Article

Optimizing plant protein combinations in fish meal-free diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by a mixture model

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Abstract

The aim of this experiment was to define the optimal mixtures of plant protein concentrates in an extruded, fish meal free diet for rainbow trout. Three essential amino acids (EAA) and taurine-fortified plant protein mixtures (P-MIX, C-MIX, and S-MIX) were prepared by mixing four plant protein concentrates (pea protein concentrate (PPC), canola protein concentrate (CPC), potato protein concentrate, and soy protein concentrate (SPC)). Seven plant protein based diets were formulated based on a mixture design using P-MIX, C-MIX, and S-MIX alone (the PPC, CPC or SPC diets) or in combinations (the P + C, P + S, C + S, P + C + S diets) to provide > 95% of the dietary protein. The diets were supplemented with 5% krill products as attractant. One fish meal based diet, which acted as a reference diet, used LT-fish meal as the sole dietary protein source (FM diet). All diets were tentatively balanced to contain equal amounts of digestible protein (400 g kg− 1) and digestible energy (21 MJ kg− 1). Each diet was fed to two tanks of 61 g rainbow trout reared in 9 °C water for 72 days. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were seen in weight gain. Dietary plant protein treatments that gave significantly higher values than the FM diets were: feed intake for the CPC and SPC diets; feed conversion ratio (FCR) for all diets, except for P + C and P + C + S; apparent digestibility (AD) of phosphorus (P) for all diets; AD of Arg and Met for the SPC diet; whole body crude protein content for the SPC and P + S diets; retention of dietary P intake for all diets, except for the SPC and P + S diets; N intake, metabolic N loss and energy intake per kg gain for all diets; nitrogen (N) retained in growth per kg gain for the SPC and P + S diets; fecal N loss per kg gain for the CPC diet; fecal energy loss per kg gain for the PPC, CPC, SPC and C + S diets. Significantly lower values than the FM diets were obtained for: AD of N for the CPC diet; AD of lipid for the SPC diet; AD of energy for the CPC, SPC, and C + S diets; AD of all EAA, Cys, and total amino acids for the CPC diet; retention of dietary and digestible N intake for all diets; dietary energy intake per kg gain for the CPC, SPC and C + S diets; P intake and fecal P excretion per kg gain for all diets. Using the combination of P-MIX and C-MIX resulted in the highest retention of digestible N. A combination of P-MIX and C-MIX led to the most efficient feed conversion. AD of N and individual amino acids were highest when S-MIX was used alone. The most efficient AD of lipid and energy were obtained by a combination of P-MIX and S-MIX. Using C-MIX alone supported the highest AD and retention of P, and whole-body concentrations of ash, P, Ca and Mg, due to CPC being dephytinized. Retention of dietary N was most efficient when a combination of P-MIX and S-MIX was used, while retention of digestible N was most efficient for a combination of P-MIX and C-MIX. In conclusion, the mixture model proved useful for optimizing combinations of plant protein concentrates in a fish meal-free diet for rainbow trout.

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... The experimental diets were formulated to investigate nutrient digestibility, growth, mucosal barrier status, and activity of leucocytes from head kidney of the fish fed marine-or plantderived protein and lipid sources. Plant protein concentrates were chosen to evade the negative effect of carbohydrate and antinutritional factors in plant ingredients on fish health, as noted by other researchers (30)(31)(32)(33). Furthermore, feeding studies with Atlantic salmon have shown good growth performance with fishmeal incorporation at 3% or even without the finite ingredient; in such cases amino acids in the feed should be well balanced (32) and the feed should contain attractants derived from marine ingredients (31,32). ...
... Plant protein concentrates were chosen to evade the negative effect of carbohydrate and antinutritional factors in plant ingredients on fish health, as noted by other researchers (30)(31)(32)(33). Furthermore, feeding studies with Atlantic salmon have shown good growth performance with fishmeal incorporation at 3% or even without the finite ingredient; in such cases amino acids in the feed should be well balanced (32) and the feed should contain attractants derived from marine ingredients (31,32). Hence, we included the essential amino acids in all the feeds. ...
... Plant protein concentrates were chosen to evade the negative effect of carbohydrate and antinutritional factors in plant ingredients on fish health, as noted by other researchers (30)(31)(32)(33). Furthermore, feeding studies with Atlantic salmon have shown good growth performance with fishmeal incorporation at 3% or even without the finite ingredient; in such cases amino acids in the feed should be well balanced (32) and the feed should contain attractants derived from marine ingredients (31,32). Hence, we included the essential amino acids in all the feeds. ...
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Nutrient digestibility, growth, and mucosal barrier status of fish skin, gills, and distal intestine were studied in Atlantic salmon fed feeds based on marine or plant-derived ingredients. The barrier status was assessed by considering the expression of four mucin genes, five genes that encode antimicrobial proteins, distal intestine micromorphology, and design-based stereology of the midgut epithelium. In addition, the head kidney leukocytes were examined using flow cytometry; to understand the differences in their counts and function. Five experimental feeds containing the main components i) fishmeal and fish oil (BG1), ii) soybean meal (BG2; to induce enteritis), iii) fishmeal as the main protein source and rapeseed oil as the main lipid source (BG3), iv) a mix of plant protein concentrates as the protein sources and fish oil as the lipid source (BG4), and v) plant and marine ingredients in the ratio 70:30 (BG5) were produced for the study. Atlantic salmon with initial weight 72.7 ± 1.2 g was offered the experimental feeds for 65 days. The results revealed that the weights of all fish groups doubled, except for fish fed BG2. Fish fed the BG2 diet had lower blood cholesterol concentration, developed enteritis, had lower expression of muc2 in the distal intestine, and had a compromised barrier status in the intestine. Expression of both the mucin genes and genes that encode antimicrobial peptides were tissue-specific and some were significantly affected by diet. The fish fed BG1 and BG3 had more head kidney lymphocyte-like cells compared to BG5-fed fish, and the phagocytic activity of macrophage-like cells from the head kidney was the highest in fish fed BG1. The intestinal micromorphology and the mucosal mapping suggest two different ways by which plant-based diets can alter the gut barrier status; by either reducing the mucous cell sizes, volumetric densities and barrier status (as noted for BG2) or increasing volumetric density of mucous cells (as observed for BG4 and BG5). The results of the compromised intestinal barrier in fish fed plant ingredients should be further confirmed through transcriptomic and immunohistochemical studies to refine ingredient composition for sustainable and acceptable healthy diets.
... Table 1 also shows the lists of some studies supporting that fish meal partially replaced by plant protein in fish diets did not affect the animal's performances. In addition to studies represented in the table 1, there are other works also support the replacement of fish meal using plant based ingredients in the fish diet when they added with certain dietary components without much interfering the performances of the animals when certain dietary components are added in the plant diets which include supplementation of crystalline amino acids (Espe et al., 2006) [63] , 0.5% methionine, 1.0% lysine, 0.04% phytase and 10% fish soluble (Bulbul et al., 2015) [64] , 5% fish meal, 5% fish soluble and 3% squid hydrolysate (Espe et al., 2007) [9] , limiting amino acids such as arginine, histidine and threonine (Goda et al., 2007) [21] , multiple EAA and krill meal and water soluble fraction of krill (Zhang et al., 2012) [65] , feeding stimulants such as Alanine, serine, inosine-5'-monophosphate and betaine (Papatryphon et al., 2001a) [66] , taurine (Johnson et al. [69] , dry hydrolysate from squid and scallop [72] , fish hydrolysate (Aksnes et al., 2006b) [85] and water soluble fraction from marine protein sources (Aksnes et al., 2006a) [26] . Interestingly, Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed with diets contain equal proportion of plant and animal proteins gave better growth rate and feed conversion efficiency (Hari and Madhusoodana Kurup, 2003) [73] . ...
... Table 1 also shows the lists of some studies supporting that fish meal partially replaced by plant protein in fish diets did not affect the animal's performances. In addition to studies represented in the table 1, there are other works also support the replacement of fish meal using plant based ingredients in the fish diet when they added with certain dietary components without much interfering the performances of the animals when certain dietary components are added in the plant diets which include supplementation of crystalline amino acids (Espe et al., 2006) [63] , 0.5% methionine, 1.0% lysine, 0.04% phytase and 10% fish soluble (Bulbul et al., 2015) [64] , 5% fish meal, 5% fish soluble and 3% squid hydrolysate (Espe et al., 2007) [9] , limiting amino acids such as arginine, histidine and threonine (Goda et al., 2007) [21] , multiple EAA and krill meal and water soluble fraction of krill (Zhang et al., 2012) [65] , feeding stimulants such as Alanine, serine, inosine-5'-monophosphate and betaine (Papatryphon et al., 2001a) [66] , taurine (Johnson et al. [69] , dry hydrolysate from squid and scallop [72] , fish hydrolysate (Aksnes et al., 2006b) [85] and water soluble fraction from marine protein sources (Aksnes et al., 2006a) [26] . Interestingly, Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed with diets contain equal proportion of plant and animal proteins gave better growth rate and feed conversion efficiency (Hari and Madhusoodana Kurup, 2003) [73] . ...
... (2012) [65] 6 Siberian sturgeon ...
Article
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Until recently, fish meal was the chief protein source in the fish feed for diverse reasons collectively for its high protein content, excellent essential amino acid (EAA) profile, better nutrient digestibility, lack of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs), low price and ease in its availability. However ideal protein source of fish meal for fish feed is now at risk that threatens feed formulators to rely more on this. This example additionally makes feed formulators to look for alternative feedstuffs which can doubtlessly replace fish meal. Plant protein sources are acknowledged as the best source to replace fish meal; but they have contrasting characteristics to those of fish meal due to following attributes: Plant ingredients have ANFs, deficient in certain EAA, low nutrient digestibility, lesser nutrient bio-availability and palatability because of excessive degrees of non-soluble carbohydrates consisting of fibre and starch. These evaluation characters attributed to plant proteins have raised the controversy amongst feed nutritionists that how they can ably replace fish meal. Consistent with available evidences from research findings, it is found possible that plant proteins can replace fish meal either in part or completely when certain dietary recommended conditions are provided that are discussed in the review. Continuing further, the effects of dietary plant proteins on feeding, nutrient utilization and growth performances, protein retention, digestibility and bio-availability of nutrients, variations in biochemical compositions, flesh quality and immunity and stress responses of aquatic animals are individually discussed together with the idea of giving new avenues for future research in the current topic.
... The fish feed industry is increasing the use of plant derived ingredients (Aas et al., 2019;Ytrestøyl et al., 2015) and SPC have come to dominate feeds for Atlantic salmon, accounting for 19 % of the total feed ingredients used (Aas et al., 2019). PPC has also shown great potential as a feed ingredient for carnivorous species (Øverland et al., 2009;Zhang et al., 2012), and is currently used in limited amounts (1.3 %) in Norwegian aquafeeds (Aas et al., 2019). Incorporating plant proteins in fish feeds makes them a feasible, sustainable and cost-effective substitute to FM (Tacon and Metian, 2008). ...
... The diets in the present experiment were supplemented with feed attractants in order to enhance their acceptability and growth performance. Nucleotides (Burrells et al., 2001), krill meal (Hatlen et al., 2017;Kousoulaki et al., 2013;Zhang et al., 2012) and soluble fish Values are represented as mean ± SEM. Raw means for the end of the feeding period with different superscript letters differ significantly (p < 0.05). ...
Article
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Lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) are widely applied as biological delousers in open net-pen farming of Atlantic salmon. As a species new to farming it is necessary to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the capacity of lumpfish to utilize plant derived feed ingredients. A feeding trial lasting for 54 days was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing fishmeal (FM) with a mix of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC) on growth, body chemical composition, and fast muscle fiber cellularity in juvenile lumpfish. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (52 % crude protein and 14 % crude lipid) were formulated; a FM based diet was used as control (CTRL), and three experimental diets containing SPC and PPC (equal proportions of 1:1), replacing FM on weight basis at 25 % (PP25) 50 % (PP50) and 75 % (PP75). The fish grew from approximately 6.9 g to an average weight of 40.2 g in 54 days. Fish fed PP50 had significantly higher body weight, length and height compared to the other dietary groups. The whole body crude protein content of fish fed PP50 was significantly higher compared to the CTRL diet, while crude lipids were lower than those on CTRL and PP25 diets. Ash and dry matter did not differ among groups. Probability density functions showed no differences in fast muscle fiber size distributions amongst feeding groups. A higher percentage of smaller fibers in all feeding groups indicated hyperplasia was the dominant mechanism of muscle growth during the experimental period. These results suggest that a mixture of SPC and PPC can replace up to 50 % of FM in diets for juvenile lumpfish without any adverse effects on growth, chemical composition and fast muscle fiber cellularity.
... Previous studies performed on juvenile salmonids have shown that feeds containing a mixture of plant ingredients generally outperform those that rely on a single protein source (De Santis et al., 2015a;Ouraji et al., 2013;Zhang et al., 2012). It has been repeatedly demonstrated that salmonids can effectively utilize a number of plant ingredients as dietary protein sources although their use can negatively impact growth when compared with feeds rich in marine-ingredients (reviewed in Collins et al., 2013). ...
... Feeds were designed using a mixture design approach with three factors (Ruohonen and Kettunen, 2004), which has been previously utilized in fish trials including the earlier screening study on parr (De Santis et al., 2015a;Zhang et al., 2012). Feeds were formulated using fixed and variable components. ...
... Plant based feed formulated and used in aquaculture (Tacon et al., 2009). There is no adverse effect on growth performances of fish and feed production cost was reduced with the use of plant protein source (Zhang et al., 2012;Yun et al., 2014). Due to rising the cost and uncertain availability of fishmeal is necessary to replace with cheaper ingredients of plant origin in fish feed (Higgs et al., 1995). ...
Article
A ninety days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the use of a roasted guar korma as an alternativeprotein source to replacement the expensive fish meal in diets for ticto barb (Puntius ticto). The fiveisonitrogenous experimental diets consisted of a control diet (100% fish meal) and four treatment diets inwhich fish meal replaced with roasted guar korma (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of dietary protein) wereprepared. The diets were formulated to provide 40% crude protein on a dry weight basis. Total 225 numbersof ticto barb (P. ticto) advanced fry were randomly distributed into five treatments (control + treatment),each in three replicate. They were fed ad libitum during the experimental duration. The daily ration wasdivided into three equal parts and was fed at 08:00 hr, 14:00 hr and 20:00 hr. Based on the results recordedfrom the present experiment, it was found that higher growth, SGR, PER, survival and lowest FCR wereobtained by feeding the fish with the diet (T1) containing 25% roasted guar korma. Proximate compositionof carcass shown negative effect on crude protein and crude lipid decrease with more than 25% of roastedguar korma based diet. Thus, it was revealed that the roasted guar kormareplacing 25% of fish meal in thediet of P. tictoadvance fry gave better growth. Further research on used different plant based proteinsource with addition of essential amino acid, attractant and pigment effect on growth performance of fish.
... Esto probablemente debido a que la mayor expansión sufrida por las dietas que contenían proteína de cebada promovió la porosidad del material y durante la prueba el agua tenía más espacios libres para circular y se pudo difundir más fácilmente en la matriz provocando menor estabilidad en el agua. Zhang et al. (2012a) optimizaron las mezclas de concentrados de proteína vegetal en extruidos libres de harina de pescado. Usaron concentrados de proteína de guisante, canola, papa y soya fortificando las dietas obtenidas con amino ácidos esenciales y taurina. ...
Article
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The present work relates the traditional methods used to analyze the physical quality of fish extruded food, such as hardness, durability, water stability, sinking speed, bulk density, oil absorption and loss capacity and porosity as methods for the control of Its production at an industrial level. The physical properties of the pellets are relevant for decision making related to the conditions of processing, transport, storage, biological use of the animal and evaluation of new raw materials and additives. There are several methods for determining the physical quality of the pellets. However, they are mostly related to feeding of terrestrial animals, which are not suitable for feeding fish. These require conditions of resistance to mechanical stress and at the same time should have a texture and size that facilitates the adequate intake of food in the water.
... Esto probablemente debido a que la mayor expansión sufrida por las dietas que contenían proteína de cebada promovió la porosidad del material y durante la prueba el agua tenía más espacios libres para circular y se pudo difundir más fácilmente en la matriz provocando menor estabilidad en el agua. Zhang et al. (2012a) optimizaron las mezclas de concentrados de proteína vegetal en extruidos libres de harina de pescado. Usaron concentrados de proteína de guisante, canola, papa y soya fortificando las dietas obtenidas con amino ácidos esenciales y taurina. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present work relates the traditional methods used to analyze the physical quality of fish extruded food, such as hardness, durability, water stability, sinking speed, bulk density, oil absorption and loss capacity and porosity as methods for the control of Its production at an industrial level. The physical properties of the pellets are relevant for decision making related to the conditions of processing, transport, storage, biological use of the animal and evaluation of new raw materials and additives. There are several methods for determining the physical quality of the pellets. However, they are mostly related to feeding of terrestrial animals, which are not suitable for feeding fish. These require conditions of resistance to mechanical stress and at the same time should have a texture and size that facilitates the adequate intake of food in the water.
... La diminution des rejets azotés et phosphorés est devenue d'autant plus difficile, que les aliments à base de végétaux, qui sont maintenant utilisés à grande échelle en aquaculture, contiennent des teneurs élevées en phosphore sous forme phytique, dont l'assimilation est faible sous cette forme(Baruah et al. 2004;Sajjadi and Carter 2004;Morales et al. 2011) . De plus, à rations iso énergétiques et iso protéiques, les truites nourries avec des aliments issus de farines de poisson libèrent moins de déchets azotés que leurs congénères nourries avec des rations à base de végétaux(Zhang et al. 2012a). une baisse de la teneur en LC-PUFA dans les filets(Turchini and Francis 2009). ...
Thesis
La pression sur les quotas de pêche et l’augmentation de la production aquacole ont contribué à une substitution importante des farines et des huiles de poisson incorporées dans les aliments pour poissons carnivores, par des farines et des huiles végétales. La truite arc-en-ciel, qui est un poisson carnivore, est affectée par ce changement de régime. Ainsi un retard de croissance apparaît dès le plus jeune stade si certaines transformations et supplémentations ne sont pas apportées aux végétaux. L’objectif de ce travail a été d’évaluer, aux stades alevins et juvéniles, l’impact d’une substitution totale des huiles et farines de poisson sur le tractus digestif de la truite arc-en-ciel, et plus particulièrement sur ses capacités digestives et sur la composition de son microbiote intestinal. Le but in fine étant de déterminer si certaines enzymes de la digestion, transporteurs intestinaux, ou sous-communautés bactériennes sont impactés par le changement de régime et peuvent expliquer le retard de croissance observé. Chacun de ces facteurs ont été étudiés via une approche de métagénomique par séquençage de nouvelle génération NGS pour la caractérisation du microbiote, et via de la PCR quantitative et des mesures d’activités enzymatiques pour la comparaison des capacités digestives. Des lignées isogéniques de truites, identifiées comme divergentes dans leur réponse à l’alimentation végétale (capables d’adaptation ou réfractaires) ont permis de disposer d’un matériel biologique pertinent pour répondre à cette question.Chez la truite au stade alevin, une alimentation 100% végétale conduit à une plus forte transcription des gènes codant pour le pepsinogène, le trypsinogène, et le chymotrypsinogène qui sont des enzymes protéolytiques. Deux principales hypothèses peuvent expliquer cette réponse, et pourraient être étudiées : soit cette réponse est physiologique et s’explique par le plus faible poids des truites nourries avec un aliment végétal, soit cette réponse reflète une plus forte transcription d’enzymes digestives pancréatiques en compensation à une digestibilité protéique réduite. Au niveau de l’intestin, une augmentation de la transcription des gènes codant pour l’IAP, le SGLT1, la CCK-t, et PEPT1, et une diminution de la transcription du gène codant pour GLUT2 chez les truites nourries avec une alimentation végétale reflète une capacité réduite à grandir sous une alimentation végétale.Chez la truite au stade juvénile, l’alimentation végétale conduit à une baisse de la digestibilité des lipides et des niveaux plasmatiques des triglycérides et des acides aminés totaux. Ces perturbations pourraient en partie s’expliquer par une diminution de l’activité enzymatique de la phosphatase alcaline, qui témoigne de l’homéostasie intestinale, et de la phospholipase A2. Une baisse de la transcription du transporteur membranaire de triglycérides MTP et de la transcription de la prolidase, peptidase du cytosol des entérocytes, ont également était révélées. Une modification du microbiote intestinal associé à la muqueuse digestive pourrait également contribuer à la baisse de l’homéostasie intestinale. Le changement de régime conduit en effet à une équitabilité plus faible chez les truites ayant reçue un aliment végétal, ce qui reflète un changement dans la représentativité de certains OTUs. Ce changement de régime s’est également traduit par des communautés dissimilaires en moyenne à 70 %, d’après l’estimation de la β-diversité entre les communautés de truites nourries avec l’aliment marin et celles nourries avec l’aliment végétal. La sélection opérée par l’aliment a conduit à un remplacement des OTUs rencontrés au sein des Firmicutes, c’est-à-dire que différentes espèces bactériennes de Firmicutes sont rencontrées suivant le régime considéré. La comparaison de communautés bactériennes entre les différentes lignées isogéniques a montré que la sélection opérée par le génotype de l’hôte a davantage eu lieu sur le remplacement des β-Protéobactéries. Enfin, les comparaisons d’abondances en certaines espèces bactériennes particulières suggèrent que les bactéries Cetobacterium somerae, capables de synthétiser de la vitamine B12, et Shewanella, dont l’implication dans la stimulation des cellules β du pancréas endocrine a déjà été observée chez d’autres espèces, pourraient être impliquées dans la réponse métabolique des truites aux végétaux. Les modifications identifiées dans ce travail constituent des indicateurs biologiques qui pourront être mis à profit pour évaluer la réponse du tractus digestif des truites à de nouvelles formules alimentaires.
... were fed diets with different protein sources from Jatropha. However, these results contradict those found by some studies, where even the improved FC did not result in better growth due to deficiency in essential amino acids from vegetable protein concentrates (Penn et al. 2011;Zhang et al. 2012;Fuertes et al. 2013). ...
Article
The present study aimed to determine the growth and activity of proteolytic digestive enzymes of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fed by replacing increased fish meal in the diet by either phosphorylated protein concentrate or pumpkin seed meal (PPCPS). Five experimental diets were formulated with levels: 0 (control), 25 (25% pumpkin seed meal (PSM) and 25% PPCPS) and 50% (50% PSM and 50% PPCPS). Crude protein from fish meal was replaced either by PSM or PPCPS crude protein. Each diet was fed to four replicate groups of silver catfish (initial weight 24 ± 0.46 g) to apparent satiation three times a day. Four orthogonal contrasts were applied to the biological assay data. When compared to other diets, the replacement of fish meal by either 25% or 50% of PPCPS in the diet of juvenile catfish does not change growth rates and promotes improvement in feed conversion. The use of PSM as a protein ingredient is not recommended due to its negative influence on fish growth. Thus, it can be concluded that the nutritional value of PSM can be improved by the simple chemical process of phosphorylation, yielding a protein concentrate (PPCPS) that may be used as a promising alternative ingredient.
... Several studies have evaluated the effects of partial or total fish meal (Kaushik et al. 1995;Martin et al. 2003;Vilhelmsson et al. 2004;Lund et al. 2011;Zhang et al. 2012;Tacchi et al. 2012;Slawski et al. 2011) or fish oil substitution (Richard et al. 2007;Turchini and Francis 2009;Montero et al. 2010;Thanuthong et al. 2011a, b) in fish diets. Substantial replacement of marine resources by plant blends can be achieved without major changes in growth performance in salmonids. ...
Article
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Incorporation of a plant blend in the diet can affect growth parameters and metabolism in carnivorous fish. We studied for the first time the long-term (1 year) metabolic response of rainbow trout fed from first feeding with a plant-based diet totally devoid of marine ingredients. Hepatic enzymes were analyzed at enzymatic and molecular levels, at 3, 8 and 24 h after the last meal to study both the short-term effects of the last meal and long-term effects of the diet. The results were compared with those of fish fed a control diet of fish meal and fish oil. Growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein retention were lower in the group fed the plant-based diet. Glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activity were lower in the livers of trout fed the plant-based diet which the proportion of starch was lower than in the control diet. Glutamate dehydrogenase was induced by the plant-based diet, suggesting an imbalance of amino acids and a possible link with the lower protein retention observed. Gene expression of delta 6 desaturase was higher in fish fed the plant-based diet, probably linked to a high dietary level of linolenic acid and the absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase expression was also induced by plant-based diet because of the low rate of cholesterol in the diet. Changes in regulation mechanisms already identified through short-term nutritional experiments (<12 weeks) suggest that metabolic responses are implemented at short term and remain in the long term.
... As a result of ongoing research, modern commercial feeds for Atlantic salmon utilize significant inclusion levels of alcohol-extracted soy protein concentrate (SPC) as the predominant substitute for FM with, to a lesser extent, a range of other plant sources (Ytrestøyl et al., 2014). However, the use of SPC as the major alternative to FM has raised economic (price of soy fluctuates due to high demand from a number of industries), environmental (over-exploitation of land for farming), strategic (over-reliance on a single ingredient for feed manufacture) and nutritional (less balanced composition compared with mixed sources) concerns, prompting continuing research towards the development of new alternative raw materials to be used in combination with others as protein concentrate (Burr et al., 2012, De Santis et al., 2015a, Zhang et al., 2012. ...
Article
The production of carnivorous fish such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is dependent on the availability of high quality proteins for feed formulations. For a number of nutritional, strategic and economic reasons, the use of plant proteins has steadily increased over the years, however a major limitation is associated with the presence of anti-nutritional factors and the nutritional profile of the protein concentrate. Investigating novel raw materials involves understanding the physiological consequences associated with the dietary inclusion of protein concentrates. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the metabolic response of salmon to increasing inclusion of air-classified faba bean protein concentrate (BPC) in feeds as a replacement for soy protein concentrate (SPC). Specifically, we tested treatments with identical contents of fishmeal (222.4gkg(-1)) and progressively higher inclusion of BPC (0gkg(-1), 111.8gkg(-1), 223.6gkg(-1), 335.4gkg(-1), 447.2gkg(-1)) substituting SPC. This study demonstrated a dose-dependent metabolic response to a plant ingredient and was the first to compare the nutrigenomic transcriptional responses after substitution of terrestrial feed ingredients such as BPC and SPC without withdrawal of marine ingredients. It was found that after eight weeks a major physiological response in liver was only evident above 335.4gkg(-1) BPC and included decreased expression of metabolic pathways, and increased expression of genes regulating transcription and translation processes and the innate immune response. Furthermore, we showed that the nutritional stress caused by BPC resembled, at least at hepatic transcriptional level, that caused by soybean meal (included as a positive control in our experimental design). The outcomes of the present study suggested that Atlantic salmon parr might efficiently utilize moderate substitution of dietary SPC with BPC, with the optimum inclusion level being around 120gkg(-1)in the type of feeds tested here. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... This plant has excellent availability have led to the need to identify alternative ability to adapt to poor soils and dry climates [13]. protein sources for fish feeds [5], considerable emphasis Moringa oleifera can be an alternative to some has been focused on the use of conventional protein leguminous seeds as a source of high quality protein, oil, sources, soybean [6], pea meal and canola [7], plant antioxidant compounds and a way to treat water in rural protein [8], rapeseed [9] and Guar [10]. However, their areas where appropriate water resources are not available scarcity and competition from other sectors for such [14]. ...
... In this experiment, feeds were designed using a mixture design approach with three factors. This experimental design was indicated as the most appropriate strategy to maximize the information on interactions between feed components (Ruohonen and Kettunen, 2004) and was previously utilized in fish (Zhang et al., 2012). The main advantage of the mixture design approach is the possibility to empirically predict the response to any combination of the blend, exclude those with the least promising potential and focus only on those displaying suboptimal performances. ...
Article
Abstract Faba bean (Vicia faba) is a legume with good potential that has previously been tested in fish species with some promising results. The present study aimed to determine whether an air-classified faba bean protein concentrate (BPC, 615 g kg− 1 crude protein content) could offer improved or favourable growth performance, body composition and gut health compared to commercially used protein sources such as FM and soy protein concentrate (SPC) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The trial investigated the performance of 16 feeds formulated with varying FM/SPC/BPC proportions using a mixture design approach. Salmon parr of average weight of 1.47 g were used as a model. The trial lasted eight weeks and also included high FM (560 g kg− 1) and high defatted soybean meal (SBM, 360 g kg− 1) feeds as negative and positive controls respectively, for the assessment of enteritis in the distal intestine. The effects on growth performance, body nutrient composition, survival and fish health, specifically gut histology, were determined. The results demonstrated conclusively that total inclusion levels of BPC ranging from 50 to 200 g kg− 1, partially replacing SPC and/or FM, displayed the greatest potential to be beneficial in terms of fish performance and nutrient composition with increased growth, protein content, fat content and ash. In addition to favourable whole-body composition parameters, it was found that inclusions of BPC below 340 g kg− 1 of feed did not cause detrimental effects such as the enteritis observed in fish fed the high soybean meal control. High inclusion level (447.2 g kg− 1) of BPC caused a mild inflammation that was not as severe as that caused by the feed with high SBM. The results of this screening study indicate that BPC derived from faba beans can be a valuable alternative protein source in Atlantic salmon feeds. The data provided a platform to model the optimum range of BPC inclusion levels in combination with FM and SPC for further investigation in commercially relevant fish and conditions.
... On the basis of studies on FM replacement with plant proteins, it appears that the use of a mixture of dietary proteins may help to prevent the deficiencies caused by the use of a single ingredient (Hansen et al., 2007;Torstensen et al., 2008;Hansen et al., 2011;Zhang et al., 2012aZhang et al., , 2012bHu et al., 2013). Some insects, such as Z. variegatus and M. bellicosus, show deficiencies in AAs (Met, Lys, threonine or tryptophan, Trp). ...
Article
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http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Qmwj1LwJ1rYNY The decrease in the availability and the increase in the prices of fishmeal and fish oil have prompted the search for sustainable alternatives for aquaculture feeds. Insects, which are part of the natural diet of fish, leave a small ecological footprint and have a limited need for arable land, may represent a good candidate. Over the last decade, studies of the replacement of fishmeal with insects in the diet of fish have emerged and the promising results have encouraged further research. The present review displays these results in tables and emphasizes the achievable dietary inclusion levels. It discusses the potential of locusts, grasshoppers, termites, yellow mealworms, Asiatic rhinoceros beetles, superworms, domesticated silkworms, common houseflies, common mosquitoes and black soldier flies for use as fishmeal and/or fish oil replacement in the fish diet. The review succinctly compares the composition of the insects with the requirements of the fish (proteins and amino acids, lipids and fatty acids, vitamins and minerals). This review also discusses the potential hurdles of using insects in fish feeds (toxicity of insects through bioaccumulation, deficiencies in amino acids or fatty acids, chitin content, palatability, digestibility), and the available ways of avoiding these drawbacks (control of the dietary substrate of insects in mass rearing units, manipulation of the diet of insects, mixture of dietary proteins, use of aquatic insects, processing of insect meal). Finally, it suggests paths worthy of future research on these new fishmeal alternatives.
... The apparent digestibility of phosphorous varied non-significantly from 30.2% for Diet 1 to 37.3% for Diet 3. The P-digestibility was lower than those obtained from MCP-supplemented plant protein concentrate diets fed to rainbow trout by Zhang et al., (2012). This indicates inefficient uptake of P from diets by tilapia. ...
Thesis
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Three diets for juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were prepared substituting 5% of plant protein with products from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba). Plant material was used as the sole source of protein in the control (Diet 1). Diets 2 and 3 had plant protein with different levels of krill meal (2.5% KM+2.5%KFC and 5% KM, Diets 2 and 3 respectively). The diets provided 384 g crude protein kg-1 , 275 g pre-extruded starch kg-1 and 111 g lipid kg-1 . The diets were fed approximately 10% in excess of satiation to triplicate groups of Nile tilapia four times daily for 28 days. Each diet contained 80 mg Y2O3 kg-1 diet for digestibility determination. Fish of an initial average weight 25 ± 2g were stocked in nine tanks (70×50×50 cm), with 20 fish per tank, supplied with 27 ± 1o C water. The final mean weight of the tilapias was 90-104 g (28 days of feeding). Fish fed 5% krill meal supplemented diets had no significant difference in growth performance (P> 0.05) compared with fish fed plant control diet. While fish fed the 2.5% KM+2.5% KFC supplemented diet had significantly inferior growth (P < 0.05) compared with control and 5% KM diet. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for fish fed 5% KM diets compared with the plant control. But fish fed the 2.5% KM+2.5% KFC diet had the significantly more efficient feed conversion compared to other two diets. Fatty acids composition was significantly changed in fish body by feeding the different diets and fish fed by KM significant higher omega-3 fatty acids content in whole body. There were no significant differences found from chemical compositions of fish body (except ash content), digestibility of nitrogen and phosphorus, and utilization of the nutrients, such as nitrogen retention, energy retention and phosphorus retention. ___________________________________________________________
... Essential amino acid (EAA) deficiency is one of the most important factors for the utilization of most inexpensive alternative proteins in fish feed. A blend of several protein sources could be a potential way to replace a higher level of dietary FM, and this strategy has been successfully implemented in several species (Wang et al., 2008;Xue et al., 2012;Zhang et al., 2012). The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of fish meal quality and the replacement of PFM by an animal protein blend on the growth performance, body composition, flesh quality and liver histology of Japanese seabass. ...
... In this context, many studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of replacing FM by different types of PP on fish growth and health [3][4][5]. Nowadays, several studies are exploring the possibility to decrease FM in a large extent by replacing them with a mixture of several PP [6]. ...
Article
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In aquaculture, when alternative protein sources of Fish Meal (FM) in diets are investigated, Plant Proteins (PP) can be used. Among them, Vital Wheat Gluten (VWG) is a proteinaceous material obtained from wheat after starch extraction. "It is mainly composed of two types of proteins, gliadins and glutenins, which confer specific visco-elasticity that's to say ability to form a network providing suitable binding. This will lead to specific technological properties that are notably relevant to extruded feeds". Besides these properties, VWG is a high-protein ingredient with an interesting amino-acid profile. Whereas it is rather low in lysine, it contains more sulfur amino acids than other PP sources and it is high in glutamine, which is known to improve gut health and modulate immunity. VWG is a protein source with one of the highest nitrogen digestibility due to a lack of protease inhibitor activity and to the lenient process used to make the product. By this way, addition of VWG in diet does not adversely affect growth performance in many fish species, even at a high level, and may secure high PP level diets that can induce health damages.
... Essential amino acid (EAA) deficiency is one of the most important factors for the utilization of most inexpensive alternative proteins in fish feed. A blend of several protein sources could be a potential way to replace a higher level of dietary FM, and this strategy has been successfully implemented in several species (Wang et al., 2008;Xue et al., 2012;Zhang et al., 2012). The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of fish meal quality and the replacement of PFM by an animal protein blend on the growth performance, body composition, flesh quality and liver histology of Japanese seabass. ...
Article
An 8-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the quality of fish meal and of replacing prime steam dried fish meal (PFM) with an animal protein blend (APB with 40% poultry by-product meal, 35% meat and bone meal, 20% spray-dried blood meal and 5% hydrolyzed feather meal) on the growth performance, flesh quality and liver histology of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus (initial body weight, 76.3 ± 0.2 g). Six isoproteic (44% crude protein) and isoenergetic (19 MJ kg− 1 gross energy) diets were formulated. A control diet containing 40% PFM was designed, and 20%, 40%, 60% or 80% of the PFM was replaced by APB, in which lysine, methionine and threonine were balanced as in the control diet with crystallized amino acids; the diets were named PFM, APB20, APB40, APB60 and APB80, respectively. An additional diet with 50% standard steam dried fish meal (SFM) that completely replaced the PFM was formulated with the same profile as the control diet to compare the effect of fishmeal quality. Compared to that of fish fed the PFM diet, feed intake was significantly reduced in the SFM group and accordingly induced a lower specific growth rate (SGR, P < 0.05), but this did not significantly affect the feed efficiency rate. Fish fed the diets APB20 and APB40 had comparable growth with those fed the diet PFM (control diet). Fish fed the diet with 24% or higher APB had significantly lower SGR than those fed the diet PFM (P < 0.05). The reduced growth was linearly correlated to the graded lower dietary n−3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) levels when PFM was replaced by APB. Broken-line analysis on the basis of SGR showed that the optimal level of fish meal replacement with APB was only 18.9%. Fish fed the diet with 24% or higher APB had significantly lower whole-body lipids but higher liver lipids than the PFM group (P < 0.05). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n−3 fatty acids, n−3 HUFA and the n−3/n−6 ratio in muscle were significantly reduced at higher substitution levels of PFM by APB (P < 0.05). The 18:1n-9, EPA, DHA, PUFA, n−3, n−3 HUFA and n−3/n−6 in fish muscle were significantly correlated with the corresponding dietary contents. There were no significant differences in texture parameters for the raw fillets groups, while some differences were found in the cooked fillets groups. Except for the values of “favorite”, the sensory evaluation of the muscle did not reveal significant differences among the PFM, SFM, APB60 and APB80 groups. Fish fed the PFM and SFM diets exhibited normal liver histological structure. However, high levels of substitution of PFM by APB might induce hepatic steatosis for this species. However, the adverse effects cannot be ignored when the total PFM is replaced by SFM.
... Although the authors did not observe any differences in weight gain or feed utilization they emphasized the importance of the quality of the fish- meal when its inclusion level is low ( Kousoulaki et al. 2009). Later studies with rainbow trout have shown that marine protein ingredients (krill products) can be incorporated at 5% level, but to avoid negative effects on growth and feed utilization the protein quality must be se- cured by supplementation of amino acids ( Zhang et al. 2012). In the Table 6 Weight gain, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and somatic indices of Atlantic salmon for the experimental period CT: Control; SCE 10: incorporation of 10% Scenedesmus; SCE 20: incorporation of 20% Scenedesmus; BW, body weight. ...
Article
Salmonid feeds can be formulated with high quality microalgae to maintain sustainability in the aquaculture industry. But, the suitability of different microalgae species as potential feed ingredients needs to be documented to enable ready acceptance by the farming industry. The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of the microalga Scenedesmus sp. as a major ingredient in low fishmeal feeds of Atlantic salmon. Three feeds were formulated with Scenedesmus/fishmeal, at inclusion levels of 0/10, 10/5 and 20/2.5% (CT, SCE 10 and SCE 20, respectively); to investigate the effect of the ingredient on the weight gain, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, nutrient retention and chemical composition and nutrient digestibility in Atlantic salmon. In addition, the physical characteristics of feeds were investigated to assess the impact of the alga-incorporation on the quality of the feeds. Fish (initial average weight of 229 g) in 6 replicate tanks were fed one of the experimental feeds for 65 days. The results showed that fish fed SCE 20 had significantly lower weight gain, specific growth rate, thermal growth coefficient and feed conversion ratio than the CT group, which did not receive the microalga. Furthermore, the condition factor and protein efficiency ratio of the microalga-fed groups were lower than the CT group. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices of the groups did not differ significantly. Ash and protein content of whole fish fed SCE 20 were significantly higher, but dry matter, lipid, and energy of this group were lower than either the CT or the SCE 10 group. Retention of lipid and energy of all groups differed significantly, while that of protein was significantly different in the Scenedesmus-fed groups. Compared to the CT feed, digestibility of dry matter, protein, and energy in the algal feeds were significantly reduced. The highest fat leakage observed for the feed devoid of the alga and the hardness of the SCE 20 feed points to the better physical stability of the alga-containing feeds. Higher contents of n-3 fatty acids and PUFAs were found in the whole body of fish fed SCE 10. In conclusion, Scenedesmus sp. can be incorporated in low fishmeal diets for Atlantic salmon, at inclusion levels below 10%.
... Insects, Zonocerus variegatus and Macrotermes bellicosus, are deficiencies in certain AA such as Methionine, Lysine, threonine or tryptophan. Thus, it is suggested that to replace FM should be in combination with other source of protein that may help to prevent the deficiencies caused by the use of a single ingredient and to enhance growth performance (Hansen et al., 2007;Hansen et al., 2011;Zhang et al., 2012a;Zhang et al., 2012b). ...
Article
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This study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary substitution of fish meal (FM) with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (BSFM) and Manihot esculenta leaves meal (MEM) on the growth and feed efficiency of Oreochromis sp. Four concentrations viz: P1 (25%): 50g BSFM and 25g MEM, P2 (50%): 100g BSFM and 50g MEM, P3 (75%): 150g BSFM and 75g MEM, P4 (100%): 200g BSFM and 100g MEM were prepared and tested against control without FM replacement. Each diet was fed to three replicates groups of fish at a rate of 5% of body weight two times per day for 30 days. At the end of the trial, growth parameters, Feed conversion rate (FCR), and feed efficiency (FE) were evaluated. The results showed that fish fed dietary substitution of FM with combination ratio of BSFM and MEM higher than 50% significantly improved all growth parameters, FCR and FE. It is therefore suggested that the partial (higher than 50%) or total replacement of fish meal with combination of BSFM and MEM in the diet of Oreochromis sp can be used as fish meal substitution to obtain better growth and feed efficiency.
... This plant has excellent availability have led to the need to identify alternative ability to adapt to poor soils and dry climates [13]. protein sources for fish feeds [5], considerable emphasis Moringa oleifera can be an alternative to some has been focused on the use of conventional protein leguminous seeds as a source of high quality protein, oil, sources, soybean [6], pea meal and canola [7], plant antioxidant compounds and a way to treat water in rural protein [8], rapeseed [9] and Guar [10]. However, their areas where appropriate water resources are not available scarcity and competition from other sectors for such [14]. ...
Article
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Moringa is one of promising plant protein sources for aquaculture. The fluctuating results surrounding the optimal feeding level in fish diets were the motivation behind this study. A 75-day feeding trail was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of raw moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves meal (0%,8%,10% and 12%) on growth performance, feed utilization and carcass composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings diets. All the diets were isonitrogenous (30% CP kg) and isoenergetic 1 (4936.65k.cal/kg) diets. Two hundred and forty fish were fed diets in twelve aquaria (each 60x40x30cm) with four treatments (three aquaria/treatment) and twenty fish (3.25g) per aquarium. All Fish were fed diets three times daily at 4% feeding level of total biomass. Different dietary inclusion levels of moringa numerically improved growth performance, feed utilization parameters and carcass composition. However, no significant differences were observed between the treatments and the control, except in the crude protein CP which indicate enhancement in 10% comparing with other treatments or control. So, these results suggest that raw moringa leaves meal might be used up to 8% level of dietary saya protein in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings diets without negative effect on growth performance, nutrient utilization and carcass composition.
... A fish with a low FCR is more efficient at retaining protein and energy from the feed and transforming it into consumable meat. (Zhang et al., 2012) replaced fishmeal (Norse-LT94®) with plant based proteins for use in rainbow trout (salmonid) (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diets. The results did not show any adverse effects in feed intake or growth by using plant proteins. ...
Article
This study investigated the properties of fish pellets made with plant-based ingredients intended for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or other Salmonids. Plant protein from camelina meal (CMM), canola meal (CM), and isolated soybean protein (ISP) were the variable portions constituting 70% (w/w) of the seven formulations. The other 30% of ingredients included binders (7% wheat gluten protein (WGP) and 3% guar gum (GG)), 7.5% vitamins, 5% fish oil and 7.5% fishmeal. The densified pellets were made one at a time using a compaction plunger and die apparatus at 14% moisture, a die temperature of 90 °C and a compaction pressure of 112 MPa. The feed properties studied were morphology of the starting pellet powders, pellet density, durability, disintegration in water (e.g. water stability) and transverse crushing load. Results indicated the mix containing 5% CMM/5% CM/60% ISP had better durability, water stability and transverse tensile strength. The CM contributed to poor pellet performance, while the ISP produced the most favorable results. Camelina meal performed moderately well and resulted in the highest density. This study may help aqua feed producers in the selection, composition and performance of feed containing agricultural products that are more economical than current meat-based fishmeal.
... Therefore, evaluating new dietary protein sources from vegetables and animal origin for rainbow trout is important. Studies in rainbow trout have shown that it is possible to substitute raw materials, such as vegetables (Adelizi et al. 1998;Zhang et al. 2012;Daniel 2018;Ortiz-Chura et al. 2018) or other animal protein sources (Pfeffer et al. 1994;Steffens 1994;Pares-Sierra et al. 2014;Javaherdoust et al. 2019), in replace for fish meal without significantly affecting the nutrition composition and biological performance of the fish. ...
Article
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Background The protein source from fish meal is very important in trout feeding, but it is expensive and very scarce. Alternative nutrient sources are required to achieve sustainability as trout production rapidly grows in Peru. The objective of this research was to determine the proximate chemical composition and the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fat, and digestible energy of hydrolyzed sheep (HSS) and alpaca (HSA) skins in juvenile rainbow trout. Methods A total of 450 fishes were randomly distributed in nine digestibility tanks, with 60.0 ± 1.32 g of initial weight and 6.4 kg/m ³ of stocking density. The water quality parameters were as follows: pH 8.4, temperature 11.5 °C, and dissolved oxygen 6.2 mg/l. The skin hydrolysates were treated at 130 °C with 15 psi pressure for 120 min. Fish were fed a reference diet and an experimental diet containing 70% reference diet and 30% skin hydrolysate. The ingredients of the diets were mixed and then extruded at 95 °C with 4-mm diameter (Extruder Khal® EE800). The ADC was determined by the indirect method using insoluble ash as a non-digestible marker. Results The ADC in HSS and HSA was similar for dry matter (67.7 vs 69.1%), organic matter (66.9 vs 68.2%), crude protein (70.4 vs 70.1%), and digestible energy (3.35 vs 3.24 Mcal/kg DM), but crude fat values were different (12.3 vs 48.0%; p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion The hydrolyzed sheep and alpaca skins had a high content of macronutrients with an acceptable apparent digestibility of nutrients, making them a viable alternative to improve the nutritive value of more economical feeds for rainbow trout feed.
... However owing to its stagnant availability and an increasing demand of fish feed, alternative protein sources have become the major protein source in fish feed, especially plant-based proteins (Gatlin et al., 2007;Naylor et al., 2009). Several studies have investigated the suitability of plant protein meals (Ayadi et al., 2011;Chevanan et al., 2007;Draganovic et al., 2013;Glencross et al., 2010;Kraugerud et al., 2011;Sørensen et al., 2009), concentrates (Draganovic et al., 2011(Draganovic et al., , 2014Zhang et al., 2012) or isolates (Nagel et al., 2012) as fish feed ingredients. In most of these studies, the plant based fishmeal alternatives were suitable for the production of fish feed regarding certain nutritional characteristics (low levels of fiber, starch and antinutrients, high levels of protein content, nutrient digestibility and palatability), but their implementation was often accompanied by a reduced feed quality. ...
Article
Lupin kernel fibre is an underutilized by-product of lupin protein isolation rich in insoluble dietary fibre. By means of extrusion technology, insoluble fibres can be converted in soluble fibres, which are considered the most effective dietary fibre fraction for human health. Lupin kernel fibre was processed at various barrel temperatures, feed moistures and screw speeds. The physiochemical (dietary fibre composition, colour, water and oil binding capacities) and functional (viscosity and bile acid interactions) properties of the lupin fibres after extrusion were evaluated compared to the non-extruded fibre. Due to extrusion processing, the soluble fraction of dietary fibre was increased from 1.9 g/100 g DM to up to 37.7 g/100 g DM, water binding capacity was increased by up to 95%, while oil binding capacity significantly decreased. Moisture content, followed by barrel temperature were identified as the most relevant extrusion parameters to influence physiochemical properties. To estimate effects of extrusion on fibre functionality, extrudates were digested under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions. Viscosity of in vitro digesta was increased for most extruded fibres. Accordingly, diffusion of bile acids was decreased, which may improve cholesterol lowering properties. Molecular interactions of dietary fibre with bile acids were not affected by the extrusion treatment. The results indicate that extrusion caused solubilisation of hydrophilic pectin-like polymers, which exhibit high hydration properties and thus increase the viscosity at physiological conditions. These findings suggest that extrusion could be a practical technology to enhance health benefits of lupin kernel fibre.
... Negative impacts, including reduced growth rate and nutrient utilization, caused by unscientific substitution of dietary FM with plant proteins have been reported in carnivorous fish species Song et al., 2017;Jiang et al., 2018;Liang et al., 2019). However, dietary supplementation of EAA (such as Met, Lys and Arg) (Davies and Morris, 1997;Figueiredo Silva et al., 2015), bioactive content (Zhang et al., 2012;Peng et al., 2013), enzyme preparations (Riche et al., 2001;González Zamorano et al., 2013;Castillo and Gatlin, 2015) and animal protein blends (Burr et al., 2012;Hu et al., 2013;Monge-Ortiz et al., 2018) have be effective approaches to alleviate the adverse effects caused by alternative plant proteins, leading to significant improvements in application of plant proteins in feeds for carnivorous marine fish. ...
... In most of these studies, the plant-based fishmeal alternatives were suitable for the production of fish feed regarding certain nutritional characteristics (low levels of fiber, starch and anti-nutrients, high levels of protein content, nutrient digestibility and palatability), but their implementation was often accompanied by a reduced feed quality. Additionally, these protein raw materials are historically more expensive relative to fishmeal and their availability is limited (Naylor et al., 2009, Draganovic et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2012. Another study focusses about the current limitations of plant-derived protein meals, oilseed press cakes have been evaluated because they are side products of de-oiling industry and are therefore widely available at a low cost. ...
... This result may be ascribed to the anti-nutritional factors that are not completely eliminated from FSM. It is also possible that FSM has a poor palatability compared with that of fish meal (Dossou et al., 2018;Nagel et al., 2012;Zhang et al., 2012). The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-AKT-mTOR) pathway plays an important role in several processes, including cell growth, metabolism, proliferation, motility, and survival (Engelman, 2009;Fruman and Christian, 2014;Igor and Sawyers, 2002;Katso et al., 2001;Manning and Toker, 2017;Testa and Tsichlis, 2005). ...
Article
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Fermented soybean meal (FSM) is used as a potential substitute for fishmeal in various aquatic species due to its enriched nutrient profile. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of two different kinds of FSM on growth and protein metabolism in the Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis). One hundred and sixty-eight crabs were randomly assigned to 21 cement pools, each with eight crabs. The crabs in the control group were fed a basic diet, without FSM. Six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were prepared by replacing fish meal with two kinds (A and B) of FSM at concentrations of 5 %, 10 %, and 15 %, respectively. The results showed that partial replacement of fish meal with FSM could improve the growth performance of and crude protein content in the Chinese mitten crabs. In addition, increased activities of trypsin, pepsin, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and glutamic pyruvic transaminase in the Chinese mitten crabs were observed. Furthermore, the hepatopancreas mRNA levels of protein metabolism-related genes, including protein kinase B (Akt), protein S6 kinase 1 (S6k1), 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and oligopeptide transporter 1 (Pept1), were higher in the crabs fed FSM-supplemented diets than in the control crabs. The present study concludes that about 10 and 15 % of fish meal could be substituted by FSM A and B, respectively, without having any deleterious effects on growth performance, protein metabolism-related enzyme activities, and the expression ofand protein synthesis- and metabolism-related genes expressions.
... However owing to its stagnant availability and an increasing demand of fish feed, alternative protein sources have become the major protein source in fish feed, especially plant-based proteins (Gatlin et al., 2007;Naylor et al., 2009). Several studies have investigated the suitability of plant protein meals (Ayadi et al., 2011;Chevanan et al., 2007;Draganovic et al., 2013;Glencross et al., 2010;Kraugerud et al., 2011;Sørensen et al., 2009), concentrates (Draganovic et al., 2011(Draganovic et al., , 2014Zhang et al., 2012) or isolates (Nagel et al., 2012) as fish feed ingredients. In most of these studies, the plant based fishmeal alternatives were suitable for the production of fish feed regarding certain nutritional characteristics (low levels of fiber, starch and antinutrients, high levels of protein content, nutrient digestibility and palatability), but their implementation was often accompanied by a reduced feed quality. ...
Article
Alternative protein sources are required to meet the demand for fishmeal-free feed in the aquaculture industry. We assessed rapeseed press cake (RPC) as fishmeal replacement, including the effect of rapeseed peel (RP), by testing its effect on extruder response and the physical quality of feed pellets. Eight rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) feed formulations were extruded containing 0, 8, 16, 24 or 32 g/100 g RPC or 4, 11 or 14 g/100 g RP. We varied the extrusion temperature (90–110 °C) and screw speed (200–400 rpm) and monitored the pellet quality (expansion indices, bulk density, sinking velocity, specific hardness, water stability and durability) and extrusion process parameters (pressure at the die, SME, product temperature and torque). The pellet quality was affected by the feed formulation. Formulations with high RPC/RP contents increased the extrusion die pressure and caused greater longitudinal expansion, but simultaneously reduced the sectional expansion, bulk density, sinking velocity and specific hardness compared to the reference feed. Although RPC or RP reduced the pellet quality, low concentrations were compatible with functional pellets and can be included in fish feed as an alternative protein source.
... 6 Antinutritional factors, including free gossypol (mg/kg), trypsin inhibitor (ng/ mL) and β-conglycinin (ng/mL) didn't reach the limits of detection in PP diet. 7 The letters "a" and "b" indicate a significant difference (P < 0. 05) between the two groups. amino acid composition of experimental diets was shown in Table 2. ...
Article
A 10-week growth trial was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing dietary fishmeal with plant proteins on nutrition metabolism, immunity, inflammation and apoptosis responses in liver tissues of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicas (initial body weight = 10.42 ± 0.01 g). Two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated. A basal diet containing 54% fishmeal (FM), whereas another diet was prepared by totally replacing FM with a plant protein blend (PP) composed with soybean protein concentrate and cottonseed protein concentrate. Although essential amino acids, fatty acids, and available phosphorus had been balanced according to the FM diet profile, the significantly lower growth performance, metabolic disorder, and fatty liver symptom were observed in the PP group. Compared with the FM group, fish in the PP group showed significantly lower plasma free EAA level and PPV. Glucose metabolism disorder was expressed as the uncontrollable fasting glycolysis and pyruvate aerobic oxidation at postprandial 24 h with significantly up-regulated GK, PK and PDH genes expression, which potentially over-produced acetyl-CoA as the substrate for protein and lipid synthesis. Significantly reduced plasma GLU, but increased GC level, along with very significantly reduced liver GLY storage could be observed in the PP group. Plasma TG and hepatic NEFA contents were significantly decreased, but the hepatic TC content was very significantly increased in the PP group, in addition, hepatocyte vacuolation appeared. The significantly up-regulated cholesterol synthesis gene (HMGCR) expression but down-regulated bile acid synthesis gene (CYP7A1) expression could be the main reason for the fatty liver induced by cholesterol accumulation. The reduced plasma IgM content accompanied by the up-regulated mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL1β) and activated apoptosis signals of liver tissues were found in the PP group. The hyperthyroidism (higher plasma T3 and T4) and the accelerated energy metabolism rate decreased the growth performance in the PP group. The activated p65NF-kB may promote the hepatocytes apoptosis via the extrinsic pathway (caspase8/caspase3). Simultaneously, a "self-saving" response could be observed that activated cAMP promoted the lipolysis/β-oxidation process and up-regulated gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 via promoting CREB expression, further inhibited the over-phosphorylation of JNK protein, which might impede the intrinsic apoptosis pathway (caspase9/caspase3). In conclusion, the nutrient and energy metabolic disorder induced fatty liver related to the cholesterol accumulation in Japanese seabass fed full PP diet, which was under the regulation by cAMP-JNK/NF-kB-caspase signaling pathway. The hemostasis phosphorylation of JNK protein protected the liver tissues from more serious damage.
... This plant has excellent availability have led to the need to identify alternative ability to adapt to poor soils and dry climates [13]. protein sources for fish feeds [5], considerable emphasis Moringa oleifera can be an alternative to some has been focused on the use of conventional protein leguminous seeds as a source of high quality protein, oil, sources, soybean [6], pea meal and canola [7], plant antioxidant compounds and a way to treat water in rural protein [8], rapeseed [9] and Guar [10]. However, their areas where appropriate water resources are not available scarcity and competition from other sectors for such [14]. ...
Article
An 8-wk feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of different proportions of dietary plant ingredients on the growth of juvenile blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement was set for this trial with three ratios of cottonseed meal (CSM) and canola meal (CM) (2:1, 1:1, or 1:2) and three proportions of soybean meal (SBM) (2, 1, or 0). The results showed that the specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio both significantly decreased with decreasing amounts of SBM in the diets of blunt snout bream (P < 0.05), while the feed efficiency ratio and feed intake increased significantly (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the growth performance and feed utilization were shown to improve with increasing amounts of CSM, although the effects were not significant (P > 0.05). The interaction of these two factors had no effect on either growth or feed utilization (P > 0.05). Diet composition was not seen to affect body composition (P > 0.05). The ratio of CSM to CM significantly affected gut amylase activity, liver alanine aminotransferase content, and plasma cholesterol levels (P < 0.05). The interaction between the two main effects significantly influenced the plasma glucose level (P < 0.05). Therefore, the suitable proportion of plant feed for blunt snout bream should include high levels of SBM and CSM, with a SBM : CSM : CM ratio of 2:2:1.
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This study investigated the effects of plant protein concentrates on the activity of digestive enzymes and microscopic structure of the intestine of juvenile lumpfish. The experiment was carried out using triplicate groups of lumpfish of 7 g average initial body weight, to 40 g average final weight, after 54 days. Four experimental diets were used; a fishmeal (FM) based control diet and three test diets with the plant protein concentrates; soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC) (1:1 ratio) replacing FM in proportions of 25% (PP25), 50% (PP50) and 75% (PP75), respectively. Nested ANOVA showed several significant treatment differences in histomorphometry. Overall, fish fed test diets exhibited several changes such as shorter mucosal fold height (MFH) in the anterior intestine (AI), increased number of goblet cells (GCs) and width of lamina propria (WLP) in distal intestine (DI), compared to control. Principal component analysis (PCA) on histological indices showed that all three treatment groups (i.e. PP25, PP50 and PP75) had significantly altered overall intestinal architecture, compared to the control group. The observed enteritis was negatively related with the condition factor (CF). Regarding enzyme activities fewer changes were observed across diets. Fish fed the PP50 diet exhibited an increased activity of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) in the pyloric caeca and a decrease on chymotrypsin (CHY) in the mid intestine (MI) compared to the control. Nevertheless, the overall changes captured by PCA on enzymes were associated only with condition factor (CF) and not with the diets. Overall, histological evaluation confirmed that lumpfish intestinal morphometry was significantly altered by plant protein ingredients at 25%, 50% and 75% levels, but replacing of FM up to 50% did not affected the growth and the enzyme activities up to 75% inclusion level.
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Fish is one of the major sources of animal protein. Due to rising world populations, increasing income and urbanization, demand for fish has been increasing. In order to meet the need for more fish, aquaculture has become increasingly important as wild populations and production from capture fisheries have declined due to overfishing and poor management. In recent years, production from aquaculture has increased rapidly to address the shortfalls in capture fisheries, especially in Asia where aquaculture production accounts for about 90% of world aquaculture production by volume. This paper reviews the status of the world’s fish production, provides an update on Asian aquaculture, and highlights developments that are contributing to sustainable fish production, particularly integrated multi-trophic aquaculture and aquaponics.
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A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing dietary fish meal (FM) with a complementary mixture of plant protein (PP) consisting of soybean meal (SBM), corn gluten meal (CGM) and cottonseed meal (CSM) on hepatic lipid metabolism and hepatocyte apoptosis in juvenile hybrid grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus♂ × E. fuscoguttatus♀ (31.64 ± 0.82 g). A basal diet (FM60) with FM as the sole protein source was compared to diets progressively replacing 25% (FM45), 50% (FM30) and 75% (FM15) of FM protein. No significant differences were observed in growth performance and feed utilization when up to 75% of FM protein was replaced by PP sources. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) was markedly increased as dietary PP inclusion increased, but crude lipid content in the liver showed the opposite trend. Plasma cholesterol (CHO), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of fish fed the PP containing diets were all significantly lower than the control. Liver histological analysis showed a higher levels of hepatocyte vacuolization and nuclear pycnosis occurred as dietary PP inclusion increased, but the amounts of hepatic lipid droplets showed a decreasing trend with increasing PP inclusion levels. Moreover, dietary PP inclusion down-regulated the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), apolipoprotein AI (Apo-AI) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). On the other hand, dietary PP sources also down-regulated the apoptosis-related genes including caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8 and p53. The present study provided new evidence for the PP sources-induced lipid metabolism in carnivorous fish, and provided new insight into the relationship between dietary PP sources and cell apoptosis.
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Fish meal is main source protein using in aquatic culture because of its high protein. Currently, it's cost turn to be high because lacking of its ingredient. However, protein source in fish diet can be found in herb. Mulberry leaf is a medical plant that contains high protein, high antioxidant, possibly resists bacteria and improve immunity. In this study, replacement fish meal by mulberry leaf in Nile tilapia on growth performance, immunology, chemical composition of meat and Nile tilapia feed cost. This study was divided to five experiments, three replications and thirteen fish each replication. The diets were enhanced by different level of mulberry leaf 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% respectively last for three months. The result shown that feed conversion ratio was significant lowest at level of mulberry leaf supplement 25% diet (P<0.05) compared with other experiments. Moreover, dry matter and crude fat in Nile tilapia carcass were no significant difference (P>0.05). A positive linear correlation of crude protein in Nile tilapia carcass was also observed between the level of mulberry leaf replacement fish meal (R 2 =0.7352). Anyway, lysozyme activity and hematocrit ratio were no difference (P>0.05). The enhancement at 25% level of mulberry leaf meal was the most appropriable to replace fish meal because of its improve growth performance and decreasing feed cost.
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The effective inclusion of rapeseed protein products as fishmeal alternatives in diets for carnivorous fish is still limited. Previous studies observed restrictions in both nutrient utilization and feed intake. Contents of nitrogen‐free extracts (NfE) and anti‐nutritive substances (ANFs) were made responsible for the latter mentioned limitations. Consequently, a highly purified rapeseed protein isolate with high protein content and low levels of both NfE and ANF was investigated in this study. In the first experiment, digestibility of the rapeseed protein isolate was determined. In the second experiment, the fishmeal portion (190 g kg‐1) of a control diet was gradually replaced by rapeseed protein isolate to 33%, 66% and 100% of digestible protein and energy. Diets were fed twice per day to apparent satiation to triplicate groups of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). After 56 days of feeding, growth performance and health parameters were evaluated. Protein digestibility of the rapeseed protein isolate was 95.2%, and up to 66% of dietary fishmeal could be replaced without significantly affecting growth or health parameters. Total replacement of fishmeal led to significantly reduced feed intake and consequently reduced growth performance.
Technical Report
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Fish meal is the primary protein source in fish feed for many reasons, such as high protein content, rich amino acid profile, and better nutrient digestibility. The consistent growth of the aquaculture sector has created an ever-increasing demand for fish meal in the market over the past decade. However, the worldwide supply of fish meal has reached stagnation, which implies increasing the cost of feed in aquaculture. Hence, the need to replace fish meal with an alternate protein source to reduce the feed cost in the aquafeed industry. Plant-based protein sources can be opted to substitute fish meal in aquafeed. Although plant-based protein sources contain some anti-nutritional factors, they can cost-effectively replace fish meals with proper treatments. INTRODUCTION India is the second-largest fish-producing country in the world. The feed sector plays a dominant role in the growth of the aquaculture industry. According to FAO (2016), world farmed fish production stood at 73.8 million tons in 2014, from 1.6 million tons in 1960. This includes 49.8 million tons of fish, 16.1 million tons of shellfish, 6.9 million tons of crustaceans, and 7.3 million tons of other aquatic animals. The sustainability of aquaculture depends on many factors, and among them, cost-effective feed is one of the crucial factors. Because feed only contributes around 60% of total operating cost in aquaculture. Therefore, the remarkable growth of the aquaculture sector can be sustained only through the development of cheaper aqua feed.
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Somatic and expressional effects of replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) with a 1:1:2 combination of soy protein concentrate, corn gluten meal, and hydrolysate of forage-fish (HWF) or Pacific krill (HPK) were investigated in juvenile largemouth bass for 66 days. The control diet (FMC) contained 320 g kg⁻¹of FM. Six extruded diets were produced with 3 rates of replacement at 25 %, 50 % and 75 % protein for each of the two hydrolysate combinations. Feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WGR) did not differ between fish fed HWF diets and FMC. Fish fed HPK50 and HPK75 had lower FI and WGR. FI linearly decreased with increasing HPK, while feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased. No significance was found in the FCR among groups fed FMC, HWF25, HWF50, and HPK25, whereas HWF75, HPK50, and HPK75 groups had significantly higher FCR. The apparent digestibility (AD) of crude protein (CP) increased with increasing HWF while HPK didn’t cause significant change. AD of lipid and energy were not affected by diet, and AD of most amino acids increased proportionally with HWF. No proximate composition or retention of crude or digestible protein or energy other than whole-body ash revealed HWF-related differences. Whole-body CP, lipid, ash contents and CP retentions showed significant dose response in HPK fed fish. The condition factor decreased linearly with increasing HPK. Fish fed HPK50 diet upregulated peptide transporter 1 (pept1) expression in the foregut. Expressions of both taurine transporter (taut) and pept1 were upregulated by increasing replacement from 0 % to 25 % HWF. Further increase in HWF replacement caused linear down regulation in expression of both transporters. In conclusion, HWF and HPK facilitated reduced use of fishmeal in practical diet for largemouth bass. Expressions of pept1 and taut were dose-dependent in fish fed HWF. HPK just caused single diet upregulation.
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In this paper, a novel liquid phase microextraction (LPME) approach was developed in which a piece of knitting wool was used as the extractant solvent holder. Owing to the absorbability of the wool, the extractant could be easily held within the material. When the wool containing the organic solvent was exposed to the sample solution, analytes could directly diffuse from the sample solution to the solvent. Ultraviolet (UV) filters ([2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone (BP) and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3)]) were used as model analytes to evaluate the procedure. Parameters that affect the extraction efficiency (selection of organic solvent, volume of the extractant, agitation speed, extraction time, salt concentration and pH) were investigated. The proposed method in combination with liquid chromatography-UV detection, provided good enrichment factors up to 366, with relative standard deviations of between 0.6% and 4.2% on the same piece of wool, and good linearity from 0.1ng/ml to 100ng/ml for all the analytes with regression coefficients of between 0.9998 and 0.9999. The limits of quantification of these compounds, calculated at S/N=10, were 0.1ng/ml, 0.07ng/ml and 0.1ng/ml for BP-1, BP, BP-3, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of BP-type UV filters in swimming pool water. This is the first report of an application of knitting wool as a solvent holder for LPME. The procedure is cost-effective, and easy to operate.
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Duplicate tanks of c.280 g Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) were fed for 60 days on diets in which fishmeal was substituted with graded levels of extracted soybean meal (SBM) comprising 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% or 35% of total protein. The effects on feed intake, growth, feed conversion, apparent digestibility and utilization of macronutrients and energy, pathohistological response of the distal intestine (DI), activities of digestive enzymes in the mid and distal intestinal mucosa, and faecal trypsin and plasma insulin concentrations were studied. A negative, dose-dependent effect of SBM was observed on nearly all performance parameters with a notable exception of feed intake. The lowest SBM inclusion level of 10% resulted in moderate pathohistological changes in the DI. Each subsequent increase in SBM level increased the number of fish displaying severe changes. In contrast to the mid-intestine (MI), all enzyme activities in the distal intestinal mucosa decreased dose-dependently with increasing SBM inclusion. Faecal trypsin increased up to an SBM inclusion level of 20% and then levelled off. Plasma insulin increased from 0% to 15% SBM inclusion and then decreased. The results suggest that caution should be exercised in the use of even low levels of extracted SBM in salmon feeds.
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Individual plant protein feedstu€s were incorporated into a diet containing ®sh meal and fed to rainbow trout to determine apparent and true phosphorus availability (APA and TPA, respectively). The plant protein feedstu€s evalu-ated were soybean, canola and peanut meals; each was incorporated at 200 g kg ±1 of dry matter. The average initial weight of ®sh was 68 g and the water temperature was maintained at 15°C. Concentrations of macronutrients were constant in diets. Incorporation of plant protein feedstu€s signi®cantly increased APA and TPA values. The APA values were 19.5% for ®sh meal and 39.5%, 40.2%, and 38.5% for the diets containing soybean meal, canola meal, and peanut meal, respectively. Similarly, the TPA values for the combination of ®sh meal and plant protein feedstu€ were 43.4%, 42.1% and 40.6% for diets containing soybean, canola and peanut meals, respectively, which were signi®-cantly higher than values for ®sh meal (21.5%). Calculation of APA and TPA values for individual feedstu€s resulted in values for the plant protein ingredients of over 100%. We speculate that the increased APA and TPA values were the result of decreasing total dietary phosphorus concentrations or dilution of the calcium concentrations from bone in ®sh meal.
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Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of purified alcohol extracts (PAES) from soybean meal (PAES I) and soy protein isolate (PAES II) on feed intake, growth and intestinal mucosa of chinook salmon and rainbow trout. The PAES were prepared by an extraction process aiming at the isolation of soyasaponins. In the first study, a series of diets were formulated to have one half of the protein coming from fish meal and the other half from soy products. They included a control diet containing 32% soy protein concentrate (SPC diet) and a diet with 44% soybean meal (SBM diet). The SPC diet was supplemented with the PAES I (PAES I diet) to produce a diet with a saponin level similar to that expected to be found in the SBM diet. The SPC diet was also supplemented with Quillaja bark saponin at 0.15% (QBS15 diet) and 0.30% (QBS30 diet). Feeding the PAES I diet and the SBM diet resulted in complete suppression of growth of chinook salmon due to a dramatic reduction of feed intake (P
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The effects of various dietary blends of menhaden oil (MO) with canola oil (CO) on the growth performance, whole body proximate composition, flesh quality (muscle proximate and lipid composition) and thyroidal status of immature Atlantic salmon in sea water were studied.
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To evaluate the potential probiotic effect of three Bacillus strains on the survival and growth of an Artemia culture and to obtain the optimal formulation of pure cultures of the bacilli, challenge tests were performed with the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus (S1) using mixture design. According to molecular analyses involving amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), these bacteria corresponded to Bacillus subtilus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus coagulans. An antimicrobial susceptibility and antagonism assay revealed that these strains were susceptible to most antimicrobial drugs and have an inhibitory effect against tested pathogenic Vibrio. Furthermore, the investigated Bacillus strains were fairly adhesive to polystyrene, with values ranging from 0.10 to 0.32 at 595 nm. Statistical analysis demonstrated that Bacillus strains enhance protection against pathogens, have no impact on survival, but improve the growth of larvae, for which the highest growth rate was obtained when the mixture composition was 32% B. subtilus, 68% B. cereus and no B. coagulans.
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Individual plant protein feedstuffs were incorporated into a diet containing fish meal and fed to rainbow trout to determine apparent and true phosphorus availability (APA and TPA, respectively). The plant protein feedstuffs evaluated were soybean, canola and peanut meals; each was incorporated at 200 g kg–1 of dry matter. The average initial weight of fish was 68 g and the water temperature was maintained at 15°C. Concentrations of macronutrients were constant in diets. Incorporation of plant protein feedstuffs significantly increased APA and TPA values. The APA values were 19.5% for fish meal and 39.5%, 40.2%, and 38.5% for the diets containing soybean meal, canola meal, and peanut meal, respectively. Similarly, the TPA values for the combination of fish meal and plant protein feedstuff were 43.4%, 42.1% and 40.6% for diets containing soybean, canola and peanut meals, respectively, which were significantly higher than values for fish meal (21.5%). Calculation of APA and TPA values for individual feedstuffs resulted in values for the plant protein ingredients of over 100%. We speculate that the increased APA and TPA values were the result of decreasing total dietary phosphorus concentrations or dilution of the calcium concentrations from bone in fish meal.
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The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of starch source, retention time in the preconditioner and screw speed (RPM) on physical quality of extruded fish feeds. The experiment was arranged in a three by two by two factorial design using three carbohydrate sources [wheat starch (WS), pea starch (PS) or a combination (WS_PS)], two retention times in the preconditioner [long (120 s) or short (62 s)] and two RPM in the extruder [high (300) or low (220)]. Physical quality was assessed by hardness, diameter, expansion ratio, Holmen durability (HDI), DORIS value (DV), oil absorption capacity, oil leakage and pasting viscosity. The results showed that retention time in the preconditioner only affected HDI and oil leakage. Long retention time improved HDI but caused a greater leakage. Changing screw speed from 220 to 300 RPM gave a greater expansion ratio, improved HDI and oil absorption. PS resulted in higher pasting viscosity, HDI and DV, but a generally lower hardness than WS. To conclude, PS and WS have different processing characteristics, and the conditions need to be adjusted according to the starch source used when producing extruded fish feed.
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Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) is a promising source of protein in feeds for carnivorous fish. However, the high content of alkaloids may limit its potential for use. Lupinine is the main quinolizidine alkaloid in several varieties of Lupinus luteus. It has been reported to be highly toxic for bacteria and invertebrates, however no information is available about the allelopathic effects of lupinine on vertebrates. This study investigated the effect of increasing dietary doses of lupinine on feed intake, growth performance, tissue histology and nutritional composition of rainbow trout. Duplicate groups of rainbow trout (initial body weight of 0.3 kg) were fed extruded fish meal based diets containing 0, 50, 75, 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 5000 mg lupinine/kg for 60 days. Results from this study show that feed intake and growth were linearly reduced in response to dietary lupinine. Based on results obtained by additional analysis of variance, the practical tolerance levels of lupinine with regard to growth and feed intake was up to 100 mg/kg feed. Carcass composition did not vary among treatment. Besides a depletion of glycogen and lipid stores in the hepatocytes, the dietary inclusion of lupinine did not cause any morphological changes in kidney, heart or intestinal tissue. These results indicate that the lupinine alkaloid possesses a strong anti-palatability effect, but does not pose an adverse short-term risk to the health of rainbow trout.
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The ready mixed concrete sector has been developing rapidly as a result of technological im-provements, especially for skyscrapers and high constructions. Concrete design is hard and expensive job, moreover it takes too much time. It must confirm some special conditions such as durability and strength during its life cycle period. The selection of appropriate chemical admixtures is very important criterion to achieve the desired specifications for concrete. Therefore, in this study via mixture experiments, which has been developed rapidly in the last 50 years, a mixture design is constructed to examine the effects of dosage and components on the response variables indicating mortar performance. The target is to reach optimum point by obtaining maximum compressive strength on mortar with minimum cost of admixture. The component proportions are determined in each dosage level using desirability function and cost cal-culation is made for these component proportions. A graphical method is suggested for examining effects of dosage and mixture components on the response variables. The comments are made for the whole sys-tem using the suggested graphical method.
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A procedure is described for the testing of feeding response to dietary attractants by juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, The fish were maintained in a controlled environment with minimum visual and auditory stimulation. They were fed once daily following a scotoperiod of 12 h. Feed consumption was recorded over a period of 4 min at successive 1-min intervals. The feeding response could be assessed as early as 2 min after dispensing feed. The attractants examined to test the procedure were hydrolysates of krill, These were supplied to the control diet in liquid or dried form, as a component of the pellets or as a surface dressing. There was a positive response to the krill hydrolysate, which was greater when the attractant was applied to the surface of the pellets. Incidental to the development of the technique was the observation that the use of feeding attractants may modify feeding behavior to reduce feed wastage, The technique affords a rapid, sensitive, and repeatable method for evaluating feeding attractants.
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Evaluation of feed ingredient functionality plays a vital role in modern fish feed manufacturing practice. The aim of this study was to examine the extrusion behaviour of blends containing alternative protein sources from plant origin to fish meal (FM), such as wheat gluten (WG) and soy protein concentrate (SPC), and the consequences for the physical attributes of the resulting feed extrudates. A mixture design was applied, varying the levels of protein sources included in the formulation from 50 to 450gkg−1. Each diet was produced with added feed moisture content of 20, 26 and 32g/100g (wet basis). The partial least squares regression models were fitted and their performance was evaluated on the basis of R2 and the root mean squared error of cross-validation over the complete data set. A higher inclusion level of FM in the diet decreased the values of the extruder system parameters, such as torque, pressure at the die and melt temperature. In contrast, inclusion of SPC significantly increased the values of these extruder-related parameters. The viscoelastic properties of WG gave higher radial expansion; FM showed the opposite effect. The results show that the feed moisture was the dominant factor for extrudate density and oil absorption capacity. Products with higher breaking strength were observed with increasing levels of WG and SPC. Combining the product requirements for both extrudate density and hardness showed that the largest optimal compositional range is available at low feed moisture content. However, maximum FM replacement is possible at high feed moisture content.
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The rheological properties of salep drink sweetened with different honeys were measured using a controlled-stress rheometer. Mixture design experiments were used to study the effect of interactions among pine, flower and highland honeys on the rheological properties of salep-honey drink mixture (SHDM) samples. In addition, product optimization was carried out using the ridge analysis to determine the optimum mixture proportions based on sensory properties of SHDM samples. Flower honey was the component showing the highest effect on the consistency coefficient values of SHDM samples. The preference of panelists was more prominent for the SHDM samples including the higher concentrations of highland honey with respect to odour and overall preference parameters. Optimum values of pine, flower and highland honeys in the mixture were found to be 0–85%, 0–40% and 15–100%, respectively, with respect to sensory properties. In addition, ridge analysis results revealed that the SHDM should include 65% highland honey, 35% pine honey and no flower honey to obtain the maximum overall preference score (7.24). The consistency coefficient and flow behavior index values of the sample to get maximum overall preference score (7.24) were predicted to be 3.650 Pa sn and 0.435, respectively.
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This experiment investigated the effect of increasing dietary doses of lupinine, the main quinolizidine alkaloid in Lupinus luteus, on feed intake, growth performance, tissue histology and nutritional composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Duplicate groups of rainbow trout (initial body weight of 330g) were fed extruded fish meal based diets containing 0, 50, 75, 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 5000mg lupininekg−1 for 60days. Feed intake and growth were reduced in response to dietary lupinine, best fit by quadratic regression. Based on these results, the practical tolerance level of lupinine, with regard to growth and feed intake, was ≤100mgkg−1 feed. Carcass composition did not vary among treatments. Despite a depletion of glycogen and lipid stores in the hepatocytes, lupinine did not induce any morphological changes in spleen, kidney, heart or intestinal tissues.These results indicate that the lupinine possesses a strong anti-palatability effect, but does not appear to pose short-term health risks for rainbow trout.
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Standard soybean meal, heat treated to differing degrees and containing varying levels of soybean lectin and trypsin inhibitor, was used to study the effect of soybean-containing diets on the morphology of the distal intestine in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. A reference diet based on fish meal and a fish meal diet mixed with an alcohol extract of soybean meal were used. The fish (145 g) were kept in 27 m3 net pens (200 fish per pen) in sea water with an average temperature of 11°C for 12 weeks. Whereas a normal morphology of the distal intestine was seen in the fish fed the reference diet, all soybean diets caused alterations in the distal intestine irrespective of heat treatment. Similar changes were observed with the diet which had added alcohol solubles. It is concluded that alcohol-soluble components in the soybeans are responsible for the observed changes. It cannot be determined which of the soybean antinutrients is causing the alterations from the present study. Oligosaccharides and saponines are possible candidates. However, the possibility that unknown antinutrients are affecting the salmon intestine should not be overlooked.
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Seawater transferred under-yearling Atlantic salmon (120g) were fed a practical fishmeal formulated diet containing 57.4% blue whiting fishmeal and providing 15gkg−1 total phosphorous (P) in the diet. The basal diet was supplemented with graded dietary levels of inorganic P (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15gkg−1) to total P levels of 15, 18, 21, 24, 27 and 30gkg−1. Within a feeding period of 12weeks, classical signs of P deficiency developed in Atlantic salmon fed the P un-supplemented diet containing 15gkg−1 total P of natural origin. Deficiency signs included reduced growth and feed efficiency, reduced tissue mineral concentration (P, Ca, Mg, Zn), increased P:Ca ratio in the body, increased condition factor, metabolic disorder as indicated by lipid accumulation and impaired protein utilization, as well as reduced lipid, energy and Zn digestibility. Supplementation of inorganic P-salts in the diet at 3gkg−1 (18gkg−1 total P) significantly improved the production results with respect to growth and feed efficiency, and restored all other signs of P deficiency in fish. A higher supplementation level of 6gkg−1 inorganic P (21gkg−1 total P) was required for optimal mineralization in whole body and vertebrae. The highest supplementation levels of 15gkg−1 added inorganic P (30gkg−1 total P) seemed to increase P excretion and to have slightly negative impacts on growth and bone mineralization. Results suggest that P availability from blue whiting fishmeal is very low (3.2gkg−1) and inadequate to meet dietary P requirement in rapidly growing under-yearling salmon immediately following seawater transfer, despite high natural P content in the blue whiting fishmeal.
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There is a need to develop new methods for formulating optimal feeds for farmed fish, and for making explicit assessments of the criteria by which the success of a formulation may be judged. We show how a combination of mixture design theory and state-space models of nutrition (the Geometric Framework, GF) can be used to derive a 5-step protocol for multi-criterion diet optimisation. Step 1 involves selecting the focal nutritional axes for modelling; step 2 uses mixture theory to choose an optimal selection of experimental diets to test in experiments; step 3 entails using GF to plot and interpret intake and growth arrays; step 4 involves plotting response variables onto intake arrays, and step 5 uses multi-criterion optimisation to combine and weigh several relevant response variables. We illustrate the approach by re-analysing data from dietary studies on European whitefish.
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Methods of feed digestibility determination in fish were reviewed. The indicator method, using chromic oxide, was judged most suitable, but the best method of sampling faeces was uncertain. Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson) were fed an experimental diet containing 1% chromic oxide. Faeces were collected by two stripping methods, and gut contents were obtained by dissection from five zones of the alimentary canal. Analyses of feed, faeces, and gut contents were made, and digestibility of protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash and gross energy calculated. It was concluded that absorption occurs in all parts of the alimentary tract, and that it is important to limit the stripping of faeces for analysis in digestibility studies to the hindmost part of rectum, i.e. from the ventral fin to anus.
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Brown trout were exposed to 32P in their tank water (7.4 Bq l−1) and the uptake to muscle followed over 6 weeks. A steady-state concentration factor (Css) of 1.7 and a biological half-time for clearance (tb12) of 45 days were calculated from the results. The low Css indicates that uptake from water is not a major route of 32P accumulation in these fish. Brown trout were given a single 32P-spiked meal, and the uptake and clearance in muscle, liver and blood followed over 6 weeks. Assimilation of the isotope by these organs was low, the maximum activity in whole muscle reaching only 0.2–0.4% of that in the meal with lower values in the other two organs. There was no appreciable clearance of 32P from muscle during the experiment. The slow clearance of 32P after uptake from water and lack of any clearance after uptake from food indicates that the Css for this isotope following uptake by either route is likely to depend on radioactive decay rather than intake rate and physiological clearance.
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A simple and inexpensive method for determining daily feed intake of groups of fish in tanks is described. The method is based on the collection of waste feed from the effluent water and consists of an effective drainage system and a wire mesh collector. This technique is dependent upon the use of feed with good physical stability. The daily feed intake of fish in a tank is calculated by the difference between the amount fed and the amount of waste feed collected (corrected for leaching losses). The system can be combined with any type of feeding method in which sinking pellets are used. It allows accurate intake measurements for research purposes or can be used in commercial operations for adjusting feeding level without knowledge about biomass in the tank or water temperature. Use of the method has revealed large variations in daily feed intake of groups of Atlantic salmon fed continuously.
Article
Replacement of fish meal with plant proteins in aquaculture diets presents several problems. Firstly, aquaculture diets, particularly diets for carnivorous fish species, are nutrient dense and may contain up to 450g crude protein (CP)/kg. Such diets preclude the use of ingredients with only moderate CP content, such as pulses including peas and faba beans or oilseed meals including canola/rapeseed meal and flax. Secondly, virtually all crops contain heat-labile and heat-stable secondary compounds including protease inhibitors, tannins, lectins, phytate, dietary fibre and starch. Removal of heat-labile secondary compounds may be accomplished by extrusion or other heat treatment. However, elimination of heat-stable secondary compounds, and increasing the nutrient concentration of diets, requires fractionation of crops. Fractionation technologies range from low technology processes such as dehulling to medium technologies such as air classification to sophisticated technologies such as aqueous and solvent protein purification. Studies on the nutritional value of processed plant proteins in various fish species have consistently shown improved digestibility and growth compared to feeding unprocessed ingredients. This review examines effects of processing technologies on nutritional properties of soybean meal, canola meal, peas, lupins and flax in aquaculture diets.
Article
The study was designed to investigate disulfide bond (SS) digestibility, the effect of extrusion on dietary SS content, and the relationship between dietary SS content and nitrogen (N) and SS digestibility. Three high-quality fish meal-based diets were produced; one control diet (FM) and two diets with 40% of amino acids from fish meal replaced by defatted, toasted soybean meal (SBM) or untoasted soybean meal (white flakes; WF). The diets were given both extruded (EX) and unextruded (UEX) to mink (Mustela vison).Dietary SS content ranged between 23.3 and 32.7nmolmg−1 crude protein, and was not affected by extrusion at 120°C and 28% moisture in the FM diet, while it was moderately increased by extrusion of the SBM- and WF-diets. Coefficients of SS digestibility, being about 0.80, were higher than coefficients of free thiol (SH) digestibility in all diets. Coefficients of N and thiol digestibility in the WF UEX diet were much lower than in the other diets, probably due to high activity of protease inhibitors. No effect of dietary SS content on N or SS digestibility could be seen. The results indicate that other factors, such as lumen environment, feed passage rate and SS accessibility, are more important deciding factors than dietary SS content for SS and N digestibility.
Article
The aim of this experiment was to determine the optimal inclusion level and ratio of lupin (LPC) and pea pro-tein concentrates (PPC) in multiple essential amino acid-supplemented diets for rainbow trout (Oncor-hynchus mykiss). Nine extruded diets, including eight plant protein based diets formulated using four mixtures of LPC and PPC (L/P ratio, 3:0, 2:1, 1:2 and 0:3) with two dietary inclusion levels (300 or 500 g plant protein kg −1 dietary protein) and one diet with LT fish meal as the sole protein source (FM diet) were used. Duplicate tanks of 58 g trout reared in 8.2 °C water were fed the diets for 62 days, followed by a 20-day digestibility experiment. No mortality occurred, an average weight gain (WG) of 181 g and an aver-age feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 0.72 g ingested dry matter (g gain) −1 was obtained. Plant protein inclusion level or L/P ratio did not significantly affect feed intake, WG, body composition (except ash), or retention of nitrogen (N) or energy. High inclusion of plant protein concentrates resulted in significantly higher FCR, ap-parent digestibility (ADC) of N, lipid, methionine (Met) and tryptophan (Trp) and plasma triacylglycerols level than low inclusion. However, ADC of dry matter, starch and histidine, whole body ash content and plas-ma cholesterol levels were reduced. The diets with the highest L/P ratio (3:0) resulted in significantly higher FCR than the other diets with less LPC. ADC of starch was reduced by increasing dietary LPC. The diets with the most PPC (L/P ratio = 0:3) inclusion resulted in significantly higher ADC of dry matter, N, starch and en-ergy than other diets with less PPC, and higher plasma cholesterol level than diets with L/P ratio of 3: 0 and 1:2. Lipid digestibility was reduced by increasing LPC at the 500 g protein kg −1 dietary protein inclusion level, but not for 300 g kg −1 . The diet with most LPC also resulted in lower trypsin activity in mid-intestine digesta than diets with less LPC and the FM diet. No intestinal inflammation was observed for any of the dietary treat-ments. However, trout fed the diet with highest inclusion of PPC tended to have a slight decrease in mucosal fold height and a slight increase in fold fusion. In conclusion, any combination of LPC and PPC with essential amino acid-supplementation can be efficiently used when total plant protein inclusion is limited to 300 g kg −1 crude protein in extruded diets for rainbow trout. At higher inclusion, PPC appears to be a pref-erable source of protein.
Article
In contrast to potato and other plant proteins, wheat gluten does not require complex and costly purification and may thus be utilized in aquaculture diets according to aquaculture guideline EC 710/2009. Therefore, a feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of various combinations of wheat gluten (WG) and potato protein concentrate (PPC) in nutrition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Seven isonitrogenous (459 +/- 6 g CP kg(-1)) and isoenergetic (21.4 +/- 0.1 MJ kg(-1)) diets were formulated to contain varying levels of wheat gluten and potato protein concentrate (6/27; 9/24; 11/21; 14/19; 17/16; 19/13 as proportion of WG/PPC in % of the diet) at constant fishmeal replacement level of 56% on protein level and one fish meal diet served as control. Experimental diets were fed over a period of 56 days to triplicate experimental groups until apparent satiation. Growth performance showed no significant differences between all feeding groups at the end of the experimental period. No influences on health and nutritional status were documented between the treatments in the body composition and blood parameter. The wheat gluten and PPC as fish meal replacement in organic diets for rainbow trout revealed positive and equal results for use in the inclusion level of the presented trial. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
Article
A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of potato protein concentrate (PPC) replacing fishmeal in nutrition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) according to organic aquaculture guidelines. Eight diets were formulated by partial replacement of fishmeal (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) with PPC of two different qualities (LG-PPC with low glycoalkaloid content of 7.41 mg kg- 1 dry weight, HG-PPC with high glycoalkaloid content of 2150 mg kg- 1 dry weight) and one experimental diet without PPC served as control. Experimental diets were fed over a period of 84 days to triplicate experimental groups until apparent satiation. Best growth performance was observed in the control group. The inclusion of LG-PPC resulted in significantly reduced feed intake, feed utilization and growth with increasing replacement of 25% and higher. Increasing amount of dietary LG-PPC inclusion resulted in alterations in liver histology and in anterior intestine indicating an impact of glycoalkaloids on the different gastrointestinal tissues. The HG replacement revealed most prominently a decreased feed intake and growth parameters indicating massive undernourishment. Congruently, hypotrophy of the liver with ceroid pigment accumulation, and villi degeneration in the intestine were observed in all HG groups. Blood parameters were equally affected by an inclusion of PPC (LG and HG) in the diets involving reduced plasma TG (HG75), glucose (HG100) as well as protein (HG100). As a conclusion PPC as alternative protein in fish nutrition is only feasible with LG contents as HG diets resulted in severe undernourishment of fish, lowest growth performance and irreversible intestinal damages
Article
This paper deals with the application D-optimal mixture design (DMD) integrating response surface methodology (RSM) to discuss variation of mechanical characteristics depending on injection molding during production of short glass fiber (SGF) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) reinforced polycarbonate (PC) composites. Planning of experiments was based on a D-optimal mixture design (DMD). By applying RSM analysis, a mathematical predictive model of the tensile strength and flexural strength properties was developed in terms of the mixture ratio of PC, SGF, and PTFE. In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and response surface graphs were applied to identify the effect of mixture ratio of SGF and PTFE reinforced PC composites for the tensile strength and flexural strength.
Article
Ground fillets of frozen Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), a low-fat fish, and Pacific mackerel (Pneumataphorus japanicus), a high-fat fish, heated for 20 min at temperature intervals ranging from 40 to 115 °C showed a linear decrease in the content of -SH (sulfhydryl) groups and a concomitant increase in the content of S-S (disulfide) bonds from 50 to 115 °C. At 95 °C, the reaction was rapid and had reached an equilibrium after 20 min. These experiments indicate that temperatures higher than 50 °C are required for oxidative transformation of -SH groups to S-S bonds. Heating at 115 °C caused a loss in cystine plus cysteine. Heating to 95 °C and drum-drying caused the formation of S-S bonds from -SH groups and reduced protein and amino acid digestibility when fed to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) as compared with the raw fish protein. Freeze-drying did not affect digestibility and no formation of S-S bonds was found. It is postulated that heat-induced S-S cross-linking from -SH oxidation causes a reduction in protein and amino acid digestibility in drum-dried samples. The effect of heating on digestibility was greater in the low-fat pollock than in the high-fat mackerel.
Article
A total of six isoprotein and isolipid diets for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., were prepared substituting from 0 to 100% of fish meal protein (0–68% of diet by dry weight) with meal from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba). The feed produced from high inclusion levels of krill meal had lower ability to absorb lipid during vacuum coating than fish meal. Both amino acid and fatty acid compositions of the diets were fairly similar. The experiment commenced using salmon averaging 500 g and ended at a mean weight of 1500–1800 g (140 days of feeding). Moderate amounts of krill meal (20–60% of krill protein) in the diets increased growth during the first 71 days of feeding compared with the fish meal control, while no growth difference was observed during the last 69 days of feeding. This may, at least in parts, be explained by a feed-attractant function of the krill meal. Muscle dry weight and lipid concentrations were unaffected by the diet. Feed conversion rate increased with high levels of krill meal in the diets (e.g. for the last period from 0.94 in the 0% diet to 1.26 in the 100% diet). This indicates that the fish were able to compensate by eating more to maintain growth. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter and protein were not influenced by diet, but both faecal moisture and lipid had a tendency to increase at the highest inclusion level (all protein from krill meal). This may be related to chitin in the krill diet that is known to decrease lipid absorption and induce diarrhoea (increased water content in faeces). Chitin was not utilized to any major extent. Welfare parameters such as blood haemoglobin, red blood cell counts, plasma protein, cholesterol, triacylglycerols and glucose levels were unaffected by diets. Clinical indicators of cellular damage (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) were similar indicating no diet-induced tissue damage during the trial.
Article
Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fingerlings with a mean weight of 1.5 g were fed one of four casein-gelatine-based purified diets supplemented with soya lecithin (LC) and choline chloride (CH) for 84 days. The diets were supplemented with either: 0 g kg−1 CH and 0 g kg−1 LC, 0 g kg−1 CH and 30 g kg−1 LC, or 5 g kg−1 CH and 0 g kg−1 LC, or 5 g kg−1 CH and 30 g kg−1 LC. The same diets were also fed to 100-g salmon to assess the effects of LC and CH supplementation on digestibility. Fingerlings fed the diet with neither LC nor CH (0 g kg−1 LC and 0 g kg−1 CH) grew at a significantly slower rate than fish fed the supplemented diets. There were significant effects on growth of supplementation of both LC and CH. The results indicate that the choline requirement of Atlantic salmon fingerlings is satisfied by 4 g kg−1 inclusion in a gelatine-casein-based diet, and that dietary soya lecithin can fully replace choline chloride. The digestibility study with the larger fish indicated a beneficial effect of lecithin on the digestibility of both protein and energy.
Article
A dephytinized protein concentrate prepared from canola seed (CPC) was assessed for nutrient digestibility and performance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The apparent digestibility coefficients of CPC were: dry matter, 817 g kg−1; crude protein, 899 g kg−1; gross energy, 861 g kg−1; arginine, 945 g kg−1; lysine, 935 g kg−1; methionine, 954 g kg−1; threonine, 893 g kg−1. A 9-week performance trial assessed 7 diets. Fishmeal provided 940 g kg−1 of the protein in the control diet. Test diets consisted of CPC or water-washed CPC replacing 500 and 750 g kg−1 of fishmeal protein; and CPC plus an attractant replacing 500 and 750 g kg−1 of fishmeal protein. No significant differences in performance were observed (P > 0.05). A subsequent 9-week performance trial evaluated the effect of adding CPC into compound diets containing fishmeal/soybean meal/corn gluten meal. Five diets were prepared: fishmeal provided 670 g kg−1 of the protein in the control diet, in the remaining diets CPC was incorporated into commercial-like trout diets at 100, 200 and 300 g kg−1 replacement of fishmeal protein, the fifth diet included an attractant in the 300 g kg−1 replacement diet. No significant differences in performance were obtained (P > 0.05). These studies show that dephytinized canola protein concentrate has potential to replace substantial levels of fishmeal in diets for carnivorous fish without compromising performance.
Article
Optimising the amino acid supply in tune with the requirements and improving protein utilization for body protein growth with limited impacts on the environment in terms of nutrient loads is a generic imperative in all animal production systems. With the continued high annual growth rate reported for global aquaculture, our commitments should be to make sure that this growth is indeed reflected in provision of protein of high biological value for humans. The limited availability of fish meal has led to some concerted efforts in fish meal replacement, analysing all possible physiological or metabolic consequences. The rising costs of plant feedstuffs make it necessary to strengthen our basic knowledge on amino acid availability and utilization. Regulation of muscle protein accretion has great significance with strong practical implications. In fish, despite low muscle protein synthesis rates, the efficiency of protein deposition appears to be high. Exploratory studies on amino acid flux, inter-organ distribution and particularly of muscle protein synthesis, growth and degradation and the underlying mechanisms as affected by dietary factors are warranted. Research on specific signalling pathways involved in protein synthesis and degradation have been initiated in order to elucidate the reasons for high dietary protein/amino acid supply required and their utilization.
Article
This study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of nutrient composition and levels of antinutritional factors present in various canola protein products derived from the processing of commercial canola meal (CCM) on digestibility in rainbow trout held in 9.9–11°C fresh water. Laboratory sieving of CCM (SCM) reduced levels of crude fibre, cellulose and hemicellulose by 31.6%, 16.6% and 56.4%, respectively. Aqueous methanol–ammonia washing of sieved canola meal (ACM) increased neutral detergent fibre (NDF, insoluble dietary fibre) and phytate, and dramatically decreased levels of total glucosinolates (> 88%) and phenolic compounds (≈ 59%) relative to CCM. Further treatment of ACM with phytase in acidified (pH 5.0) aqueous media (PCM), followed by filtration, increased levels of crude protein, crude fibre and NDF, and decreased levels of phytate (33%), phenolic compounds (81%) and glucosinolates (below detection limit) relative to CCM. Additional treatment of PCM with carbohydrase enzymes (SP-249 and/or Alpha Gal, an oligosaccharide-degrading enzyme) further elevated levels of NDF, cellulose, protein (SP-249 only) and indispensable amino acids (SP-249/Alpha Gal), and concurrently decreased levels of phytate relative to PCM. An industrial source of canola protein isolate (CPI), produced by first extracting CCM with aqueous salt solution and then recovering the protein fraction, had the best nutrient composition and lowest levels of the antinutritional factors mentioned above. The processing protocols had slight or marked negative effects (ACM and SP-249/Alpha Gal) on apparent dry matter digestibility. Protein digestibility coefficients were unaltered in the laboratory-processed products, except for the products treated with SP-249 and SP-249/Alpha-Gal. In these cases, the protein digestibility coefficients (77.4% and 79.5%) were significantly below that found for CCM (88.1%). With two of the treatments, ACM and SP-249/Alpha-Gal, processing depressed DE. In contrast, the DE level in CPI (20.6 MJ kg−1) and the digestibility coefficients for dry matter (77.1%) and protein (97.6%) were high. We conclude that high levels of fibre, either alone or together with phytate, have the greatest adverse effects on the digestibility of canola protein products for rainbow trout. The high digestibility of CPI and its low content of antinutritional factors may also enable this protein product to be an excellent substitute for premium quality fish meal in diets for salmonids.
Article
This study was undertaken to investigate: (1) the effects of both deficiencies and excesses in essential amino acids (EAAs) from an estimated optimum dietary EAA pattern on nitrogen (N) utilization and excretion of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, (2) the effects of dietary digestible protein (PD): digestible energy (ED) ratio (PD:ED) on N utilization and excretion of O. mykiss and (3) the potential interaction of these two factors. A 3 × 3 factorial experiment was conducted, with the two factors EAA pattern and PD:ED ratio. The three levels of EAA pattern were: (1) optimum EAA pattern, (2) 60% deficiencies in the three amino acids arginine, histidine and lysine, and (3) 60% excesses in the three amino acids arginine, histidine and leucine. The three levels of PD:ED ratio were 18, 21 and 24 g MJ−1. Amino acid deficiencies from an optimum amino acid pattern caused reductions in mean N retention of 29 to 37%, with the greatest reduction associated with the lowest PD:ED ratio, and similar substantial increases in total N and ammonia-N excretion at all of the dietary PD:ED ratios investigated. Amino acid excesses, however, did not negatively affect N retention or excretion. Increasing PD:ED ratio was associated with decreasing N retention and increasing N excretion over the range of dietary protein and lipid levels tested. Results of this study showed that a diet with optimum dietary amino acid pattern and lowest PD:ED ratio produced the highest N retention (47% of ingested N) and the lowest total N and ammonia-N excretion of O. mykiss.
Article
The content of digestible energy (DE) in various fish meals, soya protein concentrate and soya bean meal was determined in compound diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The determinations were performed using casein with a known digestibility in trout, as a reference compound. In the determination of DE of fish feed ingredients, the test sample was exchanged with casein in the test diet. Cr2O3 was used as an inert marker, and faeces was obtained by stripping. The determination differentiated between various qualities of fish meal. Digestibility coefficients for energy in fish meals of `high quality' (five samples), `medium quality' (three samples) and `fair average quality' (FAQ) (one sample) were determined to be 97.3, 94.1 and 85.3%, respectively. Corresponding values for apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) for protein were 89.3, 86.4 and 76.7%, respectively. The directly determined values for DE were in good agreement with values obtained by calculation based on the chemical composition of the ingredient, the ADC for protein, fat and carbohydrate and the respective combustion values for these nutrients. Absolute values of soya products could be questioned due to decreased digestibility of carbohydrate with increased inclusion level and due to possible nutrient interference. An average value for DE based on five different samples of special-quality Norwegian fish meal (Norse-LT94®) was determined to be 20.5±0.3 MJ kg−1 dry matter (dm). One sample of soya protein concentrate and extracted soya bean meal had values of 12.6±1.0 and 11.0±0.9 MJ kg−1 of dm. Digestibility coefficients for energy and protein were found to be higher in fish reared in freshwater compared to saltwater.
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate how the replacement of LT-fish meal by a 3.5:1 mixture of an experimentally produced partially deshelled krill meal (PDKM) and a pea protein concentrate (PPC) affected growth rate, digestibility of main nutrients and minerals, fluoride accumulation and histology in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Five extruded diets were fed to salmon with an average weight of 546 g, distributed into 15 tanks equipped with flow through sea water. During extrusion, increased krill meal resulted in increased lipid content in the feed mash and subsequently decreased pellet expansion and decreased pellet water stability. The salmon had an optimum growth rate with a PDKM/PPC inclusion of 400 g kg− 1. Starch digestibility decreased and lipid digestibility increased with increasing PDKM/PPC inclusion. Fluoride in faeces increased linearly with increasing dietary fluoride levels. Plasma cholesterol decreased with increased PDKM/PPC inclusion, whereas no major differences were seen for triglycerides, free fatty acids, glucose, or bile acids. Fish fed increased dietary PDKM/PPC showed an increased prevalence of mild to moderate nephrosis.
Article
Two five-week growth trials were conducted using mixture methodology to optimize a reference diet for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, (0.47 g and 0.41 g initial weight in Trial 1 and Trial 2, respectively) using krill meal (Trial 1 only), menhaden fishmeal, squid meal, and soy protein isolate (SPI). In Trial 1, the combination of ingredients yielding the highest final weight was fish:squid:SPI:krill 34.1:44.9:20.2:0.8. Because of its relative ineffectiveness, krill meal was removed in Trial 2. The optimum combination of ingredients was fish:squid:SPI 0.0:80.6:19.4%. Increasing SPI beyond 20% relative inclusion rapidly reduced final weight. Both trials indicated that a blend of marine ingredients and SPI base mixes at a ratio of approximately 4:1 optimized the final weight of the shrimp. In Trial 2, fishmeal was found to be marginally lower in nutritional quality than that of squid meal. These results indicate that mixture methodology is effective in optimizing diets for shrimp.
Article
Cereal Chem. 8201:341-344 Field pea has ct23 1 1r protein. 48C/r starch. 81t sugars. 4% lipids, 7% crude fiber, and 3% ash. Pill at I x 14,000. 3 x 14.000. 9 x 14.000. and 12 x 14,000 rpm followed by air classification according to particle size resulted in fine fractions (<18 pm) with high protein content and coarser fractions (>18 pm) with high starch content. The yield of the high protein fraction increased with the intensity of grinding before air classification. The starch content of the high starch fraction increased with the intensity of grinding and subsequent air classification. Both whole pea and dehulled pea responded well to line grinding and air classification, and the dehulted pea gave higher protein content and higher starch content than the corresponding fraction from whole pea. The protein fraction had high lysine content and met all the amino acid requirements of the World Health Organization for children older than two years and adults. Field pea (Pi.sum sativwn) is a legume with w23% protein and 48% starch on a dry basis. In 2003, the United States contributed 266.490 tons to the total world pea production of 10,248,008 metric tons (http://faostat.fao.org). There is good potential to increase field pea production in the United States, especially by planting held pea before soybean, wheat, or grain sorghum so that two crops call harvested in one year. Besides starch and protein, Reichert and MacKenzie (1982) reported Trapper field pea had 4% total lipids, 3% ash, and 8% total sugars including 0.7% raffinose, 1.8% stachyose. and 2.4% verbascose. Eclipse field peas contain 2.7% sucrose. 0.5% fructose, and 0.4% each glucose and maltose (N. N. Nichols et al, unpublished). Vose et al (1976) found Trapper field pea had 7% crude fiber and Igbasan et al (1997) reported 12 pea eultivars with 19-22% dietary fiber. Chick pea, pea, and cowpeas have similar protein and total carbohydrate content, but chick pea has considerably higher fat content (Meiners et al 1976). Vose et al (1976) reported air classification of field pea flour yielded a high protein fraction and a crude starch fraction. Tyler and Panchuk (1982) found that reductions in field pea seed moisture were accompanied by declines in starch fraction yield, protein contents of the starch and protein fractions, and starch separation efficiency. Reichert (1982) sttidied air classification of peas varying widely in protein content. Sosulski et al (1987) corn-pared air classifiers for separation of protein and starch in legumes, including field peas. The physicochemical characteristics of some pea flour fractions have been examined (Maarotifi et al 2000). However, no study of the effect of intensity of grinding on air classification of field peas was available. Although it is possible to obtain a fraction with higher protein content by wet processing (Madsen and Buechbjerg 1987: Tian et al 1999), air classification is considerably less expensive. The high protein fraction has good functional properties (Sosulski anti Mc-Curdy 1987) and can find use in food because there is an increasing interest among vegetarians and health-conscious people to consume plant proteins, which have no cholesterol and low saturated fat content. The crude starch fraction has the potential to yield ethanol by fermentation (N. N. Nichols ci al unpublished). Here, we des-cribe the effect of intensity of grinding on the separation of field pea protein and starch fractions by air classification.