Liver Pathology in Infantile Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Syndrome
Abstract Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome is a rare cause of hepatic dysfunction in the pediatric population. It is caused by mutations in either mitochondrial or nuclear DNA (nDNA) that result in a quantitative reduction in mtDNA and, in turn, dysfunctional oxidative phosphorylation. In infants, it results in the hepatocerebral phenotype characterized by hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy, lactic acidosis, hypoglycemia, lethargy, encephalopathy, developmental delay, and hypotonia. Three infants diagnosed with mtDNA depletion syndrome at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia were identified and their clinical presentation, disease course, and histologic and ultrastructural features of liver samples (premortem and postmortem) were characterized. While a different mutant gene was identified in each child, they all showed clinical evidence of metabolic dysfunction soon after birth and expired by 1 year of age. Steatosis, cholestasis, and cytoplasmic crowding by atypical mitochondria were consistent pathologic liver findings. Other findings included hepatocyte hypereosinophilia, fibrosis, and hemosiderosis. The infantile form of mtDNA depletion syndrome is exceedingly rare with few published case reports. This study presents a series of 3 patients with mtDNA depletion syndrome diagnosed at a single institution. Although the number of affected patients is small, it represents one of the largest reported series and is the first to establish the important clinical and pathologic features of mtDNA depletion syndrome in infants and young children. Recognizing these characteristics will facilitate early recognition and appropriate treatment of this rare disorder. Key Words: DNA depletion, liver, metabolic dysfunction, mitochondria, pediatric.
Available from: Gregory M Enns
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ABSTRACT: Success rates for genomic analyses of highly heterogeneous disorders can be greatly improved if a large cohort of patient data is assembled to enhance collective capabilities for accurate sequence variant annotation, analysis, and interpretation. Indeed, molecular diagnostics requires the establishment of robust data resources to enable data sharing that informs accurate understanding of genes, variants, and phenotypes. The "Mitochondrial Disease Sequence Data Resource (MSeqDR) Consortium" is a grass-roots effort facilitated by the United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation to identify and prioritize specific genomic data analysis needs of the global mitochondrial disease clinical and research community. A central Web portal (https://mseqdr.org) facilitates the coherent compilation, organization, annotation, and analysis of sequence data from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of individuals and families with suspected mitochondrial disease. This Web portal provides users with a flexible and expandable suite of resources to enable variant-, gene-, and exome-level sequence analysis in a secure, Web-based, and user-friendly fashion. Users can also elect to share data with other MSeqDR Consortium members, or even the general public, either by custom annotation tracks or through the use of a convenient distributed annotation system (DAS) mechanism. A range of data visualization and analysis tools are provided to facilitate user interrogation and understanding of genomic, and ultimately phenotypic, data of relevance to mitochondrial biology and disease. Currently available tools for nuclear and mitochondrial gene analyses include an MSeqDR GBrowse instance that hosts optimized mitochondrial disease and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) specific annotation tracks, as well as an MSeqDR locus-specific database (LSDB) that curates variant data on more than 1300 genes that have been implicated in mitochondrial disease and/or encode mitochondria-localized proteins. MSeqDR is integrated with a diverse array of mtDNA data analysis tools that are both freestanding and incorporated into an online exome-level dataset curation and analysis resource (GEM.app) that is being optimized to support needs of the MSeqDR community. In addition, MSeqDR supports mitochondrial disease phenotyping and ontology tools, and provides variant pathogenicity assessment features that enable community review, feedback, and integration with the public ClinVar variant annotation resource. A centralized Web-based informed consent process is being developed, with implementation of a Global Unique Identifier (GUID) system to integrate data deposited on a given individual from different sources. Community-based data deposition into MSeqDR has already begun. Future efforts will enhance capabilities to incorporate phenotypic data that enhance genomic data analyses. MSeqDR will fill the existing void in bioinformatics tools and centralized knowledge that are necessary to enable efficient nuclear and mtDNA genomic data interpretation by a range of shareholders across both clinical diagnostic and research settings. Ultimately, MSeqDR is focused on empowering the global mitochondrial disease community to better define and explore mitochondrial diseases.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Available from: Gregory M Enns
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The purpose of this statement is to review the literature regarding mitochondrial disease and to provide recommendations for optimal diagnosis and treatment. This statement is intended for physicians who are engaged in diagnosing and treating these patients.
The Writing Group members were appointed by the Mitochondrial Medicine Society. The panel included members with expertise in several different areas. The panel members utilized a comprehensive review of the literature, surveys, and the Delphi method to reach consensus. We anticipate that this statement will need to be updated as the field continues to evolve.
Consensus-based recommendations are provided for the diagnosis and treatment of mitochondrial disease.
The Delphi process enabled the formation of consensus-based recommendations. We hope that these recommendations will help standardize the evaluation, diagnosis, and care of patients with suspected or demonstrated mitochondrial disease.Genet Med 17 9, 689-701.
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