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Abstract

Pesticides are widely used, now-a-days, during production of food. Farmers use pesticides to control the growth of weeds and prevent crop damage by insects, rodents and molds. After harvest, they are used to increase the storage life and prevent spoilage. Pesticides may also be used on animal farms to control insect-pests. Sometimes, small amount of pesticides used in these ways, remains in or on foods which is known as pesticide residues. Pesticide residues are a public health concern and have been linked to a range of diseases and disorders. To avoid the contamination of food with pesticides, farmers should use alternative methods like integrated pest management (IPM), crop rotation or organic farming. Consumers should also consume organic food products to escape from the harmful effects of pesticides.
... Exposure to pesticides can be associated with numerous negative health effects such as dermatological, gastrointestinal, carcinogenic, respiratory, reproductive, and neurological effects. Long-term exposure to pesticides can cause chronic effects on health [76]. ...
... Exposure to pesticides can be associated with numerous negative health effects such as dermatological, gastrointestinal, carcinogenic, respiratory, reproductive, and neurological effects. Longterm exposure to pesticides can cause chronic effects on health [76]. ...
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Over the past two decades, there has been an alarming decline in the number of honey bee colonies. This phenomenon is called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Bee products play a significant role in human life and have a huge impact on agriculture, therefore bees are an economically important species. Honey has found its healing application in various sectors of human life, as well as other bee products such as royal jelly, propolis, and bee pollen. There are many putative factors of CCD, such as air pollution, GMO, viruses, or predators (such as wasps and hornets). It is, however , believed that pesticides and microorganisms play a huge role in the mass extinction of bee colonies. Insecticides are chemicals that are dangerous to both humans and the environment. They can cause enormous damage to bees' nervous system and permanently weaken their immune system , making them vulnerable to other factors. Some of the insecticides that negatively affect bees are, for example, neonicotinoids, coumaphos, and chlorpyrifos. Microorganisms can cause various diseases in bees, weakening the health of the colony and often resulting in its extinction. Infection with microorganisms may result in the need to dispose of the entire hive to prevent the spread of pathogens to other hives. Many aspects of the impact of pesticides and microorganisms on bees are still unclear. The need to deepen knowledge in this matter is crucial, bearing in mind how important these animals are for human life.
... The people exposed to pesticides via either of the following three; people with direct exposure (those individuals participated in agricultural activities), members of a community with indirect exposure, and consumers. Earlier report pointed out about potential health effects of pesticides on the risks of acute intoxication among people with direct exposure [31]. Additional the risks of chronic intoxication and environmental contamination also justified by longitudinal data. ...
... This is as the result of might be chronic exposure to pesticides that considered as one relevant factor. As other studies exposed some of pesticide such as fumigants and insecticides cumulative exposure had neurological symptoms are associated [29,31,34]. ...
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Societies have been used various chemical substances for different purposes specifically due to the rapidly evolving technology, in such situations, they exposed to several types of substances with a broad spectrum. Among these chemical substance groups, the most frequently used is pesticides, they play crucial roles in agriculture to protect crops and livestock from pest infestations and yield reduction for many decades. Despite their importance, pesticides could have potential risks to the environment, food safety, the health status of individuals, and all living things. About the environmental impact concern, repeated use of pesticide abrupt effect on the environmental pollution, which can emigrate from treated fields to air, another land, and water bodies. The issue of pesticides on human health and environmental risks has emerged as a key problem for these countries in accordance with a number of studies. Even though pesticide usages increased the quantity and improved the quality of food in the last five decades, with the increasing amounts of their usage, concern about their adverse effects on non-target organisms, including human beings, has also grown. The purpose of this narrative review is to explain the nature of pesticides and their history, classification, risks, and effects on health and the environment after navigating and reviewing several pieces of literature. Keywords: Environmental Impact; Organophosphate; Organo Chlorine; Pesticide Human Health
... Chronic effects appear after 24 h which includes carcinogenic effects, like leukemia, breast cancer, brain cancer, bladder and colon cancer, thyroid cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and neurotoxicity in the CNS and PNS like Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (Singh et al. 2017;Asghar et al. 2016). It has been reported that organochlorine and organophosphate activate oncogene and induce tumor growth, cause endocrine disorders and hepatic and hematological complications, have effects on embryonic developments, and alter cellular metabolism of protein, carbohydrate, and fat (Kumar et al. 2012.;Singh et al. 2017;Vakonaki et al. 2013). ...
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Water is an essential moiety for the human use since a long time. Availability of good-quality water is very essential, as it is used in almost all the industrial, agricultural, and household activities. However, several factors such as increased urbanization and industrialization, extensive use of chemicals, natural weathering of rocks, and human ignorance led to incorporation of enormous toxicants into the water. The water toxicants are broadly classified as inorganic, organic, and radiological toxicants. Inorganic toxicants include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) and metalloids, ammonia, nitrate, and fluoride. Uranium is included in radiological toxicants which also causes chemical toxicity. Organic pollutants include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, phenolic compounds, phthalate esters, pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care products, perchlorates, and flame retardants. These toxicants are harmful for the ecosystem as well as for the human beings causing different types of health complications like lung cancer, nasal cancer, gingivitis, severe vomiting and abdominal pain, hormonal imbalance, skeletal damage, neurotoxicity like Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, renal toxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. The USEPA and WHO specified the permissible concentration of these pollutants in the drinking water. Determination techniques having high sensitivity, low cost, rapid onsite, and real-time detection of traces of water pollutants are discussed. This review also covers in depth about the remediation techniques, for the control of water toxicants, such as chelation of the heavy metals, intoxication of pollutants using various plants, adsorption of toxicants using different sorbent medias, and photocatalytic breakdown of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Graphical abstract
... Other dreadful effects of pesticides are headache, impaired vision, problem in breathing, lack of coordination, and fall in heartbeat. Long term exposure to pesticides causes skin allergies along with sneezing, cough, rashes, blisters and asthma [14]. ...
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Contamination of natural resources by unwanted harmful chemical species is increasing day by day. After the use of pesticides in agricultural fields, some harmful residues are always left behind which become the major source of pollution. Among all the pollutants, toxic residues of agricultural pesticides cause numerous diseases as they directly pollute soil and water. Biodegradation by microorganisms is a natural process for eliminating pesticides whereas physical adsorption, membrane separation and advanced oxidation process are also used for removing pesticides. These methods are time consuming and unable to attain complete degradation of pesticide residues. Recently, various organic and inorganic compounds have been synthesized to achieve the targeted goal. Semiconductor materials have a tendency to generate electron-hole charge carriers which further contribute towards oxidation and reduction of pesticides. Large band gap value and fast recombination rate of charge carriers in basic semiconductor materials reduces their catalytic properties. Advancement in this field has been achieved by fabricating a composite by combination of two semiconductors having different band gap values. This newly formed composite exhibited excellent results for photocatalytic degradation of pesticides. The present review focuses on discussion of heterojunctions used for pesticide degradation and their catalytic efficiency in UV or visible radiations. Various investigations have proved that these synthesized materials are cost effective and efficient for utilization as photocatalysts for abating the pollution caused by pesticides.
... Similarly, pesticides in fish products are a sign of contamination and pose a serious threat to human health as they accumulate in human body fats [13]. Acute symptoms of pesticide poisoning include numbness, incoordination, headache, dizziness, tremor, nausea, abdominal cramps, respiratory depression, etc. [14]. ...
... were highlighted largely during the last 50 years, which have pointed out ecosystem destruction, chemical toxicity at different food chain, hyperaccumulation of toxic chemicals in higher rank of consumers, development of commercial pesticide resistance among pests, and acute soil and water toxicity that delivered huge impacts on agriculture and human health (Gerwick and Sparks, 2014). It was noted that unprecedented use of chemical pesticides contributed to the development of chronic human diseases and disorders related to the respiratory system, reproduction system, and neurodegenerative diseases (Hernandez et al., 2010) as well as cancer and disease related to metabolism toxicity (Hakeem et al., 2016;Kumar et al., 2012;Mostafalou and Abdollahi, 2017). Hence, there was an urgency to opt for more sustainable approaches like biopesticides for long. ...
Chapter
Endophytes play a vital role in the survival of host plants by aiding defense responses by producing bioactive compounds similar to their host plants. To fulfill the ever-increasing demand for herbal drugs to cure human ailments, researchers are searching for the various sources of bioactive compounds besides medicinal plants. It was reported that in the international market, the demand of 3 kg per year of vinca alkaloids (1.5×106 kg dry leaves are required) to develop powerful plant-derived anticancer drugs. In this regard, this review aims to highlight the endophytes residing in Catharanthus roseus (family: Apocynaceae), capable of synthesizing indole alkaloids, vinblastine, vincristine, vindoline, vinflunine, vincamine, ajmalicine, ajmaline, serpentine, and reserpine used to control cancer, diabetes, malaria, vascular dementia, cardiac diseases, etc. In the search to fulfill the demand, there is urgent need to develop an efficient method of isolation, identification of endophytes, and the down-streaming process for more efficient and sustainable production of vinca alkaloids from endophytic fungus for the cancer treatment products. Microbial fermentation by optimizing media composition, precursors, inducers, and the metabolic bypass inhibitors would be a promising method in the production of vinca alkaloids at industrial scale. Furthermore, different biotechnological strategies such as gene cloning, gene transformation, and mutations can widely be used on endophytic fungi and bacteria in order to increase the productivity of the vinca alkaloids. Thus, advancements in science and technology have increased the extraction yield from vinca alkaloid producing endophytes, thereby improving the overall efficiency of alkaloid production.
Chapter
Cavitation based on advanced oxidation processes (Cav-AOPs) is interesting alternatives for already implemented wastewater treatment technologies. Destructive and strongly undesirable phenomena in the industry, i.e., cavitation, revealed to be useful in a positive manner as a source of energy for chemical reactions. During the implosion of cavitation bubbles, focused energy and resulting high temperature and pressure allows to effectively degrade many chemical compounds present in the cavitated liquid phase. The main reactions taking place in the cavitation zone are the thermal decomposition of chemical moieties as well as oxidation with dissolved oxygen and hydroxyl radicals produced during the implosion of cavitation bubbles. Great interest on this topic is supported by an increased number of publications dedicated to several aspects relating to the formation of cavitation phenomena and its application for water and wastewater treatment as well as hybrid processes based on external oxidants providing effective formation of radical species in cavitation conditions. In this chapter, a state of the art of cavitation-based water treatment technologies, including AOPs, as well as recent trends in this field is discussed. The principles of cavitation combined with AOPs are presented, followed by the evaluation of their effectiveness in the oxidation of organic contaminants. A comparison of hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation processes for the same type of pollutants has been discussed. For example, the sanitization (disinfection) of water, as well as the degradation of pollutants including sulfide ions and several groups of organic compounds such as sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen-containing organic compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons, dyes, and pharmaceuticals, has been taken into account while comparing the different cavitation processes.
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Study of surface sub surface soil system behavior is important yet intricate task to understand the nature of hydrological processes owing to high degree of variability within time and space. Soil surface lithology indirectly affects the metal-metalloid release due to various factors geogenic, weathering of rocks, soil formation or deformation, leaching, adsorption or desorption or human anthropogenic resources. Knowledge of arsenic background concentrations is important not only for land application of waste sand making remediation decisions but also in deciding the extent of its distribution in the region. As against safe limits of background soil arsenic level1.0 mg kg -1 existing in suface soil in most parts of Chhattisgarh , levels in few areas like Chowki and Kaurikasa exhibit values far beyond the normal range of background arsenic concentration. Approximately 248 soil samples both from contaminated and non-contaminated sites were collected in replicates, and subsequently analyzed for this purpose. These values indicate a wide variation in the soil arsenic concentration especially in Chowki And Kaurikasa ranging from 45mgkg-1 to approximately 27,000 mgkg-1.
Chapter
Abstract The overpopulation and rapid expansion of urban lifestyles has accelerated global demand of food supply, which has triggered unprecedented destruction of forest land and created a heavy toll on the ecosystem. Each year a large portion of agricultural crops are destroyed by different kind of pest infestations, which ensures the use of chemical pesticides despite their toxic aftereffects. The fungi and fungal metabolites are playing a crucial as well as potential role in the biopesticide industry. The inter- and intraspecific competition, rapid hyphal growth, ability to absorb water and nutrients, and phytoremediation features are critical arsenals of fungal biocontrol agents. A number of secondary metabolites were recognized and certified as biocidal, nematocidal, and weedicidal agents. Here we have provided details of large number of fungal metabolites and fungi and discussed their interesting mechanism of action as biopesticide. This chapter has also highlighted the future-research aspects and commercialization requirements of fungal-biopesticides as an integral part of sustainable agriculture.
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Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (Lindane, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endosulfan, DDT and DDE) residues in beef samples from the Kumasi and Buoho abattoirs in Ghana were determined using gas chromatography. Organochlorine residues were found in all the samples. The average concentration of lindane in beef fat samples from Kumasi was 4.03 µg/kg and 1.79 µg/kg in beef fat from Buoho. The average levels of lindane were 2.07 µg/kg for lean meat samples from Kumasi abattoir and 0.60 µg/kg in lean meat samples from Buoho. Endosulfan concentration in meat samples from Buoho was 2.28 µg/kg in the fat and 0.59 µg/kg in the lean beef. 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-dichlorodiphenyl)ethylene (DDE) recorded mean concentrations of 118.45 µg/kg in beef fat and 42.93 µg/kg in lean beef samples from Kumasi abattoir. Beef samples from Buoho had DDE concentration of 31.89 µg/kg in the fat and 5.86 µg/kg in the lean beef. 1, 1, 1-trichloro-2, 2-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) recorded an average concentration of 545.22 µg/kg in beef fat and 18.85 µg/kg in lean beef samples from Kumasi abattoir. The average concentration of DDT in beef fat from Buoho was 403.82 µg/kg but lean meat samples from the same sampling site recorded mean concentration of 10.82 µg/kg for DDT. Although, most of the organochlorine residues detected were below the maximum limits set by the FAO/WHO, bioaccumulation of these residues is likely to pose health problems in higher organisms like human beings.
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Pesticide use in highland Ecuador is concentrated in the high-risk, commercial production of potatoes. Small farm families experience considerable exposure and adverse health consequences. The authors describe a three-pronged strategy to reduce health impacts: 1) a community-based process of education and provision of personal protective equipment to reduce exposure; 2) farmer field schools to increase agro-ecosystem understanding and to reduce pesticide use; and 3) policy interventions to restructure incentives and to reduce availability of highly toxic insecticides. They discuss the challenges faced by each and the ongoing need for integrated interventions both to reduce adverse pesticide health impacts in the developing world and to promote sustainability of agricultural production in highland ecosystems.
The increasing use of alternative therapies that rely on organically grown foods has renewed interest in the relationship between agricultural methods and food quality. The purpose of this article is to review the literature produced over the last 50 years comparing the nutritional quality of organic with conventional crops. Whereas few studies have been conducted, there is a trend in the data indicating higher nutrient content in organically grown crops. This phenomenon is possibly due to a higher water content in conventional crops, which causes nutrient dilution. For individual nutrients, existing studies show that organic fertilization practices produce crops with higher levels of ascorbic acid, lower levels of nitrate, and improved protein quality compared with conventionally grown crops. Although a theoretical rationale exists for possible effects of herbicides on nutrient content, few studies have examined the effects of these or other pesticides. Animal studies showed better growth and reproduction in animals fed organically grown feed compared with those fed conventionally grown feed. Further research is required to confirm the trends seen in the existing data and to clarify the exact relationships between agricultural management and nutritional quality.