Hydrocarbons of Macrocystis pyrifera blades

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... This problem can be solved by showing the difference in contents of the algae collected from various polluted and unpolluted areas 7-9 but it is difficult to decide for an area which is polluted or unpolluted because today the oil contamination was demonstrated for all sea environments. Oil pollution of algae was shown by various authors [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] . Recently 69 aliphatic and 55 aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons were identified from the algae collected from Turkish coasts 6 . ...
... Biogenic compounds detected in Laurencia sp. are: squalene 13 and cytotoxic squalene derivatives in L. obtusa 21 , phytol in L. papillosa 22 , L. tristicha 23 , tetradecanoic acid in L. papillosa 24 , hexadecanoic acid in L. nipponica 25 , octadecanoic acid in L. pinnatifida 26 , fatty acids in Gracilaria bursapastoris 27 , Gracilaria verrucosa and Phyllofora nervosa 27 . Gallaxolide ® pollution was found in L. pyramidalis 9 . ...
... Phytol was previously found in L. papillosa and L. coronopus 22 . In addition, squalene which is the precursor of cholesterol is found in algae by Rossi et al. 13 . The determined fatty acids were commonly found in algae 22,[24][25][26][27][28]30 . ...
In this paper, the exogenic and endogenic compounds in three red algae Gracilaria bursa-pastoris, Phyllophora crispa and Laurencia obtusa var. pyramidata were reported. Exogenic compounds detected are oil components and other pollutants such as, saturated and unsaturated aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons, BHT, nonyl phenol and halogenated compounds as hexachloroethane and 4-chlorophenol. Endogenic compounds were fatty acids and its esters, eicosane, squalene, phytol. The algae can be used for monitoring of the sea pollution.
... 1981 with C,, (Fig. la), conspecifics from polluted waters contained unbranched alkanes in the range of C,,-C*,, as well a s phytane and pristane simultaneously in the hydrocarbon fraction (Fig. l b ) . According to Rossi et al. (1978) the latter is a n indicator of algal pollution by oil hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons in Enteromorpha intestinalis are represented by n-alkanes C,, and CI9 (Fig. 2a ). ...
In order to develop marine biomass as a source of raw materials, a large dependable and economical supply of suitable biomass must be developed; however, our ability to develop such a supply is largely unproven. Although terrestrial biomass has received considerable attention, the development of terrestrial biomass crops has been hampered by competition with food crops, other uses of land and water, and the cost of supplying nutrients.
Volatile hydrocarbons were investigated in 14 marine algae collected in the Black Sea, Dardanelles and Aegean Sea. The algae were extracted with dichloromethan in Soxhlet for 8 h. The extracts were distilled and the volatile compounds of the residue were separated by steam distillation. The distillates were extracted for ether and distilled. The residue analyzed by Gas chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (GC/MS). The identified substances are: in aliphatic group: 19 linear, 20 branched, 19 cyclic alkenes, 18 alkenes, 2 alcohols, 12 aliphatic aldehydes, 2 ketones, on aromatic group: 31 mono ring, 16 naphthalene derivatives, 4 indan derivatives, 2 three rings and three sulfur containing aromatic compounds. Additionally 1 aromatic aldehyde, phenyl alkene derivative were identified. The Pristane/Phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio and the compounds mentioned above inadequate the oil contamination of algae. Comparison of the data published since 1960 with our results shows that the numbers of detected oil compounds are increasing. The anomalous on the hydrocarbons detected in algae can be attributed to oil contamination. Besides these oil compounds (Exogenic), some toxic compounds as phthalates and nonyl phenol were detected in algae sample. The latter compound is originated from degradation of non ionic surfactant. The all oil compound identified in algae were originated from the oil pollution. The origin of some alkenes, aldehydes, alcohols are suspect. These findings show that the algae can be used as indicator in sea water pollution.
Phytotoxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils. The phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of reactive research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for at least 41 crude oils and 56 dispersants. As many as 107 response parameters have been monitored for 85 species of unicellular and multicellular algae, 28 wetland plants, 13 mangroves and 9 seagrasses. Effect concentrations have varied by as much as six orders of magnitude due to experimental diversity. This diversity restricts phytotoxicity predictions and identification of sensitive species, life stages and response parameters. As a result, evidence-based risk assessments for most aquatic plants and petrochemicals and dispersants are not supported by the current toxicity database. A proactive and experimentally-consistent approach is recommended to provide threshold toxic effect concentrations for sensitive life stages of aquatic plants inhabiting diverse ecosystems.
A marine amoeba, Trichosphaerium I-7, originally found feeding on macroalgae in a region of natural oil seepage, was maintained in the laboratory for prolonged periods on hexadecane, octadecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, or 1-bromooctadecane as a carbon source. The cells attached readily and eroded holes in thin layers of these compounds. Crystalline and clear spherical inclusions appeared in the cytoplasm of cells fed these xenobiotics followed by a marked cell darkening. Thin layer chromatographic analyses of acetone extracts from amoebae grown for 12 days on [1-14C]octadecane demonstrated the formation of labelled substances of higher polarity than the original alkane. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography revealed that 14C derived from [1-14C]octadecane was incorporated into acetone-insoluble macromolecules.
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Saturated and olefinic hydrocarbons were determined in additional species of benthic marine algae from the Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) area (see: Youngblood et al., 1971). The distribution of homologous and isomeric olefins was studied in plants of different age and in morphologically different parts of the same specimen. With two minor exceptions, only normal alkanes and alkenes are present. The methylene-interrupted C19- and C21-polyolefins are particularly abundant; 1-heneicosahexaene and the corresponding pentaene are common to all brown algae, while the corresponding 3-isomers occur in green algae. The hydrocarbon concentration, the alkene-to-alkane ratio and the polyolefin content are highest in young plants or in rapidly growing tissues of older plants. This suggests a deeper involvement in cell biochemistry of straight-chain hydrocarbons than previously considered. The biosynthesis of the plant polyolefins remains to be explored; no immediately obvious precursors of the 1-polyolefins were found among the algal fatty acids. The hydrocarbon composition of these benthic algae differs greatly from that of fossil fuels in its simplicity and predominately unsaturated nature. The separation of the isomers by gas chromatography and their structural elucidation by mass spectrometry, alone and in combination with hydrogenation and ozonolysis, are discussed.
Saturated and olefinic hydrocarbons were determined in 24 species of green, brown and red benthic marine algae from the Cape Cod area (Massachusetts, USA). Among the saturated hydrocarbons, n-pentadecane predominates in the brown and n-heptadecane in the red algae. A C17 alkyleyclopropane has been identified tentatively in Ulvalactuca and Enteromorpha compressa, two species of green algae. Mono-and diolefinic C15 and C17 hydrocarbons are common. The structures of several new C17, C19 and C21 mono-to hexaolefins have been elucidated by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and ozonolysis. In fruiting Ascophyllum nodosum, the polyunsaturated hydrocarbons carbons occur exclusively in the reproductive structures. The rest of the plant contains n-alkanes from C15 to C21. A link between the reproductive chemistry of benthic and planktonic algae and their olefin content is suggested. An intriguing speculation is based on Paffenhfer's (1970) observation that the sex ratio of laboratory reared Calanus helgolandicus depends upon the species of algae fed to the nauplii. The percentage of males produced correlates with our analyses of heneicosahexaene in the algal food. Our analyses of the hydrocarbons in benthic marine algae from coastal environments should aid studies of the coastal food web and should enable us to distinguish between hydrocarbon pollutants and the natural hydrocarbon background in inshore waters.