here, we implement Bio-Ferrography to separate EGFR positive cancer cells from EGFR negative non-cancer cells, mixed at a ratio of 1 to 1 × 106, from either PBS or human whole blood (HWB). Incubation of the cells with an anti-EGFR antibody and magnetic microbeads coupled to a secondary antibody was used to magnetize the target cells prior to the ferrographic analysis.Results: A procedure was developed for “a proof of concept” isolation. Recovery values as high as 78% for 1 mL PBS, and 53% for 1 mL HWB, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 30 and 100 target cells, respectively, were achieved.Conclusions: These capture efficiency values are considered significant and therefore warrant further study on isolation of real circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood samples of patients, aiming at early diagnosis of EGFR overexpressing tumor types. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Cytometry Part B Clinical Cytometry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancer (HNC) broadly includes carcinomas arising from the mucosal epithelia of the head and neck region as well as various cell types of salivary glands and the thyroid. As reflected by the multiple sites and histologies of HNC, the molecular characteristics and clinical outcomes of this disease vary widely. In this Review, we focus on established and emerging biomarkers that are most relevant to nasopharyngeal carcinoma and head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which includes primary sites in the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx. Applications and limitations of currently established biomarkers are discussed along with examples of successful biomarker development. For emerging biomarkers, preclinical or retrospective data are also described in the context of recently completed comprehensive molecular analyses of HNSCC, which provide a broad genetic landscape and molecular classification beyond histology and clinical characteristics. We will highlight the ongoing effort that will see a shift from prognostic to predictive biomarker development in HNC with the goal of delivering individualized cancer therapy.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Magnetic sorting using magnetic beads has become a routine methodology for the separation of key cell populations from biological suspensions. Due to the inherent ability of magnets to provide forces at a distance, magnetic cell manipulation is now a standardized process step in numerous processes in tissue engineering, medicine, and in fundamental biological research. Herein we review the current status of magnetic particles to enable isolation and separation of cells, with a strong focus on the fundamental governing physical phenomena, properties and syntheses of magnetic particles and on current applications of magnet-based cell separation in laboratory and clinical settings. We highlight the contribution of cell separation to biomedical research and medicine and detail modern cell-separation methods (both magnetic and non-magnetic). In addition to a review of the current state-of-the-art in magnet-based cell sorting, we discuss current challenges and available opportunities for further research, development and commercialization of magnetic particle-based cell-separation systems.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Reports on Progress in Physics
Show more