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Are women more likely to pursue social and environmental entrepreneurship

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... At the country level, the economic development of the country is considered (Sengupta et al., 2018). GEM data highlight differences in the number of SE across countries and different studies evidence that the country's economic development has a positive effect on the entrepreneur's social orientation Bacq et al., 2016;Brieger et al., 2020;Estrin et al., 2013Estrin et al., , 2016Hechavarria et al., 2012;Levie & Hart, 2011;Marín et al., 2019;Muralidharan & Pathak, 2018;Nicolás et al., 2018;Nicolás & Rubio, 2012;Pathak & Muralidharan, 2016;Stephan et al., 2015;van Ryzin et al., 2009 AGE Age under 34, between 34 and 54 and over 54 Bacq et al., 2016;Brieger et al., 2020;Estrin et al., 2013Estrin et al., , 2016Hechavarria et al., 2012;Hechavarría et al., 2017;Levie & Hart, 2011;Marín et al., 2019;Muralidharan & Pathak, 2018;Nicolás et al., 2018;Nicolás & Rubio, 2012;Pathak & Muralidharan, 2016;Stephan et al., 2015;van Ryzin et al., 2009 EDUC Primary, secondary or higher education Bacq et al., 2016;Brieger et al., 2020;Estrin et al., 2013Estrin et al., , 2016Harding, 2007;Hechavarría, 2016;Hechavarria et al., 2012;Hechavarría et al., 2017;Levie & Hart, 2011;Marín et al., 2019;Muralidharan & Pathak, 2018;Nicolás et al., 2018;Nicolás & Rubio, 2012;Pathak & Muralidharan, 2016;Stephan et al., 2015 COUNTRY-LEVEL FACTORS ...
... At the country level, the economic development of the country is considered (Sengupta et al., 2018). GEM data highlight differences in the number of SE across countries and different studies evidence that the country's economic development has a positive effect on the entrepreneur's social orientation Bacq et al., 2016;Brieger et al., 2020;Estrin et al., 2013Estrin et al., , 2016Hechavarria et al., 2012;Levie & Hart, 2011;Marín et al., 2019;Muralidharan & Pathak, 2018;Nicolás et al., 2018;Nicolás & Rubio, 2012;Pathak & Muralidharan, 2016;Stephan et al., 2015;van Ryzin et al., 2009 AGE Age under 34, between 34 and 54 and over 54 Bacq et al., 2016;Brieger et al., 2020;Estrin et al., 2013Estrin et al., , 2016Hechavarria et al., 2012;Hechavarría et al., 2017;Levie & Hart, 2011;Marín et al., 2019;Muralidharan & Pathak, 2018;Nicolás et al., 2018;Nicolás & Rubio, 2012;Pathak & Muralidharan, 2016;Stephan et al., 2015;van Ryzin et al., 2009 EDUC Primary, secondary or higher education Bacq et al., 2016;Brieger et al., 2020;Estrin et al., 2013Estrin et al., , 2016Harding, 2007;Hechavarría, 2016;Hechavarria et al., 2012;Hechavarría et al., 2017;Levie & Hart, 2011;Marín et al., 2019;Muralidharan & Pathak, 2018;Nicolás et al., 2018;Nicolás & Rubio, 2012;Pathak & Muralidharan, 2016;Stephan et al., 2015 COUNTRY-LEVEL FACTORS ...
... At the country level, the economic development of the country is considered (Sengupta et al., 2018). GEM data highlight differences in the number of SE across countries and different studies evidence that the country's economic development has a positive effect on the entrepreneur's social orientation Bacq et al., 2016;Brieger et al., 2020;Estrin et al., 2013Estrin et al., , 2016Hechavarria et al., 2012;Levie & Hart, 2011;Marín et al., 2019;Muralidharan & Pathak, 2018;Nicolás et al., 2018;Nicolás & Rubio, 2012;Pathak & Muralidharan, 2016;Stephan et al., 2015;van Ryzin et al., 2009 AGE Age under 34, between 34 and 54 and over 54 Bacq et al., 2016;Brieger et al., 2020;Estrin et al., 2013Estrin et al., , 2016Hechavarria et al., 2012;Hechavarría et al., 2017;Levie & Hart, 2011;Marín et al., 2019;Muralidharan & Pathak, 2018;Nicolás et al., 2018;Nicolás & Rubio, 2012;Pathak & Muralidharan, 2016;Stephan et al., 2015;van Ryzin et al., 2009 EDUC Primary, secondary or higher education Bacq et al., 2016;Brieger et al., 2020;Estrin et al., 2013Estrin et al., , 2016Harding, 2007;Hechavarría, 2016;Hechavarria et al., 2012;Hechavarría et al., 2017;Levie & Hart, 2011;Marín et al., 2019;Muralidharan & Pathak, 2018;Nicolás et al., 2018;Nicolás & Rubio, 2012;Pathak & Muralidharan, 2016;Stephan et al., 2015 COUNTRY-LEVEL FACTORS ...
Chapter
Despite the increasing research in the field of social entrepreneurship (SE), unfortunately there is not yet consensus on its conceptualization. The main points of disagreement are related to the business mission and to the source of income. Based on these two dimensions and a bottom-up approach, this chapter contributes to previous literature by proposing and empirically exploring a categorization of three types of social entrepreneurs—socially responsible entrepreneur (SRE), social enterprise entrepreneur (SEE), and social initiative entrepreneur (SIE)—which is applied empirically to explore the social entrepreneurs' personal characteristics (gender, age, and education), similarities, and differences. Multinomial logistic regressions are applied on an international sample of GEM data that includes 11,280 commercial entrepreneurs and 3,373 social entrepreneurs. The findings of the study will permit researchers and practitioners to understand previous empirical findings on social entrepreneurship more clearly and to advance in the study of this evolving phenomenon.
... Being influenced by social roles and stereotypes, such as cooperative and altruistic behavior (Nicolás & Rubio, 2016), female business owners tend to be much more engaged than male owners in business activities that involve social and environmental objectives (Braun, 2010). In terms of women's role as business owners, studies find that women in ownership positively impact the environment and socially responsible activities (Braun, 2010;Hechavarria, Ingram, Justo, & Terjesen, 2012). ...
... As previously noted, existing studies report a positive relationship between female ownership and firm-level environmental performance (Dam & Scholtens, 2013). Female-owned enterprises tend to implement more environmentally responsible practices (Hechavarria et al., 2012), and female-owned firms are three times more likely to become B-Corporation certified than other firms (Grimes, Gehman, & Cao, 2018). Being influenced by social roles and stereotypes, such as altruistic mindsets (Nicolás & Rubio, 2016) and sustainable attitudes, female business owners tend to become more involved in environmental and social activities in a firm (Hechavarria et al., 2012). ...
... Female-owned enterprises tend to implement more environmentally responsible practices (Hechavarria et al., 2012), and female-owned firms are three times more likely to become B-Corporation certified than other firms (Grimes, Gehman, & Cao, 2018). Being influenced by social roles and stereotypes, such as altruistic mindsets (Nicolás & Rubio, 2016) and sustainable attitudes, female business owners tend to become more involved in environmental and social activities in a firm (Hechavarria et al., 2012). ...
Article
When confronting credit constraints, female-led or -owned firms may adopt environmental assurances to increase access to credit. However, this depends on how financial institutions integrate gender diversity and environmental risk into the rating phase of their credit management system. This study uses comprehensive firm-level data from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) across 39 countries to uncover the relationship between environmental assurances and access to finance and to investigate whether this relationship varies by the gender composition of firms. The gender relations of firms are measured in terms of leadership and ownership. We find that environmental assurances have a significant impact on access to finance, although the impact is sensitive to the gender composition of firm leadership. While environmental assurance raises the probability of having loan applications approved for male-led firms, the opposite is true for female-led firms. In general, female ownership does not affect access to finance, regardless of environmental assurances. Collectively, the findings provide policy implications for improving the efficiency of financial markets and managerial implications for evaluating the impacts of firm-gender composition on access to finance.
... This variable was operationalised as the number of team members. Moreover, past studies in other thematic contexts (e.g., Hechavarria et al., 2012;Spiegler and Halberstadt, 2018) have suggested that the gender of the entrepreneurial team is expected to hold a certain influence on the dependent variables. The variable female founder was operationalised as the percentage of female members among the core founding team. ...
... According to these authors, familiarity-based bricolage remains more present for low-tech activities, such as coaching or event social entrepreneurship. It is interesting to note that women are mostly present in these fields due to their higher concern with the common good and their more altruistic behaviour (Hechavarria et al., 2012). From another perspective, our results could also explain the strong presence of bricolage in social entrepreneurship because of the feminine orientation nature of the social entrepreneurship sector, especially considering the use of technology in a digitalisation context (Altinay and Altinay, 2018). ...
... This variable was operationalised as the number of team members. Moreover, past studies in other thematic contexts (e.g., Hechavarria et al., 2012;Spiegler and Halberstadt, 2018) have suggested that the gender of the entrepreneurial team is expected to hold a certain influence on the dependent variables. The variable female founder was operationalised as the percentage of female members among the core founding team. ...
... According to these authors, familiaritybased bricolage remains more present for low-tech activities, such as coaching or event social entrepreneurship. It is interesting to note that women are mostly present in these fields due to their higher concern with the common good and their more altruistic behavior (Hechavarria, Ingram, Justo, and Terjesen, 2012). From another perspective, our results could also explain the strong presence of bricolage in social entrepreneurship because of the feminine orientation nature of the social entrepreneurship sector, especially considering the use of technology in a digitalization context (Altinay, and Altinay, 2018). ...
Thesis
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Influencia del contexto en el proceso emprendedor y el desempeño innovador de las empresas creadas y dirigidas por mujeres en Ecuador
Chapter
Every so often, a research study has a profound impact on a field by calling into question previously held assumptions and by generating new avenues of understanding that form the foundation for subsequent studies. In their seminal piece, A Gendered Perspective on Organizational Creation, Barbra Bird and Candida Brush (2002) draw from three theoretical frameworks (Jungian psychology, cognitive and moral development, and feminist theory) to develop a new and more balanced perspective on organizational creation that reflects both feminine and masculine perspectives in the venture creation process and new venture attributes.
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The most populous country in the world after China, India has an untapped resource of 48.04 per cent of its women population. Women being the backbone of a family, the homemaker who runs her home elegantly, when stepped into the shoes of entrepreneurs, fail to complete her marathon and be the winner! Despite the improved social parameters, women with innovative ideas are stagnated in the society due to various reasons such as inaccessibility to get the required finance, lack of technological know-how, social stigmas and the decline in labour trends. To be self-reliant, a nation like India cannot ignore its women population blessed with her "Midas touch". According to Global Alliance for Mass Entrepreneurship, there can be 31.5 million women-owned enterprises by 2030, if the efforts in this area happen to be genuine and accelerated. Around 150 to 170 million jobs can be created within this time frame, if women come in the forefront to undertake entrepreneurship. Also if more women participated in the workforce, it is expected to increase India's GDP by 16 cent by 2025. Government support with various Atma Nirbharta schemes, self-help groups and the helping hands extended by National and International organisations, no doubt will contribute to greater women participation in nation building.
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Literature on the creation of organizations is often cast within a masculine gender framework. This paper draws from three theoretical perspectives to develop a new perspective that broadens the view of organizational creation by encompassing the relative balance of feminine and masculine perspectives in the entrepreneur's venture start-up process and new venture attributes. We elaborate the relatively less visible feminine and personal perspective and compare this with the traditional or masculine perspective. Important to the discussion is the distinction between biology (sex: male and female, man and woman) and socialized perspectives (gender: masculine and feminine). While research and the general public often use the concept of gender loosely to signify sex, we follow a more precise feminist distinction. The paper advances new concepts of gender-maturity (an individual difference) and gender-balance (an organizational quality).
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This study examines the reasons 129 women executives and professionals left large organizations to become entrepreneurs and how they measure success. Findings indicate that the women's most important entrepreneurial motivations were the desire for challenge and self-determination and the desire to balance family and work responsibilities. Also important were blocks to career advancement in large organizations, including discrimination, and organizational dynamics. These entrepreneurs measure success in terms of self-fulfillment and goal achievement. Profits and business growth, while important, were less substantial measures of their success. Motivation to become entrepreneurs was related to the criteria the women used to measure their success.
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We engage in a critical theoretical exercise to extend the boundaries of entrepreneur-ship theory and research by reframing "entrepreneurship as positive economic activity" to "entrepreneurship as social change." Reframing entrepreneurship through feminist analytical lenses, we argue that more theoretical frameworks are needed for exploring the varieties of social change that entrepreneurship may bring about. We also discuss what difference this would make in extant entrepreneurship perspectives. Theoretically, methodologically, and analytically, such reframing is the main contribution of this paper.
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During 1999, Counterpart International, Inc., a global partnership organization with its headquarters in the United States, introduced "social enterprise" to Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Ukraine via a training and granting program that lasted until 2002. This article explores the potential benefits and risks that taking up strategies of social enterprise present for NGO leaders in Ukraine, examining in particular the possible effects for women NGO activists as they struggle to navigate post-socialist political, social, and economic transformations. As it has unfolded in Ukraine, social enterprise is an NGO development strategy implicitly directed towards women, who dominate in certain types of caring-focused NGOs. It is thus important to assess the potential of social enterprise initiatives to empower women in Ukraine's emerging civil society and market economy.
Book
The twentieth century gave rise to profound changes in traditional sex roles. This study reveals how modernization has changed cultural attitudes towards gender equality and analyzes the political consequences. It systematically compares attitudes towards gender equality worldwide, comparing almost 70 nations, ranging from rich to poor, agrarian to postindustrial. This volume is essential reading to gain a better understanding of issues in comparative politics, public opinion, political behavior, development and sociology. © Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Norris 2003 and Cambridge University Press, 2009.