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Ute på dagis: hur använder barn daghemsgården?: utformningen av daghemsgården och dess betydelse för lek, motorik och koncentrationsförmåga.

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Abstract

Outdoors at day nurseries. Layout of playgrounds and its effect on play, motor function and power of concentration
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... Miljön bör präglas av en balans mellan mångfald, oordning och ordning skriver Skantze (1998) där barnet kan uppleva med kropp, känslor och sinnen. Miljöpsykologin (Grahn 1997) menar att det finns ett samband mellan miljöns utformning och människans agerande. Vi skapar ett sammanhang i tillvaron i samspel med miljön runtomkring oss. ...
... Vi skapar ett sammanhang i tillvaron i samspel med miljön runtomkring oss. Utemiljön kan uppfattas som en trygg ram där spontana aktiviteter kan ske, den kan vara utformad så att den underlättar det sociala samspelet mellan barnen och inspirerar dem till att upptäcka sin omgivning skriver Grahn (1997). Med mycket naturmaterial och ett rikt utbud av platser främjas leken och det sociala samspelet ökar. ...
... Med mycket naturmaterial och ett rikt utbud av platser främjas leken och det sociala samspelet ökar. Barn behöver platser för aktivitet men också undanskymda platser där de kan dra sig undan för att vila och hämta kraft skriver Grahn (1997). ...
... Interaktionen mellan barnet och den fysiska miljön är synnerligen aktiv. Miljön är en påtagligt och intensivt upplevd del av det sammanhang som barnet lever i (Gitz-Johanssen et al., 2001;Grahn, 1997). Barns aktiviteter kan både hindras och stimuleras i olika typer av rum. ...
... I en naturlig miljö sammanfaller människans önskemål och behov med det som miljön då erbjuder och kräver. Grahn (1997) anser att det är lättare för människan att känna en helhet mellan själva miljön och de önskemål hon har i en naturlig miljö. Miljön är liksom mer följsam om den är utformad på det sättet. ...
... Ängård (2009) Enligt Laike (1995) leker barn bättre i en miljö med hög grad av enhetlighet och hög grad av komplexitet. Grahn (1997) säger att barn leker bättre i en miljö som de lättare kan omforma efter sina behov. En naturlig miljö kan man analysera som en miljö med hög grad av enhetlighet och samtidigt en hög grad av komplexitet. ...
Research
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Avhandling i pedagogik. Om möjligheter och begränsningar i förskolans fysiska miljö.
... Genom utomhuspedagogiken skapas en mer rörelseintensiv lärandeform i förskoleklass och skola vilket uppmärksammats av flera vetenskapliga studier som fokuserar våra relationer till den fysiska miljön (t.ex. Grahn, et al., 1997). En allt mindre rörelseintensiv livsmiljö där människan kan få utlopp för sitt evolutionära behov av naturlig rörelse, är sannolikt en av flera orsaker till samhällets höga ohälsotal. Lusten att lära är rimligen avhängig av förnimmelsen av hälsa och välbefinnande . Bakgrunden till läroplanstilläggen inom dessa områden är ett ökat antal ...
... Det visar sig också att förskolegårdar med en stor yta och en större biologisk mångfald stimulerar till utökad tid utomhus. Den goda platsen för yngre barn är " sandlådan " , men också rumsbildande gröna miljöer som skapar " personal space " , utmaningar, spänning och fascination samt möjlighet till vila och reflektion (Grahn, et al., 1997 ). Bland ytterligare studier som bekräftar dessa effekter av utevistelsens positiva betydelse för vår hälsa, motoriska utveckling, koncentrationsförmåga och lärande kan nämnas (Fjørtoft, 2000, Ericsson, 2003 och Nilsson, 2003). ...
... An All Party Parliamentary Committee (2015) in England recommends the use of natural materials as part of good design of play areas for children. Diverse natural places have been identified as more inspiring and imaginative for children, compared with well-organized playgrounds that show children what to do (Grahn, 1997;Gundersen, Frivold, Myking, & Øyen, 2006;Rydberg, 1998). ...
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Based on a nationwide Norwegian survey among 3160 parents of children aged 6–12 years, this article identifies and discusses barriers for children’s engagement with nearby nature. A set of social factors related to time pressure are evaluated as more significant barriers than environmental factors such as accessibility, safety and landscape quality. Children’s free play in nearby nature does not seem to be an alternative to a target-orientated and time-scheduled everyday life. Instead, parents give themselves, other adults and public institutions more responsibility to stimulate increased nature contact. Despite strong traditions in outdoor life and good accessibility to nearby nature, social and cultural trends seem to influence children’s engagement with nature in the same way in ‘Green Norway’ as it does in many other European countries. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of policy and promotion according to nature management and adults’ roles.
... Det är ingen tvekan om att fysisk aktivitet och rörelse är faktorer som gör oss friskare. Tillgång till en omväxlande utomhusmiljö med mycket träd och växter gör barnen friskare och mer koncentrerade (Grahn, Mårtensson, Lindblad, Nilsson & Ekman, 1997). Samtidigt gör en omväxlande utomhusmiljö att man tar fler steg i minuten än barn som inte har den miljön, vilket betyder att man alltså rör sig mer än andra barn. ...
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El presente trabajo muestra una propuesta de investigación en el campo de la educación ambiental, que tiene como propósito establecer y comparar el grado de concentración y autocontrol de niños y niñas educados tanto en escuelas “al aire libre” y/o en ambientes rurales como en escuelas tradicionales y/o urbanas. La investigación se realizará implementando entrevistas y aplicando pruebas especializadas reportadas en la literatura que posibilitarán hacer un análisis comparativo e interpretativo de tipo cuantitativo. Vale señalar, que cada vez son más los estudios que señalan al aire libre, la naturaleza y en general las zonas verdes como los ambientes más propicios para un mejor aprendizaje en los niños y niñas, teniendo en cuenta que, en los contextos urbanos los desordenes por déficit de naturaleza van en alza, se ve pertinente realizar estrategias orientadas a la aplicación del modelo “escuela al aire libre” en Hispanoamérica, fortaleciendo este tipo de educación como un modelo eficaz a la hora de superar problemáticas propias de las ciudades y aumentar el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes
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The design and location of green outdoor areas close to people’s home affect their health. Above all, having some sort of outdoor area has a noticeable effect. Those who live in blocks of flats without balconies experience considerably more stress and tiredness. If one has a balcony, the values for stress and tiredness experienced are significantly lower, reduced by 27% and 28% respectively. Those who have access to allotments or gardens are best off. Those who have gardens of more than 600 square metres experience the discomfort of stress only half as often as those who live in blocks of flats without balconies. The differences regarding tiredness are even greater. Those who have their own gardens suffer from tiredness only 42% as often as those who live in blocks of flats without balconies. These values are statistically verified. The group of people living in blocks of flats without balconies does not include people who have holiday cottages or who rent allotments, who are significantly healthier. Whether one lives in the centre or on the periphery of a town has an effect, regardless of type of dwelling. The incidence of tiredness, irritation, and headaches increases significantly the nearer one lives to the centre. An interesting question is if there is any significance to being able to see parks and green areas from the windows of one's workplace. The answers in this investigation show that the effects are in fact noticeable. Comparisons have been made between people who have similar jobs and who do not spend any of their work time out of doors. If parks and green areas can be seen from the window during the working day, people at the workplace are much fitter. For example, these people experience painful irritation only 25% as often as those without a view from a window, and experience uncomfortable stress only 40% as often. These figures are statistically verified.
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