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Positive effect of mushrooms substituted for meat on body weight, body composition, and health parameters. A 1-year randomized clinical trial

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... There are a great variety of mushrooms available in the market; these include: white button, crimini, portabella varieties, shiitake, straw, oyster, and enoki (10). Mushrooms contain various nutrients such as niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, phosphorus, copper, selenium, Vitamin B12, ergosterol, and ergothioneine, some of which have been reported to be effective in the prevention and treatment of PIH (3,6,7,(10)(11)(12). In addition, mushrooms have many other characteristics, such as a delicious taste, relative safety, being low in calories and rich in fiber, all of which are suitable for pregnant women (11). ...
... Mushrooms contain various nutrients such as niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, phosphorus, copper, selenium, Vitamin B12, ergosterol, and ergothioneine, some of which have been reported to be effective in the prevention and treatment of PIH (3,6,7,(10)(11)(12). In addition, mushrooms have many other characteristics, such as a delicious taste, relative safety, being low in calories and rich in fiber, all of which are suitable for pregnant women (11). ...
... To this date, a great number of preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that consumption of certain mushrooms would be beneficial in lowering the risk of cognition dysfunction (22,23), cancer (24,25), as well as improving weight management (11), and oral health (26). However, there is no study focusing on the potential benefits of pre-pregnancy mushroom supplementation in the prevention of PIH. ...
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Background: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a disease characterized by high blood pressure detected after 20 weeks of pregnancy, affecting approximately 10% of pregnant women worldwide. Effective strategies are imperatively needed to prevent and treat PIH. Methods: Subjects were required to consume 100 g mushroom daily from pre-pregnancy to the 20th week of gestation. The gestational hypertension and related primary and secondary outcomes of the mushroom diet (MD) group and placebo group were investigated to compare the intervention of a MD on the PIH and preeclampsia-associated maternal and child health conditions. Results: A total of 582 and 580 subjects belonging to the MD group and placebo group were included for the analysis, respectively. Compared to the placebo, the MD significantly reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension (P = 0.023), preeclampsia (P = 0.014), gestational weight gain (P = 0.017), excessive gestational weight gain (P = 0.032) and gestational diabetes (P = 0.047). Stratified analysis showed that the MD lowered the risk of PIH for overweighed women (P = 0.036), along with the percentage of macrosomia (P = 0.007). Conclusion: An MD could serve as a preventative strategy for lowering the risk of PIH and could control newborn birthweight while reducing comorbidities including gestational weight gain, diabetes etc.
... Obesity is a widespread problem; indeed, in the United States it is estimated that more than one third of adults (about 80 million individuals) are obese [10,11]. There also seems to be substantial educational disparity in obesity among United State adults; those with higher education are on average less obese. ...
... A short-term 4-day clinical human trial with men and women with obesity or type-2 diabetes was designed to determine the effect of replacing 20% of high-energy lean ground beef in the diet with 20% of low-energy ground white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) [11,144]. Figure 7 shows that substituting meat with lower energy mushroom-containing lunches with energy values of 783 and 339 kcal, respectively, reduced daily energy and fat intake and did not negatively affect palatability, appetite, and satiety. A more extensive long-term 1-year clinical human trial with overweight men and women showed that individuals consuming an isocaloric mushroom diet, relative to a meat diet, lost weight, had lower blood pressure and plasma lipid (total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides), fasting glucose levels, and reduced levels of the inflammation biomarker hs-CRP associated with obesity ( Figure 8) [11]. ...
... Figure 7 shows that substituting meat with lower energy mushroom-containing lunches with energy values of 783 and 339 kcal, respectively, reduced daily energy and fat intake and did not negatively affect palatability, appetite, and satiety. A more extensive long-term 1-year clinical human trial with overweight men and women showed that individuals consuming an isocaloric mushroom diet, relative to a meat diet, lost weight, had lower blood pressure and plasma lipid (total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides), fasting glucose levels, and reduced levels of the inflammation biomarker hs-CRP associated with obesity ( Figure 8) [11]. A more extensive long-term 1-year clinical human trial with overweight men and women showed that individuals consuming an isocaloric mushroom diet, relative to a meat diet, lost weight, had lower blood pressure and plasma lipid (total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides), fasting glucose levels, and reduced levels of the inflammation biomarker hs-CRP associated with obesity ( Figure 8) [11]. ...
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More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential. The associated antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities in fat cells, rodents, and humans are also discussed. The mechanisms of action involve the gut microbiota, meaning the polysaccharides act as prebiotics in the digestive system. Also covered here are the nutritional, functional food, clinical, and epidemiological studies designed to assess the health-promoting properties of polysaccharides, individually and as blended mixtures, against obesity, diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases, and suggestions for further research. The collated information and suggested research needs might guide further studies needed for a better understanding of the health-promoting properties of mushroom polysaccharides and enhance their use to help prevent and treat human chronic diseases.
... Cheskin and colleagues conducted two open-label clinical trials to assess the satiating power of A. bisporus in place of beef (Cheskin et al., 2008;Poddar et al., 2013). The first trial was conducted on 54 normal weight, overweight or obese individuals, with a randomized, crossover design, using 8 test lunches during two consecutive weeks in an experimental setting (Cheskin et al., 2008). ...
... In the second randomized, single-blind, 1-year trial, 73 obese adults were randomized to red meat versus whole mushroom intervention in a free-living setting (Poddar et al., 2013). The trial included two parallel groups with two phases: the first based on weight loss thanks to the prescription of a calorie deficit of 500 kcal/day for 6 months and the second, a maintenance phase of 6-months. ...
Article
Background mushrooms are traditionally used as a food ingredient and in folk medicine. Many in vitro and animal studies have reported their potential health effects, but without any clear application in human health. Although they have a worldwide history of use in dishes and folk medicine, mushroom extracts are commonly taken as supplements but need to be evaluated regarding clinical effects and safety, in particular among patients searching for further efficacy for their disease beside pharmacological treatments already prescribed. Scope and approach this review summarizes available data from the scientific literature about the nutritional and effects of mushrooms on human health by selecting clinical studies on humans in English. At the same time, the safety profile and unwanted effects were highlighted. Key findings and conclusions in spite of their wide use among populations, data on humans were scant and did not justify extensive use without more well-designed trials on mushroom efficacy. Overall, their use seems to be safe, but with some side effects, easily reversible after intake interruption. Nutritional use seems promising for coping with the energy surplus of the Western countries and could be useful for some nutritional aspects.
... Mushrooms have high nutritious value with numerous bioactive compounds that have well-known impacts on various cardiac markers [73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82]. Mushrooms have been well documented in traditional medicine as having hypocholesterolemic effects. ...
... Treatment of adipocytes with G. lucidum reduced adipogenic transcription factor expression that stimulates transportation, storage of glucose and lipids, and activates AMPK signaling pathways suggesting the potential significance of the polysaccharide as an antiobesity and antidiabetic agent [78]. Long-term (1 year) and short-term (4-day) clinical studies with obese or diabetic participants asked them to evaluate the impact of substituting 20% of high-energy beef with 20% of low-energy white button mushrooms in the diet [79,80]. The results showed that the mushroom regime consumers had lesser BMI, decreased belly circumference, and increase satiety without diminishing palatability. ...
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Obesity is a group of metabolic disorders caused by multiple factors, including heredity, diet, lifestyle, societal determinants, environment, and infectious agents, which can all lead to the enhancement of storage body fat. Excess visceral fat mass in adipose tissue generate several metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular diseases with chronic inflammation based pathophysiology. The objective of the current review is to summarize the cellular mechanisms of obesity that attenuate by antioxidant potentials of medicinal and edible mushrooms. Studies have showed that mushrooms potentially have antioxidant capacities, which increase the antioxidant defense systems in cells. They boost anti-inflammatory actions and thereby protect against obesity-related hypertension and dyslipidemia. The practice of regular consumption of mushrooms is effective in the treatment of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, and thus could be a good candidate for use in future pharmaceutical or nutraceutical applications.
... Specific extracts obtained from L. edodes also induced significant decrease in serum cholesterol in young women and people older than 60 years in Japan [24]. Recently, Poddar et al. (2013) demonstrated that substitution of meat by mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) improved energy intake, reduced body weight and improved the lipid (including LDL) and inflammatory profile among 73 obese adults in a short and 1 yearlong trials [54]. ...
... Specific extracts obtained from L. edodes also induced significant decrease in serum cholesterol in young women and people older than 60 years in Japan [24]. Recently, Poddar et al. (2013) demonstrated that substitution of meat by mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) improved energy intake, reduced body weight and improved the lipid (including LDL) and inflammatory profile among 73 obese adults in a short and 1 yearlong trials [54]. ...
... A few previous studies have addressed the impact of white button mushroom consumption on satiety and food intake (Cheskin et al., 2008;Poddar et al., 2013). Cheskin et al. compared the impact of mushroom or meat-based lunches on satiety and energy intake in 76 individuals (Cheskin et al., 2008). ...
... However, because this study matched the lunch meal interventions by volume, a lower amount of calories from mushrooms (339 kcal) was as satiating as a higher amount of calories (783 kcal) from meat. A second study (Poddar et al., 2013) conducted by the same research team found that replacing meat with mushrooms at three meals a week for one year increased the amount of weight lost over six months, helped participants maintain their weight loss for six months, and led to decreased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumferences. The results of these studies suggest that mushrooms enhance satiety and that substituting white button mushrooms for meat may decrease the energy density (kcal/g) of the diet, resulting in weight loss (Mack et al., 2014;Rolls, Hetherington, & Burley, 1988). ...
Article
Previous studies on mushrooms suggest that they can be more satiating than meat, but this effect has not been studied with protein-matched amounts. The objective of this study was to assess the differences with satiety and ten-day food intake between A. bisporus mushrooms (226 g) and meat (28 g) in a randomized open-label crossover study. Thirty-two healthy participants (17 women, 15 men) consumed two servings of mushrooms or meat for ten days. On the first day, fasted participants consumed protein-matched breakfasts. Participants rated their satiety using visual analogue scales (VAS) at baseline and at regular intervals after the meal. Three hours later, participants were served an ad libitum lunch. Participants were given mushrooms or meat to consume at home for the following nine days. Energy intake was assessed at the ad libitum lunch, and participants also completed diet diaries on the day of the study, day 2, and day 10. Participants reported less hunger (p = 0.045), greater fullness (p = 0.05), and decreased prospective consumption (p = 0.03) after the mushroom breakfast. There were no significant differences in participant ratings of satisfaction (p = 0.10). There were also no statistically significant differences in energy intake at the ad libitum lunch or with the diet diaries from days 1 (p = 0.61), 2 (p = 0.77), or 10 (p = 0.69). Mushroom consumption did increase fiber intake on days 1, 2, and 10 but the difference in fiber consumption was only statistically significant on day 2 (p = 0.0001). The mushroom intervention also did not affect energy intake over the ten day feeding period.
... Therefore, it will be beneficial to replace low-energy-density foods with high-energy-density mushrooms for efficient weight loss, and improving body composition in overweight and obese people. In a clinical trial, lower energy and fat intakes were reported by substituting red meat with mushroom diet, which resulted in higher weight loss, besides lowering hs-CRP levels, an inflammatory marker linked to obesity (Poddar et al., 2013). Oral administration of a suspension of freeze-dried and powdered P. ostreatus to type 2 diabetic patients (for 2 weeks at a dose of 50 mg kg − 1 b.wt. ...
Article
Mushrooms have been recognized for their culinary attributes for long and were relished in the most influential civilizations in history. Currently, they are the focus of renewed research because of their therapeutic abilities. Nutritional benefits from mushrooms are in the form of a significant source of essential proteins, dietary non-digestible carbohydrates, unsaturated fats, minerals, as well as various vitamins, which have enhanced its consumption, and also resulted in the development of various processed mushroom products. Mushrooms are also a crucial ingredient in traditional medicine for their healing potential and curative properties. The literature on the nutritional, nutraceutical, and therapeutic potential of mushrooms, and their use as functional foods for the maintenance of health was reviewed, and the available literature indicates the enormous potential of the bioactive compounds present in mushrooms. Future research should be focused on the development of processes to retain the mushroom bioactive components, and valorization of waste generated during processing. Further, the mechanisms of action of mushroom bioactive components should be studied in detail to delineate their diverse roles and functions in the prevention and treatment of several diseases.
... At the end of the trial, participants on the mushroom diet lost more weight, achieved lower BMI and WC compared to the beginning of the study. However, these changes were also not significantly different when they were compared to the standard diet group [42]. On the other hand, in the present study, subjects in both intervention groups showed an increase in the systolic blood pressure from the beginning to the end of the intervention (P < 0.01) with no significant differences between treatment groups and without clinical relevance. ...
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PurposeThe aim of this study was to evaluate the hypocholesterolemic, immune- and microbiota-modulatory effect of a mushroom extract in hypercholesterolemic subjects.MethodsA randomized, controlled, double-blind, and parallel clinical trial was carried out with subjects from 18 to 65 years old (n = 52) with untreated mild hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers consumed a β-d-glucan-enriched (BGE) mixture (10.4 g/day) obtained from shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) ensuring a 3.5 g/day of fungal β-d-glucans or a placebo incorporated in three different commercial creams.ResultsThis mixture showed hypocholesterolemic activities in vitro and in animal studies. After eight weeks intervention, no significant differences in lipid- or cholesterol-related parameters were found compared to placebo subjects as well as before and after the BGE mixture administration. No inflammatory or immunomodulatory responses were noticed and no changes in IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α or oxLDL were recorded. However, consumption of the BGE mixture was safe and managed to achieve the dietary fibre intake recommended as cardiovascular protective diet. Moreover, the BGE mixture modulated the colonic microbiota differently compared to placebo. Microbial community composition varied from before to after the intervention with several genera being positively or negatively correlated with some biomarkers related to cholesterol metabolism.Conclusion These results suggested a relation between cholesterol metabolism, microbiota and BGE administration. Nevertheless, the precise significance of this differential modulation was not fully elucidated and requires further studies.
... Poddar et al (2013) conducted a 1-year randomized clinical trial on the positive effect of mushrooms substituted for meat on body weight, body composition, and health parameters and at the end of the 1-year trial, participants on the mushroom diet reported lower intakes of energy and fat, lost more pounds and percentage body weight, achieved lower body mass index, waist circumference and percent total body fat, and had lower systolic and diastolic pressure; their lipid profile and inflammatory markers also improved. 42 Dai et al (2014) conducted a Randomized Dietary Intervention in Healthy Young Adults Consuming Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Mushrooms and concluded that regular L. edodes consumption resulted in improved immunity, as seen by improved cell proliferation and activation and increased sIgA production. 43 Wu et al (2007) evaluated the dietary supplementation with white button mushroom which enhances natural killer cell activity in C57BL/6 Mice and concluded that the increased intake of white button mushrooms may promote innate immunity against tumors and viruses through the enhancement of a key component, NK activity. ...
... Mushroom β-glucans, as soluble dietary fiber, have been gaining interest as a food ingredient due to their beneficial role in maintaining blood sugar balance via blood sugar lowering effects, elevation of plasma insulin levels, and the enhancement of cellular insu lin sensitivity; they also have been shown to help in dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (El Khoury et al. 2012). Research into mushroom antiobesity potential con ducted in men and women who were overweight or obese (n = 73) revealed a significant loss in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference during the six months of the trial in those consuming the mushroom diet (substitution of 8 oz (227 g) of fresh mushrooms for 8 oz of meat three times/week) compared with baseline (Poddar et al. 2013). ...
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Mushrooms are becoming a vital component of the human diet for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. The use of mushrooms for developing functional foods, drugs, and nutraceuticals is reviewed in this chapter, with emphasis on present or potential medical implications. As functional foods, mushrooms represent a paradigm of integrating tradition and novelty, due to their wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Their bioactive components can be extracted or concentrated as nutraceuticals, and/or a diverse class of dietary supplements. Functional foods and nutraceuticals, particularly mushrooms, are immunoceuticals with antitumor and immunomodulatory effects which target and modulate biological processes that foster the development of diseases. Several mushroom products, mainly polysaccharides such as &;#x003B2;&;#x02010;D&;#x02010;glucans, have proceeded successfully through clinical trials and are used as drugs to treat cancer and chronic diseases. In sum, the present status and future prospects open new avenues for upgrading mushroom species from functional food to translational mushroom medicine.
... Dietary fiber and other low and non-digestible carbohydrates are considered important nutrients for human health [1][2][3][4]. Many studies have been conducted on their benefits both when added to the diet as supplements (in isolated forms) [5][6][7] and when provided as part of a food [8][9][10][11]. Some health benefits linked with fiber consumption include a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease [2], enhanced satiety, reduced postprandial blood glucose, and improved laxation [12]. Recent research suggests that consumption of fiber may also benefit the gut microbiota, especially since some fibers also function as prebiotics [2]. ...
Article
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Eating Agaricus bisporus mushrooms may impact gut health, because they contain known prebiotics. This study assessed mushroom consumption compared to meat on gastrointestinal tolerance, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, laxation, and fecal microbiota. A randomized open-label crossover study was conducted in healthy adults (n = 32) consuming protein-matched amounts of mushrooms or meat twice daily for ten days. Breath hydrogen measures were taken on day one, and gastrointestinal tolerance was evaluated throughout treatments. Fecal sample collection was completed days 6–10, and samples were assessed for bacterial composition, SCFA concentrations, weight, pH, and consistency. There were no differences in breath hydrogen, stool frequency, consistency, fecal pH, or SCFA concentrations between the two diets. The mushroom diet led to greater overall gastrointestinal symptoms than the meat diet on days one and two. The mushroom-rich diet resulted in higher average stool weight (p = 0.002) and a different fecal microbiota composition compared to the meat diet, with greater abundance of Bacteroidetes (p = 0.0002) and lower abundance of Firmicutes (p = 0.0009). The increase in stool weight and presence of undigested mushrooms in stool suggests that mushroom consumption may impact laxation in healthy adults. Additional research is needed to interpret the health implications of fecal microbiota shifts with mushroom feeding.
... Mushrooms are low in calories, fat-free, cholesterol-free, gluten-free, and very low in sodium, yet they provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin D" (Mushroom Council). Several preclinical and clinical studies indicate that the consumption of mushrooms may support oral health, weight management, and healthy immunity Zaura et al., 2011;Poddar et al., 2013;Roupas et al., 2012). Other studies suggest that consumption of mushrooms may decrease the risk of certain diseases, including breast and prostate cancer (Chen et al., 2006;Shin et al., 2010;Tufts Journal). ...
Article
While technically considered as fungi, mushrooms are often classified as vegetables because they provide many of the nutritional attributes of produce as well as meat, beans, and grains. The U.S. is the largest consumer of mushrooms and the share of imports in total consumption of mushrooms has been rising and will likely continue to rise as U.S. consumers increasingly adopt healthier diets. While most of U.S. fresh mushroom imports are from Canada, China, Mexico and South Korea, most of U.S. canned mushroom imports are from China, India, Indonesia, and the Netherlands. The contribution of this thesis is to provide the first-ever estimates of import demand elasticities for fresh and canned mushrooms during the period of 2002-2015 by 1) first using a source-differentiated Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model and a source-differentiated Rotterdam model; and 2) selecting between the two models based on two specification tests. Several findings and implications are in order. First, demand for Canadian fresh mushrooms is more inelastic than demand for Chinese canned mushrooms. This means that while Canada, the leading exporter of fresh mushrooms, may gain more revenue from rising mushroom prices; China, the leading exporter of canned mushrooms, may lose. Second, the expenditure elasticity of fresh mushroom imports from Canada is inelastic and the expenditure elasticity of canned mushroom imports from China is elastic. This means that Chinese exporters stand to gain more than Canadian exporters from rising U.S. spending on mushrooms. Advisor: Azzeddine Azzam
... A clinical trial was conducted on 73 obese adults in which mushrooms were substituted for red meat as a part of the regular diet. At the end of one year, less energy intake, reduced body weight, low body mass index, low waist circumference, and low systolic and diastolic blood pressure was reported in the subjects on mushroom diet [136]. Few animal studies have also reported the anti-obesity effects of mushrooms. ...
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Obesity, usually indicated by a body mass index of more than 30 kg/m2, is a worsening global health issue. It leads to chronic diseases, including type II diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Conventional treatments for obesity include physical activity and maintaining a negative energy balance. However, physical activity alone cannot determine body weight as several other factors play a role in the overall energy balance. Alternatively, weight loss may be achieved by medication and surgery. However, these options can be expensive or have side effects. Therefore, dietary factors, including dietary modifications, nutraceutical preparations, and functional foods have been investigated recently. For example, edible mushrooms have beneficial effects on human health. Polysaccharides (essentially β-D-glucans), chitinous substances, heteroglycans, proteoglycans, peptidoglycans, alkaloids, lactones, lectins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, terpenes, phenols, nucleotides, glycoproteins, proteins, amino acids, antimicrobials, and minerals are the major bioactive compounds in these mushrooms. These bioactive compounds have chemo-preventive, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Consumption of edible mushrooms reduces plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and plasma glucose levels. Polysaccharides from edible mushrooms suppress mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, contributing to their anti-obesity properties. Therefore, edible mushrooms or their active ingredients may help prevent obesity and other chronic ailments.
... Mushrooms (and truffles) have low fat content and are nutritional sources of proteins, carbohydrates, low-digestible and non-digestible carbohydrates (known as dietary fibers), vitamins, minerals, and PUFAs [185]. As a substitute for red meat, mushrooms lower the energy density of diets, exerting positive effects on body weight without compromising palatability or satiety [186,187]. In fact, certain mushroom compounds/extracts seem to regulate appetite and satiation, an effect that might be related with an improvement in leptin sensitivity. ...
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Mitochondria play a central role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression and in the control of cell death signalling during the progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Associated with the metabolic syndrome, NAFLD is mostly driven by insulin-resistant white adipose tissue lipolysis that results in an increased hepatic fatty acid influx and the ectopic accumulation of fat in the liver. Upregulation of beta-oxidation as one compensatory mechanism leads to an increase in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle flux and ATP generation. The progression of NAFLD is associated with alterations in the mitochondrial molecular composition and respiratory capacity, which increases their vulnerability to different stressors, including calcium and pro-inflammatory molecules, which result in an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that, altogether, may ultimately lead to mitochondrial dysfunction. This may activate further pro-inflammatory pathways involved in the progression from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). Mushroom-enriched diets, or the administration of their isolated bioactive compounds, have been shown to display beneficial effects on insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation by regulating nutrient uptake and lipid metabolism as well as modulating the antioxidant activity of the cell. In addition, the gut microbiota has also been described to be modulated by mushroom bioactive molecules, with implications in reducing liver inflammation during NAFLD progression. Dietary mushroom extracts have been reported to have anti-tumorigenic properties and to induce cell-death via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. This calls for particular attention to the potential therapeutic properties of these natural compounds which may push the development of novel pharmacological options to treat NASH and HCC. We here review the diverse effects of mushroom-enriched diets in liver disease, emphasizing those effects that are dependent on mitochondria.
... In 2014, approximately 20 million obese women were found in India, and in United States, it was 82 million. A large number of obese were also reported from other countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, China, Russia, Middle-East, etc. (Feeney et al. 2014;Poddar et al. 2013). Diabetes can be of two types, i.e., Type-1 and Type-2; this classification was made in 1936 and in 1988. ...
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Diabetes and obesity are the most frequently found disease worldwide. Several factors are responsible for obesity, i.e., imbalance in energy expenditure, environmental factors, feeding habit, lifestyle, etc., which can also be responsible for type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are several synthetic drugs available to combat these diseases which have some side effects on sufferers. Therefore, people are shifting towards inexpensive, effective, widely available natural and herbal medicines. Edible mushrooms, which have been used from ancient time to cure these diseases, contain anti-oxidant, fibers, triterpenoids, alkaloid, and other phytochemicals. Comatin, β-glucan, Tremellastin, and Lentinan KS-2 are active chemicals of mushrooms which show great effect on diabetes mellitus and obesity by modulating either cellular function or biochemical pathways. Here, in this review, we have discussed the potential role of edible mushrooms and its biochemicals in control of diabetes and obesity. Using Bioinformatics, we can find the specific targets of theses biochemicals, so that these can be more effective.
... This mushroom has low lipid content (1.17%). Relatively low lipid content and high contents of fiber (14.17%) in this mushroom, make it to recommend for the people with cholesterol related ailments (13). Therefore, this mushroom can be categorized as a good edible mushroom because of its nutritional and culinary options. ...
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Macrolepiota dolichaula, an edible white spored gilled mushroom, is widely distributed in tropical and temperate countries. In this study, nutritional quality of M. dolichaula strain MFLUCC-13-0579 cultivated in compost was investigated. Proximate analysis of dry weight of M. dolichaula showed a composition of 25.53% protein, 44.37% carbohydrate, 14.17% fiber, 1.17 % lipid and 5.19% ash with energy of 299.06 kJ/g mushroom. In addition, the antimicrobial activities from fresh mushroom, dry mushroom and mycelial extracts showed significant activities against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus. Based on this study, it can be concluded that M. dolichaula is a good source of nutrients and posses some antimicrobial activities.
... Mushroom β-glucans, as soluble dietary fiber, have been gaining interest as a food ingredient due to their beneficial role in maintaining blood sugar balance via blood sugar lowering effects, elevation of plasma insulin levels, and the enhancement of cellular insu lin sensitivity; they also have been shown to help in dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (El Khoury et al. 2012). Research into mushroom antiobesity potential con ducted in men and women who were overweight or obese (n = 73) revealed a significant loss in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference during the six months of the trial in those consuming the mushroom diet (substitution of 8 oz (227 g) of fresh mushrooms for 8 oz of meat three times/week) compared with baseline (Poddar et al. 2013). ...
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Mushrooms are becoming a vital component of the human diet for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. The use of mushrooms for developing functional foods, drugs, and nutraceuticals is reviewed in this chapter, with emphasis on present or potential medical implications. As functional foods, mushrooms represent a paradigm of integrating tradition and novelty, due to their wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Their bioactive components can be extracted or concentrated as nutraceuticals, and/or a diverse class of dietary supplements. Functional foods and nutraceuticals, particularly mushrooms, are immunoceuticals with antitumor and immunomodulatory effects which target and modulate biological processes that foster the development of diseases. Several mushroom products, mainly polysaccharides such as β‐D‐glucans, have proceeded successfully through clinical trials and are used as drugs to treat cancer and chronic diseases. In sum, the present status and future prospects open new avenues for upgrading mushroom species from functional food to translational mushroom medicine.
... Similarly, Lektinol® showed a strong effect on survival ratio, inhibition of primary bladder tumors growth and the formation of multiple metastases when administered at 3-30 ng/0.1 mL/kg animal [150]. Recently, few clinical trials have also emerged to explore the effects of mushroom extracts as anti-cancer therapeutics (Table 4) [151][152][153]. Lectins are believed to be part of a group of active components responsible for conferring anti-cancer potential in mushrooms, including lentinan, krestin, hispolon, calcaelin and Hericium polysaccharide A and B (HPA and HPB) [154]. ...
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Lectins are carbohydrate recognizing proteins originating from diverse origins in nature, including animals, plants, viruses, bacteria and fungus. Due to their exceptional glycan recognition property, they have found many applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology and surface chemistry. This manuscript explores the current use of lectins for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Moreover, novel drug delivery strategies aiming at improving lectin’s stability, reducing their undesired toxicity and controlling their non-specific binding interactions are discussed. We also explore the nanotechnology application of lectins for cancer targeting and imaging. Although many investigations are being conducted in the field of lectinology, there is still a limited clinical translation of the major findings reported due to lectins stability and toxicity concerns. Therefore, new investigations of safe and effective drug delivery system strategies for lectins are warranted in order to take full advantage of these proteins.
... Mushrooms are often equated to vegetables, even in the scientific literature, although they are more closely related and more similar to animals in their metabolism and nutrient composition. Supplementing mushrooms for meat can have significant health benefits for obese people, including weight loss, improved systolic and diastolic pressure, improved lipid profile, and a decrease of inflammatory markers in their blood (Poddar et al. 2013). Studies such as this, as well as their dietary profile, show that mushrooms are a healthy food and especially suitable as meat substitutes. ...
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Edible mushrooms are cultivated mainly on ligno-cellulosic plant materials, thereby turning agricultural wastes to high-quality products. In this review, several ways in which mushroom cultivation could help in the transition towards a circular agricultural economy are discussed, including food, feed, and compost production. The production processes of different mushroom species are also described and an overview of the global mushroom market and its history are given. Resource use efficiency could be maximized by using spent mushroom substrate as feed for invertebrates, such as insects or earthworms, which produce high-quality compost and can serve as food or feed for other livestock. In the context of an increasing world population, as well as limited resources and agricultural land, mushroom cultivation could fulfill the need for protein-rich food and for the recycling of nutrient-poor agricultural wastes.
... Ganoderma lucidum inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by suppressing the expression of adipogenic transcription factors (e.g., PPAR-γ, SREBP-1c, C/EBP-α) and downregulating the expression of enzymes and proteins that are responsible for lipid synthesis, transport, and storage (e.g., FAS, ACS1, FABP4, FATP1, perilipin), as well as activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and stimulating glucose uptake to levels that are comparable to the insulin activity [64]. In clinical studies, at the end of a 1-year trial, participants who were on the mushroom diet had a lower intake of energy and fat, lost more weight and a higher percentage of body weight, achieved lower body mass index, waist circumference, and percent total body fat; had lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure; and improved their lipid profile and inflammatory markers [65]. Numerous studies have demonstrated polysaccharides that were obtained from a variety of mushrooms that exert anti-obesity effects in vitro and in vivo [66,67]. ...
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Metabolic syndrome is an aggregation of conditions and associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries and are valuable components of the diet because of their attractive taste, aroma, and nutritional value. Medicinal mushrooms are higher fungi with additional nutraceutical attributes having low fat content and a trans-isomer of unsaturated fatty acids along with high fiber content, biologically active compounds such as polysaccharides or polysaccharide β-glucans, alkaloids, steroids, polyphenols and terpenoids. In vitro experiments, animal models, and even human studies have demonstrated not only fresh edible mushroom but also mushroom extract has great therapeutic applications in human health as they possess many properties such as anti-obesity, cardioprotective and anti-diabetic effect. They are considered as the unmatched source of healthy foods and drugs. The focus of this report was to provide a concise and complete review of the novel medicinal properties of fresh or dry mushroom and extracts, fruiting body or mycelium and its extracts, fiber, polysaccharides, beta- glucan, triterpenes, fucoidan, ergothioneine from edible mushrooms that may help to prevent or treat metabolic syndrome and associate diseases.
... 91 In a 1-year randomized clinical trial, obese patients substituted red meat for mushrooms, which significantly improved their blood pressure, serum lipid profile, inflammation and overall anthropometric parameters. 92 In particular, P. ostreatus was reported to have beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, and blood pressure, in patients with one or more pathologies related to the metabolic syndrome. 93 Of note are studies that demonstrate the potential of MED in complementary cancer therapy, 76 which point to an improvement of patients' quality of life and reduction of chemotherapy side effects together with immunomodulatory and antitumour effects. ...
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a most important cause of liver disease. Similar to other non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as obesity and type II diabetes mellitus, NAFLD can strongly affected by diet. Diet-related NCD and malnutrition are rising in all regions being a major cause of the global health, economic and environmental burdens. Mushrooms, important dietary components since the hunter-gathering communities, have increasingly gained momentum in biomedical research and therapeutics due to their interplay in metabolism traits. We emphasize here the beneficial effects of mushroom-enriched diets on the homeostasis of lipid and sugar metabolism, including their modulation, but also interfering with insulin metabolism, gut microbiota, inflammation, oxidative stress and autophagy. In this review, we describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms at the gut-liver axis and the liver-white adipose tissue (WAT) axis, that plausibly cause such positive modulation, and discuss the potential of mushroom-enriched diets to prevent or ameliorate NAFLD and related NCD, also within the shift needed toward healthy sustainable diets.
... In humans, long-term (one year) and short-term (four days) clinical studies with obese or diabetic participants showed that consumers of Agaricus bisporus in a diet had lesser BMI, decreased belly circumference and increased satiety without diminishing palatability (Cheskin et al., 2008;Poddar et al., 2013). The authors of this study concluded that the consumption of A. bisporus has potential as an antidiabetic and antiobesity. ...
... The study showed that matching the lunch meals by volume, a lower value of calories from mushrooms (339 kcal) was comparable in satiety to meat calories (783 kcal). Likewise, a one-year randomized clinical trial with seventy-three subjects (Poddar et al., 2013) showed that replacing red meat with mushrooms can increase weight loss, weight maintenance, and health parameters (e.g., lower systolic and diastolic pressure, lipid profile, and inflammatory markers). Furthermore, a decrease in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumferences was reported. ...
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... A paired-sample t test was conducted to assess differences within groups (P < 0.05), and multivariate ANOVA was used to assess intervention effects (P < 0.05). During the 6-mo energy restriction phase, those consuming the mushroom diet experienced a significant loss in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference compared with baseline, and the meat diet group had a lower BMI and waist circumference (43). From baseline to 12 mo, there were trends toward greater losses in weight, waist circumference, and BMI in the mushroom vs. meat groups, but the differences were not significant (P = 0.23-0.31). ...
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Overwhelming consensus among medical authorities and scholarly bodies on the high susceptibility to chronic ailments such as coronary diseases, cancers, and diabetes and the failure to make any leap forward progress in controlling casualties or even to completely understand their pathology is a frightening reality. To comprehend alterations, additions, and management of diet is a preferable approach not only to prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases but also to precise and enhance treatment measures. Proper application of potential drugs is possible only by establishing a systemic correlation and compilation of the knowledge obtained on the possible bioactive drugs. In this perspective gathering knowledge on the health-promoting potential of mushrooms which are considered as one of the promising sources of potential products that provide cardioprotection is indispensable. While there are several mushrooms traditionally utilized around the world for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), they are also being cautiously evaluated experimentally for the available evidences of ethnopharmacology. Some therapeutic mushrooms have preclinical studies to demonstrate that uptake of these organic dietary supplements and their constituents as a therapeutic alternative or supplement is conceivable, and further evaluations are carried out to help in lessening the prevalence and mortality of CVD by incorporating them either as a population medicine or as a clinical medicine. A few examinations have demonstrated the effect of mushrooms and their bioactive compounds on metabolic markers such as low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, fasting triacylglycerol, and homocysteine levels and on conditions such as hypertension, body hemostasis, oxidative stress, and inflammation which are associated with cardiovascular ailments. The focus of this chapter will primarily be on mushrooms used traditionally for the treatment of CVD.
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Characterization of several wild growing and cultivated mushrooms from geographical area of Dambovita County, Romania, in terms of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, through a chemometrics approach, was the aim of this study. Related to the authors’ previous studies, the novelty of this paper consists in deepening research towards the complete characterization of the regional mushroom species through emphasizing their potential as food resources. In the context in which species showed their content in biological active compounds, future practical applications in the area of functional food will be developed by integrating the data concerning their lack of the toxicity and nutritional value too. Lack of data focused on the characterization of mushroom species investigated in the paper supports the significance of this research. The statistical analysis of data highlights the relationship between compounds showing antioxidant activity of autochthonous mushrooms (both cap and stipe).
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The purpose of this study was to develop oral films (OFs) based on agar-agar with the incorporation of mushroom powder (MP) as a source of phenolic compounds. To this end, three different OFs were produced using different concentrations of MP, containing sorbitol and agar-agar. The OFs were characterized based on visual assessment, mass, thickness, moisture content, folding endurance, surface pH, contact angle, and phenolic compound content, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and FTIR, as well as an assessment of their antioxidant capacity. In general, all the OFs showed film-forming capacity after the incorporation of MP, although their mass, thickness, moisture content, and folding endurance differed significantly. The surface pH value remained close to neutrality (∼6.7), regardless of MP concentration. The incorporation of MP increased the crystallinity of the OFs in comparison to that of the agar-based film, but all the OFs showed similar FTIR spectra. The oral films containing 2 g of MP showed antioxidant capacity by ABTS●+ and FRAP of 3.68±0.23 and 14.61±0.66 mMol ET/g OF, respectively, and total phenolic content of 3.55±0.27 µmol GAE/g OF. Thus, oral films offer an innovative source of delivery of active compounds, and their consumption does not cause oral mucosal irritation.
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Background & aims Low-energy diet replacement is an effective tool to induce large and rapid weight loss and improve metabolic health, but in the long-term individuals often experience significant weight regain. Little is known about the role of animal-based foods in weight maintenance and metabolic health. We aimed to examine longitudinal associations of animal-based foods with weight maintenance and glycaemic and cardiometabolic risk factors. We also modelled replacement of processed meat with other high-protein foods. Methods In this secondary analysis, longitudinal data were analysed from 688 adults (26–70 years) with overweight and prediabetes after 8-week low-energy diet-induced weight loss (≥8% of initial body weight) in a 3-year, multi-centre, diabetes prevention study (PREVIEW). Animal-based food consumption, including unprocessed red meat, processed red meat, poultry, dairy products, fish and seafood, and eggs, was repeatedly assessed using 4-day food records. Multi-adjusted linear mixed models and isoenergetic substitution models were used to examine the potential associations. Results The available-case analysis showed that each 10-g increment in processed meat, but not total meat, unprocessed red meat, poultry, dairy products, or eggs, was positively associated with weight regain (0.17 kg·year⁻¹, 95% CI 0.10, 0.25, P<0.001) and increments in waist circumference, HbA1c, and triacylglycerols. The associations of processed meat with HbA1c or triacylglycerols disappeared when adjusted for weight change. Fish and seafood consumption was inversely associated with triacylglycerols and triacylglycerol-glucose index, independent of weight change. Modelled replacement of processed meat with isoenergetic (250–300 kJ·day⁻¹ or 60–72 kcal·day⁻¹) dairy, poultry, fish and seafood, grains, or nuts was associated with -0.59 (95% CI -0.77, -0.41), -0.66 (95% CI -0.93, -0.40), -0.58 (95% CI -0.88, -0.27), and -0.69 (95% CI -0.96, -0.41) kg·year⁻¹ of weight regain, respectively (all P<0.001) and significant improvements in HbA1c, and triacylglycerols. Conclusions Higher intake of processed meat, but not total or unprocessed red meat, poultry, dairy products, or eggs may be associated with greater weight regain and more adverse glycaemic and cardiometabolic risk factors. Replacing processed meat with a wide variety of high-protein foods, including unprocessed red meat, poultry, dairy products, fish, eggs, grains, and nuts, could improve weight maintenance and metabolic health after rapid weight loss. This study was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01777893.
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There is a growing trend towards shifting from meat-centric to plant-forward diets both within industry and society today. It is happening to improve impacts on the environment, public health, and animal welfare. Aligned with this, many new plant-based alternatives to traditional meat based foods and diets are being introduced. Research has focused on testing sensory characteristics and appeal with consumers. The current study responds to calls in the literature to extend learning about plant-forward foods, beyond sensory testing, and into consumer acceptance and adoption of these products. The objectives of this study are to examine the nature of consumer response to blending plant-based ingredients (mushrooms) into traditional meat-based foods and to understand the individual lifestyle and motivational differences that influence this response. Data is obtained through an online consumer survey and descriptive and structural equation analyses are employed. Results find that consumer acceptance is influenced greatly by their assessment of plant-based foods’ taste, health, sustainability, cost, and novelty. Results also find that assessment is influenced by individual differences in food values and lifestyle including healthy eating and food innovativeness. Contributions to marketing theory include the integration of new constructs with existing theory to establish new relationships that better explain and predict the acceptance of blending plant-based ingredients into meat-based foods. Understanding consumer context and motivations for adopting these products has important consequences for marketing positioning, messaging and promotion.
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Laboratory-based investigations indicate that the consumption of foods with a low energy density (kcal/g) decreases energy intake. Although low-energy-dense diets are recommended for weight management, relations between energy density, energy intake, and weight status have not been clearly shown in free-living persons. A representative US sample was used to determine whether dietary energy density is associated with energy intake, the weight of food consumed, and body weight and to explore the influence of food choices (fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption) on energy density and body weight. A cross-sectional survey of adults (n = 7356) from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and two 24-h dietary recalls were used. Men and women with a low-energy-dense diet had lower energy intakes (approximately 425 and 275 kcal/d less, respectively) than did those with a high-energy-dense diet, even though they consumed more food (approximately 400 and 300 g/d more, respectively). Normal-weight persons had diets with a lower energy density than did obese persons. Persons with a high fruit and vegetable intake had the lowest energy density values and the lowest obesity prevalence. Adults consuming a low-energy-dense diet are likely to consume more food (by weight) but to have a lower energy intake than do those consuming a higher-energy-dense diet. The energy density of a variety of dietary patterns, including higher-fat diets, can be lowered by adding fruit and vegetables. Our findings support the hypothesis that a relation exists between the consumption of an energy-dense diet and obesity and provide evidence of the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption for weight management.
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Edible mushrooms such as shiitake may have important salutary effects on health or even in treating disease. A mushroom characteristically contains many different bioactive compounds with diverse biological activity, and the content and bioactivity of these compounds depend on how the mushroom is prepared and consumed. It is estimated that approximately 50% of the annual 5 million metric tons of cultivated edible mushrooms contain functional "nutraceutical" or medicinal properties. In order of decreasing cultivated tonnage, Lentinus (shiitake), Pleurotus (oyster), Auricularia (mu-er), Flammulina (enokitake), Tremella (yin-er), Hericium, and Grifola (maitake) mushrooms have various degrees of immunomodulatory, lipid-lowering, antitumor, and other beneficial or therapeutic health effects without any significant toxicity. Although the data for this functional food class are not as strong as those for other functional foods such as cruciferous vegetables, because of their potential usefulness in preventing or treating serious health conditions such as cancer, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and hypercholesterolemia, functional mushrooms deserve further serious investigation. Additionally, there is a need for epidemiological evidence of the role of this functional food class.
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Background Abdominal obesity is a more important risk factor than overall obesity in predicting the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. From a preventive and public health point of view it is crucial that risk factors are identified at an early stage, in order to change and modify behaviour and lifestyle in high risk individuals. Methods Data from a community based study was used to assess the risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men. In order to identify those with increased risk for type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease sensitivity and specificity analysis were performed, including calculation of positive and negative predictive values, and corresponding 95% CI for eleven different cut-off points, with 1 cm intervals (92 to 102 cm), for waist circumference. Results A waist circumference ≥94 cm in middle-aged men, identified those with increased risk for type 2 diabetes and/or for cardiovascular disease with a sensitivity of 84.4% (95% CI 76.4% to 90.0%), and a specificity of 78.2% (95% CI 68.4% to 85.5%). The positive predictive value was 82.9% (95% CI 74.8% to 88.8%), and negative predictive value 80.0%, respectively (95% CI 70.3% to 87.1%). Conclusions Measurement of waist circumference in middle-aged men is a reliable test to identify individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This measurement should be used more frequently in daily practice in primary care in order to identify individuals at risk and when planning health counselling and interventions.
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This paper compares the efficacy of two widely used weight-loss diets differing in macronutrient composition - a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet. Although "a calorie is a calorie" under the controlled conditions of a metabolic unit (i.e., only the level of calorie intake matters and not the source of calories), we conclude that these interrelationships are far more complex in the free-living situation. The different diet-related factors that condition energy balance, including total energy intake, satiety and hunger sensory triggers, and palatability, must be considered when assessing the efficacy of weight-reducing diets of different macronutrient composition.
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Overweight and obese individuals are encouraged to lose 5-10% of their body weight to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but data supporting this recommendation are limited, particularly for individuals with type 2 diabetes. We conducted an observational analysis of participants in the Look AHEAD (Action For Health in Diabetes) study (n=5,145, 40.5% male, 37% from ethnic/racial minorities) and examined the association between the magnitude of weight loss and changes in CVD risk factors at 1 year and the odds of meeting predefined criteria for clinically significant improvements in risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The magnitude of weight loss at 1 year was strongly (P<0.0001) associated with improvements in glycemia, blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol but not with LDL cholesterol (P=0.79). Compared with weight-stable participants, those who lost 5 to <10% ([means±SD] 7.25±2.1 kg) of their body weight had increased odds of achieving a 0.5% point reduction in HbA1c (odds ratio 3.52 [95% CI 2.81-4.40]), a 5-mmHg decrease in diastolic blood pressure (1.48 [1.20-1.82]), a 5-mmHg decrease in systolic blood pressure (1.56 [1.27-1.91]), a 5 mg/dL increase in HDL cholesterol (1.69 [1.37-2.07]), and a 40 mg/dL decrease in triglycerides (2.20 [1.71-2.83]). The odds of clinically significant improvements in most risk factors were even greater in those who lost 10-15% of their body weight. Modest weight losses of 5 to <10% were associated with significant improvements in CVD risk factors at 1 year, but larger weight losses had greater benefits.
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To characterize the trends, distribution, potential determinants and public health implications of meat consumption within the USA. We examined temporal trends in meat consumption using food availability data from the FAO and US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and further evaluated the meat intake by type (red, white, processed) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to the MyPyramid Equivalents Database (MPED). Overall meat consumption has continued to rise in the USA and the rest of the developed world. Despite a shift towards higher poultry consumption, red meat still represents the largest proportion of meat consumed in the USA (58 %). Twenty-two per cent of the meat consumed in the USA is processed. According to the NHANES 2003-2004, total meat intake averaged 128 g/d. The type and quantities of meat reported varied by education, race, age and gender. Given the plausible epidemiological evidence for red and processed meat intake in cancer and chronic disease risk, understanding the trends and determinants of meat consumption in the USA, where meat is consumed at more than three times the global average, should be particularly pertinent to researchers and other public health professionals aiming to reduce the global burden of chronic disease.
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Few studies have examined recent shifts in meat consumption (MC), differences among US population groups, and the influence of psychosocial-behavioural factors. Nationally representative data collected for US adults aged >or=18 years in the 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) were used. We found a U-shaped trend in MC, a decrease between 1988-1994 and 1994-1996, and an increase from 1994-1996 to 1999-2004. NHANES 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 indicate that MC did not change significantly, particularly for all meat, red meat, poultry and seafood. Between 1994-1996 and 1999-2004, average MC, including red meat, poultry, seafood and other meat products, increased in men. Women's total MC decreased, mainly due to decreased red meat and other meat products, except for increased seafood. Noticeable differences existed in the changes across population groups. Black men had the largest increase in consumption of total meat, poultry and seafood; Mexican American men had the smallest increase in poultry, seafood and other meat products. In 1999-2004, ethnic differences in MC became greater in women than among women in 1994-1996. Associations between MC and energy intake changed over time. Perceived benefit of dietary quality and food label use were associated with reduced red MC. Noticeable differences exist in the shifts in MC across population groups and surveys. MC increased in men but decreased in women in recent years.
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The prevalence of obesity increased in the United States between 1976-1980 and 1988-1994 and again between 1988-1994 and 1999-2000. To examine trends in obesity from 1999 through 2008 and the current prevalence of obesity and overweight for 2007-2008. Analysis of height and weight measurements from 5555 adult men and women aged 20 years or older obtained in 2007-2008 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample of the US population. Data from the NHANES obtained in 2007-2008 were compared with results obtained from 1999 through 2006. Estimates of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults. Overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0 to 29.9. Obesity was defined as a BMI of 30.0 or higher. In 2007-2008, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 33.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31.6%-36.0%) overall, 32.2% (95% CI, 29.5%-35.0%) among men, and 35.5% (95% CI, 33.2%-37.7%) among women. The corresponding prevalence estimates for overweight and obesity combined (BMI > or = 25) were 68.0% (95% CI, 66.3%-69.8%), 72.3% (95% CI, 70.4%-74.1%), and 64.1% (95% CI, 61.3%-66.9%). Obesity prevalence varied by age group and by racial and ethnic group for both men and women. Over the 10-year period, obesity showed no significant trend among women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for 2007-2008 vs 1999-2000, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.89-1.32]). For men, there was a significant linear trend (AOR for 2007-2008 vs 1999-2000, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.12-1.58]); however, the 3 most recent data points did not differ significantly from each other. In 2007-2008, the prevalence of obesity was 32.2% among adult men and 35.5% among adult women. The increases in the prevalence of obesity previously observed do not appear to be continuing at the same rate over the past 10 years, particularly for women and possibly for men.
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The prevalence of high body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents in the United States appeared to plateau between 1999 and 2006. To provide the most recent estimates of high BMI among children and adolescents and high weight for recumbent length among infants and toddlers and to analyze trends in prevalence between 1999 and 2008. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008, a representative sample of the US population with measured heights and weights on 3281 children and adolescents (2 through 19 years of age) and 719 infants and toddlers (birth to 2 years of age). Prevalence of high weight for recumbent length (> or = 95th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts) among infants and toddlers. Prevalence of high BMI among children and adolescents defined at 3 levels: BMI for age at or above the 97th percentile, at or above the 95th percentile, and at or above the 85th percentile of the BMI-for-age growth charts. Analyses of trends by age, sex, and race/ethnicity from 1999-2000 to 2007-2008. In 2007-2008, 9.5% of infants and toddlers (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3%-11.7%) were at or above the 95th percentile of the weight-for-recumbent-length growth charts. Among children and adolescents aged 2 through 19 years, 11.9% (95% CI, 9.8%-13.9%) were at or above the 97th percentile of the BMI-for-age growth charts; 16.9% (95% CI, 14.1%-19.6%) were at or above the 95th percentile; and 31.7% (95% CI, 29.2%-34.1%) were at or above the 85th percentile of BMI for age. Prevalence estimates differed by age and by race/ethnic group. Trend analyses indicate no significant trend between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008 except at the highest BMI cut point (BMI for age > or = 97th percentile) among all 6- through 19-year-old boys (odds ratio [OR], 1.52; 95% CI, 1.17-2.01) and among non-Hispanic white boys of the same age (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.22-2.94). No statistically significant linear trends in high weight for recumbent length or high BMI were found over the time periods 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 among girls and boys except among the very heaviest 6- through 19-year-old boys.
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In order to assess nutritional adequacy, valid estimates of nutrient intake are required. One of the main errors in dietary assessment is misreporting. The objective was to review the extent, nature and determinants of misreporting in dietary assessment, how this affects reported intakes of micronutrients and how this is identified and measured, and to identify the best ways of dealing with misreporting when interpreting results. A systematic literature search was conducted for studies of misreporting of dietary intake in adults by 24 hour recalls or by estimated or weighed food records, published up to March 2008. Thirty-seven relevant studies were identified. Possible causes of misreporting were identified. Methods most used to identify misreporting were the Goldberg cut-off (46 % studies) and the doubly labelled water technique (24 % studies). The magnitude of misreporting of energy intake was similar in all three dietary assessment methods. The percentage of under-reporters was about 30 % and energy intake was underestimated by approximately 15 %. Seven papers presented usable data for micronutrient intake. Absolute intakes of Fe, Ca and vitamin C (the three micronutrients addressed in all papers) were on average 30 % lower in low-energy reporters (LER) than that in non-LER and, although results were not consistent, there was a tendency for micronutrient density to be higher in LER. Excluding underreporters or using energy adjustment methods for micronutrient intakes is discussed. Residual method of energy adjustment seems to be a good tool for practice to decrease an influence of misreporting when interpreting results of studies based on food records and 24 hour recalls.
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Chapter
IntroductionBiological Bases and PathophysiologyManagement of DiabetesSelf-Treatment of Diabetes: A Psychobehavioral ApproachAdjustment and CopingNeuropsychological Impact of DiabetesPsychobehavioral Interventions in DiabetesSummary and Future DirectionsReferences
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Background Validation studies of dietary instruments developed for epidemiological studies have typically used some form of diet record as the standard for comparison. Recent work suggests that comparison with diet record may overestimate the ability of the epidemiological instrument to measure habitual dietary intake, due to lack of independence of the measurement errors. The degree of regression dilution in estimating diet-disease association may therefore have been correspondingly underestimated. Use of biochemical measures of intake may mitigate the problem. In this paper, we report on the use of urinary measures of intakes of nitrogen, potassium and sodium to compare the performance of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 7-day diet diary (7DD) to estimate average intake of these nutrients over one year. Methods In all, 179 individuals were asked to complete an FFQ and a 7DD on two occasions separated by approximately 12 months. The individuals were also asked to provide 24-hour urine samples on six occasions over a 6-9-month period, covering the time at which the record FFQ and 7DD were completed. The urine was assayed for nitrogen, potassium and sodium. The protocol was completed by 123 individuals. The data from these individuals were analysed to estimate the covariance structure of the measurement errors of the FFQ, the 7DD and a single 24-hour urine measurement, and to estimate the degree of regression dilution associated with the FFQ and 7DD. Results The results demonstrated that: (I) the error variances for each of the three nutrients was more than twice as great with the FFQ than the 7DD; (2) there was substantial correlation (0.46-0.58) between the error of both the FFQ and the 7DD completed on different occasions; (3) there was moderate correlation (0.24-0.29) between the error in the FFQ and the error in the 7DD for each nutrient; (4) the correlation between errors in different nutrients was higher for the FFQ (0.77-0.80) than for the 7DD (0.52-0.70). Conclusions The regression dilution with the FFQ is considerably greater than with the 7DD and also, for the nutrients considered, greater than would be inferred if validation studies were based solely on record or diary type instruments.
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Obesity is a serious health problem because of its co-morbidities. The solution, implying weight loss and long-term weight maintenance, is conditional on: (i) sustained satiety despite negative energy balance, (ii) sustained basal energy expenditure despite BW loss due to (iii) a sparing of fat-free mass (FFM), being the main determinant of basal energy expenditure. Dietary protein has been shown to assist with meeting these conditions, since amino acids act on the relevant metabolic targets. This review deals with the effects of different protein diets during BW loss and BW maintenance thereafter. Potential risks of a high protein diet are dealt with. The required daily intake is 0·8-1·2 g/kg BW, implying sustaining the original absolute protein intake and carbohydrate and fat restriction during an energy-restricted diet. The intake of 1·2 g/kg BW is beneficial to body composition and improves blood pressure. A too low absolute protein content of the diet contributes to the risk of BW regain. The success of the so-called 'low carb' diet that is usually high in protein can be attributed to the relatively high-protein content per se and not to the relatively lower carbohydrate content. Metabolic syndrome parameters restore, mainly due to BW loss. With the indicated dosage, no kidney problems have been shown in healthy individuals. In conclusion, dietary protein contributes to the treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, by acting on the relevant metabolic targets of satiety and energy expenditure in negative energy balance, thereby preventing a weight cycling effect.
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A CMOS variable gain amplifier (VGA) is designed, which is suitable for the turner of digital video broadcasting-cable(DVB-C). The amplifier is consists of exponential control circuit, amplifier circuit and common mode feedback circuit. The exponential circuit is presented by an approximate exponential function. The VGA is fabricated in 0.35um CMOS technology, and is simulated by Mentor’s circuit simulation tool Eldo. Simulation results show that the VGA core consumes 4.63mW at 3.3V supply voltage and has a gain range from 0 to 32dB. The frequency range is 46MHz~267MHz and noise figure is less than 10dB.
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Purpose: To describe screening measures that will determine which clients are at risk for the metabolic syndrome, common manifestations of the syndrome, preventive diagnostic considerations, and management and treatment options that primary care providers can implement. Data sources: Review of the clinical and research literature, supplemented with specific diagnostic criteria. Conclusions: Central obesity is the cornerstone of the metabolic syndrome, which may lead to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Generalized obesity is defined as body weight that is considerably greater than the ideal weight and that is distributed on all parts of the body. Generalized obesity has long been considered a significant risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Those clients of ideal body weight have been considered at less risk for developing these conditions. However, this perception may not always be accurate. Weight distribution plays a major role in acquiring the metabolic syndrome. Because waist circumference is as important as overall body weight, central obesity is key to determining the risk. Implications for practice: The metabolic syndrome has now been given a CPT code (277.7). It is more likely that clients at risk for or with the metabolic syndrome may first be seen by a primary care provider. Primary care providers need to be able to diagnose, treat, and provide preventive interventions for the metabolic syndrome. Clients at risk will likely be identified during routine health screening. Early detection of and interventions focused on the metabolic syndrome may reduce the occurrence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Use of a tape measure to determine waist circumference may help the provider to identify at-risk clients who are of normal weight, and thus not previously believed to be at risk, as well as those more obviously at risk. It is necessary to determine not only patients' overall body weight but also their waist circumference. A measuring tape may be the key tool for establishing a patient's early risk for the metabolic syndrome and, ultimately, for prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
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Obesity is remarkably refractory to treatment. Despite a plethora of quantitative studies, little qualitative research has been conducted on the topic of weight loss maintenance. This study used six focus groups to explore which factors promoted or prevented maintaining weight loss among a diverse, urban population. Eligible participants were those who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their body weight in the past 2 years and were categorized as either "regainers" or "maintainers" using self-reported length of weight maintenance and amount (%) regained. Regainers had regained ≥33% of their weight loss and maintainers had regained ≤15%. Participants (n=29) were predominantly African-American (58.6%) females (65.6%) with a mean age of 46.9±11.2 years. Four themes reflected similarities between regainers and maintainers, and four reflected differences between the groups. Both groups experienced lapses, used clothing fit for feedback on weight status, desired greater support during maintenance, and decreased self-monitoring of food intake over time. When compared with regainers, maintainers more often continued strategies used during weight loss, weighed themselves regularly, and used productive problem-solving skills and positive self-talk. Regainers experienced greater difficulty independently continuing food and exercise behaviors during maintenance, identifying decreased accountability and waning motivation as barriers. These findings suggest that weight loss maintenance efforts can be improved by addressing challenges such as long-term self-monitoring and problem-solving skills, and that maintenance success might depend on how people think as much as what they do.
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Antioxidant activity of the methanol crude extract and its fractions, isolated by liquid–liquid partition, from the fruiting bodies of Agrocybe aegerita, an edible mushroom, was evaluated by scavenging activity of 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation of rat brain homogenate. The ethyl acetate (EA) fraction, which showed the most potent antioxidant activity in the above two assays, was further fractionated by a Sephadex LH-20 column into four subfractions (EA1–EA4). EA3 exhibited the strongest radical-scavenging activity in the ABTS+ and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and showed a similar extent of in vitro inhibition of human LDL oxidation to caffeic acid. Significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity (p<0.01) in the EA fraction and its subfractions.
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To assess the association of dietary fat and weight gain among adult women and to investigate whether offspring of overweight parents have a greater predisposition to weight gain due to intake of dietary fat. This was an 8-year follow-up of 41,518 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), a population-based, prospective cohort. The women were 41 to 68 years of age, free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes in 1986 when "baseline" weight and diet were assessed. Eight years later (1994), changes in weight and dietary intake were assessed. Linear regression models were used to relate change in weight to fat intake and change in fat intake, using the percentage of energy from carbohydrate as the comparison, adjusted for age, BMI in 1986, leisure time physical activity, time spent sitting, percent of calories from protein, and change in percentage of calories from protein. Overall, there was a weak positive association between total fat intake (beta=0.11) and weight gain. Increases in monosaturated and polyunsaturated fat were not associated with weight gain, but increases in animal fat, saturated fat, and trans fat had a positive association with weight change. There was not strong evidence of effect modification by parental weight status (p=0.7 to 0.8 for percentage of calories from total fat, animal fat, and vegetable fat); however, the associations were stronger among the overweight compared with leaner women (p<0.05 for percentage of calories from each type of fat). Among overweight women, for every one percentage increase in percentage of calories from trans fat, women gained an additional 2.3 lb (95% confidence interval, 1.80 to 2.86). Our results show that, overall, percent of calories from fat has only a weak positive association with weight gain; however, percentage of calories from animal, saturated, and trans fat has stronger associations. There was no clear evidence that the diet-weight gain association was stronger among offspring of overweight parents, but dietary fat was associated with greater weight gain among overweight women.
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High-energy-dense foods provide an inexpensive source of calories. Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study participants (n = 1987), low- to low-middle-income, urban African American and white adults, consumed between 17% and 20% of their daily energy intake from beverages. Of all beverages consumed, calorically sweetened beverages ranked second among African Americans and third among whites. Calorically-sweetened beverage consumption was not influenced by weight status. Increasing awareness of risks for adverse health outcomes associated with selected beverages may improve dietary choices.
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Recent epidemic increases in the U.S. prevalence of obesity and diabetes are a consequence of widespread environmental changes affecting energy balance and its regulation. These environmental changes range from exposure to endocrine disrupting pollutants to shortened sleep duration to physical inactivity to excess caloric intake. Overall, we need a better understanding of the factors affecting individual susceptibility and resistance to adverse exposures and behaviors and of determinants of individual response to treatment. Obesity and diabetes prevention will require responding to two primary behavioral risk factors: excess energy intake and insufficient energy expenditure. Adverse food environments (external, nonphysiological influences on eating behaviors) contribute to excess caloric intake but can be countered through behavioral and economic approaches. Adverse built environments, which can be modified to foster more physical activity, are promising venues for community-level intervention. Techniques to help people to modulate energy intake and increase energy expenditure must address their personal situations: health literacy, psychological factors, and social relationships. Behaviorally oriented translational research can help in developing useful interventions and environmental modifications that are tailored to individual needs.
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Survival of multicellular organisms depends on their ability to fight infection, metabolize nutrients, and store energy for times of need. Unsurprisingly, therefore, immunoregulatory and metabolic mechanisms interact in human conditions such as obesity. Both infiltrating immunoinflammatory cells and adipocytes play critical roles in the modulation of metabolic homeostasis, so it is important to understand factors that regulate both adipocyte and immune cell function. A currently favored paradigm for obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction is that chronic macronutrient and/or lipid overload (associated with adiposity) induces cellular stress that initiates and perpetuates an inflammatory cycle and pathophysiological signaling of immunoinflammatory cells and adipocytes. Many lipid mediators exert their biological effects by binding to cognate receptors, such as G-protein-coupled receptors and Toll-like receptors. This process is tightly regulated under normal physiological conditions, and any disruption can initiate disease processes. Observations that cellular lipid loading (associated with adiposity) initiates inflammatory events has encouraged studies on the role of lipid mediators. In this review, we speculate that lipid mediators act on important immune receptors to induce low-grade tissue inflammation, which leads to adipocyte and metabolic dysfunction.
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The consumption of added sugars (eg, white sugar, brown sugar, and high-fructose corn syrup) displaces nutrient-dense foods in the diet. The intake of added sugars in the United States is excessive. Little is known about the predictors of added sugar intake. To examine the independent relationships of socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity with added sugar intake, and to evaluate the consistency of relationships using a short instrument to those from a different survey using more precise dietary assessment. Cross-sectional, nationally representative, interviewer-administered survey. Adults (aged > or = 18 years) participating in the 2005 US National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement responding to four added sugars questions (n=28,948). The intake of added sugars was estimated using validated scoring algorithms. Multivariate analysis incorporating sample weights and design effects was conducted. Least squares means and confidence intervals, and significance tests using Wald F statistics are presented. Analyses were stratified by sex and controlled for potential confounders. The intake of added sugars was higher among men than women and inversely related to age, educational status, and family income. Asian Americans had the lowest intake and Hispanics the next lowest intake. Among men, African Americans had the highest intake, although whites and American Indians/Alaskan Natives also had high intakes. Among women, African Americans and American Indians/Alaskan Natives had the highest intakes. Intake of added sugars was inversely related to educational attainment in whites, African Americans, Hispanic men, and American Indians/Alaskan Native men, but was unrelated in Asian Americans. These findings were generally consistent with relationships in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 (using one or two 24-hour dietary recalls). Race/ethnicity, family income, and educational status are independently associated with intake of added sugars. Groups with low income and education are particularly vulnerable to diets with high added sugars. Differences among race/ethnicity groups suggest that interventions to reduce intake of added sugars should be tailored. The National Health Interview Survey added sugars questions with accompanying scoring algorithms appear to provide an affordable and useful means of assessing relationships between various factors and added sugars intake.
Article
Physicians frequently prescribe medications for weight loss but offer minimal lifestyle counseling despite the additional benefits of combining both interventions. To compare 5 methods of delivering a lifestyle modification program to obese patients receiving sibutramine. Randomized, 6-month, open-label study. Participants were assigned to intervention groups by using a computer-generated schedule of randomly permuted blocks. Block length was 5. 12 independent research clinics with experience running obesity trials. 376 patients with obesity (body mass index > or =30 and <40 kg/m(2)). High-frequency face-to-face lifestyle modification counseling (HF-F2F) (n = 74), low-frequency face-to-face counseling (LF-F2F) (n = 76), high-frequency telephone counseling (HF-TEL) (n = 76), high-frequency e-mail counseling (HF-EMAIL) (n = 74), or no dietitian contact (self-help [SELF]) (n = 76). All participants received sibutramine, 10 mg/d; a lifestyle manual; and access to a weight-loss Web site. Percentage change in body weight at 6 months was the primary outcome. Secondary end points included changes in waist circumference; lipid, glucose, and insulin levels; blood pressure; weight-related symptoms; and quality of life at 6 months. At 6 months, the mean weight loss, relative to baseline, in the HF-F2F and HF-TEL groups was similar (8.9% [95% CI, 8.0% to 9.8%] and 7.7% [CI, 6.8% to 8.7%]) and significantly greater than that in the other groups (LF-F2F, 6.4% [CI, 5.4% to 7.3%]; HF-EMAIL, 5.9% [CI, 5.0% to 6.8%]; and SELF, 5.2% [CI, 4.3% to 6.1%]). All groups showed significant improvements in waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and measures of quality of life and weight-related symptoms. There were no serious adverse events and no differences in minor events among groups. Most participants were women, and the attrition rate was 30%. High-frequency telephone contact with a dietitian was similar to HF-F2F contact for supporting lifestyle modification in obese patients trying to lose weight. The findings might be used by providers and health systems to promote healthy lifestyle changes for their patients. Pfizer Global Research and Development.
Article
Dietary energy density (ED) is positively associated with energy intake, but little is known about long-term effects on weight change. We assessed whether dietary ED predicts weight change over 6 y among a sample of non-Hispanic, white women. Participants were part of a 6-y longitudinal study (n = 186), assessed at baseline and biennially. ED (in kcal/g) was calculated from the energy content of all foods (excluding beverages) with the use of three 24-h recalls. Height and weight were measured in triplicate to calculate body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Repeated measures (PROC MIXED) were used to examine the influence of ED on weight change, before and after adjusting for initial weight status. Food choices were examined among subjects consuming low-, medium-, and high-ED diets at study entry. ED did not change across time for a subject. ED was positively associated with weight gain and higher BMI over time; this association did not vary by BMI classification. Food group data showed that, compared with women consuming higher-ED diets, women consuming lower-ED diets reported significantly lower total energy intakes and consumed fewer servings of baked desserts, refined grains, and fried vegetables and more servings of vegetables, fruit, and cereal. Women consuming lower-ED diets ate more meals at the table and fewer meals in front of the television. Findings indicate that consumption of a lower-ED diet moderates weight gain, which may promote weight maintenance. Consuming lower ED diets can be achieved by consuming more servings of fruit and vegetables and limiting intake of high-fat foods.
Article
The fruit bodies of Pleurotus species as a class of "Edible Fungal Foods" have been discovered to have definite nutritive and medicinal values. They are a good source of nonstarchy carbohydrates, dietary fiber (that can help in reducing the plasma cholesterol), most of the essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins of B group, and folic acid (necessary to counteract pernicious anaemia) in particular. Considering the essential amino acid index, biological value, in vitro digestibility, nutritional index, and protein score, Pleurotus species fall between high grade vegetables and low grade meats. Fractions of water-soluble polysaccharides are reported to possess antitumor activity. The physiological processes such as changes in water content, respiratory rate, texture, color, and activities of enzymes like proteases and polyphenol oxidases during the after-harvest life are delineated. The problems and prospects of processing the fruit bodies by various methods are discussed. Potentialities for production and consumption of the fruit bodies in different parts of the world are brought out.
Article
To document the contribution of meat consumption to the overall nutritional quality of the diet and assess its impact on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults. A cross-sectional survey of young adults in Bogalusa, La. We collected 24-hour dietary recalls from 504 19- to 28-year-olds from 1988 through 1991. We examined dietary composition by meat consumption quartiles. Analysis of variance and Newman-Keuls range tests were performed. Young adults consume an average of 6.5 oz meat daily; whites most often consumed beef and blacks most often consumed pork and poultry. Persons in the < 25th percentile for meat consumption consumed a diet closest to recommended levels--with 11% of energy from protein, 55% from carbohydrate, 32% from fat, 11% from saturated fatty acids, and 264 mg dietary cholesterol. In contrast, persons in the > 75th percentile for meat consumption consumed a diet with 18% of energy from protein, 40% from carbohydrate, 41% from fat, 13% from saturated fatty acids, and 372 mg dietary cholesterol. Intakes of heme iron and phosphorus were lower and calcium intake higher in persons in the < 25th percentile compared with those in the > 75th percentile for meat consumption. The percent of persons meeting two thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances for vitamin B-12, niacin, and zinc was greater in the > 75th percentile for meat consumption compared with the < 25th percentile for meat consumption. We noted no differences across meat consumption quartiles in blood lipids and lipoproteins, anthropometric measurements, and hemoglobin levels. Consumption of moderate amounts of lean meat, along with healthier choices in other food groups, may be necessary to meet the current dietary recommendations.
Article
The human appetite system contains central and peripheral mechanisms that interact with environmental features, especially with the physical and nutrient composition of the food supply. Foods varying in nutrient composition exert different physiologic effects, some of which function as satiety signals. High-fat diets (low food quotient) lead to high levels of energy intake. This effect is termed passive overconsumption and overcomes fat-induced physiological satiety signals. High-fat foods exert a weak effect on satiation (intra-meal satiety), and fat has a weaker effect, joule for joule, on postingestive satiety than do other macronutrients. The frequency of obesity is greater among high-fat than low-fat consumers. However, the development of obesity on a high-fat diet is not a biological inevitability. The investigation of people who resist the weight-inducing properties of high-fat diets is a key research strategy. Understanding the appetite control system suggests behavioral, nutritional, and pharmacologic strategies for modifying dietary fat intake.
Article
Edible mushrooms such as shiitake may have important salutary effects on health or even in treating disease. A mushroom characteristically contains many different bioactive compounds with diverse biological activity, and the content and bioactivity of these compounds depend on how the mushroom is prepared and consumed. It is estimated that approximately 50% of the annual 5 million metric tons of cultivated edible mushrooms contain functional "nutraceutical" or medicinal properties. In order of decreasing cultivated tonnage, Lentinus (shiitake), Pleurotus (oyster), Auricularia (mu-er), Flammulina (enokitake), Tremella (yin-er), Hericium, and Grifola (maitake) mushrooms have various degrees of immunomodulatory, lipid-lowering, antitumor, and other beneficial or therapeutic health effects without any significant toxicity. Although the data for this functional food class are not as strong as those for other functional foods such as cruciferous vegetables, because of their potential usefulness in preventing or treating serious health conditions such as cancer, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and hypercholesterolemia, functional mushrooms deserve further serious investigation. Additionally, there is a need for epidemiological evidence of the role of this functional food class.
Article
To estimate the effect of intentional weight loss on mortality in overweight individuals with diabetes. We performed a prospective analysis with a 12-year mortality follow-up (1959-1972) of 4,970 overweight individuals with diabetes, 40-64 years of age, who were enrolled in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study I. Rate ratios (RRs) were calculated, comparing overall death rates, and death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes in individuals with and without reported intentional weight loss. Intentional weight loss was reported by 34% of the cohort. After adjustment for initial BMI, sociodemographic factors, health status, and physical activity, intentional weight loss was associated with a 25% reduction in total mortality (RR = 0.75; 95% CI 0.67-0.84), and a 28% reduction in CVD and diabetes mortality (RR = 0.72; 0.63-0.82). Intentional weight loss of 20-29 lb was associated with the largest reductions in mortality (approximately 33%). Weight loss >70 lb was associated with small increases in mortality Intentional weight loss was associated with substantial reductions in mortality in this observational study of overweight individuals with diabetes.
Article
Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors--elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle--are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes. We randomly assigned 3234 nondiabetic persons with elevated fasting and post-load plasma glucose concentrations to placebo, metformin (850 mg twice daily), or a lifestyle-modification program with the goals of at least a 7 percent weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The mean age of the participants was 51 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34.0; 68 percent were women, and 45 percent were members of minority groups. The average follow-up was 2.8 years. The incidence of diabetes was 11.0, 7.8, and 4.8 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo, metformin, and lifestyle groups, respectively. The lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence by 58 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 48 to 66 percent) and metformin by 31 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 43 percent), as compared with placebo; the lifestyle intervention was significantly more effective than metformin. To prevent one case of diabetes during a period of three years, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle-intervention program, and 13.9 would have to receive metformin. Lifestyle changes and treatment with metformin both reduced the incidence of diabetes in persons at high risk. The lifestyle intervention was more effective than metformin.
Article
This is a review of recent studies on the analysis of misreporting of food intake and on the consequences of misreporting for the interpretation of dietary surveys. Bias in the assessment of dietary intake was analysed from studies comparing reported intake with doubly labelled water assessed energy expenditure. There is not yet a method for the accurate determination of dietary intake. Physical and psychological characteristics of study participants play an important role in the observed reporting bias. The degree of misreporting might increase with repeated dietary assessment in the same subjects, confounding the results of intervention studies. Campaigns aimed at changing food intake might not be as successful as concluded from the results of national food consumption measurements. Subjects might be reporting according to expected instead of real intake. In a clinical setting, the increased awareness of the nursing staff has been observed to result in overreporting of intake.
Article
The basic composition (moisture, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, crude fat, ash, nitrogen, and protein) and amino acid contents were determined in the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus/white, Agaricus bisporus/brown, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus. In addition, nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were calculated for each species by dividing the sums of amino acid residues with total (Kjeldahl) nitrogen contents. The dry matter contents of mushrooms varied from 7.7% to 8.4%. The dry matter of mushrooms contained large amounts of carbohydrates, from 4.5 (A. bisporus/white) to 5.8 g/100 g fresh weight (L. edodes). L. edodes proved to be an especially good source of dietary fiber (3.3 g/100